Computer Organization (Second Year Information Technology and Computer Engineering, University of Pune)

The computer organization is concerned with the structure and behaviour of digital computers. The main objective of this subject to understand the overall basic computer hardware structure, including the peripheral devices.

In spite of variety and pace in the computer field, certain fundamental concepts apply consistently throughout. The application of these concepts depends upon the current state of technology and the price/performance objectives of the designer. The aim of the subject is to provide a through discussion of the fundamentals of computer organization and architecture and to relate these to contemporary design issues.

A computer system is like any other system, consists of an inter-related set of components. The system is best characterized in terms of structure-the way in which they are interconnected and function-operation of individual component. Each major component can be described further by decomposing it into its major sub-components and describing their structure and function. So, the syllabus contents are designed in the same way as below:

Unit-I        Computer Evolution and Arithmetic

Unit-II       The Central Processing Unit

Unit-III      The Control Unit

Unit-IV       Memory Organization

Unit-V        I/O Organization

Unit-VI       Parallel Organization


There is some distinction often made between Computer organization and Computer architecture. The architecture refers to those attributes of system visible to programmer or those attributes that have a direct impact on the logical execution of the program. The organization refers to the operational units and their interconnections that realize the architectural specifications. For example: architectural attributes include instruction set, the number of bits used to represent the data types, I/O mechanism and techniques of addressing memory. Organizational attributes include those hardware details transparent to the programmer, such as control signals, interfaces between the computer and peripherals; and the memory technology used.

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