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Works on the Swahili Coast

The following bibliography is based on one initially compiled by Kelly Askew and is now open to additions from members of the Tanzanian Studies Association.  The long-term intent is to compile a complete bibliography of scholarly material about the Swahili coast published since 1990 (though it also includes some earlier publications). Subject matters broadly construed might include History, Anthropology, Geography, Political Science, Public Health, Sociology, Language, Linguistics, Literature, Art and Art History, Education, Resource Management, Parks Management, Geology, and Ecology. Source items might include any scholarly articles, books, book chapters, review articles, research reports, and consultancy reports which would be available through the Inter-library loan services of universities. Languages of the source items are usually in English. However, they might also potentially include articles in Swahili, French, and other languages used in scholarly communication. 

Additional materials are available in the online journal Swahili Forum.  In particular, no. 10 (2003) consists of a comprehensive bibliography of Swahili Studies which was compiled by the journal's co-editor Thomas Geider.  A forthcoming issue will have an updated version of that bibliography.

To have items included in the bibliography below, whether it is what you have written, or something you have seen, please become an editor of this page. To do so, send a message to Katrina Thompson (Department of Applied Linguistics), UCLA.  A user account will be created for you, and then you will be able to edit this page.

Abdalla, Abdilatif

1980 Wajibu wa Mshairi wa Kiswahili katika Jamii. Lugha Yetu: Tuisome Tuijue [Dar es Salaam: Institute of Kiswahili Research] 34:32-36.

Abdulaziz, Mohamed H.

1972 Tanzanian National Language Policy and the Rise of Swahili Political Culture. In Lionel Cliffe and John S. Saul, eds. Socialism in Tanzania: An Interdisciplinary Reader , Vol. 1, 55-163. Nairobi: East African Publishing House.

1979 Muyaka: 19th Century Swahili Popular Poetry . Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.

Abdurahman, Muhammed

1939 Anthropological Notes from the Zanzibar Protectorate. Tanganyika Notes and Records 8:59-84.

Abdy, Dora C.

1924 Notes on Utani and Other Bondei Customs. Man 24(114):152-154; 24(122):164-166.

Aboubakar, Aziza Mohamed , ed.

1988 Des Comores au Zaire: Recits et Poemes Swahili . Introduction by Pierre Alexandre; illustrations by Muddle Lilius. Paris: Edicef: Conseil international de la langue francaise.

Akinola, G. A .

1968 The Mazrui of Mombasa. Tarikh 2(3):26-40.

1972 Slavery and Slave Revolts in the Sultanate of Zanzibar in the Nineteenth Century. Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria 6:215-228.

Akong'a, Joshua J.

1980 Social Training Strategies: The Swahili of Old Town, Mombasa, Kenya. Nairobi: Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi, 123.

Al-Shahi, A. , ed.

1987 The Diversity of the Muslim Community: Anthropological Essays in Memory of Peter Lienhardt . London: Ithaca Press.

Aley, Juma.

1988 Zanzibar, in the Context . New Delhi: Lancers Books, 1988.

Allen, James de Vere

1972 Lamu . Nairobi: Regal Press.

1973a Lamu: A Case for Interdisciplinary Research. Bulletin of the International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnological Research 15:9-17.

1973b Swahili Ornament: A Study of the Decoration of the Eighteenth Century Plasterwork and Carved Doors of the Lamu Region. Art and Archaeology Research Papers 3:1-14; 4:87-92.

1974a Town and Country in Swahili Culture. Symposium Leo Frobenius ("Perspectives of Contemporary African Studies"). Final report of an International Symposium organized by the German and Cameroon Commissions for UNESCO from 3 rd to 7 th December 1973 in Yaound ¾ , 298-316. Pullach/M ò nchen: Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission.

1974b Swahili Architecture in the Later Middle Ages. African Arts 7:42-47, 66-68, 83-84.

1974c Swahili Culture Reconsidered: Some Historical Implications of the Material Culture of the Northern Kenya Coast in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Azania 9:105-138.

1976 The Siwas of Pate and Lamu: Two Antique Side-Blown Horns from the Swahili Coast. AARP ( Art and Archeology Research Papers ) 9:38-47.

1979a The Swahili House: Cultural and Ritual Concepts Underlying its Plan and Structure. Art and Archaeology Research Papers (Issue entitled, "Swahili Houses and Tombs of the Coast of Kenya," ed. James de Vere Allen and Thomas H. Wilson), 1-32.

1979b Swahilization: A Cultural Concept and Its Significance in Kenya Today. Nairobi: Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi, 125.

1981a Ngoma: Music and Dance. In James de Vere Allen, ed. The Customs of the Swahili People: The Desturi za Waswahili of Mtoro bin Mwinyi Bakari and Other Swahili persons , 233-246. Berkeley: University of California Press.

1981b Swahili Culture and the Nature of East Coast Settlement. International Journal of African Historical Studies 14:306-334.

1982a Die Musik an der Swahili-Kuste (Musical instruments of the Swahili coast). In Gerhard Kubik, ed. Musikgeschichte in Bildern: Afrika , 88-95. Leipzig: VEB Deutscher Verlag fur Musik.

1982b The 'Shirazi' Problem in East African Coastal History. Paideuma 28:9-27.

1982c Traditional History and African Literature: The Swahili Case. Journal of African History 23:277-236.

1983 A Note on the Nomenclature of Side-Blown Horns on the Swahili Coast. African Musicology 1(1):14-17.

1984 Witu, Swahili History and the Historians. In Ahmed Idha Salim, ed. State Formation in Eastern Africa . Nairobi: Heinemann.

1985 Review of J. D. Rollins' A History of Swahili Prose . International Journal of African Historical Studies 18(3):519-523.

1989 The Kiti cha Enzi and Other Swahili Chairs . African Arts 22(3):54-63.

1993 Swahili Origins: Swahili Culture and the Shungwaya Phenomenon . London: James Currey.

Allen, James de Vere, and Thomas H. Wilson

1979 Swahili Houses and Tombs of the Coast of Kenya. Art and Archaeology Research Papers . London.

Allen, James de Vere, and Thomas H. Wilson , eds.

1982 From Zinj to Zanzibar: Studies in History, Trade and Society on the Eastern Coast of Africa in Honour of James Kirkman on the Occasion of His Seventy-Fifth Birthday. Paideuma 28.

Allen, J. W. T.

1959 The Collection of Swahili Literature and its Relation to Oral Tradition and History. Tanganyika Notes and Records 53:224-227.

1971 Tendi: Six Examples of a Swahili Classical Verse Form . Nairobi: Heinemann.

Allen, J. W. T. , ed.

1981 The Customs of the Swahili People: The Desturi za Waswahili of Mtoro bin Mwinyi Bakari and Other Swahili Persons . Berkeley: University of California Press.

Al-Mamiry, Hamoud .

1980 Oman and East Africa . New Delhi: Lancers Publishers.

Alpers, Edward A.

1967 The East African Slave Trade. Historical Association of Tanzania Paper No.3. Nairobi: East African Publishing House.

1969 The Coast and the Caravan Trade. In Isaria N. Kimambo and A.J. Temu, eds. A History of Tanzania . Nairobi: East African Publishing House.

1983a Maqdisho in the 19th century: A Regional Perspective. Journal of African History 24(4):441-459.

1983b The Story of Swema: Female Vulnerability in Nineteenth Century East Africa. In Claire C. Robertson and Martin A. Klein, eds. Women and Slavery in Africa , 185-219. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

1984 Ordinary Household Chores: Ritual Power in a 19th Century Swahili Women's Spirit Possession Cult. International Journal of African Historical Studies 17(4):677-702.

Al-Shahy, A.

1987 The Diversity of the Muslim Community: Essays in Honour of P.Lienhardt . London: Ithaca Press.

Altschul, Dieter Robert

1966 The Arrangement and Dimensions of Rural Settlements of the Northeast Coastal Zone of Tanganyika, Pangani District. Ph.D. disssertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (University Microfilms No. 6706542.)

Amory, Deborah.

1990 Swahili ni Nani? The Politics of Swahili Identity and Culture. Paper presented at the African Studies Association Meetings, Baltimore, MD, November 1-4, 1990.

1994 The Politics of Identity in Zanzibar. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University. (University Microfilms No. 9508312.)

Anderson, J.N.D.

1957 Muslim Marriages and the Courts in East Africa. Journal of African Law 1(1):14-22.

Anon.

1964 Chronicle of Mombasa. Swahili 34(1):21-27.

Anon.

19?? Mazumgumzo ya Alfu-lela-ulela, au Siku Elfu na Moja: The Arabian Nights, Entertainments in Swahili . 4 vols. London: Longmans

Arens, W.

1975 The Waswahili: The Social History of an Ethnic Group. Africa 45(4):426-438.

1976a Changing Patterns of Ethnic Identity and Prestige in East Africa. In W. Arens, ed. A Century of Change in Eastern Africa, 65-75. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.

Arens, W. , ed.

1976 A Century of Change in Eastern Africa. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.

Arnold, Rainer

1973 Swahili Literature and Modern History: A Necessary Remark on Literary Criticism. Kiswahili 42(2)-43(1):68-73.

Askew, Kelly M.

1997 Performing the Nation: Swahili Musical Performance and the Production of Tanzanian National Culture. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University. (University Microfilms No. 9810733.)

Aumuller, Ingeborg

1980 Dekolonisation und Nationwerdung in Sansibar : Prozesse zur Unabhangigkeit und territorialen Integration ("Decolonization and the Formation of a Nation in Zanzibar -- Processes for the Independence and Territorial Integration"). Munchen and London: Weltforum Verlag.

Ayany, Samuel G.

1970 A History of Zanzibar: A Study in Constitutional Development, 1934-1964 . Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.

Babakerim

1994 The Aftermath of the Zanzibar Revolution . Muscat: Privately Published.

Bacuez, Paul

1997 Honneur et Pudeur dans la Societe Swahili de Zanzibar. Journal des Africanistes 67(2):25-48.

Bailey, Martin

1973 The Union of Zanzibar: A Study in Political Integration . Syracuse: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University.

1974-5 Zanzibar's External Relations. International Journal of Politics 4(4):35-57.

Baker, E. C.

1934 Report on Social and Economic Conditions in the Tanga Province . Dar es Salaam: Government Printer. 1941 Notes on the Shirazi of East Africa. Tanganyika Notes and Records 11:1-10.

1949 Notes on the History of the Wasegeju. Tanganyika Notes and Records 27:16-41.

1952 Tribal Calendars. Tanganyika Notes and Records 33: pages?

Bartlett, C. A.

1936 Statistics of the Zanzibar Protectorate, 1895-1935 . Publisher?

Bartlett, C. A., and G. S. Last

1934 Report on Indebtedness of the Agricultural Classes in Zanzibar . Sessional Paper No. 10. London.

Barwani, A.M.

n.d. I Was Nyerere's Prisoner . Southsea, England: Zanzibar Organisation.

Baschiera, Angelika

2001. Pera Ridhiwani: a case study in the construction of a Swahili identity Local Views (web journal) no. 3.

Batson, E.

1946 Proposals for a Survey of Zanzibar . Zanzibar.

Baumann, Oskar

1890 In Deutsch-Ostafrika wahrend des Aufstandes. Reise der Dr. Hans Meyer'schen Expedition in Usambara. Wien: Holzel.

1896-99 Des Sansibar-Archipel. In Wissenschaftliche Veroffentlichungen des Vereins fur Erkunds zu Leipzig , Vol. 3. Leipzig: Verlag von Duncker & Humblot. Pt. 1 "Die Insel Mafia" (1896), Part 2 "Die Insel Sansibar" (1897), Part 3 "Die Insel Pemba" (1899).

1957 Mafia Island. G. S. P. Freeman-Grenvill, trans. Tanganyika Notes and Records 46:1-24.

Baxter, H. C.

1944 Pangani, Trade Centre of Ancient History. Tanganyika Notes and Records 17: pages?

Beachey, R. W.

1976 The Slave Trade of Eastern Africa . London: Collins.

1996 A History of East Africa, 1592-1902. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

Becker, C.H. and Martin, B.G.

1968 Material for the Understanding of Islam in German East Africa, edited and translated by Martin, Tanzania Notes and Records, 68:52-7.

Beckerleg, Susan

1994 ‘Watamu: lost land but a new Swahili town’ in D. Parkin (ed.) Continuity and Autonomy in Swahili Communities Wien, Beitrage zu Afrikanstik Band 48, London, School of Oriental and African Studies, pp. 99-110.

1995 ‘’Brown Sugar’ or Friday Prayers? Youth Choices and Community Building in Coastal Tanzania’. African Affairs 94, 23-38

2003  ‘Modernity has been Swahili-ised: the case of Malindi’ in P. Caplan and F. Topan (eds.) Swahili Modernities (in press) Lawrenceville, NJ: Africa World Press.

Beech, M. W. H.

1916 Slavery on the East Coast of Africa. Journal of the African Society 15:145-149.

Ben Lobulu

1973 The Rule of Law in Zanzibar. Dar es Salaam University Law Journal 5:74-92.

Bennett, Norman R.

1964 The Church Missionary Society at Mombasa, 1873-1894. Boston University Papers in African History 1:159-195. 1978 A History of the Arab State of Zanzibar . London: Methuen and Co.

1984 The Arab State of Zanzibar: A Bibliography . Boston: G. K. Hall.

1986 Arab versus European: Diplomacy and War in Nineteenth Century East Central Africa. New York: Africana Publishing Company.

Bennett, Norman R. , ed.

1973 The Zanzibar Letters of Edward D. Ropes, Jr. 1882-1892 . Boston: African Studies Center, Boston University.

Berg, F.J.

1968 The Swahili Community of Mombasa, 1500-1900 . Journal of African History 9(1):35-56.

1974 The Coast from the Portuguese Invasion. In B. A. Ogot, ed. Zamani: A Survey of East African History . Rev. ed. Nairobi: East African Publishing House, 115-134.

Berg, F.J., and B. J. Walter

1968 Mosques, Population, and Urban Development in Mombasa. Hadith 1:47-100.

Bergman, Jeanne

1997 A Willingness to Remember: The Persistance of Duruma Culture and Collective Memory. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. (University Microfilms No.9803125.)

Berg-Schlasser, Dirk

1984 Tradition and Change in Kenya: A Comparative Analysis of Seven Major Ethnic Groups . Paderborn [Germany]: Ferdinand Schoningh.

Bernarder, L.

1977 Interview with E. Kezilahabi. Lugha I [University of Uppsala], 46-50.

Bertoncini, Elena Zubkova

1971 Ricerche sul lessico, di alcuni racconti swahili. Annali dell'Istituto Orientale di Napoli 31:141-154.

1977 An Annotated Bibliography of Swahili Novels and Stories Published Between 1960-1975. Asian and African Studies [Bratislava] XIII:181-191.

1980 Two Contemporary Swahili Writers: Muhammad Said Abdulla and Euphrase Kezilahabi. In Ulla Schild, ed. The East African Experience: Essays on English and Swahili Literature , 85-90. Berlin: Reimer.

1984 Profilo della letteratura swahili . Napoli: Istituto Universitario Orientale.

1986a Swahilsk ¾ poviedky . (An Anthology of Swahili Short Stories in Slovak.) Bratislava: Slovensk ú Spisovatel'.

1986b An Annotated Bibliography of Swahili Fiction and Drama Published Between 1975 and 1984. Research in African Literatures 17(4):525-562.

1987a Islam in Swahili Literature. In Islam et litt ¾ ratures africaines , 15-21. Paris: Editions SILEX.

1987b Kiswahili kwa Furaha: Corso di Lingua Swahili . Napoli: Dipartimento studi e ricerche su Africa e Paesi Arabi, Istituto universitario orientale.

1989 Outline of Swahili Literature: Prose Fiction and Drama . Leiden: E.J. Brill.

1996 Vamps and Victims: Women in Swahili Literature . Koln: Rudiger Koppe Verlag.

Berwouts, Kris

1991 Le Sein de la Mere: Introduction a la Litterature Classique et Moderne en Swahili. Bruxelles: Centre d'etude et de documentation afraicaines

Bhacker, Reda M.

1992 Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar: Roots of British Domination . London: Routledge.

Bhagat, Herkishan and Haroub Othman.

1978 Colonialism and Class Formation in Zanzibar. Utafiti [Dar es Salaam] 3(1):193-214.

Biersteker, Ann

1990a The Significance of the Swahili Literary Tradition and Interpretation of Early Twentieth-Century Political Poetry. African Humanities Program Discussion Papers, No.6. Boston: African Studies Center, Boston University

1991 Language, Poetry, and Power: A Reconsideration of ‘Utendi wa Mwana Kupona'. In Kenneth W. Harrow, ed. Faces of Islam in African Literature , 59-77. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books.

1996 Kujibizana: Questions of Language and Power in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Poetry in Kiswahili . East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

Biersteker, Ann and Mark Plane

1989 Swahili Manuscripts and the Study of Swahili Literature. Research in African Literatures 20(3):449-473

Biersteker, Ann, and Ibrahim Noor Shariff

1995 Mashairi ya Vita vya Kuduhu: War Poetry in Kiswahili Exchanged at the Time of the Battle of Kuduhu . East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

Bierwagen, R.M. and C.M. Peter

1989 Administration of Justice in Tanzania and Zanzibar: A Comparison of Two Judicial Systems in One Country. International and Comparative Law Quarterly 38(April):395-412.

Bissell, William Cunningham

1999  Colonial Constructions: Historicizing Debates on Civil Society in Africa.  In Civil Society and the Political Imagination in Africa. John L. and Jean Comaroff, eds.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 124–159.


2000  Conservation and the Colonial Past: Urban Planning, Space, and Power in Zanzibar.  In Africa’s Urban Past.  David M. Anderson and Richard Rathbone, eds.  Oxford: James Currey, 246–261.


2001  “Camera Zanzibar.”  In Alternative Modernities.  Dilip P. Gaonkar, ed.  Durham, NC: Duke University Press,  pp. 236–247.


2005  Engaging Colonial Nostalgia.  Cultural Anthropology 20(2):215–248.


2007  Casting a Long Shadow: Colonial Categories, Cultural Identities, and Cosmopolitan Spaces in Globalizing Africa. African Identities 5(2):181–197.


2008  From Iraq to Katrina and Back: Bureaucratic Planning as Strategic Failure, Fiction, and Fantasy. Sociology Compass 2(5):1431–1461.


2010  Urban Design, Chaos, and Colonial Power in Zanzibar.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Blacker, J. G. C.

1962 Population Growth and Differential Fertility in Zanzibar . Population Studies [London] 15:258-266.

Blais, J.

1915/16 Les anciens esclaves a Zanzibar. Anthropos 10/11(3/4):504-511.

Blok, H. P.

1948 A Swahili Anthology with Notes and Glossaries . African Institute Publication No. 1. Leiden.

Blommaert, Jan, ed.

1991 Swahili Studies: Essays in Honour of Marcel van Spaandonck , 209-218. Ghent: Academia Press.

Bobb, Don

1978 The Socio-political Teaching and Art of Shaaban Robert's Kufikirika and Kusadikika . The Gar 32:28-30.

Boxer, C. R., and C. de Azevedo.

1960 Fort Jesus and the Portuguese in Mombasa, 1593-1729 . London: Hollis and Carter.

Boyd, Alan William

1977 The Zumari: A Musical Instrument in the Lamu Area. Nairobi: Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi, 72.

1978 To Praise the Prophet: A Processual Symbolic Analysis of "Maulidi," a Muslim Ritual in Lamu, Kenya. Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University. (University Microfilms No. 8112457.)

Brantley, C.

1981 The Giriama and Colonial Resistance in Kenya, 1800-1920 . Berkeley: University of California Press.

Bravman, Renee

1983 African Islam . Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institute Press.

Brown, B.

1971 The Muslim Influence in Trade and Politics in the Lake Tanganyika Region. International Journal of African Historical Studies 4:617-630.

Brown, W. H.

1985 History of Siu: The Development and Decline of a Swahili Town on the Northern Kenya Coast. Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University.

Brown, H. T.

1971a A Precolonial History of Bagamoyo: Aspects of the Growth of an East African Coastal Town. Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University.

1971b The Politics of Business: Relations Between Zanzibar and Bagamoyo in the Late Nineteenth Century. International Journal of African Historical Studies 4(3):631-643.

Bujra, Janet M.

1968 An Anthropological Study of Political Action. Ph.D. dissertation, University of London.

1977 Production, Property, Prostitution: 'Sexual Politics' in Atu. Cahiers d'études africaines 65(17,1):13-39.

Bunger, R. L.

1973 Islamization among the Upper Pokomo of Kenya . Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press.

Burton, Richard F.

1872 Zanzibar: City, Island, and Coast . 2 Vols. London: Tinsley Brothers.

Cameron, G.

2003 ‘Political violence, ethnicity and the agrarian question in Zanzibar’ In P. Caplan and F. Topan (eds.) Swahili Modernities (forthcoming)

Campbell, Carol Ann Arneson

1983 Nyimbo za Kiswahili: A Socio-Ethnomusicological Study of a Swahili Poetic Form. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington. (University Microfilms No. 8308601.)

Campbell, Carol A., and Carol M. Eastman

1984 Ngoma: Swahili Adult Song Performance in Context. Ethnomusicology 28(3):467-493.

Campbell, Jane

1960 Multiracialism and Politics in Zanzibar. M.A. thesis. Columbia University.

1962 Multiracialism and Politics in Zanzibar. Political Science Quarterly 77(1):720-787.

Caplan, Pat

1969 Cognatic Descent Groups on Mafia Island, Tanzania. Man 4(3):419-431.

1973 Choice and Constraint in a Swahili Community: Property, Hierarchy, and Cognatic Descent on the East African Coast . London: Oxford University Press.

1975 Choice and Constraint in a Swahili Community  London: International African Institute.

1976 Boys' Circumcision and Girls' Puberty Rites among the Swahili of Mafia Island, Tanzania. Africa 46(1):21-33.

1978a Hierarchy or Stratification? Two Case Studies from Nepal and East Africa. In James F. Fischer, ed. Himalayan Anthropology: The Indo-Tibetan Interface , 53-66. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.

1978b The Swahili of Chole Island, Tanzania. In Anne Sutherland, ed. Face Values: Some Anthropological Themes , 141-175. London: British Broadcasting Corporation.

1981 Development Policies in Tanzania: Some Implications for Women. In Nici Nelson, ed. African Women in the Development Process, 98-108. London: Frank Cass.

1982 Gender, Ideology and Modes of Production on the Coast of East Africa. Paideuma 28:29-43.

1982b Gender, Ideology and Modes of Production on the East African coast in J. de Vere Allen (ed.) From Zinj to Zanzibar: History, Trade and Society on the Coast of East Africa Franz Steiner Verlag: 29-43

1983 Womens Property, Islamic Law and Cognatic Descent in R. Hirschon (ed.) Women and Property, Women as Property London: Croom Helm: 23-43.

1989 Perceptions of Gender Stratification. Africa 59(2):196-208.

1992 Sex and Spirits: a Swahili informant and his diary. ASA volume Anthropology and Autobiography, edited Judith Okely and Helen Callaway, Routledge, London and New York: 64-81.

1993 Socialism from Above in Tanzania: The View From Below. In C. M. Hann, ed. Socialism: Ideals, Ideologies, and Social Practice . ASA (Association of Social Anthropologists) Monographs 31. London and New York: Routledge.

1994 Learning gender: fieldwork in a Tanzanian coastal village, 1965-85 in D. Bell, P.Caplan and W.J. Karim eds. Gendered Fields: Women, men and ethnography London and New York: Routledge.

1995a "Children are our wealth and we want them": a difficult pregnancy on Mafia Island, Tanzania in D. Bryceson (ed.) Women Wielding the Hoe: Lessons from Rural Africa for Feminist Theory and Development Practice Oxford and Providence USA: Berg Publishers.

1995b "In my office we dont have closing hours: gendered household relations in a Swahili village in northern Mafia Island" in Colin Creighton and Cuthbert Omari (eds.) Gender, Family, and Household in Tanzania Avebury, 1995, pp. 118-38.

1995c 'Law' and 'Custom': Marital Disputes on Northern Mafia Island, Tanzania. In Pat Caplan, ed. Understanding Disputes: The Politics of Argument , 203-222. Oxford and Providence: Berg.

1995d Monogamy, polygyny or the single state? Changes in marriage in a Tanzanian coastal village, 1965-94. in C. Creighton ed. Gender, Family and Household in Tanzania vol. II Avebury Press.

1997 African Voices African Lives: Personal Narratives from a Swahili Village . London and New York: Routledge.

1998 Experiencing old age on Mafia Island, Tanzania in M. Aguilar (ed.) Social Models of Gerontocracy in Africa Lawrenceville, N.J.: African World Press.

1999 Where have all the young girls gone? Gender and sex ratios on Mafia Island, Tanzania in P. Forster and S. Maghimbi (eds) Agrarian Economy, State and Society in Contemporary Tanzania. Avebury Press.

2000. African Voices, African Lives London and New York: Routledge

Cassanelli, L. V.

1982 The Shaping of Somali Society . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

1987 Social Construction on the Somali Frontier: Bantu Former Slave Communities in the Nineteenth Century. In I. Kopytoff, ed. The African Frontier: The Reproduction of Traditional African Societies , 216-238. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Chacha, Chacha Nyaigotti

1983 The Theme of Protest in Swahili Poetry. Ba Shiru 13:50-60.

Chachage Seithy L Chachage

1996 Environment, Aid and Politics in Zanzibar. DSM: DUP.

Chami, F.

1998  ‘A review of Swahili archaeology’ African Archaeological Review 15 (3): 199-221.

Champion, A. M.

1922 Notes on the Wasanye. Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 17:21-24.

1967 The Agiryama of Kenya , ed. John Middleton. London: Royal Anthropological Institute.

Chande, Abdin Noor

1991 Islam, Islamic Leadership, and Community Development in Tanga, Tanzania. Ph.D. dissertation, McGill University, Montreal. (University Microfilms No. NN74635.)

Chande, K. J.

1983 International Integration: A Case Study of the Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar . Dar es Salaam: Mozambique/Tanzania Centre for Foreign Relations.

Chase, H.

1976 The Zanzibar Treason Trial. Review of African Political Economy 6:14-33.

Chaudhuri, K. N.

1978 The Trading World of Asia and the English East Africa Company, 1660-1760 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1985 Trade and Civilization in the Indian Ocean: An Economic History from the Rise of Islam to 1750 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chiragdhin, S.

1974 Kiswahili na wenyewe (The Swahili language and its speakers) Kiswahili 44, 1: 48-53.

Chiraghdin, Shihabuddin, and Mathias Mnyampala

1977 Historia ya Kiswahili . Nairobi: Oxford University Press.

Chittick, H. Neville

1959 Notes on Kilwa. Tanganyika Notes and Records 53:179-203.

1961 Kisimani Mafia: Excavations at an Islamic Settlement on the East African Coast . Dar es Salaam: Government Publishers.

1963 Kilwa and the Arab Settlements of the East African Coast. Journal of African History 4(2):179-190.

1965 The 'Shirazi' Colonization of East Africa. Journal of African History 6:275-294.

1966 Kilwa: A Preliminary Report. Azania 1:1-36.

1967 Discoveries in the Lamu Archipelago. Azania 2:37-68.

1969a An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Southern Somali Coast . Azania 4:115-130.

1969b A New Look at the History of Pate. Journal of African History 10(3):375-391.

1974a The Coast before the Arrival of the Portuguese. In B. A. Ogot, ed. Zamani: A Survey of East African History . Rev. ed. Nairobi: East African Publishing House.

1974b Kilwa: An Islamic Trading City on the East African Coast . Nairobi: British Institute of East Africa.

1976 The Book of Zenj and the Mijikenda. International Journal of African Historical Studies 9:68-73.

1977 East Coast, Madagascar, and the Indian Ocean [c.1050-1600]. In Roland Oliver, ed. Cambridge History of Africa 3 , 183-231. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1978 Manda and the Immigration of the Shirazi. Nairobi: Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi, 119.

1982 Mediaeval Mogadishu. Paideuma 28:45-62.

1984 Manda: Excavations at an Island Port on the Coast of Kenya . Nairobi: British Institute in East Africa.

Chittick, N., and R. I. Rotberg, eds.

1975 East Africa and the Orient . New York: Africana Press.

Claessen, A.

1985 An Investigation into the Patterns of Non-Verbal Communication Behavior Related to Conversational Interaction between Mother Tongue Speakers of Swahili. In Joan Maw and David Parkin, eds. Swahili Language and Society , 159-193. Vienna: Beitrage zur Afrikanistik, 23.

Clayton, Anthony

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