Blockchain - Research State of the Art

Collaborative Database

This is a continuously growing overview of the Blockchain Research State of the Art Articles. We invite you to add a paper and share it with the community.

This literature collection is originally based on our article:

Risius, M.; Spohrer, K. (2017)

A Blockchain Research Framework: What we (don’t) know, where we go from here, and how we will get there

In: Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE), 6, pp. 1-59

We invite everyone to submit additional papers. To ensure coherence, please make sure to adhere to the different categories developed in the article.


  • Design and Features: How blockchain systems are designed and what the differential effects of the various characteristics (e.g., consensus mechanisms, privacy settings, transparency, immutability, decentralized control) are.
  • Measurement and Value: What is the added value that blockchain based solutions provide on the different levels and how it can be appropriated.
  • Management and Organization: What governance of decision rights exist in blockchain environments or which strategies and tactics arevemployed by actors in blockchain systems.

Level of Analysis:

  • Users and society: Individuals who transact through blockchain applications and the societal consequences that the technology implies.
  • Intermediaries: Intermediary service providers as well as applications and processes that are hosted within a blockchain environment connecting a service provider and a service consumer. The key focus on this level revolves around smart contracts and the consequent opportunities for automating transactions among dispersed entities.
  • Platforms: Different blockchain implementations and networks (e.g., Ripple, Ethereum, Hyperledger), various types of blockchains (e.g., permissioned vs. permissionless), as well as cross-system interactions (e.g., integrating blockchain systems with each other or into established systems).
  • Firms and Industries: Organizations and industries that are prone to be affected by blockchain technology or deploy blockchain solutions themselves (e.g., financial markets, public services) as well as how (new) business models will develop in a blockchain industry.