Works on Tanzania

The following Bibliography is based on one initially compiled by Shobana Shankar and is now open to additions from members of the Tanzanian Studies Association. The long-term intent is to compile a complete bibliography of scholarly material about Tanzania published since 1990 (though it also includes some earlier publications). Subject matters broadly construed might include History, Anthropology, Geography, Political Science, Public Health, Sociology, Language, Linguistics, Literature, Art and Art History, Education, Resource Management, Parks Management, Geology, and Ecology. Source items might include any scholarly articles, books, book chapters, review articles, research reports, and consultancy reports which would be available through the Inter-library loan services of universities. Languages of the source items are usually in English. However, they might also potentially include articles in Swahili, French, and other languages used in scholarly communication.

To have items included in the bibliography, whether it is what you have written, or something you have seen, please become an editor of this page. To do so, send a message to Katrina Daly Thompson (Department of African Cultural Studies, UW-Madison). A user account will be created for you, and then you will be able to edit this page.

Albonico, M. M. Ramsan, V. Wright, K. Jape, H.J. Haji, M., Taylor, L. Savioli, and Q. Bickle

2002. Soil-transmitted nematode infections and mebendazole treatment in Mafia Island school children. Annals of Tropical Medeicine and Parasitology 96, 7: 717-25.

Askew, Kelley

2002. Performing the nation: Swahili music and cultural politics in Tanzania . Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2002

Bagachwa, M.S.D.

1997. "The Rural Informal Sector in Tanzania, " in Farewell to Farms: De-Agrarianization and Employment in Africa , edited by D.F. Bryceson and V. Jamal. Aldershot: Ashgate, 137-154.

Bantje, J .

1995. "Women's Workload and Reproductive Stress," in Women Wielding the Hoe: Lessons from Rural Africa for Feminist Theory and Development Practice, edited by D.F. Bryceson. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 111-130.

Becker, C.H. and Martin, B.G.

1968. Material for the Understanding of Islam in German East Africa, edited and translated by Martin, Tanzania Notes and Records, 68:52-7.

Becker, Felicitas

2010. 'Ethnic stereotypes in twentieth-century Tanzania: their persistence and change’. In Alexander Keese (ed.): Ethnic solidarity and the longue duree: the African experience. Berne: Peter Lang Verlag: 93-126.

2010. ‘Sudden disaster and slow change: Maji Maji and the long-term history of Southeast Tanzania’. In James Giblin and Jamie Monson, The Maji Maji War: The Fog of War. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 295-323.

2009. ‘Islamic reform and historical change in the care of the dead: conflicts over funerary practice among Tanzanian Muslims.’ Africa: the Journal of the International African Institute 79 (2009), 416-34

2009. 'Bad governance’ and the persistence of alternative political arenas: a study of a Tanzanian region.’ In Giorgio Blundo and Pierre-Yves Le Meur (eds.): The governance of daily life in Africa. Leiden: 73-100.

2008. ‘Commoners in the process of gradual Islamization: reexamining their role in the light of evidence from Southeast Tanzania.’ Journal of Global History 3: 27-49.

2007. ‘Cosmopolitanism beyond the towns: Islam and rural-urban relations on the southern Swahili coast in the twentieth century.’ In Kai Kresse and Ed Simpson (eds.): Cosmopolitanism contested: anthropology and history in the Western Indian Ocean. London and New York: Hurst and co. and Columbia University Press: 261-90.

2007. ‘The virus and the scriptures: Muslims and AIDS in Tanzania.’ Journal of Religion in Africa 37: 16-40.

2006. ‘Rural Islamism during the “war on terror”: a Tanzanian case study’. African Affairs 105: 583-603.

2005. Der Maji-Maji-Krieg in Deutsch-Ostafrika, 1905-1907 . Berlin : Christoph Links, 2005 (Edited with Jigal Beez)

2004.‘Traders, big men and prophets: political continuity and crisis in the Maji Maji rebellion in Southeast Tanzania.’ Journal of African History 45 (2004:1-22.

2004: ‘Netzwerke und Gesamtgesellschaft: Ein Gegensatz? Anregungen fuer Verflechtungsgeschichte’Geschichte und Gesellschaft. Zeitschrift fuer historische Sozialwissenschaft, 35:314-324.[Networks and society – a dichotomy? Suggestions for the writing of intertwined histories.]

Beckerleg, Susan

1995. Brown Sugar or Friday Prayers? Youth Choices and Community Building in Coastal Tanzania. African Affairs 94, 23-38

Beez, Jigal

2005. Der Maji-Maji-Krieg in Deutsch-Ostafrika, 1905-1907 . Berlin : Christoph Links, 2005 (Edited with Felcitas Becker)

2003. Beez, Jigal. Geschosse zu Wassertropfen: Sozio-religiöse Aspekte des Maji-Maji-Krieges in Deutsch-Ostafrika (1905-1907) . Köln: Köppe.

Bissell, William Cunningham

2010. Urban Design, Chaos, and Colonial Power in Zanzibar. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

2008. From Iraq to Katrina and Back: Bureaucratic Planning as Strategic Failure, Fiction, and Fantasy. Sociology Compass 2(5):1431–1461.

2007. Casting a Long Shadow: Colonial Categories, Cultural Identities, and Cosmopolitan Spaces in Globalizing Africa. African Identities 5(2):181–197.

2005. Engaging Colonial Nostalgia. Cultural Anthropology 20(2):215–248.

2001 “Camera Zanzibar.” In Alternative Modernities. Dilip P. Gaonkar, ed. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, pp. 236–247.

2000. Conservation and the Colonial Past: Urban Planning, Space, and Power in Zanzibar. In Africa’s Urban Past. David M. Anderson and Richard Rathbone, eds. Oxford: James Currey, 246–261.

1999 . Colonial Constructions: Historicizing Debates on Civil Society in Africa. In Civil Society and the Political Imagination in Africa. John L. and Jean Comaroff, eds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 124–159.

Boesen, Janik, Birgit Storgard Madsen and Tony Moody

1977. Ujamaa – Socialism from Above. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.

Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique.

1991. "Datoga Pastoralists of Tanzania." National Geographic Research and Exploration 7(2):166-87.

Brennan, James R.

2014. "Constructing arguments and institutions of Islamic belonging: M. O. Abbasi, colonial Tanzania, and the western Indian Ocean world, 1925-61." Journal of African History 55,2: 211-228.

2014."Julius Rex: Nyerere through the eyes of his critics, 1953-2013." Journal of Eastern African Studies 8,3: 459-477.

2012. Taifa: Making Nation and Race in Urban Tanzania. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.

2011. "Politics and Business in the Indian Newspapers of Colonial Tanganyika." Africa: Journal of the International Africa Institute 81,1: 42-67.

2010. "Youth, the TANU Youth League, and Managed Vigilantism in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 1925-1973 (revised version of earlier journal article)." Generations Past: Youth in East African History. Ed. Andrew Burton and Helene Charton. Athens: Ohio University Press: 196-220.

2008. "Destroying mumiani: cause, context and violence in late colonial Dar es Salaam." Journal of Eastern African Studies 2,1: 95-111.

2007. "The emerging metropolis: a short history of Dar es Salaam, circa 1862-2005." Dar es Salaam:Histories from an emerging African metropolis . Ed. James R. Brennan, Andrew Burton, and Yusuf Lawi. Dar es Salaam/Nairobi: Mkuki na Nyota/BIEA: 13-75. (with Andrew Burton)

2007. "Between segregation and gentrification: Africans, Indians, and the struggle for housing in Dar es Salaam, 1920-1950." Dar es Salaam: Histories from an emerging African metropolis. Ed. James R. Brennan, Andrew Burton, and Yusuf Lawi. Dar es Salaam/Nairobi: Mkuki na Nyota/BIEA: 118-135.

2006. "Blood enemies: exploitation and urban citizenship in the nationalist political thought of Tanzania, 1958-1975." Journal of African History 47,3: 387-411.

2006. "Realizing civilization through patrilineal descent: African intellectuals and the making of an African racial nationalism in Tanzania, 1920-1950." Social Identitites 12,4: 405-423.

2006."Youth, the TANU Youth League, and Managed Vigilantism in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 1925-1973." Africa: Journal of the International Africa Institute 76,2: 221-246.

2005. "Democratizing Cinema and Censorship in Tanzania, 1920-1980." International Journal of African Historical Studies 38,3: 481-511.

2005. "The Short History of Political Opposition & Multi-Party Democracy in Tanganyika, 1958-1964." In Search of a Nation: Histories of Authority & Dissidence in Tanzania. Ed. Gregory H. Maddox and James L. Giblin. Oxford/Athens: James Currey/Ohio University Press: 250-276.

1999."South Asian Nationalism in an East African Context: the case of Tanganyika." Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 19,2: 24-39.

Bryceson, Deborah F.

1980. Changes in peasant food production and food supply in relation to the historical development of commodity production in pre-colonial and colonial Tanganyika Journal of Peasant Studies 7, 3. 281-309.

1990. Food Insecurity and the Social Division of Labour in Tanzania, 1919-1985 . London: Macmillan.1999."African Rural Labour, Income Diversification and Livelihood Approaches: A Long-Term Development Perspective." Review of African Political Economy , No. 80: 171-89. 1993. Liberalizing Tanzania's Food Trade: Public & Private Faces of Urban Marketing Policy, 1939-1988 . London: James Currey Publishers.

1995. "Gender Relations in Tanzania: Cultural Consensus or Power Politics?" in Family, Household and Gender in Tanzania, edited by C. Creighton and C.K. Omari. Aldershot: Avebury, 37-69.

1995. Women Wielding the Hoe: Lessons from Rural Africa for Feminist Theory and Development Practice. Oxford: Berg Publishers.

1996. "Structural Adjustment in Tanzania: Rural Women Farmers' Production, Opportunity or Overload?" in Changing Rural Structures in Tanzania, edited by D. Schmied. Munster: Lit Verlag, 1-30.

1999. "Sub-Saharan Africa Betwixt and Between: Rural Livelihood Practices and Policies." Leiden, Afrika-Studiecentrum Working Paper vol. 43. [ Working Papers can be ordered at the cost of US$5.00 per copy (includes postage) from: Publications Officer, Afrika-Studiecentrum, P.O.Box 9555, Leiden, The Netherlands, Fax +31 71 527-3490 email: or from the ASC Web Page: ]

1999. "Maize Marketing Policies in Tanzania, 1939-98: From Basic Needs to Market Basics." With P. Seppälä, and M-L. Tapio-Biström. In Agricultural Marketing in Tropical Africa, edited by T. Dijkstra, L. van der Laan and A. van Tilberg. Aldershot: Ashgate.

1999. Farewell to Farms: De-Agrarianization and Employment in Africa, edited by D.F. Bryceson and V. Jamal. Aldershot: Ashgate.

1999. "Methods for Tracing Rapid Market Change: Urban Grain Supply Networks in Tanzania," in Agricultural Markets from Theory to Practice: Field Experience in Developing Countries , edited by B. Harriss-White. London: Macmillan, 151-166.

Buchert, Lene

1994. Education in the Development of Tanzania, 1919-90. London: James Currey; Dar: Mkuki na Nyota; Athens: Ohio UP

Bujra, Janet

2000. Risk and Trust: Gender and unsafe sex in Tanzania in P. Caplan (ed.) Risk Revisited Pluto Press. London and Sterling, Virginia

Burgess, Thomas.

(in Press) "Remembering Youth: Generation in Revolutionary Zanzibar." Africa Today .

1999. "Mobility and Discipline: Colonial Age Discourse in Tanzania," in Rethinking Age in Africa , edited by Mario Aguilar. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press.

Caplan, Pat

1969. Cognatic Descent Groups on Mafia Island, Tanzania Man 4, 3: 419-311976. Boys circumcision and girls puberty rites among the Swahili of Mafia Island, Tanzania. Africa 46, 1, 21-33.

1978. The Swahili of Chole Island, Tanzania in A. Sutherland (ed.) Face Values BBC/RAI, London: 140-75.

1981. Development Policies in Tanzania: Some Implications for Women in The Journal of Development Studies 17, 3: 98-108 (also published in N. Nelson (ed.) African Women in the Development Process Frank Cass, London 1981).

1992. Socialism from above; the view from below in Peter Forster (ed.) Tanzanian Peasantry: Economy in Crisis Gower Press l992: 103-23 (also as Socialism from above in Tanzania: the view from below in ASA volume Socialism in Anthropological Theory and Local Practice ed. Chris Hann. Routledge, l993: 77-91)

1993. Learning Gender: field work in a Tanzanian coastal village, l965 85 in Gendered Fields ed. D. Bell, P. Caplan and W. Karim. Routledge: 168-81.

1995. In my office we dont have closing hours: gendered household relations in a Swahili Village in northern Mafia Island,in C. Creighton and C.K. Omari (eds) Gender, Family and Household in Tanzania, Avebury: Aldershot.1997. African Voices, African Lives: Personal Narratives from a Swahili Village [Mafia Island]. London and New York: Routledge.

1995a. "'Children are Our Wealth and We Want Them': A Difficult Pregnancy on Northern Mafia Island, Tanzania," in Women Wielding the Hoe: Lessons from Rural Africa for Feminist Theory and Development Practice , edited by D.F. Bryceson. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 131-149.

1995b. Law and custom: marital disputes on Mafia Island, Tanzania in P. Caplan (ed.) Understanding Disputes: the Politics of Law. Oxford and Providence, USA: Berg Publishers: 203-22.

1998 Experiencing old age on Mafia Island, Tanzania in M. Aguilar (ed.) Social Models of Gerontocracy in Africa Lawrenceville, N.J.: African World Press.

2000. Monogamy, Polygyny or the single state? Changes in marriage patterns in a Tanzanian coastal village, 1965-94. in C. Creighton and C.K., Omari Gender, Family and Work in Tanzania Ashgate, Aldershot, Burlington USA, Singapore, Sydney

2003. Struggling to be modern: recent letters from Mafia Island. In P. Caplan and F. Topan (eds.) Swahili Modernities. Lawrenceville, NJ.: Africa World Press.

Chachage Seithy L Chachage

1996. Environment, Aid and Politics in Zanzibar. DSM: DUP.

Chachage, SL Chachage (ed.)

2003. Against Neo-Liberalism: Gender, Democracy and Development. DSM: TGNP

Charnely, Susan.

1997. "Environmentally-Displaced Peoples and the Cascade Effect: Lessons from Tanzania." Human Ecology . 25(4):593-618.

Clark, K.M.

1994. People and Bats: Conservation of the Comoros Lesser Fruit Bat on Mafia Island, Tanzania. Dissertation for the M.Phil. in Geography, University of Cambridge.

Cliffe, Lionel

1969. From independence to self-reliance in (eds.) IN Kimambo, and AJ Temua A History of Tanzania. Nairobi: East African Publishing House.

Constantin, Francois et F. Le Guennec-Coppens

1988. Dubai St. Zanzibar. In Noirs et Arabes: une histoire tourmentee Politique Africaine 30, 7-21.Paris, Karthala.

Conte, Christopher.

1999. "Colonial Science And Ecological Change: Tanzania's Mlalo Basin, 1888-1946." Environmental History 4(2): 220-244.

Coulson, Andrew

1982. Tanzania: a Political Economy. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Coulson, Andrew (ed.)

1979. African Socialism in Practice: the Tanzanian Experience. Nottingham: Spokesman Press.

Creighton, Colin and CK Omari (eds.)

2000. Gender, Family and Work in Tanzania. Aldershot: Ashgate

Dumont, Rene

1969. Tanzanian Agriculture after the Arusha Declaration. Dar: Ministry of Economic Affairs and Development Planning.

Erdtsieck, Jessica

2003. In the Spirit of Uganga: Inspired Healing and Healership in Tanzania. Amsterdam: AGIDS.

2001. "Encounters with forces of pepo; Shamanism and healing in East-Africa" in The Tarzanet Journal 1,2

Fabian, Steven

2013. "Locating the Local in the Coastal Uprising of 1888-90" Journal of Eastern African Studies 7(3)

2013. "East Africa's Goree: Slave Trade and Slave Tourism in Bagamoyo, Tanzania" Canadian Journal of African Studies 47(1): 95-114.

2007. "Curing the Cancer of the Colony: Bagamoyo, Dar es Salaam, and Socioeconomic Struggle in German East Africa" International Journal of African Historical Studies 40(3): 441-469.

Fair, Laura

2001. Pastimes and Politics: Culture, Community, and Identity in Post-Abolition Urban Zanzibar , 1890-1945 . Athens, OH : Ohio University Press.

Forster, Peter G. and Sam Maghimbi (eds.)

1992. The Tanzanian Peasantry: Economy in Crisis. Aldershot etc. Avebury.

Geiger, Susan.

1997. "TANU Women Gender and Culture," in The Making of Tanganyikan Nationalism , 1955-1965 . Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann.

Gibbs, Sam.

1995. "Skin Disease and Socioeconomic Conditions in Rural Africa: Tanzania." International Journal of Dermatology 35(9): 633-39.

Giblin, James.

2011. The Victimization of Women in Late Precolonial and Early Colonial Warfare in Tanzania, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

2010. "Taking Oral Sources Beyond the Documentary Record of Maji Maji: The Example of the 'War of Korosani' at Yakobi, Njombe" in James Giblin and Jamie Monson (eds.) Maji Maji: Lifting the Fog of War. Leiden: Brill

2006. A History of the Excluded: Making Family and Memory a Refuge From State in Twentieth-Century Tanzania, Oxford: James Curry

2006. In Search of a Nation: Histories of Authority & Dissidence in Tanzania. Oxford: James Curry

1992. The Politics of Environmental Control in Northeastern Tanzania, 1840-1940. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Georgen, Helmut, Walter Bruchausen and Kirsten Kuelker

2001. The History of Health Care in Tanzania. German Agency for Technical Cooperation and National Museum of Tanzania.

Gray, J.

1955. Nairuzi, or Siku ya Mwaka,Tanganyika Notes and Records 38.

Green, Maia

2005. "A Discourses on Inequality: poverty, public bads and entrenching witchcraft in post-adjustment Tanzania." Anthropological Theory 5,3: 247-266.

2005. "From Correlates and Characteristics to Causes: Thinking About Poverty from a Chronic Poverty Perspective." World Development 33(6)(2005) : 867-879. (With Hulme, D.)

2005. "The Birth of the "Salon": Poverty, "Modernization" and Dealing with Witchcraft in Southern Tanzania." American Ethnologist 32,3. (With Simeon Mesaki.)

2004. ""Applying Anthropology to Development"." Anthropology in Action: The Journal for Applied Anthropology in Policy and Practice 11,1: 17-18.

2003. "Globalizing Development in Tanzania : Policy Franchising through Participatory Project Management." Critique of Anthropology 23,2 : 123-143.

2003. Globalizing Development in Tanzania Critique of Anthropology 23, 2, 123-43.

2003. Priests, Witches and Power. Popular Christianity after Mission in Southern Tanzania, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

2002. "Remembering Christ and the Economy of Salvation: Interpreting Communion in Southern Tanzania." Culture and religion.

1994. Shaving Witchcraft in Ulanga, Kunyolewa and the Catholic Church, in R. G. Abrahams (ed.) Witchcraft in Contemporary Tanzania, Cambridge, African Studies Centre, 23-45.

1995. Why Christianity is the Religion of Business: Perceptions of the Church among Pogoro Catholics, Southern Tanzania, Journal of Religion in Africa, 25(1), 25-47.

1996. Medicines and the Embodiment of Substances among Pogoro Catholics, Southern Tanzania, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (NS), 2 (3), 485-498.

1998. Too Sick Too Long, Why People Avoid the Hospital in Southern Tanzania, Tanzania Journal of Population Studies and Development, 5(1&2), 1-22.

1999a. Overcoming the Absent Father: Procreation Theories and Practical Kinship in Southern Tanzania, in Loizos, P. and Heady, P., (eds.), Conceiving Persons. Ethnographies of Procreation, Fertility and Growth, London, Athlone, 47-67.

1999b. Trading on Inequality. Gender and the Drinks Trade in Southern Tanzania, Africa, 69 (3), 83-114.

1999c. Womens Work is Weeping: Constructions of Gender in a Catholic Community, in Moore, H. L., Sanders, T. & Kaare, B., (eds.), Those Who Play with Fire. Gender, Fertility and Transformation in East and Southern Africa, London, Athlone, 255-280.

2000. Participatory development and the appropriation of agency in southern Tanzania. Critique of Anthropology 20, 1, 67-89.

2000. Public Reform and the Privatisation of Poverty. Some Institutional Determinants of Health Seeking Behaviour in Southern Tanzania, Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 24 (4), 403-430.

2002. Remembering Christs Death or the Promise of Salvation: Reinterpreting Communion in Southern Tanzania, Culture and Religion, 3(2), 179-199.

Green, Reginald Herbold

1977. Towards Socialism and Self reliance: Tanzania's Striving for sustained transition projected. Scandinavian Institute of African Studies/SIDA

Hakansson, N. Thomas .

1999. "Fields of Power: Political Economy, Regional Exchange, and Settlement in Pre-Colonial North Pare, Tanzania," in The Development of Urbanization in Africa from a Global Perspective , edited by Paul Sinclair. New York: Routledge.

1998. "Pagan Practices and the Death of Children: German Missionaries and Child Health in South Pare, Tanzania." World Development vol 26, no 8.

1998. "Rulers and Rainmakers in Pre-colonial South Pare: The Role of Exchange and Ritual Experts in Political Fragmentation." Ethnology SUM, 1998, V37(N3):263-283.

1995. "Irrigation, Population Pressure, and Exchange in Pre-Colonial Pare of Tanzania," in Research in Economic Anthropology , edited by Barry Isaac. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 297-323.

Haram, Liv

1999. Women out of sight: modern women in Gendered World: the Case of the Meru of Northern Tanzania. Ph.D. thesis U of Bergen.

Hasu, Paivi.

1999. "Desire and Death - History through Ritual Practice in Kilimanjaro." Transactions of the Finnish Anthropological Society 42. Saarijärvi: Gummerus.

Havenik, Kjell1993. Tanzania: the limits to development from above. Nordiska Afrikaninstitutet, Sweden, Mkuki na Nyota, Dar.

Heggenhougen, Kris, Patrick Vaughan, Eustace P.Y. Muhondwa, J. Rutabanziba-Ngaiza

1987. Community Health Workers: the Tanzania Experience. Nairobi: OUP. Oxford Medical Pubs

Hirji, Rafik, and Francois-Mari Patorni.

(eds.) 1995. Seminar on Water Resources Management in Tanzania .Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

Hodgson, Dorothy.

(in press) "Engendered Encounters: Men of the Church and the Church of Women in Maasailand, Tanzania, 1950-1993." Comparative Studies in Society and History .

(in press) "Taking Stock: Ethnohistorical Perspectives on State Control, Ethnic Identity, and Pastoralist Development in Tanganyika, 1940-1961." Journal of African History .

(in press) "Women as Children: Culture, Political Economy and Gender Inequality among Kisongo Maasai." Special issue of Nomadic Peoples entitled "Social Change among East African Pastoralists" 2 (n.s.).

1999. "Critical Interventions: Dilemmas of Accountability in Contemporary Ethnographic Research." Special issue of Identities entitled "Unintended Consequences: On the Practice of Transnational Cultural Critique" 6(1) July, V6(N2-3): 201-224..

1999. "Embodying the Contradictions of Modernity: Gender and Spirit Possession among Maasai in Tanzania," in Gendered Encounters: Challenging Cultural Boundaries and Social Hierarchies in Africa , edited by Maria Grosz-Ngate and Omari Kokole. New York & London: Routledge, 111-129.

1999. "Images and Interventions: The Problems of Pastoralist Development," in "The Poor are not us": Poverty and Pastoralism in Eastern Africa , edited by David M. Anderson and Vigdis Broch-Due. Athens: Ohio University Press; London: James Currey; Nairobi: E.A.E.P.

1999. "My Daughter...Belongs to the Government Now: Marriage, Maasai and the Tanzanian State." Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue Canadienne des Etudes Africaines 30(1): 106-123.

1999. "Pastoralism, Patriarchy and History: Changing Gender Relations Among Maasai in Tanganyika, 1890-1940." Journal of African History 40(1):41-65.

1996. "Wayward Wives, Misfit Mothers, and Disobedient Daughters: Wicked Women and the Reconfiguration of Gender in Africa." With Sheryl McCurdy. Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue Canadienne des Etudes Africaines 30(1): 1-9.

Hyden, Goran

1980. Beyond Ujamaa in Tanzania: Underdevelopment and an uncaptured peasantry. London: Heineman.

Iliffe, J.

1979. A Modern History of Tanganyika London, New York, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Ingrams, W.H.

1931. Zanzibar: its history and its people. London: Witherby.

Jambiya, George.

1998. "The Dynamics of Population, Land Scarcity, Agriculture and Non-Agricultural Activities: West Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania." Institute of Resource Assessment & Leiden, African Studies Centre Joint Working Paper vol. 28. [[ Working Papers can be ordered at the cost of US$5.00 per copy (includes postage) from: Publications Officer, Afrika-Studiecentrum, P.O.Box 9555, Leiden, The Netherlands, Fax +31 71 527-3490 email: or from the ASC Web Page: .]

Japhnet-Mulyila, Esther

2001. Socio-economic impacts of marine protected areas: the case of Mafia Island Marine Park in Tanzania. Thesis presented for the M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management, University of Tromso.

Jerman, Helena.

1997. Between Five Lines: The Development of Ethnicity in Tanzania with Special Reference to the Western Bagamoyo District . Saarijarvi: Transactions of the Finnish Anthropological Society No. 38 and Uppsala: The Nordic Africa Institute.

Kahama, George, T.L. Maliyamkono and Stuart Wells

1986. The Challenge for Tanzanias Economy. London: James Currey ; Dar es Salaam: Tanzania Publishing House.

Kaiser, Paul J.

1996a. Culture, Transnationalism, and Civil Society: Aga Khan Social Service Initiatives in Tanzania . Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

1996b. "State-Society Relations in an International Context: The Case of Aga Khan Health-Care Initiatives in Tanzania." International Journal of Comparative Sociology 36, nos.3-4 (December): 184-97.

1996c. "Structural Adjustment and the Fragile Nation: The Demise of Social Unity in Tanzania." The Journal of Modern African Studies 39, no. 2 (June): 227-37.

1998. "Identity, Citizenship, and Transnationalism: Ismailis in Tanzania and Burundians in the Diaspora." With Rose M. Kadende-Kaiser. Africa Today 45, nos.3-4 (December): 461-81. 1999. "Power, Sovereignty, and International Election Observers: The Case of Zanzibar." Africa Today 46, no.1 (Winter): 29-49.

Kelsall, T.

2003. Governance, democracy and recent political struggles in mainland Tanzania Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 41, 2, 55-82.

Kilasara, J.

2006. Tanzania's Economic Achievements Tanzanian Affairs 83, Jan-April.

King, N.

1917. Mafia Geographical Journal. 117-25.

Kjekshus, Helge

1996 . Ecology Control and Economic Development in East African History, 2nd Edition (with New Introduction and additional Bibliography). London: James Currey.

Knutsson, KE. M Gebre-Medhin, G. Hulcrantz, E. Tobisson, W. Wallstam

1979. Food and Nutrition in National Development: an Evaluation of the Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre. TFNC and SIDA

Landberg, Leif C.W. and Pamela

1974. Maendeleo: economic modernization in a coastal community of Northeastern Tanzania in John J. Poggie and Robert N. Lynch (eds.) Rethinking Modernization Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press

Larsen, Kjersti

1998. Spirit possession as historical narrative: the production of identity and locality in Zanzibar Town in N. Lovell (ed.) Locality and Belonging Routledge

2000. The other side of nature: expanding tourism, changing landscapes and problems of privacy in urban Zanzibar in Vidgis Broch-Due and Richard Scroeder (eds.) Producing Nature and Poverty in Africa Nordisk African Institute.

2003. Change, continuity and contestation: the politics of modern identities in Zanzibar in P. Caplan and F. Topan (eds.) Swahili Modernities Lawrenceville, NJ: Africa World Press.

Larson, Lorne

2010. "The Ngindo: Exploring the Center of the Maji Maji Rebellion" in James Giblin and Jamie Monson (eds.) Maji Maji: Lifting the Fog of War. Leiden: Brill

1977. "A History of the Mbunga Confederacy ca. 1860-1907" Tanzania Notes and Records, 81: 35-42

1976. "Problems in the study of witchcraft eradication movements in southern Tanzania," Ufahamu, 3:88-111.

LaViolette, Adria .

(forthcoming) "Reflections on Educational Development at the University of Dar es Salaam," in Developing Archaeology: The Tanzanian Experiment , edited by Peter R. Schmidt and B. B. Mapunda. James Currey and Ohio University Press.

1996. "Report on excavations at the Swahili site of Pujini, Pemba Island, Tanzania." Nyame Akuma 46: 72-83.

1995. "Reconnaissance of Sites Bearing Triangular Incised (Tana Tradition) Ware on Pemba Island, Tanzania." With Jeffrey Fleisher. Nyame Akuma 44 (1995): 59-65.

Lienhardt, P.

1966. A Controversy over Islamic Custom in Kilwa Kivinje, Tanzania, in I.Lewis(ed.) Islam in Tropical Africa, IAI and Oxford University Press.

Lockwood, M.

1998. Fertility and Household Labour in Tanzania Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Lovett, M.

1996. She thinks shes like a man!: marriage and (de)constructing gender identity in colonial Buha, Western Tanzania, 1943-1960 Canadian Journal of African Studies 30, 1: 52-68.

Lucas, Kimberly

1997. Agricultural Transport Assistance Program (ATAP) Project No. 621-0166: Impact Study . Study conducted and compiled for USAID/Tanzania by MSI. With Tony Davis and Ken Rikard, Senior Associates. Washington, D.C.: MSI.

1997. "Risky Business: Agricultural Diversification and Social Relations in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania." Ph.D. Diss. University of Kentucky, Department of Anthropology. Ann Arbor: UMI, Inc. Management Systems International (MSI).

1995. The Njombe-Makete Road: An Impact Assessment of an ATAP Funded Road Improvement Project . Report to USAID/Tanzania. Edited by K. V. Rutachokozibwa Lucas and E.Tagora. Dar es Salaam.

Maddox, Gregory, James L. Giblin, and I.N. Kimambo

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2015. “Learning to Use Profanity and Sacred Speech: The Embodied Socialization of a Muslim Bride in Zanzibar.” In Gendered Lives in the Western Indian Ocean: Islam, Marriage, and Sexuality on the Swahili Coast. Erin Stiles and Katrina Daly Thompson, eds. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.

2013. “Swahili Talk about Supernatural Sodomy: Intertextuality, the Obligation to Tell, and the Transgression of Norms in Coastal Tanzania.” Critical Discourse Studies 11: 1-24.

2013. “Strategies for taming a Swahili husband: Zanzibari women’s talk about love in Islamic marriages.” Agenda: Empowering Women for Gender Equity, Special Issue on Love in Africa: 1-11.

2011. “Bongo Flava, Hip Hop and ‘Local Maasai Flavors’: Interviews with Xplastaz.” Native Tongues: The African Hip Hop Reader. Ed. P. Khalil Saucier. Trenton: Africa World Press.

2011. “How to Be a Good Muslim Wife: Women’s Performance of Islamic Authority during Swahili Weddings.” Journal of Religion in Africa 41 (4): 427-448.

2011. “Rap, Cartoon and Rap Cartoon: Representations of the Maasai in Contemporary Tanzanian Popular Culture.” Music, Performance, and African Identities. Eds. Toyin Falola & Tyler Fleming. New York: Routledge.

2011. “Zanzibari Women’s Discursive and Sexual Agency: Violating Gendered Speech Prohibitions through Talk about Supernatural Sex.” Discourse & Society 22 (1): 3-20.

2010. “‘I am Maasai’: Interpreting Ethnic Parody in Bongo Flava.” Language in Society 39 (4): 493-520.

2008. “Preserving East African Knowledge through Swahili Movies: An Interview with Josiah Kibira.” Ufahamu 36 (1&2): 38-61.

2008. “Keeping it Real: Reality and Representation in Maasai Hip-Hop.” Journal of African Cultural Studies 20 (1): 33-44. Special Issue on East Africa.

2006. The Stereotype in Tanzania[n] Comics: Swahili and the Ethnic Other. International Journal of Comic Art 8 (2): 228-247.

2008. “Preserving East African Knowledge through Swahili Movies: An Interview with Josiah Kibira.”Ufahamu 36 (1 & 2): 38-61.

2008. “Keeping it Real: Reality and Representation in Maasai Hip-Hop.” Journal of African Cultural Studies 20 (1): 33-44. Special Issue on East Africa.

2010. “‘I am Maasai’: Interpreting Ethnic Parody in Bongo Flava.” Language in Society 39 (4): 493-520.

2011. Zanzibari Women’s Discursive and Sexual Agency: Violating Gendered Speech Prohibitions through Talk about Supernatural Sex.” Discourse & Society 22 (1): 3-20.

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2014. “Swahili Talk about Supernatural Sodomy: Intertextuality, the Obligation to Tell, and the Transgression of Norms in Coastal Tanzania.” Critical Discourse Studies 11, no. 1: 71–94.

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