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Volume 10, No. 1

Perception Special Research Interest Group

Newsletter Vol. 10, No. 1
Winter 1994

Patricia Sink, Editor


Greetings and welcome to the convention issue of the Perception SRIG newsletter. I am very excited about our convention offering (see column to right). Also in this issue: The Perception SRIG E-Mail Directory; Research Notes - with reports from Rob Cutietta and John Flohr; two electronic databases of interest to our group; a schedule for all the SRIG sessions; and upcoming conventions and symposia.
I would like to remind you to submit any nominations for chair or chair-elect of the Perception SRIG to our committee prior to the convention. Committee members are:

Patricia Sink, Chair

Jack Taylor
Florida State University

Tom Tunks
Southern Methodist University

The business meeting will be conducted at the end of the paper presentation with the following agenda:
1. Vote on change to charter which institutes the office of chair-elect and establishes voting procedures.

2. Accept nominations for the office of chair and chair-elect from the committee and the floor.

3. New Business

4. Adjourn

Voting will occur by mail ballot after the convention.
Our featured speaker for the MENC convention is Jeanne Bamberger from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Bamberger will be presenting a paper entitled, "Multiple Representations of Perceived Rhythmic Structure: Do we Hear What We See." Friday, April 8 4:45-6:00 pm. Dr. Robert Cutietta from Kent State University will provide the response.

Dr. Bamberger is a professor of music and urban education at MIT. An interdisciplinary scholar, she has received numerous grants for research in such diverse areas as teacher preparation in math and science and the use of experts in school programs as we ll as extensive musical research. A unifying theme of all her work seems to be improving education through a better understanding of the learner.

Dr. Bamberger's paper grows out of her work on children's musical development. Her most recent book, The Mind Behind the Musical Ear : How children develop musical intelligence provides an original and thought- provoking look at children's musical intuit ions and understandings. Her studies on student strategies and representations of music are often cited in music education and music perception research.

In addition to our session she will be offering a clinic presentation entitled, "Turning the Fundamentals on their Ear: Developing Intuitive Musical Skills" Friday, April 8 at 12:15 PM. This session will deal with the need for music classes at all lev els to build on students' musical intuitions. *************************************************

This section is intended to provide brief, summaries of current research in music perception. The hope is that we can, within our own group, beat the publication lag in sharing our research ideas and interests. We are starting off with two very interest ing and different programs of research. At the end of each summary an address and E mail address for the researcher are provided for those who are interested in further information. I hope that this can become a regular feature.

Research on a Perceptual Bases for School Music Curricula

Robert Cutietta
Kent State University

In the May 1993 issue of The Music Educators Journal the idea of basing school music curricula on musical perception (as opposed to musical elements) was forwarded in an article by Rob Cutietta of Kent State University. Since that time, work has begun on attempting to establish the feasibility of such an approach. The first step in the process is determine whether there is a consistency of response on the part of young students when presented with common musical stimuli.

Earlier studies found that children and adults elicited consistent responses using colors and stylistic labels to describe music. Currently work is underway to determine the consistency, and ease, with which students can identify and quantify other perce ptual elements such as energy, flow, fabric, and motion to categorize music. Initial results from a study underway by Lineburg is showing that correct stylistic categorization of holistic musical stimuli is easily learned by children in the primary grade s when taught perceptually.

Working primarily with upper elementary aged children, experiments by Cutietta and James Cox of Drake University are underway to determine if a "bank" of musical pieces can be formed which can be used as exemplars of perceptual elements. Approximately fo rty musical compositions from standard literature have been identified that university music faculty feel best exemplify a composer's use of one or more of the five elements. Phase II will be to determine the degree of agreement among the school age chil dren.

Once formed, this bank of musical compositions will be used as the basis for teaching materials. Initial work with this type of teaching with pre-service music education majors has found that undergraduate music majors can be readily taught to present mus ic using perceptual elements.


Quantitative EEG Differences Between Baseline and Psychomotor Response to Music

John W. Flohr and Daniel C. Miller
Texas Woman's University

The purpose of the study was to examine the electrophysiological differences between baseline EEG frequencies and EEG frequencies obtained during a psychomotor response to music stimuli. Additionally, electrophysiological differences between two different music conditions were compared. Generally, results of experiments involving music processing have been highly dependent upon interacting variables such as the nature of the musical materials or the nature of the task. Initially one hundred children bet ween the ages of four and six were selected to participate in a developmental research study. These children were individually evaluated using tests of cognitive ability, academic achievement, academic readiness, etc. Thirty-two of these children were r andomly selected to participate in a brain mapping study. A subgroup from this population was selected for inclusion in this study based upon the artifact-free nature of the data. Thirteen children had EEG recorded during three conditions: 1) two minut es of sitting quietly with their eyes open; 2) one minute tapping in rhythm to "Vivaldi: Allegro" at 130 m.m.; and 3) one minute tapping in rhythm to an Irish folk song "O'Keefe Slide/Kerry Slide" at 120 m.m. Thirty seconds of artifact-free data were edi ted from each of the three conditions for each child. A Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) was performed on each edited EEG segment and the relative power for each of the 21 electrodes was recorded for the Delta, Theta, Alpha, and Beta frequencies. One- way ANOVA's were performed for each of the frequencies for each electrode site. Significant differences were found between the music conditions and the baseline eyes open condition.

During March 1994 data will be collected for a second study. We have been able to recruit approximately half the original subjects. The original subjects are now seven to nine years old. The results should indicate changes in brain activity from a deve lopmental viewpoint. The work in school on patterning and sequencing may also affect the children's work on the music task.

These abbreviated reports represent the kind of informal, up-to-date reporting of research activity that could go on between SRIG members. For further information about the studies presented here please contact:

Dr. Robert Cutietta
School of Music
Kent State University
Kent, OH 44242
E-Mail: [removed]

Dr. John Flohr
Music Education
Texas Woman's University
Denton, TX 76201
E-Mail: [removed]

I welcome submissions to this category at any time from both faculty and graduate students active in music perception research.


There is now a source of information on research in music and behavior that is available free of cost to all interested workers. Topics covered are previous and current publications of journal articles and books in the following fields: auditory system, animal and human behavior, cognition, creativity, human brain and neuropsychology of music, effects of music on behavior and physiology, music education, music medicine, musical performance, music therapy, perception and psychophysics. The entire conten ts of the following journals are being included: Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, Journal of Music Therapy, Journal of Research in Music Education, Music Perception, Psychology of Music, and Psychomusicology. Complete abstracts ar e included for journal articles, wherever possible. The information base currently has more than 10,000 entries and it is updated continually.

This information is being provided by the Music and the Brain Information Center (MBIC), recently established at the University of California, Irvine. Its goals are (a) to establish a computer-based bibliographic record of scientific research on music, i ncluding its brain substrates, (b) to serve as a clearing house for the newest findings and (c) to foster interdisciplinary knowledge concerning music, behavior, the brain and allied fields. Information is directly accessible via computer link. To obtain a free account send E-mail to However, if you are unable to access the database by computer, contact:

MBIC Coordinator
c/o Dr. Norman Weinberger
Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
University of California, Irvine Irvine, CA 92717

or call (714) 725-2628. Describe the type of search you need and they will help if possible. They invite you to send reprints and preprints for entry into the database and we welcome suggestions concerning all aspects of the database and the MBIC.


The Music Research Information System (MRIS) is a gateway to research information in the fields of music education, music psychology, music therapy, and music medicine. MRIS is a project of the Institute for Music Research at the University of Texas at S an Antonio and is sponsored by a UTSA Strategic Initiative Grant. MRIS is the gateway to CAIRSS, a bibliographic database of music research literature, and TIME, a bibliographic database of music software and software archives, as well as remote music se rvices.

The Technology in Music Education database (TIME) is a collection of information about music instructional software. Software products including computer programs, hypertext stacks, CD-ROMs, videotapes, videodiscs, and music classroom systems are eligibl e for listing in TIME. TIME includes publisher's descriptions and independent reviews of all types of music instructional software as well as availability information. In addition to the software review database, IMR will serve as an archive of music inst ruction software which may be viewed by potential users. TIME is in the beginning stages of data collection. Lists of software have been gleaned from many sources, but more reviews and products to be reviewed are being sought. Presently TIME consists of a directory of text files but will soon have the capability of full-text searching.

Access Instructions:

VIA MODEM (2400 baud)
Dial (210) 561-8000
Press return
At Local> type - c runner
At login type - imr
At Password press return

Point your gopher client to 3000

Type - telnet
At login type - imr
At password press return

If you have any comments, questions, or corrections about our data PLEASE contact the project coordinator. TIME will continue to grow. For further information on how you might access or contribute to these databases contact:

Kim Walls, Project Coordinator
Don Hodges



I was pleasantly surprised at the response to my request for E-Mail subscribers. This directory should provide yet another network for the rapid dissemination and exchange of ideas between researchers with similar interests. It has already improved the q uality of my E-Mail! The newsletter will be distributed electronically to these members, and they will also be able to receive between-newsletter announcements and calls that come in. If you want to join just send your name, address and institution to the Chair of the SRIG.

The Directory

[Note from Editor/Webmaster in 2006: Due to rampant abuse of email addresses, only the names have been retained in the list below to assist in minimizing the amount of spam and other unwanted email received by our members. Member email addresses were included in the original Newsletter.]

Asmus, Edward (U of Utah)
Barrett, Janet R. (U of W-Whitewater)
Bartel, Lee (U of Toronto)
Brown, Rebekah (Indiana U)
Carlsen, James (U of Washington)
Coffman, Phillip (U of Minn-Duluth)
Cooper, Nancy (Rutgers U)
Cutietta, Robert (Kent State U)
Demorest, Steven (U of Washington)
Flohr, John (Texas Womans U)
Fung , Victor (U of Minnesota)
Gates, Terry (SUNY-Buffalo)
Goolsby, Thomas (U of Washington)
Gumm, Alan (Ithaca College)
Hair, Harriet (U of Georgia)
Hodges, Don (UT-SanAntonio)
Hughes, Tom (Sydney Conservatory)
Kuhn, Terry (Kent State U)
May, William (U of North Texas)
Ogawa, Masafumi (Oita U)
Oliva, Jack (U of Florida)
Palmer, Anthony
Price, Harry (U of Alabama)
Rasmussen, Nancy (U of Wisconsin)
Roberts, Brian (Memorial U, Newf)
Schleuter, Stan (Indiana U)
Taylor, Jack (Florida State U)
Thompson, Keith (Penn State U)
Tom Tunks (Southern Methodist U)
Walls, Kim (UT-San Antonio)
Weaver, Molly (West Virginia U)
Webster, Peter (Northwestern U)
York, Frank (James Cook U)


Qualitative Methodologies in Music Education Research Conference
Sponsored by CRME - May 19-21, 1994 at the University of Illinois

Over the past several decades a growing interest in qualitative research has been evident in many educational settings. Increasingly, music educators have turned to qualitative methodologies to address instructional and curricular issues not appropriatel y explored through quantitative procedures. In recognition of this trend, the conference has been organized with a two-fold purpose:
- to provide a forum for music educators currently engaged in qualitative research to present and discuss their research efforts and
- to acquaint members of the music education research community with essential characteristics of qualitative research

Rather than attempting an overview of the many different research methodologies, invited speakers will focus primarily on three types: case study, ethnography and action research. For more information contact: CRME Qualitative Methodologies Conference, School of Music, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1114 West Nevada Street, Urbana, IL 61801.
Registration is due by APRIL 1, 1994


The Twenty-First Biennial World Conference of the International Society for Music Education will be hosted by the University of South Florida in Tampa, FL July 18-23, 1994. The theme of the conference is Musical Connections: Tradition and Change. For r egistration information contact: John Richmond, University of South Florida.

(3rd ICPMC)

At the invitation of the Unite de Recherche en Psychologie de la musique and the University of Liege, The European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (ESCOM) will host the 3rd ICPMC, which was held previously in Japan (1989) and the USA (1992). The Conference will be held in the campus Sart Tilman situated in a nature reserve outside the city of Liege. There will be two major half-day plenary symposia, one on "A Generative Theory of Tonal Music": 10 years on, and the other on "Development of Mus ical Perception and Cognition."
For more information contact: ESCOM secretariat, Irene Deliege, Centre de Recherches Musicales de Wallonie, 16 place du 20 Aout, B 4000 Liege, Belgium; tel: 32.41.22 33 62 fax: 32.41.22 06 68.



4:15-5:30: Reflections on music and music values.
Philosophy SRIG: Estelle R. Jorgensen - Chair
Presentations: "Sound, music and society" - Wayne Bowman, Brandon University; "The musical work and morality: Two experiences of self" - Eleanor Stubley, McGill University; "What is a musical work?" - David J. Elliot, U. of Toronto


9:45-11:00: Affective responses to music: Social and psychological considerations.
Affective Response SRIG: Ruth Brittin - Chair
Presentations: "Music, teacher, and peer influences on affective responses in school ensemble and general music settings." - William Frederickson, U of Missouri-KC; "Effects of musical nuances, such as rubato, on listener affect." - Christopher Johnson, U of Kansas

12:15-1:30 : Music portfolios: What do they measure?
Measurement SRIG: Richard Colwell - Chair
Presentations: Panel discussion on issues of portfolio assessment. J. Terry Gates, SUNY-Buffalo; Thomas Goolsby, U of Washington; and Carolyn Lindemann, San Francisco State.

1:45-3:00 SRME Lecture-Michael Mark, Dean, Graduate School, Towson State University

4:45-6:00: New beginnings in American music education historical research: Toward a more global approach
History SRIG: Mark Fonder - Chair
Presentations: "Informal music learning in the countryside." - William Lee, U of Tennessee-Chattanooga; "Music education values and marginalized groups." - J. Terry Gates, SUNY-Buffalo; "Native American music education." - George Heller, U of Kansas, and "Influential women in American music education history." - Carolyn Livingston, U of Rhode Island.


9:45-11:00 and 12:15-1:30 - Research Poster Sessions I and II

1:45-3:00: Instructional strategies: A theoretical foundation for the application of professional knowledge.
Instructional Strategies SRIG: Joseph Casey - Chair
Presentation: The ideas of Donald Schon are applied to teaching music. - Richard Kennel, Bowling Green State U

1:45-3:00: The roles of adults in early childhood music education.
Early Childhood SRIG: Susan M. Tarnowski - Chair
Presentations: "Preferred learning modalities of preschool teachers and preschoolers' music learning" - Diane Cummings Persellin, Trinity U; "Using journals in early childhood teacher education" - Linda Paige Neely, Eastman School of Music; and "Effects of interaction style on preschoolers' musical play" - Susan M. Tarnowski, U of Wisconsin - Eua Claire.

3:15-4:30 SRME Senior Researcher Award Presentation and Address

4:45-6:00: Multiple representations of perceived rhythmic structure: Do we hear what we see?
Perception SRIG: Steven M. Demorest - Chair
Presentation: Comparing musical notation to the verbal and graphic representations of rhythmic structure of listeners of different ages and experience - Jeanne Bamberger, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Response by Robert Cutietta, Kent State Un iversity


9:45-11:00: Music creativity in educational settings: Current developments
Creativity SRIG: Peter Webster - Chair
Presentations: "Improvisation for pre-service teachers." - Christopher Della Pietra & Patricia Shehan Campbell, U of Washington; "Creativity measurement technology." - Maud Hickey, Northwestern U; "Effects of melodic materials types on children's compo sition." - John Kratus, Case Western Reserve U; "Creativity in elementary music methods class." - Betty Anne Younker, U of Prince Edward Island.

12:15-1:30 : Collaborative research and music education: Successful ventures
General SRIG: Jack Oliva- Chair
Presentations: "Examining reflective teaching through collaborative research." Janet R. Barrett , U of Wisconsin-Whitewater & Steven M. Demorest, U of Washington; "Effects of instructional models of Native American music." Jacquelyn Boswell, Arizona St ate U & Kay L. Edwards, Kyrene Schools dist. (Tempe); "Teachers as research partners." Joanne Rutkowski, Pennsylvania State U & Martha Snell Miller, Hollidaysburg (PA) Schools.

3:15-4:30: Music and the social sciences: Dialogues between research and teaching
Social Sciences SRIG: Kari Veblen - Chair
Presentations: "African American girls' playground games." Eve Harwood, U of Illinois; "Maryland's multicultural practices." Marie McCarthy & Cherie Stellaccio, U of Maryland; Cross-cultural education's personal dimensions." Anthony Palmer, U of Hawa ii; Issues in American Indian music education." Kari Veblen, U of Wisconsin-Stevens Point; Renee Forrest, Glendale Elementary (Madison)

4:45-6:00: Factors affecting the development of music discrimination
Learning and Development SRIG: Peggy Codding- Chair
Presentations: Review of research related to the development of music discriminations in the areas of listening and singing. Judy Bowers, Florida State U & Jan McCrary Ohio State U & Wendy Sims, U of Missouri-Columbia.


I would welcome any comments or questions regarding the newsletter or our convention activities. I look forward to seeing you in Cincy!

Steve Demorest