This site will present theories of the origins of the ancestors of Y-DNA E1a1 M44 haplogroup men (a subclade of E). SNP research in 2015 and 2016 by both ISOGG and Yfull.com have given us major advances. One motivation of our members is that many of the E1a1 tested men have oral (only) histories of immigration from areas not associated with sub-Saharan African origin. While E1a2 appears to encompass Sub-Saharan origins, E1a1 testing now indicates one subgroup from that area. A larger E1a1 subgroup is identified by origins in central and eastern Europe.
Of particular interest to some E1a1 men is whether E1a1, which moved into the British Isles and Eastern Europe, was comprised of slaves or ordinary working class individuals,
Project member review of A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History. Nickolas Wade Thanks Doug for the recommendation. Wade talks about humanity as five races and he mentions such facts as these: that the Palestinians, the Somalis, and Ethiopians are admixtures of the African and Caucasian races. But, while I think that's interesting, it's beside the point I want to make. The thing that caught my attention is that he defines African as sub-Saharan and says that North Africa is largely Caucasian, which I think is important for E1a1, the reason being that most dna experts believe E1a1 had a Sub-Saharan origin and began as an African haplogroup, which I don't think is accurate. Most of our subclades, and really, maybe all of them, started in North Africa. So, whether we relate ourselves to the Dogon or the Fulani (and I think we are related to both), we are basically a North African haplogroup because both these groups were North African at the time our haplogroup was formed, and the Fulani clearly have a Caucasian past.
7/12/2015: E1a1 papers by Robert Hall Removed as requested by author.
July, 2016 Of the 66 members in the M44 E1a1 project, one African American tested using FTDNA's Big Y SNP test, with analysis at Yfull.com He has been confirmed to be in a new subclade or subgroup of E-Z20646 See at this site He matched a Mandenka African from the HGDP project. Only one other African American is in the project and is now testing for that SNP. 9/2016: Two members have this SNP. We encourage other African Americans who suspect they are M44 to join us and test.
June, 2016 Rare E1a1 found in 3 British Brays From the Bray ydna project The Bray surname featured
in Y-DNA research by geneticists Dr Turi E. King and Professor Mark A. Jobling,
of the University of Leicester, entitled “Founders, Drift, and Infidelity: The Relationship between Y
Chromosome Diversity and Patrilineal Surnames” , which was
published in 2009 in Molecular Biology and Evolution (Mol Biol Evol. 2009 May; 26(5):
1093–1102). Although Dr King’s principal area of research is Y-DNA, she is best
known for her analysis of mitochondrial DNA from the exhumed body identified by
University of Leicester as that of King Richard III. Professor Jobling’s
principal area of research is Y-DNA. They analysed 1678 Y-DNA samples within 40
British surnames; the latter were chosen to represent a wide range of surname
type and frequency. They concluded that sharing a surname significantly
elevates the probability of sharing a Y-chromosomal haplogroup, and that rarer
surnames show higher degrees of shared ancestry. The study also included a
control group of 110 men who all had different surnames from each other and
from the 40 surname-specific groups. The total number of bearers of the Bray
surname (including surname variants) in the 1996 UK electoral register was
documented as 12195, making Bray the third most common surname (after Smith and
King) of the 40 surnames studied in this research. 29 of the 1678 Y-DNA
surname-specific samples were collected from male Brays, with fewer samples
from Brays than from most of the other surnames studied. Of the 29 Bray
samples, 52% were haplogroup R1b1, 28% were haplogroup I, 3% were haplogroup
R1a, 3% were haplogroup R1*, 3% were haplogroup J2, and, unusually, 10% were
haplogroup E1a. Haplogroup E1a is very rare, and none of the other
surname-specific or control samples belonged to this haplogroup.
Thus the potential for a large number of E1a1 Brays in the UK seems very possible. The study was first discovered and further researched by members R. Hall and Castle
April, 2016 Based on the Big Y SNP tests of our members and the analysis of ISOGG and Yfull.com we encourage everyone to look at YFULL.COM's revised E1a section
of their E tree HERE . Be
sure to view the aging provided there for the common ancestors (or
subgroups). There are new subgroups offered in the E1a, especially
in our E1a1-M44 portion of the tree - apparently because of their access to the
HGDP project and the Sardinian project. As they provide updates to the
tree about monthly we can expect more of this. The aging presented in their tree is now showing
the huge time separation of our M44 (E1a1) with what was previously
called E1a2 and 3 at the E1a project. Noteworthy is that the common ancestor of our E1a1 subgroup with E1a2 is said
to be 19100 years! At one time it was thought we were rather recently
FTDNA’s current tree is the same except in some cases they use equivalent SNPs. They also show a third subgroup of E1a with the snp L636 That would be the former E1a3. The other two organizations have not chosen to do so at this time.
Origins of E1a and E1a1...
Recommended reports, by Robert Hall, member of the M44 E1a1 Project
Comment by member R. Hall, 4/2016: "Intense research over a long period has provided lots
of information. I now am convinced, for example, that E1a1 started out
either in north Africa or just beyond. And I am thoroughly convinced that
E1a1 developed basically among the Hebrews as it became associated with that
population. At that point, E1a1 moved northward following the migrations
of the Hebrews and the movements of the Roman Empire, but also back into
Africa, where it was carried by the light-skinned Fulani nomads whose
background is Jewish and whose origin is likely Persian or Middle
Eastern. Over time, the wanderings of these nomads sprinkled E1a1 in
minute portions here and there, but none of these portions has equaled the 10%
that remains among the Fulani.
Mali is sometimes cited as the location of African
E1a1. But that is not the case at all. Mali is the home of E1a, not
E1a1. I have it on the authority and research of two ladies who did the
study of the E1a Dogon. E1a1 became separated from E1a long ago.
E1a, with few exceptions, developed strictly African characteristics.
E1a1 took on the characteristics of their more northern neighbors, as well as
the particular population in which it lived. Today, it seems that we
carriers of E1a1 are either Jewish, African remnants from Africa, or ancient
residue in European-based populations."
FTDNA: myOrigins Methodology Whitepaper FTDNA’s observation on African origins and movements
"7.5 Niger-Congo Genesis
Stone Age The earliest history of the Niger-Congo Genesis cluster is not well understood. Though of Africa, some have suggested that it contains part of an old migration into Africa from Eurasia. Others suggest that it shows traces of modern human interbreeding with an older African branch of the Homo lineage. In the Stone Age, it was present only in the forests to the west of the Congo.
Middle Ages The medieval period brought Arab slavery, as millions were taken north. A substantial fraction of Arab ancestry is now Sub-Saharan, though rarely a preponderant component.
Modern History Slavery in the New World by Europeans created a vast Diaspora of African ancestry people. Most of these come from West Africa and the Niger and Congo basins. Thus, Niger-Congo Genesis reached the New World."
Wikipedia: "The majority of DE male lines can be categorized as being in either Haplogroup D (Y-DNA), which likely originated
in Asia, the only
place where it has been found,
or haplogroup E, which is believed to have originated in East Africa or the Near East. The remainder are said to be
in the paragroup
DE*, confirmed cases of which are extremely rare. " Source is here
3/2016: The following paper and web site are not currently available, thus the reliability is questioned. From Geneancestry.com's library: “Y-DNA Haplogroup
E “Roots in Africa, Branches Beyond” The leading
hypothesis concerning the birth of Haplogroup E is that it originated in
Northeast Africa and is one of the first emigrations of modern humans out of
Africa to other parts of the world. However, its shared phylogeny with
Haplogroup D (see Figure 4), which is not in Africa and found in the Middle
East, may indicate that Haplogroup E first appeared in the
Middle East and the migration back to Africa is responsible for its prevalence
here. The TMRCA for Haplogroup E is 37 ±10kya and its
subclades diverged from ~28-2kya (see Figure 6 and 13). The simplest
(or most parsimonious) explanation is that it arose in Northeast Africa and
subsequently spread from this location to all parts of Africa, where it is
clearly the dominant Y haplogroup. The spread of Haplogroup E was also
part of an early colonization of the Middle East and later Europe (see Figures
7-9). As a result, Egypt served many times as a crossroads for the
ancestors in Haplogroup E.
The E1a1 (M44) subclade has been detected in the Fulbe population in Cameroon at 53%. 2-5% levels have been observed in Mali and Sudan, but no other countries or populations have been reported to carry the subclade. Check this site regularly for updates on this subclade as new information will be posted as studies become available.
2016: Several members had their Big Y "bam" files analyzed both by
ISOGG and at Yfull.com resulting in confirmed downstream haplogroup
snps. Yfull's tree is at this link FTDNA's tree - viewable at a member's login showing haplotree - now incorporates most of the tree.
YSEQ.com is now offering a
full test panel of our SNPs for $88. This is a complete E1a haplogroup snp
test for not only our E1a1 -M44 and the downstream SNPs - but also for
E1a2 and E1a3 (previousliy used identifications still seen at
1/30/2016: FTDNA has revised their definition of the very inclusive Haplogroup E. Their comment to E hap men is "Haplogroup E is an African lineage. It is currently believed that this haplogroup dispersed south from northern Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E is also the most common lineage among African Americans. It is an old, diverse haplogroup with many branches and is found distributed throughout Africa today. It is also found at a very low frequency in North Africa and the Middle East." Almost all he E1a1 project members clearly fit this low frequency.
9/2/2015 Revised ISOGG tentative tree (click to view)
ISOGG is now reporting the most recent subclades for E1a1 based on our member testing.
2/1/2015 E1a1 Phylogenetic Time tree based on STR Analysis
1/14/20115 A review of what to expect from a Big Y test at FTDNA written by Ray Banks of ISOGG
5/2014: Some of our members are Ashkenazi Jews. When did the Ashkenazi Jews arrive in Europe? (unsourced Yahoo answer)
E1a1, the former longhand term, is now defined by a number of SNPs within the M96, usually M44 or L632 or L634 or CTS3507. It is a sub-haplogroup M96, the former longhand term E1a. Membership in the FTDNA related group project is open to males who who wish to explore potential subclades of M44 within M96. They may be represented by a proxy. Typically they will show STR markers DYS391=9 and/or DYS392=12. (Contact dphelps61 AT alumni.wfu.edu for further information) A private E1a1 Google forum is available for members which may accept non-ydna tested men who plan to test for specific SNPs at Yseq.com at a reduced cost of $17.50 per SNP. Our project is listed at the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) YDNA haplogroup index page.
Webmaster: sailingdeac AT suddenlink.net or dphelps61 AT alumni.wfu.edu
Something to think about
"With the information provided by the map below, it's easy to believe that E1a1 migrated any time between 1000 and 1588 A. D., the earliest time representing the Norman takeover of the British Isles and the latter date representing the invasion of the Spanish Armada": Robert Hall
Something more to think about.
People of African origin have been part of English history since Roman times. In the last quarter of the 18th century England was home to a black population of between 10-15,000 people – mostly in major ports but also in market towns and villages across the country. Many worked as domestic servants both paid and unpaid – and it was often unclear whether they were free or not. http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/discover/people-and-places/the-slave-trade-and-abolition/sites-of-memory/black-lives-in-england/
Data from the Atlantic Slave Trade