Self Regulation

Self regulation is the ability to monitor cognition and emotions and to adapt cognition to specific situations (Bandura, 1989; Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997; Schunk & Ertmer, 2000; Sperling, Howard, Staley & DuBois, 2004; Hadwin, & Oshige, 2011, Berger, 2011). Self regulation is closely related to time management and goal setting behaviors (Bandura, 1994).

Self regulation as a process involves cognition, emotion regulation and executive functions.

Examples of self regulation include:

•Planning – identifying strategies and resources, goal setting, activating background knowledge, time budgeting, allocating resources.

•Monitoring /Regulating – attending to stimuli, comprehension, awareness of performance, and self assessment.

•Evaluating – appraising the products and the regulatory process, revisiting and revising goals.

Self regulated learning as a construct of socio-cognitive learning (Altun & Erden, 2013) pertains to the meaningful use of cognition, motivation and behavior to engage in strategies that support self learning and purposeful activity (Zimmerman, 1989; Hofer, et al., 1998). It also includes goal setting and self evaluation (Bandura, 1994; Zimmerman and Risemburg, 1997) and the regulation of behaviors, thoughts and emotions (Altun & Erden, 2013) to reach a desired purpose or aim.

The behaviors associated with self regulation (goal setting, self appraisal and feedback) are attributes of cognitive monitoring. Self regulated learning is both individual and collaborative (Jarvela & Hadwin, 2013) and often goal directed (Hadwin et al, 2011). Self report measurements identify the frequency of behaviors but could be constructed to measure self regulation as frequency intervals in two domains – social and cognitive. Social modes of learning influence the behaviors associated with self regulation (goal setting, self appraisal and feedback) and could be more effective in measuring self regulating behaviors (Schoor, et al., 2013). Future research should also address metacognitive strategies and the executive functions which are employed during activities that involve cognitive monitoring. Research measuring metacognition should also include the self regulatory processes of executive functions and attention, which can act as inhibitors, or activators of self monitoring and regulation (Zimmerman, & Martinez-Pons, 1986; Berger, 2011).