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This site will present conjectures and  theories of more recent origins of the ancestors of Y-DNA E1a1 haplogroup men (a subclade of E) who immigrated to America and other countries in relatively recent times, not necessarily from anthropological times.  These theories are offered by highly interested persons using very scarce data due to the current lack of significant evidence in the scientific arena. Some ideas may be subjective and debatable and are offered here for your consideration.  A key motivation is that many of the E1a1 tested men have oral (only) histories of immigration from areas not associated with African origins.

Of particular
interest to some E1a1 men is whether E1a1 which moved into the British Isles and Eastern Europe was comprised of slaves or ordinary working class individuals,

1/30/2016:  FTDNA has revised their definition of the very inclusive Haplogroup E.  Their comment to E hap men is "Haplogroup E is an African lineage. It is currently believed that this haplogroup dispersed south from northern Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E is also the most common lineage among African Americans. It is an old, diverse haplogroup with many branches and is found distributed throughout Africa today. It is also found at a very low frequency in North Africa and the Middle East."  Almost all our project members clearly fit this low frequency.

7/12/2015:  E1a1 papers by Robert Hall  Removed as requested by author.

9/2/2015  Revised ISOGG tentative tree
ISOGG is now reporting the most recent subclades for E1a1 based on our member testing. 

Blue  indicates items with tentative tree positions. Black indicates validated. The Z number indicates the SNP test assigned number authorized by ISOGG. To view a diagram of the below see E1a1 Project Testing Results

• • •E1a1 M44 (21752644 G->C)                                          18.9 KY

• • • •E1a1a Z17699 (9415787 A->T)

• • • • •E1a1a1 Z17697 (7590044 T->C)                                  3.0 KY

• • • • E1a1a1a Z17696 (6955886 G->A)                Ashkenazi Jews of n.e. Europe

• • • • E1a1a2 Z36092 (2806891 T->C)                       Lebanese Druze    3.0 KY

• • • E1a1b Z17467  (18675604 C->T)                            5.0 KY

• • • • E1a1b1 Z20650 (2796559 G->A)                                English

• • • • E1a1b2 M4507 (8503110 C->T)                                    Mandenkas

• • • • E1a1b3 Z31503 (2803477 A->C)                                English
• • • •E1a1c Z31497 (8204437 T->C),                       Germans 5.0KY                   

1/14/20115  A review of what to expect from a Big Y test at FTDNA  written by Ray Banks of ISOGG

5/2014: Many of our members are Ashkenazi Jews. When did the Ashkenazi Jews arrive in Europe?  (unsourced Yahoo answer)

Origin of E1a and E1a1...

FTDNA: myOrigins Methodology Whitepaper  FTDNA’s observation on African origins and movements

"7.5  Niger-Congo Genesis

Stone Age  The earliest history of the Niger-Congo Genesis cluster is not well understood. Though of Africa, some have suggested that it contains part of an old migration into Africa from Eurasia. Others suggest that it shows traces of modern human interbreeding with an older African branch of the Homo lineage.  In the Stone Age, it was present only in the forests to the west of the Congo.

Middle Ages The medieval period brought Arab slavery, as millions were taken north. A substantial fraction of Arab ancestry is now Sub-Saharan, though rarely a preponderant component.

Modern History Slavery in the New World by Europeans created a vast Diaspora of African ancestry people. Most of these come from West Africa and the Niger and Congo basins. Thus, Niger-Congo Genesis reached the New World."

Wikipedia:   "The majority of DE male lines can be categorized as being in either Haplogroup D (Y-DNA), which likely originated in Asia, the only place where it has been found,[1] or haplogroup E, which is believed to have originated in East Africa[4][5] or the Near East.[6] The remainder are said to be in the paragroup DE*, confirmed cases of which are extremely rare. " Source is here

ISOGG:     "Y-DNA haplogroup E would appear to have arisen in Northeast Africa based on the concentration and variety of E subclades in that area today. But the fact that Haplogroup E is closely linked with Haplogroup D, which is not found in Africa, leaves open the possibility that E first arose in the Near or Middle East and was subsequently carried into Africa by a back migration. E1b1 is by far the lineage of greatest geographical distribution. It has two important sub-lineages, E1b1a and E1b1b. E1b1a is an African lineage that probably expanded from northern African to sub-Saharan and equatorial Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E1b1a is the most common lineage among African Americans. E1b1b1 probably evolved either in Northeast Africa or the Near East and then expanded to the west--both north and south of the Mediterranean Sea. Eb1b1 clusters are seen today in Western Europe, Southeast Europe, the Near East, Northeast Africa and Northwest Africa."  Source is here

Genetic Genealogy “Y-DNA Haplogroup E “Roots in Africa, Branches Beyond”  The leading hypothesis concerning the birth of Haplogroup E is that it originated in Northeast Africa and is one of the first emigrations of modern humans out of Africa to other parts of the world.  However, its shared phylogeny with Haplogroup D (see Figure 4), which is not in Africa and found in the Middle East, may indicate that Haplogroup E first appeared in the Middle East and the migration back to Africa is responsible for its prevalence here.  The TMRCA for Haplogroup E is 37 ±10kya and its subclades diverged from ~28-2kya (see Figure 6 and 13).  The simplest (or most parsimonious) explanation is that it arose in Northeast Africa and subsequently spread from this location to all parts of Africa, where it is clearly the dominant Y haplogroup.  The spread of Haplogroup E was also part of an early colonization of the Middle East and later Europe (see Figures 7-9).  As a result, Egypt served many times as a crossroads for the ancestors in Haplogroup E.  

The E1a1 (M44) subclade has been detected in the Fulbe population in Cameroon at 53%.  2-5% levels have been observed in Mali and Sudan, but no other countries or populations have been reported to carry the subclade.  Check this site regularly for updates on this subclade as new information will be posted as studies become available.


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Visitors since 12/2/2013

 E1a1, the former longhand term, is now defined by a number of SNPs within the M96, usually M44 or L632 or L634 or CTS3507. It is a sub-haplogroup M96, the former longhand term E1a. Membership in the FTDNA related group project requirements: Males who to who wish to explore their potential for the subclade of M44 within M96. They may be represented by a proxy. Typically they will show STR markers DYS391=9 and/or DYS392=12. (Contact dphelps61 AT alumni.wfu.edu for further information) A private E1a1 Google forum is available for members which may accept non-ydna tested men who plan to test for specific SNPs at Yseq.com .  Our project is listed at the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) YDNA haplogroup index page.
Webmaster:  sailingdeac AT suddenlink.net or dphelps61 AT alumni.wfu.edu

Video: Learn about Y-DNA Haplogroup E at the Genetic Genealogy Learning Center

African Gene Flow

The History of African Gene Flow into Southern Europeans, Levantines, and Jews

Southern Europeans and Middle Eastern populations are known to have inherited a small percentage of their genetic material from recent sub-Saharan African migrations, but there has been no estimate of the exact proportion of this gene flow, or of its date. Here, we apply genomic methods to show that the proportion of African ancestry in many Southern European groups is 1%–3%, in Middle Eastern groups is 4%–15%, and in Jewish groups is 3%–5%. To estimate the dates when the mixture occurred, we develop a novel method that estimates the size of chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry in individuals of mixed ancestry. We verify using computer simulations that the method produces useful estimates of population mixture dates up to 300 generations in the past. By applying the method to West Eurasians, we show that the dates in Southern Europeans are consistent with events during the Roman Empire and subsequent Arab migrations. The dates in the Jewish groups are older, consistent with events in classical or biblical times that may have occurred in the shared history of Jewish


The results of the craniometric analysis indicated that the majority of the York population had European origins, but that 11% of the Trentholme Driveand 12% of The Railway study samples were likely of  African decent...Although based on arelatively small sample of the overall population at York,this multidisciplinary approach made it possible toidentify incomers, both men and women, from acrossthe Empire. Evidence for possible second generationmigrants was also suggested. The results confirmthe presence of a heterogeneous population resident in York and highlight the diversity, rather than theuniformity, of the population in Roman Britain

Something to think about
"With the information provided by the map below, it's easy to believe that E1a1 migrated any time between 1000 and 1588 A. D., the earliest time representing the Norman takeover of the British Isles and the latter date representing the invasion of the Spanish Armada"  Robert Hall

Norman conques:  With the information provided by the map on the lower right, it's easy to believe that E1a1 migrated any time between 1000 and 1588 A. D., the earliest time representing the Norman takeover of the British Isles and the latter date representing the invasion of the Spanish Armada

Something more to think about.
People of African origin have been part of English history since Roman times. In the last quarter of the 18th century England was home to a black population of between 10-15,000 people – mostly in major ports but also in market towns and villages across the country. Many worked as domestic servants both paid and unpaid – and it was often unclear whether they were free or not.   http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/discover/people-and-places/the-slave-trade-and-abolition/sites-of-memory/black-lives-in-england/

Data from the Atlantic Slave Trade

Europe Mainland North America


  Northern U.S. Chesapeake Carolinas / Georgia Gulf states U.S.A. unspecified
1612-1625 85 0 0 0 0 0 85
1626-1650 0 0 100 0 0 0 100
1651-1675 1,281 1,116 2,854 0 0 0 5,251
1676-1700 1,615 1,710 9,234 0 0 133 12,692
1701-1725 158 1,338 29,975 5,470 2,520 0 39,461
1726-1750 3,968 11,536 53,915 35,674 4,695 852 110,639
1751-1775 1,090 10,656 31,048 75,527 1,590 0 119,912
1776-1800 23 260 474 26,726 2,856 371 30,710
1801-1825 0 338 68 66,777 9,923 507 77,613
1826-1850 0 0 0 0 91 0 91
1851-1860 0 0 0 303 110 0 413
Totals 8,220 26,955 127,668 210,477 21,785 1,862 396,967