Order of the Illuminated Knights
            Ordre des Chevaliers Illuminés            Ordine dei Cavalieri Illuminati

"The Method of Science, the Aim of Religion"


Ordo Illuminatorum Aegyptorum

Bulgarian Grand Priory


Masonic illuminism of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraim

Illuminized levels of Masonry (Memphis & Misraim Masonry)

Definition of Illuminism

The word 'Illuminism' is derived from a French word illuminer. Illuminism was used as the name of a special state of enlightenment that was considered a rise in rank among various secret societies that originated from the Illuminati. Illuminism is a belief system whereby a believer (the Illuminati) makes a claim that he has been illuminated or experienced special enlightenment of a spiritual nature. Illuminist is someone who subscribes to the doctrine of Illuminism, or who claims to have achieved spiritual illumination; one of the Illuminati.

Illuminism is another word for enlightenment, a state of achieving a spiritual union with Heaven or God. It is the state of attaining true wisdom and raising oneself to the realm of the Ultimate Truth of nature. Illuminism finds relevance in almost all religions of the world, often as the path towards achieving the ultimate goal of human life. Illuminism encourages every soul to find its interior light, so it can express itself authentically towards the progress of the human estate. Illuminism in reality is less an Order than a principle, and a principle which can work better under cover of something else. The work of Illuminism could best be conducted ‘under other names and other occupations’ and henceforth we shall always find it carried on by this skillful system of camouflage.

Masonic Illuminism

Illuminism, the mysticism of Light, is a movement that left a huge footprint upon both Masonry and the independent Orders. The Illuminist stream of Martnists who were cultivating themselves through the practice of Christian Cabbalist theurgy was moved to create Masonic inner order. 

Illuminism is a term used by esoterics, because Lucifer, has a name which means "Light-Bearer" and "Enlightened One", and Illuminati is derived from the idea of having one's eyes opened of "being enlightened" by Lucifer's Light. Jewish Illuminism was called Haskalah, and inspired the leaders of Masonic Illuminism. The Jesuit Illuminists on the other hand later became the Masonic Illuminists. The union of American and European Illuminized Freemasonry came from collaboration between Albert Pike (A.A.S.R.) and Giuseppe Mazzini (A.P.R.M.M.) in the creation of a new Supreme Rite, the New and Reformed Palladian Rite (1870). Pike became the Sovereign Pontiff of Universal Freemasonry, and Mazzini, the Sovereign Chief of Political Action. In 1870 Pike and Mazzini completed an agreement to create a supreme, universal Rite of Masonry that would over-arch all the other rites, even the different national rites. It centralized all high Masonic bodies in the world under one head. To this end the Palladium Rite was created as the pinnacle of the pyramid of power. Palladism is neo-gnosticism. The Luciferian doctrine is implicit in the lower degrees, and only becomes an explicit teaching on the highest degrees. The highest of the high was the Palladium: an international alliance to bring in the Grand Lodges, the Grand Orient, the ninety-nine degrees of Memphis and Mizraim (the Ancient and Primitive Rite), and the Scottish Rite (the Ancient and Accepted Rite).

In 1782 the Illuminati and Freemasonry in Europe were officially united. On July 16, 1782 the Illuminati merged with the Order of Freemasons: "Illuminism was injected into Freemasonry by indoctrinating the Masonic leaders. . ." At the grand convention of Masonry held at Wilhelmsbad in 1782 the Order of the Strict Observance was suspended. Vanquished by the powerful rival, the Strict Observance ceased temporarily to exist and Illuminism was left in possession of the field.  At the grand convention of Masonry held at Wilhelmsbad in 1782 the Order of the Strict Observance was suspended, and the scheme of Illuminism was disclosed to the assembled representatives of the masonic and mystical fraternities. Then and there disciples of Saint-Martin and of Willermooz, as well as the statesmen, scientists, magicians, and magistrates of all countries, were converted to Illuminism.

The alliance between the Illuminati and Freemasonry "was finally sealed". In modern Masonry today, an emphasis is put upon the idea of "Spiritual Illumination": Every candidate for the Mysteries of Masonry, at the proper time and in an appropriate manner, should be taught the truth that the rite of initiation means much more than a formal ceremonial progress through the degrees. Initiation is to be attained only after real labor, deep study, profound meditation, extensive research and a constant practice of those virtues which will open a true path to moral, intellectual, and spiritual Illumination. Illumination had long been a cherished component of Masonry. The Masonic candidate requests, and is promised, “Light in Masonry.” As he goes up the ladder of initiation, he receives “more Light.” It is because of this society’s emphasis on Illumination that the Ancient and Illuminated Seers became known by its more common title of The Illuminati.

What exactly is "Spiritual Illumination" that Masons aspire to attain? And the answer is: This illumination of Masonry is "Cosmic Consciousness". No higher level of attainment is possible than that in which the human merges in the Divine Consciousness. At the exact moment masonic inner purity has produced its purpose - that is, inner Illumination, a secret, ecstatic sensation of total unity with the Universe occurs. While all levels of Masonry have their share of illuminated esoterics, the Ancient Rites, the Sovereign Sanctuary and the Supreme Council are especially likely to have them. Those candidates who displayed an appreciation and interest in progressive Enlightenment ideals, would gradually be admitted to the higher grades of the Order. It was here that the true objectives of Illuminism were revealed.

Scientific Illuminism

This Great Spiritual Discipline of Scientific Illuminism where Magick and Mysticism is studied and practiced by the application of the Method of Science exists upon this Planet under the name of the A.·.A.·. to enlighten all those who are fit for Initiation. Every Aspirant of A.·.A.·. is expected to adhere to the discipline of Scientific Method in his or her research right from the very start of his or her association with the Great Order.

Science of Magick is the most ancient and ultimate science by the use of which a man attains profound understanding of the Universe and his own being, obtains power and wisdom to rule his way in Eternity, conquer the conditions of existence and become a God incarnate upon the earth. It is a well known fact that all major sciences upon the earth originated from this One Great Science; consider Chemistry which originated from Alchemy, Astronomy from Astrology, etc.Consider great pioneers of science and philosophy; Isaac Newton, Johann von Goethe, Michael Faraday and many more, all of whom were Initiates of various mystical societies.

Consequently, the Scientific Method by which a man has obtained Knowledge was originally learned from that Great Science of Magick which is the Mother of the ancient and modern world. The Magick however offers what no other lesser science has ever offered to mankind; an evolution into something infinitely more then a mere thinking biological organisms. By the right comprehension and application of Magick we slowly emerge into a new life. Thus many people are fascinated by the prospects of this Great Science, but Nature makes it evident that only the strongest and the most wise can survive this evolution and undergo Higher Initiations.There is a method which when properly used can assist us and prevent us from falling into a fanatical dogma, it is called a Method of Science. It is a strict Method based on experience and observations of the Universe, experiments and study in which there is no place for empty speculations. Without the Method of Science there is a place for dogmatic theological debates and ignorant superstitions that eventually result in slave religions as it is clearly shown in history. With a Method of Science spirituality becomes a strict discipline of research and evolution.

Fratres Lucis

Fratres Lucis (The Brotherhood of Light; Brothers of the Illuminated) is a schism of the masonic Order of the Rosy Cross. It was inspired by the Florence Order of the Brothers of Light, founded in 1498, as a secret continuation of the Platonic Academy of Marcelo Ficcino. After the death of Lorenzo de Medici, the Academy of Florence ceased to exist. In its place arose the Fratres Lucis, or Brothers of Light, a mystical fraternity founded in Florence in 1498 which continued in existence until the eighteenth century. Due to the tradition of intellectual brilliance associated with this institution, many groups have chosen to use the word "Academy" in their name.

Through the centuries, that order has changed its name a number of times: it was known by then as the "Brotherhood of the Illuminatti" (in a Christian sense). In 1882 was founded an order called "Grand Lamaistic Order of Light." The group also had a Latin name, "Fratres Lucis." However, they seemed to be largely inspired by Qabala and Masonry, while their altar was devoted to 'Great God,' an epithet favorite among Tibetan Buddhists. Also another  Order of Light (Fratres Lucis), an occult body is founded in 1882 by the Jew, Maurice Vidal Portman. These Orders is not filiated to any iniciatic Order or Fraternity, even though they shares the high esoteric ideals, like those of the Rosecrucianism, Martinism and Freemasonry.

Fratres Lucis was designed to lead members from the darkness of sense-life into that Illumination of spiritual being which is our heritage. Emphasis was laid upon the Egyptianizing impulse exemplified by Kircher, the circulation of a Fratres Lucis-originated manuscript expounding initiatory and philosophical meanings. Among the members of this order were Pasqualis, Cagliostro, Swedenborg, St. Martin, Eliphaz Lévi, Franz Anton Mesmer, and many other eminent mystics. Its members were very much persecuted by the Inquisition. It is a small but compact body, the members being spread all over the world. A parallel tradition running through the eighteenth century Fratres Lucis and Asiatic Brethren on the one hand, and Cagliostro's Egyptian Rite of Freemasonry on the other. These fuse with primordial Egyptian traditions during the Napoleonic conquests in Egypt, passed on to Levi and other nineteenth century luminaries, down to Papus, Reuss, Kellner and, eventually, Aleister Crowley and his successors and heirs within OTO.

The Order is formed by iniciates from many Orders and Fraternities. Brooderhood of Light was founded in Germany by the baron Ecker Von Eckhoffen, a past member of the Golden Rosy+Cross and also founder of Asiatic Brethren (or Initiated Brethren of the Seven Cities in Asia). The Asiatic Brethren would become the Fratres Lucis, and the Fratres Lucis would be known as the real successor of the true Illuminati of Adam Weishaupt; and the Fratres Lucis would beget the Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor, and the Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor would beget Theosophical Society.

All these German fraternities were deeply involved with the practice of Alchemy. Many members belonging to the Asiatic Brethren of Fratres Lucis became members of a German masonic lodge called L'Aurore Naissante (or "the Nascent Dawn") founded in 1807. This lodge was a very ancient Rosicrucian Lodge were Lord Bulwer Lytton was received into Adeptship. The basis of the Asiatic Brethren, also known as the Fratres Lucis was the Rosicrucianism, Martinism, Freemasonry and the Illuminati. The Grand Master of the Asiatic Brethren, is also a leading member of the Illuminati. Another member of the Asiatic Brethren, the Comte de St. Germain. was a notorious alchemist, whom many believed to be immortal. He was the supposed Grand Master of Freemasonry.

In the Pansophic Rites, the order of the Fratres Lucis has been updated and renamed to match the needs of our time.  Membership in the Sodalitas Lucis (the Sodality of Light) is available only to Master Masons in good standing within a Pansophic Lodge.  It is an initiatory order and its degrees, which are based on the exploration of various esoteric currents, can be conferred privately or in open Lodge.

The Order has five degrees:

1. Knight Novice of the Third Year
2. Knight Novice of the Fifth Year
3. Knight Novice of the Seventh Year
4. Knight Levite
5. Knight Priest

The O.T.O. and the revival of the Order of the Illuminati (O.I.)

The Oriental Masonic Order of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis and Misraim or Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis and Misraim, is a dual Masonic-Illuministic system. The creator of the of Egyptian Rite was the Count Alexander of Cagliostro (1749-1796). Alexander of Cagliostro was initiated to the secrets of the Egyptian Freemasonry by the mysterious Master Altothas in 1776, year of the foundation of the Illuminati Order. The summit of the Illuminati Order was constituted by 6 members: 4 were known (Weishaupt, von Knigge, Goethe, Herder) and 2 were secrets (Franklin and Cagliostro). In effects a secret connection existed between the Illuminati Order of Weishaupt and the Egyptian Freemasonry of Cagliostro that was officially founded in 1785, year of the suppression of the Illuminati Order. The Order of the Illuminati was established on May 1, 1776 at the University of Ingolstadt, then part of the Kingdom of Bavaria, in Germany, by a professor of law called Adam Weishaupt (1748-1830). The Illuminati were an organization, with both esoteric rituals and a political aim, based on the Enlightenment philosophy.

Around the turn of the 19 century, Theodor Reuss and Leopold Engel tried rather unsuccessfully to revive the O.I., as founded by Adam Weishaupt in the 18th century. Within the framework of the German occult revival at the end of the 19th century, Leopold Engel (1858-1931) “revived” the Bavarian Order of the Illuminati in 1901. He was a member of the Inner Circle of the loosely organized movement including the followers of the Austrian Christian visionary and mystic Jakob Lorber (1800-1864). In fact, Engel “received” spiritually (today, the word “channelled” would be used) the missing 11th volume of Lorber’s masterpiece The Great Gospel of John, a volume still accepted as a legitimate part of the Lorber canon by many (although by no means all) Lorberians. He was also a prolific science fiction and dime novels writer. In fact, he seemed to have led a double life, keeping his Lorberian and Illuminati activities quite separate, although the Illuminati materials written by Engel do show the influence of Lorber.

Engel and his associate Theodor Reuss (1855-1923) were spreading the word that the Illuminati Order had been revived since 1896. Later, they claimed that the revival took place in 1880. As usual, Engel and Reuss told the members of their newly founded order that it was both very old and a legitimate continuation of the Bavarian Illuminati, whose succession had been transmitted from father to son within Reuss’ family. Reuss met Leopold Engel in 1895, the year in which he revived his Order of the Illuminati at Berlin, and Engel joined the Order on 1896. But then in 1897 Engel founded his own Order of the Illuminati at Dresden but it united with Order of the Illuminati of Reuss in 1899. It is unlikely that the Reuss-Engel 'Illuminati' managed to recruit many members so in order to make the Order more attractive its chiefs resolved to give it a masonic complexion. With the exception of Reuss there is no evidence that any of those concerned had ever been initiated in a regular freemasons' Lodge. Indeed, Reuss himself does not appear to have been involved in any regular masonic activity since he had joined the Pilgrim Lodge in London in 1876.

Thus on 1901 'the Illuminati Theodor Reuss, Leopold Engel, August Weinholtz, Max Rahn and Siegmund Miller, who were joined by Max Heilbronner and Georg Gierloff ' met at Reuss’s home in the Belle Alliancestrasse at Berlin 'and resolved to re-open the (Ludwig) Lodge which had been founded at Munich in 1880. According to the minutes the dormant Ludwig Lodge was 'ancient and accepted', which infers an ignorance of masonic terminology. In any event, whatever the Ludwig Lodge at Munich may or may not have been, it was certainly never regular.
Since it appeared necessary to have a warrant the brethren had one printed by Seydel & Co., at Berlin. It was issued by the Order of the Illuminati and referred to the Order’s specific authority to form masonic lodges. Reuss was now accorded the sole right to found and consecrate masonic lodges according to the Order’s 'lodge regulations'. All masonic documents were to be signed and sealed at the Order’s office at Dresden. For some unknown reason this document was backdated to 1 January 1900.

There was yet another warrant or its equivalent. According to Leopold Engel it had been given to Adam Weishaupt when the latter was at Regensburg on 19 November 1786 by 'the Prince of Rose-Croix Bro. Louis-Gabriel Lebauche of Bazeille, near Sedan. It had always been in the possession of Illuminati and is now in the custody of the Ludwig Lodge.'.

The foundation of the Ludwig Lodge was duly announced in the Rahn-Weinholtz periodical Die Ubersinnliche Welt, where it was stated that 'the Order of the Illuminati founds and warrants masonic lodges. However, only master masons can be accepted in the high degrees or found freemasons' lodges.... The Order has close connections with freemasons in France, England and America.' It was also emphasized that the lodge was masonically regular and worked a recognized ritual based upon an old and genuine English exemplar. Apart from the three craft degrees there was also a fourth St. Andrew’s degree. 'Master masons who are in possession of the St Andrew’s degree and wish to pursue occult studies can be received into the Rosicrucian degree...'

The brethren soon began to hear objections that the Ludwig Lodge was nothing more than an offshoot of the Order of the Illuminati and not masonic. A solution was easily found. On 3 July 1901 the lodge ceased to have any official connection with the Order. In the meantime Reuss had fished around and netted some additional lodges so that by the end of 1901 in additional to the Ludwig Lodge his new 'Obedience' included:

·    Adam zur Weisheit (Dresden)
·    Phonix zur Wahreit (Hamburg)
·    Zur hellen Morgenrote (Kattowirz.)
·    Zur aufbluhenden Rose der Bestandigkeit (Zittau)
·    Katharine zum stehenden Lowen (Rudolstadt)

None of them was recognized by any of the regular German Grand Lodges. The Hamburg and Kattowitz lodges had previously been affiliated to the Allgemeine Burgerloge at Berlin. The latter was a 'pseudo Grand Lodge' operated at Berlin by O. Hemfler, a bookseller who sold masonic pins and badges to the gullible. Some of the ABL lodges only had one or two members. Even so, several groups of Engel's survived both World Wars and came under Hermann Joseph Metzger's (1919-1990)  presidency in 1963.

Although persecuted in Nazi Germany, the Illuminati were able to survive in Switzerland, particularly thanks to the efforts of Felix Lazerus Pinkus (1881-1947), a rich left-wing economist, supported in many ways by Metzger, a stage hypnotist, who maintained alive the Order of the Illuminati until his death in 1990, and created an Illuminati center in the Swiss village of Stein, in the canton of Outer Appenzell. The main aim of the Stein group, reduced to less than a dozen members, is to survive. Engel’s group did not have any particular power. It had a certain cultural influence and initiated two distinguished novelists, Gustav Meyrink (1868-1932) and Franz Spunda (1890-1963), but this was rather limited to the occult subculture itself. Metzger then regarded the O.I. as a framework for his compilation of orders (O.T.O., F.R.A.), and quickly integrated the Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica, too, into the higher grades of his O.I. A small number of his disciples still live or at least periodically meet there, and they are the only legitimate heirs of Engel’s Illuminati.

The authentic Order of Illuminati of Adam Weishaupt never found any historical continuity
- apart from Johann Joachim Bode in Weimar, until his death in 1793.

Various pieces of information

Presidents of the 'World League of Illuminati'

1880 - Theodor Reuss re-activated the "Ludwig Lodge" of the Illuminati Order (I.O.) in Munich.
1896 - Leopold Engel ("Theophrastus") joined the Lodge founded in Berlin in 1895.
1893 - Engel founded the 'World League of Illuminati' at Berlin [other sources state that Engel first founded his I.O. in 1897 at Dresden].
1895 - Carl Kellner held discussions with Reuss about his idea to create an 'Academica Masonica' of 'Oriental Templars'. Reuss was too preoccupied with the Illuminati Order though, and Kellner didn't like Reuss' companion Engel. Engel and Reuss fell out.
1896 - the Spiritualist Engel, Max Rahn of the Sphinx periodical, August Weinholtz "et alii" founded the 'Union of German Occultists.' Rahn and Engel were joint secretaries of the Society of German Occultists, and Weinholtz its treasurer. Rahn and Weinholtz were respectively the editor and publisher of the periodical "Die Übersinnliche Welt" which was mainly concerned with alleged psychic phenomena, animal magnetism and similar subjects. In his turn Leopold Engel edited and published the periodical, "Das Wort" (No. I, 1894), which reflected its proprietor's esoteric preoccupations.
1896 - Reuss, Franz Hartmann, Engel "et alii" were co-founders of the 'Theosophical Society in Germany.’
1897-98 Rahn and Engel edited and published an "International Directory of Seekers after Truth" for the benefit of the occult fraternity.
1899 - Engel's I.O. and Reuss's I.O. were united (again?). In "Das Wort", the organ of the Illuminati Order, Reuss published a 'Political Review' in 1900. Reuss received a Martinist charter from 'Papus' in 1901; naturally enough, as they were both Theosophists.
1901 - Engel and Reuss sought to lend their organisation more "gravitas" with a home-made and back-dated charter allegedly giving them power to re-establish the O.I. (as founded by Adam Weishaupt): Theodor Reuss, Leopold Engel, August Weinholtz, Max Rahn and Siegmund Miller, who were joined by Max Heilbronner and Georg Gierloff, met at Reuss's home in Berlin and resolved to re-open the Ludwig Lodge which had been founded at Munich in 1880. The Warrant was issued by the Order of the Illuminati and referred to the Order's specific authority to form masonic lodges. Reuss was now accorded the sole right to found and consecrate masonic lodges according to the Order's "lodge regulations". All masonic documents were to be signed and sealed at the Order's office at Dresden. For some unknown reason this document was backdated to 1 January 1900.

The foundation of this Ludwig Lodge was announced in the Rahn-Weinholtz periodical "Die Übersinnliche Welt", where it was stated that "the Order of the Illuminati founds and warrants Masonic Lodges. However, only Master Masons can be accepted in the high degrees or found freemasonic lodges ... The Order has close connections with freemasons in France, England and America." It was also emphasized that the lodge was masonically regular and worked a recognized ritual based upon an old and genuine English exemplar. Apart from the three craft degrees there was also a fourth St Andrew's degree. "Master masons who are in possession of the St Andrew's degree and wish to pursue occult studies can be received into the Rosicrucian degree ..."

The brethren soon began to hear objections that the Ludwig Lodge was nothing more than an offshoot of the Order of the Illuminati and not masonic. A solution was easily found. On 3 July 1901 the lodge ceased to have any official connection with the Order and Engel startd to call Reuss' Charter back-dated March 1901 a swindle.

1901 - Allegedly Kellner, Reuss, and Franz Hartmann founded the O.T.O. This source is highly doutbful because it is to assume that neither Kellner or Franz Hartmann ever knew about the Ordo Templi Orientis, and certainly were no members!
1902 - Number 0 of the "Oriflamme" appeared, in which Leopold Engel, Max Rahn, August Weinholtz and Franz Held were named as the first participants. It appears that Reuss and Engels were reconciled again.
1902 - Meetings held at Dresden. The English Regent of the Reussian O.T.O. was the 'Summus Magus' of the 'Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia,' William Wynn Westcott "Non Omnis Moriar, Sapere Aude" (co-founder of the Golden Dawn). Reuss was the 'Magus' or leader of the short-lived offshoot the 'Societas Rosicruciana in Germania' from 7.7.1902 to 11.7.1907. Engel was its 'Magus Delegatus Primus.'
1902 - Westcott wrote to Reuss: "Engel told me additionally that I could consider myself as an Illuminatus of the Dresden branch." On 26.8.1902 Westcott accepted "the position as Regent."
On 3 July, according to Reuss, the officers of the Grand Mother Lodge Ludwig resolved to expel Engel and his friend Siegmund Miller on account of certain alleged misdemeanors and they were accordingly banished.

Reuss introduced his Memphis-Misraim in Germany and lost interest in the O.I.

1902 - Westcott thanked Reuss for an Illuminati Warrant, but stated that he was neither willing nor able to take the I.O. any further in England, as it was too close to the regular Masonic 18° etc.
1902 - Final schism between Engel and Reuss. Kellner's "teachings of the 'Hermetic Brotherhood of Light' would be reserved for a few initiates". Certain Memphis-Misraim degree members soon were to become members of a new organisation: the O.T.O. Reuss' activities now pass beyond the borders of this chapter.

Leopold Engel

1903 - Leopold Engel's Order of the Illuminati in Dresden enacted new statutes. On the title page the words "registered society" were added by hand.
1906 - Engel published the "Geschichte des Illuminaten-Ordens" ("History of the Illuminati Order") at Dresden, in which he distanced himself from Reuss.
1912 - Engel, Heinrich Widtmann and Willy Vierath founded the 'Institute of Illuminated Freemasons.'
1912 - New 'Laws of the Inner Order' came into effect.
1921 - Leopold Engel's father, the conductor Karl Engel (d. 1913) appeared from the spirit-world, and commanded his son to start an embassy of the other world, through which he "should be prepared to enter into a most exalted and influential life of heavenly glory," wherein he would "communicate his ideas to mankind on Earth.”
1923 - Engel authorised Maximilian Haitz "Hartwig" to take care of his collection of books "now and after my death."
1924 - The Dresden I.O. was forced to close due to lack of members.
1926 - Legal incorporation of the 'World League of Illuminati' with the authorities at Tempelhof in Berlin.
1928 - Engel recieved "Luzifers Bekenntnisse" ("Lucifer's Confessions") mediumistically.
1931 - Leopold Engel died.
1932 - Julius Meyer "Marius" was elected as new head.
1933 - The Order's Prefect H. Teumer "Theobald" of Chemnitz proposed that the Order of Illuminati should be dissolved.
1934 - The Gestapo raided Meyer's house.
1934 - The Gestapo compelled Meyer and Maximilian Haitz to sell off the Order's property. During the Second World War the activities of the 'World League' took place in the national groups abroad.
1946 - Mayer allegedly sought the return of the Order's property through the Berlin police. He was informed that the Gestapo buildings had been burnt to the ground, and that no paperwork had escaped the fire.
1953 - Julius Meyer commissioned Maximilian Haitz in Berlin to act independently "as receiver" of the Order's goods confiscated by the Gestapo, and "also to wholly represent me in the conduct of the Order's work.”
1953 - Julius Meyer died.
1955 - Paul Kirchvogel "Klodulf" (member since 5.6.1927) took up the leadership in Kassel.
1963 - Kirchvogel transferred the presidency to Metzger "face to face in Kassel."

"The O.T.O. under Reuss separated from the Illuminati Order in 1902." Metzger wished to "re-incorporate [everything] in due course."

Illuminati Order

Provincial Groups

1896 - Engel created the provincial group in Austria.*
1910 - 'Adam Weishaupt zum Licht am Rhein' lodge established at Cologne.
1912 - 'Adam Weishaupt zur Pyramide' lodge established at Berlin.
1929 - "Illumination" of the 'Zum Wilhelm Tell' Synod in Zurich by president Leopold Engel in Berlin.*
1933 - Karl Brodbeck "Rudolf" Provincial and Custodian for Switzerland (he also belonged to the Bernese 'Zur Hoffnung' Masonic lodge, the 'Droit Humain' Co-Masonic lodge, and was Master of the 'Zur Gralsburg' lodge), achieved a merger with the Austrian provincial group. Brodbeck belonged to the group surrounding F.L. Pinkus (Metzger's "spiritual father"), which included Reuss's probable heir Hans Rudolf Hilfiker and his colleagues Reichel, Merlitschek, Bader, Baumgartner from Aarau ('Zur Treue' lodge), Struppler, and the Abramelin-enthusiast Traugott Egloff.
1935 - Foundation in Vienna of a new 'Areopagus' with anti-Semitic "Aryan" rules, and its own Grand Master, without permission from the Swiss Custodian. In the same year this led to a split: the Swiss Province declared the Austrian branch irregular. With the 'Anschluss' of Austria into the Third Reich in 1938, the latter group was dissolved. Eduard Korbel was able to rescue the Order's papers.*
In 1935 the Pole Jan Korwin-Czarnomski "Elpher" was made 90° and 95° Memphis and Misraim at Warsaw for the 'La Pyramide du Nord en la Vallue de la Vistule' lodge Nє 16, and the 'Pelican а l'Aube Naissante' Rosicrucian Chapter Nє 3, and retained these posts until these lodges were closed. Besides this, Czarnowski represented the Martinists in Poland, Greece, and Madagascar. In 1937 he created an offshoot of the anti-Semitic Austrian 'World League of Illuminati' group in Warsaw; but in 1938 all these lodges were closed down. By 1939 he was active in the ranks of Constant Chevillon and Swinburne-Clymer's anti-FUDOESI movement, and called upon Arnoldo Krumm-Heller, Hilfiker, and other people not mentioned here, to join him. Members of the Warsaw 'World League' group included Stanislaw Czarnomski (his brother?), Robert Walter "Waltari" (who had seceded from the Anthroposophists; d. 1981), and Colonel Boris Smyslowski "Hermes" who rescued the vestiges of Memphis-Misraim from France after World War Two. Jan Czarnomski was murdered by the Gestapo on June 25th 1944.


In 1949 the Austrian 'World League of Illuminati' was revived as the outer court of the Fraternitas Saturni by Eduard Korbel, who had amassed the titles of Grand Order Chancellor-General, Chancellor of the Austrian Province, Grand Magus 5°, and the highest degree of the Illuminati Order. Another version has it that this revival was performed by one Hermann Medinger on November 11th 1949.
H.J. Metzger was commissioned by Meyer in Berlin to act as his go-between with Korbel in Vienna, because censorship of letters made direct contact difficult; as a Swiss citizen Metzger had a visa valid for Berlin and Vienna.* In 1950 Metzger was able to provide Korbel with copies of his rituals, as Korbel had been without books or documentation since 1945; but this contradicts Metzger's later claim that he had inherited "authentic documents" from Korbel. Members in Vienna (among others): Franz Spunda and Prof. Wunderlich; Korbel also advertised his fraternity in the astrological magazine "Mensch und Kosmos"; his circle was describ by Metzger as "A group of illustrious scholars and devotees, consisting of peaceful and enlightened people."

1949-1953 - Carl Krivsky "Klotwald" was Custodian of the Austrian 'World League.'*
1953-4 - This position was taken over by Hermann Medinger "Manfred", who had belonged to the 'World League' since 1931, and was Provincial of the Lower Austrian group.*

Karl Brodbeck died on January 6th 1955 in Switzerland. Metzger was then made Custodian for Switzerland on May 1st through the offices of Korbel in Vienna; this was commissioned by a charter signed by Julius Meyer during Metzger's journey to Vienna on behalf of the Fraternitas Saturni. Metzger believed this now gave him permission "to fulfill the union, and to take the Order's work and expansion in hand," to discover the connections surrounding the O.T.O.'s origins, which he viewed thus: "The O.T.O. under Reuss split from the Illuminati Order in 1902." Eduard Korbel received his first mention in Metzger's publications in May 1955.

1954-1958 - Holecek-Hollschowitz "Herbert" was Custodian in Austria.*
1953 - Julius Meyer passed his office on to Maximilian Haitz, and died on November 16th 1955.
1958. The Chancellor Korbel died, and Metzger's mistress Anita Borgert "Ainyahita" became Order Grand Chancellor. In Austria Dr. Danneberg "Dietrich" became Custodian, and Prof. Rieger "Hildebrand" Chancellor.* "Danneberg was vice-president of the district court at Kornenburg in Lower Austria, and the brother of the leader of Austria's Social Democratic party - Rieger was considered to be a Nazi and 'Aryan'."
1960 - The names of Hans Trusch (Karlsruhe) and Karl Prosvic (Vienna) appear in Metzger's publications. In Metzger's obituary of Korbel, the title 'I.O.' occurs publicly for the first time. On March 1st Metzger began recruiting for the IO: "Will those who are interested please notify us.". On March 1st 1962 Metzger's first mention of the 'World League of Illuminati' appeared.
1965 - Maximilian Haitz died.
December 1968 - Metzger spoke for the first time of his "Masonic Museum of the Illuminati Order."
1969 - The 'World League' in Austria went into abeyance. Probably spurred on by Walter Englert, Hermann Medinger felt able to resume his position as Custodian. Metzger opposed this, as Danneberg was still the most authoritative figure to him.* Although Medinger, sounding like a character from Mozart's "Magic Flute", was inclined to think that "Vengeance is unknown in these holy halls," "the Swiss sisters and brothers were considered to be dangerous servants of Satan." Medinger named himself Grand Chancellor of the 'Illuminati Order for Austria,' and published instructions for his "Radiжsthesic system".

18.2.1972 - Gustav Frey (born 13.1.12) was made Master of the 'Lavater' Lodge in Zurich. Frey "Jeremias" who was a bookseller by trade, had been to Metzger's lectures in 1950, and had recieved the Light of the Masons on December 8th 1951; he became an officer of the 'Lavater' Lodge in 1964, and died on May 1st 1972.

Sole Heir

Friedrich-Wilhelm Haack's knowledge of the 'World League' succession was that Julius Meyer had left a power of attorney with Maximilian Haitz to regain the League's estate, which had been confiscated by the Gestapo; this Haitz duly did. But this hardly gave Haitz a claim on Meyer's succession, nor one on the ownership of the estate; the sole beneficiary of Meyer's will was his son Gert, a retired police commissioner. "Haitz had already obtained the goods from the East Berlin police with the aid of a receipt from Meyer, and after Meyer's death claimed to be his successor." But Gert Meyer stated: "My father did not plan a revival of the Order after the War [...] I am my father's sole heir."

Haack: "In accordance with the desires of the last Grand Master J. Meyer, there was no revival after 1945. All successor Orders (including the P[sychosophical] S[ociety] and the Frankfurt IO [see below]) have no authorised 'World League' tradition."

"From a historical perspective, an alliance, say, between the Illuminati and the Rosicrucians is nonsense."

"The Order of Illuminates has [...] become an Order of magical religion."

As to the papers which could document Metzger's successions to the O.T.O., F.R.A., GCC, or I.O.: "They waved with documents before our eyes - but we weren't even allowed to touch or look through them."

Karl Brodbeck claimed that he had found a 'Grand Lodge of Atlantis' in the USA; a branch that had split off in the 1920s. W. Collins proposed a line of succession from John Yarker Junior to Ronald Powell, the "Duc de Palatine".

Richard, Duc de Palatine, was a seminal figure in the development, transformation, and perpetuation of the Gnostic tradition. Palatine was born Ronald Powell of French and British noble parents in 1916. His mother descended from Captain John Hancock, first signee of the Declaration of Independence. 
He had been ennobled by H.I.H. Prince Alexander Licastro de la Chastre Grimaldi Lascaris of Deols, France, under the Seal of the Prefect of Rome, Italy, and taken the name Richard Jean Chretien Duc de Palatine. This was to confirm his attainment of Spiritual Nobility as a Prince of Light. Richard came to England and was eventually Consecrated as a Gnostic Bishop and claimed an unbroken line of succession from the College of Antioch, and linked twelve lines of Succession in his person. In 1953 he received a Charter from The Ancient Mystic Order of the Fratris Lucis, commonly called The Brotherhood of the Illuminati, to institute an ‘Outer Section to be called The Brotherhood of the Illuminati, to be dedicated to the object of restoring to the outer world the mystic teaching of our Lord Jesu Christi.’  The Charter also confirmed his office of Archon ‘with full power and authority to rule and govern the said Order, to enact a Constitution for the same, to appoint all Officers therein, and to nominate and appoint his Successor.’…

In 1960 the name of the Brotherhood of the Illuminati was changed to the Brotherhood of the pleroma and The Order of the Pleroma, and a Council of Three was appointed. Richard held high office in many orders and was Sovereign Grand Master of the United Rites of Memphis and Mizraim, Grand Hierophant of the Sovereign Imperium of the Mysteries, Sovereign Grand Master of the Ancient and Universal Pansophic Rites of Freemasonry, Senior Prelate and Great Prior of the Order of the True Rosy Cross, and Grand Master of the United Templar Rite. In July, 1964, he incorporated these bodies into the Disciplina Arcani, an integral part of the Order of the Pleroma, in order to withdraw the Masonic influence and to cleanse the Order from all taint of being a political tool…Palatine had plumbed the depths of Freemasonry through the Scottish Rite and attained the thirty-third degree, then gone into the esoteric Ultra-Masonic and Egyptian rites searching for spiritual enlightenment. Palatine preserved and perpetuated the Pansophic or Antient Rites of Freemasonry that John Yarker had spent his career painstakingly collecting valid charters and warrants to preserve. Palatine deleted the Masonic requirement, synthesized authorities, warrants, and charters, used spiritual discernment as a basic canon for ordination and consecration rather than seminary training, and was willing to quickly advance people to higher degrees when appropriate. However, as one critic of Palatine points out, “most lineages are only valid when passed down a line of successful practitioners.  I therefore find myself skeptical of any lineages passed via ‘collectors’ of degrees (who make no attempt to practice), such as may/will be the case with anything received via the Duc de Palatine.” 

These and other such rites are mere external group exercises or liturgies through which invisible Cabalistic and Hermetic forces are contacted to potentiate the interior unfoldment of lodge members.  These rites are not the essential Gnosis or the primary Ontos of any school or tradition.  They are merely ritual instruments that were appropriate in a medieval setting, and that are secondary to the essential transmission. Also, one must ask, how many of those who work the Rites of Memphis and Mizraim still have the entire ninety-nine degrees, and of those, how many actually do the “Internal Alchemy” work related to the material in the Quarantines of Cagliostro?

Illuminati and Templars

The disagreements between Reuss and Engel effectively gave Metzger "carte blanche" to mix the O.T.O. and Illuminati Order (IO): "as has already been repeatedly stated, a split occurred in the IO at the turn of the century, and one half of this consequently called itself the O.T.O. Both branches of the same tree are re-united." "All other separated branches which we re-united with the Order after 1952 [?], we lead on an historical basis, and as a result of legal and equitable understandings."

"Today's Ordo Illuminatorum has resolved itself as a reunion of the I.O. (Engel), OTO (Reuss), and FRA (Krumm-Heller) branches." Reuss and Crowley had both thought differently (to Metzger); the IO was incorporated in the O.T.O.

Metzger's Grade System

Metzger's collection of Orders was called the Illuminati Order or Ordo Illuminatorum interchangeably; it was rarely apparent whether this was meant to be the 'World League of Illuminati'. Leopold Engel himself made no great distinction between them, too. the "Anuario Americano Bucheli", Metzger made it clear that in his opinion Engel's 'World League' and Reuss's O.T.O. were united as the Ordo Illuminatorum.

Because disloyal IO-members had shown around the 'secret' teaching instructions, the "Oriflamme" now published all of them. The permits accompanying these teaching instructions were signed either by Frau Borgert, or else by a Brother 'Solitarius' or a Brother 'Catenus.' An air of gravity was lent to these proceedings with a reference to Reuss's statute of 1912: "Nobody may become an 'initiate' of the OTO who has not received the three Craft degrees of Freemasonry."

Each aspirant "must undergo all the degrees of Craft Freemasonry, or else the Higher Degrees of Masonry, before they can become an enlightened and intiated member of our Order." This was in direct contradiction to Crowley's O.T.O. tradition.

Engel's IO (without Reuss) of 1903 had seven degrees: "The organisation called I.O. is no continuation of the IO of Adam Weishaupt". In 1925, Engel re-structured his order. According to he Bulletin of the Masons in Vienna, self-initiation had been become the common use in Engel's IO.

On April 25th 1951, Metzger told Eugen Grosche that since the Second World War the IO only had five degrees, "of which the Third is Grand Magus, roughly corresponding to the Gradus Templarius [of the then FS with only 10 degrees]. This means that within the org[anisation] it's not really seen as a rank-and-file grade, or senior degree."

After 1962 Metzger devised his own individual grade-system, which conflated the IO, O.T.O., F.R.A., and GCC. Here is a summary of the copy of his degree-list held by the Warburg Institute:

·    I° - II°: Outer Order, Gnostic Catholic Church.
·    III° - V°: Blue Masonry, Craft Masonry.
·    VI° - VIII°: Red [or Royal Arch] Masonry. F.R.A. [Illuminati degree].
·    X° - XII°: Mystical Masonry, O.T.O. [Illuminati degree].
·    XIII°: Patriarchate, Areopagus, Illuminatus.

The degree system had been changed into nine "Working Divisions": IO, O.T.O., F.R.A., Masonic tradition, GCC, the "Thelema Free Spirit and Life School," the Psychosophical Press, the "Labor Thelema," and the "Thelema Restaurant Management."

"The IO is a high-grade Order. Valid qualifications are the blue degrees of the Builders, Craft Masonry, and Co-Masonry." "Our Order [...] will train an elite.”

"The ladder of blue, green, red, black, and white degrees signifies: the masons who construct the Temple, the final perfecters of the Temple who master true knowledge, the Rosicrucian Chapter who study the secrets of nature and art, the Knights Templar who defend the Temple, and the priestly degree who tend the Grail in the Temple."

"The path is: Outer Court of the Temple - Builders of the Temple (Freemasonry) - Brotherhood of the Rose and Cross - Knight of the Temple - Presbytery or Priesthood in the Temple."

"The Order's present-day rulership is on the lines of triads, in accordance with the Tree of Life [like the A.'.A.'.?]. Titles have been done away with in the Order, although the historical titles are implicitly retained. Thus the Order is directed by the Archbishop (the unseen head of the Church who rules solely through the Bishops), the Prefect (the visible head of the Order), and the Vicarius Ordinis (the unknown third of the group). The Pramonstrator General [of the A.'.A.'.?] is the fourth authority, who decides on publications after consultation with the Order's rulers."
"The designation 'Order General of the IO', or else 'Order General of the OTO' is employed within the IO as the relevant title for one of the practical functions."

Metzger's letter-headings carried, besides the various divisions (GCC, O.T.O., or IO), supplementary dignities: "Initium Sapientiж Amor Domini, Fraternitas Lucis Hermeticж, Fraternitas Rosicruciana Antiqua, Ordo Illuminatorum" or else this: "Antiqui et Primitivi Liberorum Structorum Ritus de Memphis et Mizraim, Fraternitas Lucis Hermeticж, Magnus Oriens Antiqui et Accepti Ritus Latomorum Moris Scotorum, Initium Sapientж Amor Domini."  The 'Caliphate' was later to ape these pretentious letter-headings.

Metzger's titles included some from the World League of Illuminati: either "Swiss Provincial Group", or else "Ordo Illuminatorum Germania," followed by "Eleusis 1776, sig.[n] Bro. Spartacus - Eleusis 1783, sig. Bro. Spartacus and Bro. Cato - Athens 1786, sig. Bro. Spartacus and Bro. Philo - Athens 1793, sig. Bro. Spartacus and Bro. Cato - O[rient] Berlin 1893, 1903, 1925, sig. Bro. Theophrastus. World League of Illuminati, address: Abbey of Thelema."

"Our statements are definitively based on historical knowledge and the authentic archival material of our order."

On the arcanum: "Even authors who had studied the matter, avoided the essential (EVEN Leopold Engel did)." Oscar R. Schlag thought that Metzger wouldn't have got much out of Engel, as like Ruess, he had only been an opera singer. Metzger referred directly to Adam Weishaupt; but on the other hand it was "astonishing and incomprehensible that Adam Weishaupt was always referred to as being the originator of the Illuminati."

Although Gustav Meyrink and Franz Spunda (author of "Baphomet"), were active members of the IO (the latter using the motto 'Sperontes' under Metzger), they were indiscriminately listed alongside names like those of "Goethe, Mozart, Wieland, Lavater, Pestalozzi, Humboldt, Knigge," as famous members.

Similarly did Crowley in his Gnostic Mass (Metzger's version of it for internal Swiss use abridged its litany), or Reuss in his revelation of sexual magic in the "Oriflammes" of 1904 and 1912, where the doctrine of sex-magic as the key to the mysteries was followed. Where before in 1914 Reuss described every church-tower as a "symbol of the male organ" and every church-nave as a "symbol of the female organ" in his "Parsifal oder das entschlьsselte Gralsgeheimnis", by 1968 Metzger knew stories of "frustrated old spinsters" who still saw a phallus in every church-tower, not to mention in cigarettes, penknives and kitchen-knives. Yet in the Swiss version of Crowley's "Magick in Theory and Practice", there was an additional chapter called 'Philosophy for All' in which Metzger went on in much the same tone against ubiquitous genitalia.

One of Horst Knaut's main themes in his "Quick" and "Neue Revue" articles concerned Metzger's Abbey of Thelema. Eventually, Metzger defended himself: "The I.O. (with the O.T.O., F.R.A., and G.C.C.) is not concerned with a 'mission from the spirit-world', and does not represent itself as an 'occult group'. It claims to be a non-denominational, politically neutral, philanthropic and humanitarian body, and has its origins in the Age of Enlightenment." Frдulein Дschbach explained the IO's distinction between magical ritual and psychoanalysis in these terms: as opposed to "psychagogy, psychohygiene, and psychotherapy," the Order's method was enhanced by making use "mainly of folklore, ritual, symbolism, and tried-and-tested techniques." "We will not alter any premise; we wish to reconstruct from antiquity - thereby gaining insight and clarity."

Eugen Grosche had already made a similar statement about his Fraternitas Saturni: "We will not use new formulж in any case, but only the old forms, the primitive symbols, which will be learnt anew, to understand, use, and establish the new rhythm [of the New Aeon]."

Walter Englert {see next section or this summary} disagreed: "Leaving old formulж unaltered means being enslaved by them. If you remain critical enough to test them and improve on them, you will make progress."

In the course of the struggle for dominance between the various O.T.O. groupings, the received wisdom about Metzger in the 'Caliphate' was that "he has slept through the Thelemic revival. The additional chapter in "Magick" is moronic rubbish and the Oriflamme is epicene."
"There was a pretty large discrepancy between what he published and what he did."
But in that case: "It would be an overstatment to say that the Illuminati are 'superior' to the O.T.O. - they are however identical. All degrees up to and including VI° (equivalent to 33° in the old system) are what Reuss termed 'lay-brother' degrees. O.T.O. membership proper began at VII°. Reuss states of the degrees VII°-X° that 'these are the real active members of O.T.O., also called the Hermetic Brotherhood of Light, or Illuminati'. The title of the IX° is Illuminatus Perfectus."

The Heavenly Stormtroopers

Walter Englert, was born on March 16th 1924 in Frankfurt at 9.13 a.m.; on December 29th 1962 he received the 13°, and on April 4th 1963 the 12° and 18° from Eugen Grosche.
"Effectively made 'homeless' by the sudden death of his Grand Master Gregor A. Gregorius," Englert was appointed into the "miner[v?]al collection at Stein" under the motto 'Telepharos' by E. Engeler "Angelus" on May 27th 1964; on May 29th that year he received the "Masonic light" from Metzger himself in Zurich, in his 'Limmat zum Kompass' Lodge. On May 31st, he married his wife Uta at the 'Rose und Kreuz' church in Zurich, the union being blessed by Bishop "Josephus M+" (= Metzger), with his no doubt suitably non-denominational version of a priest's marriage blessing.

In early 1964 Paul R. Audehm (who had known Englert since 1963) travelled to Stein with his friend and work-colleague Peter Lerch "Petrus". The encounter had apparently been "determined by Gregorius." During the night after the first meeting with Metzger, Rцsli Metzger appeared in a dream to Audehm, with what he described as an "ecstatically distorted expression." In the summer of 1965 Audehm was initiated into the novice degree of the Illuminati Order at Zurich under his motto of Brother 'Mundus.'

On June 18th 1965 Englert was called by Metzger to the Companion degree, and on October 17th that year, on the occasion of his initiation into the 0° OTO by Gьnther Naber "Beatus", he recieved a quotation from "Liber AL": "O azure-lidded woman, bend upon them!" (Ch.1 v. 19). On October 19th, Naber bestowed the Master's degree on him, and shortly after on the 22nd in Zurich, Metzger appointed him as X° for Germany; Emil Scheidegger was a witness. "The integrity of this witnessed, fully ratified document is not to be doubted."

In the same month, October, a circular was sent out from Stein, containing pleas to "the Brothers for their increasingly active efforts, proper appreciation, and practical support in the widest sense." Yet by December Stein was complaining about "Brothers splitting away." "The O[rder] requires every Brother to recruit one or more successors"; it was added that the October circular had not been "justified self-criticism." During the Christmas and New Year 1965-66, anyone wanting to take a break at Stein would have been disappointed; due to alocal outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, the district was officially quarantined.

In early 1966, Gabriel Montenegro visited Stein from the USA; we will meet Montenegro (a Mexican by birth), again in other chapters, e.g. on the Fraternitas Rosicruciana Antiqua and the Mysteria Mystica Maxima. Suffice it to say here that he possessed a doctorate of medicine from a body called the "Sierra State University" (which was a fraudulent 'degree-mill'), and was appointed 33°, IX°, and O.T.O. Supreme Sovereign for both North and South America by Metzger. Audehm: "In his retinue there were two peculiar American gentlemen, whom we suspected of being CIA. At Dornach [the headquarters of Anthroposophy] after 'Monti' produced his Lodge certificate, we were able to penetrate to the Holy of Holies; we were conducted therein with great courtesy by a member of the I.O. - a Brother Leo from Zurich. [...] Then on Sunday Herr Schlag arrived with about five people and made Montenegro's acquaintance, (as well as [Adolf] Hemberger and myself) [...] One morning we discovered all 'Monti's' charters, passwords and --- signs spread out on the table in the bar [of the Gasthof Rose...] The way I heard it, 'Monti' then left without even saying goodbye, completely humiliated [...] However Montenegro wore a Bishop's ring, and maintained that he would be welcomed in Rome at any time. I believe that he was."

Englert brought Prosper Wilhelm Maurer (b. 20.6.1892) to Stein on June 20th 1966. From October 14th-18th that year Englert stayed at Stein to arrange for the founding of a lodge in Frankfurt. Then on November 11th, at 11 p.m. the 'Freiherr Adolf von Knigge' Lodge was brought into being by Annemarie Дschbach, Anita Borgert and Metzger at Frankfurt; and Messrs Paul Rьdiger Audehm (Chancellor), his "closest friend" Englert (Master), and Peter Lerch (Delegate for Switzerland) were empowered to "work the First to Third Degrees." This lodge was registered with the authorities six weeks later as an O.T.O.-IO incorporated association. Yet only a year later, the 19 members of this lodge split from the Swiss.

Audehm: "I won't even try to defend myself as the begetter of this development. No doubt I am guilty of skimming over ill-digested magical ideas - and not least of some remaining traces of Christian decency and feeling. The Swiss 'Grand Master' could not stand my [...] upholding Christian ethics, and that I disapproved of his behaviour towards female Order members - not excluding married women."

Various letters "to the Strs. and Bros. of the Freiherr Adolf von Knigge Lodge" emanated from Stein, imploring these initiates to "enter calmly together into an exchange of views." Then the Swiss, sensing that the final breach was coming, decided to publish their instructional material in the Oriflamme, since their secrets were no longer safe with the Frankfurt lodge. "In response to the eavesdropping on information from other obediences [...] Bros. should confine themselves to practical work."

Gabriel Montenegro was drawn into the dispute, and though hitherto satisfied with Metzger, began to have doubts about him. The country doctor Gьnther Naber, so far loyal to Metzger (he was one of the five members of the IX° who elected Metzger as OHO in January 1963) described events in Switzerland for the Mexican: "They'd let nothing more appear from the 'Thelema' press since the 'Self-Knowledge' book. The duties of running the hotel - the bar, kitchen. etc. - in the 'Rose' guest-house at Stein, and the renovations and new building-works there, were taking up all the participants' time, or so we were assured [...] From Wisdom's abundant breasts, copiously flowing Spiritus (Sanctus?) created a kind of ecstatic consciousness, so much so, that we could only tremble in fear and awe. So there wasn't much left for us to do but to wait in humble and childlike submission, while talking about the conditions for realizing Thelema." (Late July 1968).

About this time Audehm distributed his "Dokumentation ьber einen Ordensschwindel" ("Documentation on a Fraudulent Order") in which came to terms with Metzger's titles. His starting-point was the charter Metzger gave to Englert, Audehm and Lerch on November 11th 1966. "We, H. Josephus M., Frater Paragranus, Bearer of the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of France, Grand Cross of the Order of Joachites, Profess-Knight of the Ordo Militiж Templi Cruci [OMCT], Sovereign Grand Master General, O.H.O., Vicarius Ordinis of the Order of Oriental Templars, Sovereign Grand Master of the Order of Illuminati, Sovereign Grand Master General of the Fraternitas Rosicruciж Antiqua, and Sovereign Patriarch Ecclesiж Gnosticж Catholicж... [etc.]"

Audehm asked the French Embassy in Bonn for information about this, and got this reply: "I beg to inform you that Herr Josef Hermann Metzger is not in the ranks of those honoured with the Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit." And: "I must add that there was an 'phantom' honour under the title of 'National French Merit' (and not 'National Order of Merit'). It was conferred by an association unknown to me [...] I know of no Order of Saint Joachim."

Horst E. Miers made full use of Audehm's "Dokumentation" for his "Lexikon des Geheimwissens" ("Dictionary of Secret Knowledge"), even though Metzger tried to produce a legal justification for his antics. "The exact description is 'Grand Cross-Bearer of the Order of Merit of France', according to the document of 10th January 1953, issued by the Universal Order of Knights of Honour and Brothers of Merit (Ordre Universel des Chevaliers de l'Honneur et Compagnons du Mйrite) 'pour reconnaоtre les services rendus a l'humanitй'."

R. Horst, the OMCT's Chancellor, informed Audehm that Metzger was no longer a member of the organisation.

On July 23rd 1968 Walter and Uta Englert, together with Audehm and Hemberger, united to depose Metzger from his offices as their chief.

Montenegro wrote to Naber: "I received an answer [...] from Bro. Englert [...] He states that he was designated in your presence, not only as X° OTO, but also OHO: something which would give him world-wide jurisdiction? [...] Am I to understand a complete take-over is contemplated?".

Naber to Montenegro: "To me it appears unjust to accept grades and offices from an O[rder]-Chief, and then to disqualify this chief whilst illegally continuing to confer those same grades and offices."

On October 25th 1968, precisely six years after Karl Germer's death, Metzger took the initiative: "To all who have belonged to the Frankfurt group and registered society Ordo Illuminatorum!" Walter and Uta Englert, Paul Rudiger, Audehm and Peter Lerch were stripped of the "right to appear or act in the name of the Order, or to use the Order's name for themselves or a group." The November 1966 warrant was annulled, as was the group's registration with the authorities in Frankfurt.

Gabriel Montenegro from the Fraternitas Rosicruciana Antiqua

Gunther Naber wrote to Gabriel Montenegro on 29.10.68: "In those ten years I had got no REAL progress out of the Order; and most of the Bros. who I know were similarly disappointed. But any open criticism of this sort met with the reprimand that we were not doing our duties well enough in accord with the solemn oath we had taken [...] It is known that many others quietly withdrew from the O[rder]; the reasons for this certainly has something to do with P[aragranus]'s 'initiated' behaviour in public, and how his teachings and sayings contrasted with his defects as a spiritual leader, as well as his lack of sincerity and his secretiveness. 'Do what thou wilt' only had a theoretical meaning there, since having an original thought was treated as treason or else mocked. Consequently one parroted what his lordship said - or stayed silent. Practicalities or spiritual matters were hardly ever mentioned; the usual conversations were average bar-room stuff."

Naber departed, asking for all his personal writings, including his diaries to be returned to him in July 1972, and allied himself (via Erler's ORA?) to Oscar Schlag and Walter Studinski.

Montenegro did not know on what basis Englert and his nineteen followers had been able to set up shop; whether with Englert's 18° Charter dating from 13.4.1963, or with the Charter to work three degrees under the 'World League of Illuminati' heading dated 11.11.1966, or else with Englert playing the part of OHO.

Structure in Frankfurt

The question as to what rituals were worked in Frankfurt is probably answered by the letter of 25.10.1968 in which Metzger demanded that "5 ritual books for the L.'. Lodge" be returned, amongst other things. As a co-founder, Audehm stated that the use of the name alone was quite sufficient for him, as he had introduced a new set of ingredients into the organisation. Afterwards Audehm made a confession about his projected degree-system: "we hadn't got one - so we made one up."

The Illuminati Order as expanded to 24 degrees by Audehm and Englert, included the O.T.O. as its 18°, like the earlier project by Metzger and Grosche (to incorporate the O.T.O. in Germany as 18th degree into the FS).

"18th. Standard-Bearer of the ORIFLAMME, Knight Templar of the OTO. The OTO's work does not especially consist of Magic (although it contains a distinction between the genders) apart for its being geared towards the achievement of a world-wide Imperium [...] The Law of 'Do what thou wilt' is the Law of this NEW STATE [...] in our days the OTO will appear in public - as HEAVENLY STORM-TROOPERS! The holder of the 18th degree has the power to create a new Order-province, or Order-enclave, wherever he shall pl ease. Further, he can himself found new Orders.

In Nomine: Fra Telepharos [Englert] 24° IO, 33°, 90°, 97°, X° OTO. Fra Mundus [Audehm] 23° IO, 32°, 89°, 95°."
"The OTO and the Gnosis (Gnostic Church) are part of the Illuminati Order."

Hermann Medinger (from the Austrian IO) and Theodor Czepl (a follower of Lanz Liebenfels) were active in Frankfurt for a short time. "The contact died out. These gentlemen were something of a simple quality to us."
Medingers "Notes on Astral Traveling" first appeared in Englert's periodical: “Der Illuminat” - in December 1969. Imprimatur Ordo Militiae Caelestis.

Eventuallly, Audehm parted from Englert: "The Frankfurt IO got in my way too much, with its petty outlook."
While Metzger taught by way of correspondence, Englert made use of tapes.


"Did the Order fail because it was not able to prevent such a thing, because it was not competent to train the promised йlite, in which people would have been able to serve as leaders in the future awakening? Did we, the students, fail in this?" Metzger expressed his doubts in the "Oriflamme" during 1970.

Englert made enquiries of the local council at Stein whether Metzger could be certified as feeble-minded. The council's chairman informed him that Metzger was "apparently fighting-fit for all-comers."

Metzger took Englert to court four times altogether - and lost every case, even his lawsuit over the right to use particular names and titles, which was tried at the Federal Court in Karlsruhe. Hemberger appeared as an 'expert witness'. "The names of Haitz and Kirchvogel mentioned by Metzger [...] are not known to me. The title 'Ordo Ill.-Germaniж' does not appear in this connection." [The decisions over the FS and O.T.O. appear at the end of chapter about the Song of the Whitewash].

Metzger was duly ordered to pay full costs. "Legal protection of names holds good for limited liability companies and for not registered societies." (Paragraph 12 of the Civil Code).

Due to a Swiss-German agreement on legal aid, special arrangements existed between the two countries. So it was possible (in the first instance) to sue for the legal fees and court-costs for all four cases in St. Gallen, when the judgements of each individual court could be investigated once more. Englert engaged a lawyer in St. Gallen to sue for costs, whereupon Metzger made a declaration to the court that he had no funds at his disposal. In Switzerland it is the rule that one side in a lawsuit must establish what funds, property, or valuables the other side possesses.

The legal arguments demonstrated that neither the Abbey of Thelema nor the Psychosophical Society could be prosecuted for the 12,000 Deutschmark fine against the Ordo Illuminatorum. This latter, it appeared, had formed itself as an independent, sovereign society with its own funds. Nor could Metzger himself be sued, since the OI's statutes did not provide for membership-fees (this in contrast to the 1950 statutes).

These disputes brought F.W. Haack - representative of established religion, and Horst Knaut - exponent of tabloid journalism, into the picture; both industriously collected documentation from Gerald Yorke, Audehm, and Walter Jantschik. Haack was also furnished with information from anonymous sources at this time in order he did not give them much weight in his publications.

Paul R. Audehm

Audehm had gained his first practical occult experiences with the Lectorium Rosicrucianum; but at the Frankfurt FS lodge in 1962 he was "the only guest who appeared [...] even though he was only a snooper and a crank."

In early 1969 Audehm started the periodical "Zion" in collaboration with Englert. In Stephan Grasser's 'Kether Lodge' Audehm went by the name 'Alagris', but he was expelled on 15.4.1969: "Just like he was thrown out [...] of the Ordo Illuminatorum in Stein."

Joseph Grasser: "Audehm wrote to me that he wanted to get rid of Metzger, that he favoured someone other for the position of Grand Master, [...] the new Grand Master had already been nominated to his place, according to what Audehm stated to an American [Montenegro]. Audehm also pretends to be X° OTO."

After being "befriended" by Metzger in the 1960s, by December 1986 Grasser was certain in his own mind that he had been magically menaced with illness by both the Stein and Frankfurt O.T.O. groups.

In February 1969 Audehm founded his own individual Zion Lodge, and in 1971 the "Ecclesia Universalis Tempelieren von Jeruschalajim" ("Ecclesia Universalis of Templars of Yerushalayim.") In 1976 the "Christkatholische Aszetik" ("Christian Catholic Ascetic") began publication, in which Audehm wrote after 1977 under the "nom de plume" of 'Uodil von Mihingart' about the "global conspiracy against Christendom." Using the alias 'Arp Kцnigsberger' Audehm published small leaflets from this time on.

In 1985 Englert advertised in the "Spirituelle Adressbuch", stating that from now on he could not accept any more new members "due to the great number of candidates.”

Egyptian Cult of the Dragon

In ancient Egypt we find the Cult of the Dragon. About 4600 years ago, these two ancient civilisations had keenly studied the Alfa Draconis star located near the celestial North Pole which was then identified with the Polar Star, the navel of heaven (the Polar Star hasn't always the same position because of equinox precession). Hence, it wasn't by chance that egyptian astronomers of the IVth dynasty (2700 B.C.) had based their temporal calculations on the constellation of the Dragon which was related to the Goddess Ta-Urt (Red Dragon), the Mother of cyclical upheavals.

The Cult of the Dragon continued along the whole dynastic period of ancient Egypt and it was proved that, during the thirty dynasties, the night-Fire cult had a more relevant role to some with respect of others. Some pharaohes of the XIXth and XXth dynasties were named Ramses or Sety, which meant: 'Son of the Sun' and 'Worshipper of Set' respectively. It can therefore be assumed thah the worshipped Sun was the Serpent-Sun (night-Fire), the night star. Thus, these pharaohes were the Sons of the Sun, the Worshippers of the Serpent.

The Draconian Cult of the Sons of the Sun (Worshippers of the Serpent) has re-emerged today with all its power.

Knights Templars Historical Outline

In the 11th century, a horde of Saracens invaded Asia Minor, including Palestine, precluding the Christians from prostrating themselves before Jesus' Sepulchre. Following that, Pope Urban II convened the Council and proclaimed the Holy War. Altogether, eight crusades were fought from 1096 to 1270.

The first crusade ended in 1099 with the conquest of Jerusalem. Nine years later, in 1108, nine knights established themselves in the old Temple of Salomon. They formed the first unit of a sacerdotal - knightly order and became the Knights Templars. They soon built up friendly relations with a group of Imami Arabs (Twelver Shiites) and learnt the Secrets and Mysteries.

·    1118 – The Knights Templars founded the Order of the Temple.
·    1125 – Having learnt the Secrets and the Mysteries, the Knights Templars elected Twelve Knights. Their task was to guard the Flame of Knowledge in the mythical Castle of Montsalvat, France.
·    1312 – With the permission of the King of France, Philip the Fair, Pope Clemente V decreed the dissolution of the Order.

·    1604 – Foundation of the Brotherhood of the Rosicrucians.
·    1776 - Foundation of the Order of the Enlightened - Alessandro di Cagliostro.
·    1827 - Foundation of the Hermetic Brotherhood of the Light - Eliphas Levi Zahed.
·    1905 - Foundation of the Ordo Templi Orientis - Aleister Crowley.
·    1948 - Foundation of the Ordo Rosae Misticae - Frank Giano Ripel.

·    2001 - Foundation of the Order of the Enlightened Knights (Ordre des Chevaliers Illuminés; Ordine dei Cavalieri Illuminati).

Twelve Knights were elected and entrusted with disclosing the Secrets and the Mysteries - Frank G. Ripel and Galbix Red.

Structure of The O.C.I.

·    International Head of the O.C.I.: Frank G. Ripel
·    Sobstitute of the International Head of the O.C.I.
·    National Head of the O.C.I.

O.C.I. and A.P.R.M.M.

In 1981, Francesco Brunelli contacted the known Italian initiate Frank G. Ripel to restructure the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraïm and the situation of the Rite was the following: 99º or International Head of the Egyptian Oriental Order of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraïm, 98º or Incognito Superior (from the degree VIIº to the XIIIº of the Order of the Rosa Mistica), 97º or Substitute of the International Head, 96º or National Head, 1º-95º or Operative Freemason (from the Iº to the VIº of the Order of the Rosa Mistica). In the renewed Egyptian Oriental Order of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraïm, from 1º to 95º, the 6 Alchemical Operations are found and associated to the degrees 1º-3º, 4º-33º, 34º-42º, 43º-63º, 64º-74º and 75º-95º.

Frank G. Ripel was at the head of the Egyptian Oriental Order of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraïm between 1981 and 1999, when he put it in "sleep." At the end of March 2003, Frank G. Ripel, being Grand Master of the Order of the Enlightened Knights (O.C.I.) had a contact with the Spanish Gabriel López de Rojas, founder and Grand Master of the Illuminati Order, O.H.O. of the Societas O.T.O. (Ordo Templi Orientalis), 33º degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, maximum degree of a pair of Egyptian Rites. When Gabriel López de Rojas learned that the Egyptian Oriental Order of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraïm of Frank G. Ripel was in "sleep", proposed to Ripel "to wake it up again" and he accepted, making it to revive, on May 1, 2003, with the name of Egyptian Freemasonry of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraïm.

Virtus Junxit Mors Non Separabit

© 2009 Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis Misraim, Sovereign Sanctuary for Bulgaria