Abstract: Different versions of the same test are typically equated so that scores can be similarly interpreted over time. Likewise, different versions of the same test may need to be equated. For instance, the Nonverbal Stroop Card Sorting Task (NSCST; Koch and Roid, 2012) is a manual card sorting task. Although computerized version of the task simulate the NSCST, the response time results are different (Koch and Hotovec, 2012). Two of the most frequently accepted methods for equating are linear and equipercentile equating. These two methods of equating are compared for the NSCST using a sample (n = 30) of middle schoolers. Administration order of the NSCST and the computer tablet version of the test was randomized across participants. The two tests were equated based on raw scores and verified using standardized scores. Overall, the equipercentile method produced the best fit. Implications for equating performance measures are discussed.
Poster presented at the 46th Annual Meeting of the Society for Computers in Psychology
Christopher Koch & Emma Dennie
George Fox University
Abstract: The testing effect was examined throughout a semester. Daily quizzes were given in a Sensation and Perception course. For the first exam, covering the chemical senses, both quiz scores (r = .39) and number of quizzes taken (r = .40) significantly correlated with exam scores. However, quizzes were not correlated with scores on the second exam covering low-level vision. Only the number of quizzes taken (r = .33) was correlated with scores on the third exam covering high-level vision. Potential mediating factors were also examined. Methodicalness was significantly related to exam 2 scores (r = .43). A potential explanation for these findings is that repeated testing is beneficial in the beginning of a course. Once students develop an understanding of the types of questions asked on exams, they are able to develop a strategy for studying. That strategy may be most important when the content area changes but repeated testing continues to be useful when the content area remains consistent.
Poster presented at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society
Christopher Koch, Taylor Charbonnier,
Matthew Johnson, Lindsey Levanen,
& Matthew Scott
Abstract: Neurocognitive tests like the SCAT3 and ImPACT have become standard concussion assessment tools. Although these tests have adequate sensitivity, specificity, and reliability, they are unimodal in nature. Consequently, the tests do not fully assess the range of processing that can be affected by concussion (Thompson, 2012). Therefore, we developed a cross-modal continuous performance task to examine cognitive processing post-concussion. Forty-three middle school school lacrosse players, college students, and physical therapy graduate students participated in the study. Twelve of these participants had been previously diagnosed with a concussion. Participants completed a symptom checklist from SCAT3 along with other demographic information (e.g., previously concussed, last concussion). They then completed the continuous performance task starting with visual detection followed by visual inhibition, auditory detection, and auditory inhibition. Older subjects were more accurate than younger subjects on the detection task (F(1, 84) = 20.61, p < .001). Subjects were also more accurate on the visual task than the auditory task (F(1, 84) = 21.47, p < .001). Both age (F(1, 84) = 5.65, p < .02) and previous concussion (F(1, 84) = 4.49, p < .04) interacted with test modality. College and graduate students who had previously been concussed performed the same as those who had not been concussed. However, middle schoolers who had been concussed did significantly worse on the auditory task than those who had not been concussed. Similarly, older subjects were more accurate than younger subjects on the inhibition task (F(1, 84) = 4.91, p < .03). Older subjects were also significantly more accurate on the visual task than the middle schoolers (F(1, 84) = 5.33, p < .03; Figure 2). However, no differences were found based on previous concussion.
Poster presented at APCAM 2016
Abstract: Figure-ground and depth cues were examined. Shadows (Experiment 1) produced interference (F(1, 23) = 28.01, p < .001) and slower RTs for occluded targets (F(1, 23) = 9.01, p < .01). Figure-ground images produced interference (F(1, 10) = 7.26, p < .03) in Experiment 2. Linear perspective (Experiment 3) produced interference (F(1, 17) = 15.50, p < .001) and an effect of depth (F(1, 17) = 9.28, p < .01) with longer RTs to closer bars. This finding is not due to perceived size (Experiment 4). Therefore, the effects of occlusion may be mediated by additional depth cues.
Poster presented at the 24th Annual Workshop on Object Perception, Attention, and Memory
Examining the Relationship Between Media Multitasking and Working Memory
Christopher Koch & Mary Kate Koch
Abstract: Ophir, Nass, and Wagner (2009) found that individuals who multitask more do not necessarily multitask well. Minear et al. (2013) examined the relationships between media multitasking, attention, working memory, self-control and fluid intelligence. They found that high multitaskers reported being more impulsive and did not perform as well on fluid intelligence tasks. However, they did not find evidence to support the idea that high media multitaskers make more task switching errors than low media multitaskers. The present study further examined the relationship between working memory and multitasking. Participants completed the Media Multitasking Index (MMI), Working Memory Questionnaire (WMQ), short version of the IPIP big five personality traits, Beck's Depression Inventory, a perceived control measure, and a questionnaire about recreation. The results show a number of interesting correlations. For instance, working memory errors were negatively correlated with several personality factors but not with multitasking. Although agreeableness was also correlated with media multitasking, WMQ scores were not related to media multitasking. Recreation, however, was indirectly related to both multitasking and working memory.
Figure-Ground or Depth Processing?
Christopher Koch & Elissa Shinseki
Abstract: This study examined the role figure-ground and depth on the color block Stroop task. In Experiment 1, one color block was presented vertically and one was presented horizontally. The vertical and horizontal bars served as occluders an equal number of times. Incongruent pairs produced longer RTs than control trials. RTs were longer when the target was occluded. A shadow was used to increase perceived distance between blocks in Experiment 2. Results were similar to Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, linear perspective was used to create depth. Incongruent pairs had longer RTs but bars closest to the subjects produced longer RTs.
Distractibility of Noise during Post Concussion Visual Search
Abstract. Noise can differentially influence cognitive performance among concussed individuals. Eight concussed subjects were compared to seven matched controls. Subjects completed a search task while listening to a recording. Subjects had faster response times for feature searches and for target present searches. No differences were found between groups. Concussed individuals recalled more information about the lecture. These findings suggest that visual search may not be cognitively demanding enough to produce decrements in performance in the presence of noise.
Executive Function Training Increases Reading Rate, Accuracy, Fluency, and Comprehension
Joseph Sandford, Christopher Koch, & Lonnie Rae Smith
Abstract. This study was conducted to determine if a computer-based training program focusing on a variety of cognitive skills (e.g., persistence, selective attention, response control, and processing speed), improves reading ability. Thirty-five students (26 males) who had been referred for reading difficulties participated in the study. Reading ability was assessed using the Gray Oral Reading Tests-Fourth Edition. Participants were below grade level for reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. After several weeks of training, participants’ reading ability was reassessed. Each participants’ reading scores improved to at or above grade level. As a group, the results show significant improvement in reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. These findings indicate that attention and executive function training can have a meaningful impact on reading ability.
Cognitive Training and Everyday Functioning Among the Elderly: Phase 1
Christopher Koch and Elizabeth Berger
Abstract. Cognitive training has become popularized with programs like Brain Age and Lumosity. Transferability of these programs is an important question. In particular, does cognitive training transfer to everyday tasks (e.g., managing a schedule or taking prescribed medications)? The current study focuses on baseline ability and is phase 1 of a larger national study examining the impact of cognitive training on everyday functioning among the elderly. Residents from a local retirement facility participated in the study (n=34). Greater awareness was associated with fewer everyday memory errors (r=.62, p <.001).Awareness was not correlated with delayed recall performance but was moderately correlated with LTM retrieval (r=.37, p<.05). Everyday memory scores were only correlated with LTM retrieval (r=.35, p<.05). However, subjective health was related to both delayed recall (r=.36, p<.05) and LTM retrieval (r=.37, p<.05). General self-efficacy and task self-efficacy were related (r=.36, p<.05). Although memory and task self-efficacy were not associated, greater awareness and task self-efficacy were correlated (r=.62, p<.001). Flourishing was correlated with general self-efficacy (r=.34, p<.05) and subjective health (r=.53, p<.001). Older subjective age ratings corresponded with higher pain ratings (r=.57, p<001). Finally, better everyday awareness was associated with fewer sleep problems (r=.42, p<.02).
A Student-Based Evaluation of PSPP
Christopher Koch & Elissa Shinseki
Abstract. GNU PSPP version 0.8.3 is a statistical software package developed through the Free Software Foundation. It is designed to resemble, function like, and replace SPSS. The syntax and data files are compatible with SPSS and PSPP opens SPSS files. Given the non-propriety availability of PSPP, it may be a useful tool for teaching students how to conduct statistical analyses. A class of 34 graduate students in a professional program in the Pacific Northwest used PSPP and Excel during the course of a semester and then evaluated both programs after completing a professional practicum. Twenty-one students completed the evaluation. Specific to PSPP, students evaluated the software regarding the ease of downloading and installing, documentation, and aspects of usability. Ratings were generally noncommittal, however, students typically believed that the documentation was lacking. Students were asked parallel questions about using PSPP and Excel. Specifically, they were asked to indicate which was more difficult: knowing what analysis to do, knowing how to do the analysis with PSPP/Excel, or if they were both equally difficult. Students were more likely to indicate that “knowing how to use PSPP” was the most difficult (X2(2) = 7.6, p < .05) but were equally likely to select “knowing how to do the analysis” and “both were equally difficult” for Excel. Statistical self-efficacy was positively correlated with PSPP documentation and icon ratings along with applying concepts from the course in the practicum experience. Overall, PSPP may be useful for teaching statistics but its effectiveness may be moderated by other factors.