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ATTENTION ALL KNOWN E1A1-M44 AFRICAN-AMERICAN OR AFRICAN MEN:  WE WILL PAY FOR A DEFINING M4507 SNP TEST.  PLEASE CONTACT US. SEE THE NEW SUBCLADES BELOW.

5/16/2015 Revised ISOGG Tree
ISOGG is now reporting the most recent subclades for E1a1 based on our member testing.  Please go to the ISOGG site and scroll down for the most current version.

Blue  indicates items with tentative tree positions.

• • •E1a1 M44 (21752644 G->C)                                       18.9 KY

• • • •E1a1a Z36090 (15913197 G->C)

   • • • • •E1a1a1 Z17697 (7590044 T->C)                   3.0 KY 

    • • • •  •E1a1a1a Z17696 (6955886 G->A     Ashkenazi Jews

  • • • • E1a1a2 Z36092 (2806891 T->C)          Lebanese Druze  3.0 KY

• • • •E1a1b Z17467  (18675604 C->T)                  5.0 KY

  • • • • E1a1b1 Z20650 (2796559 G->A)               English

  • • • • E1a1b2 M4507 (8503110 C->T)                 Mandinkas

  • • • • E1a1b3 Z31502 (2803477 A->C)                 English                 

• • • •E1a1c Z31497 (8204437 T->C),                     Germans     5.0 KY

1/14/20115  A review of what to expect from a Big Y test at FTDNA  written by Ray Banks of ISOGG

6/4/2014
For E1a1 related papers, numerical data, and insightful comments by Robert Hall of our project, visit the site http://exploringe1a1.wordpress.com/ 
Below are samples:
  • E1a1, A Very Small Haplogroup” – With a concentration on Britain, this paper focuses on African migration during the Roman occupation of the isles, our Jewish connection, slavery, the Marranos, the Normans, the Barbary Pirates, and the invasion of the Spanish Armada.  Particular reference is made to the observations of “Argiedude,” the original researcher of E1a1.
  • “E1a1, Its Jewish, Genetic, and Paternal Ties” – This paper considers the paternal relationship E1a1 has with the Dogon, who are heavily E1a and of Jewish influence, as well as the genetic association E1a1 has with
  • E1a1 By the Numbers” – This is an attempt to look at the population of E1a1, principally in Africa, the Middle East, and Europe.  The Americas are excluded, as are some other locales, since such information is either non-existent or would probably not add much to our knowledge of E1a1’s origin and initial migrations. 
  • the Jewish Beta Israel of Ethiopia, the Berber Mozabites of North Africa, and the Fulani of the
5/2014: Many of our members are Ashkenazi Jews. When did the Ashkenazi Jews arrive in Europe?  (unsourced Yahoo answer)



This site will present conjectures and  theories of more recent origins of the ancestors of Y-DNA E1a1 haplogroup men (a subclade of E) who immigrated to America and other countries in relatively recent times, not necessarily from anthropological times.  These theories are offered by highly interested persons using very scarce data due to the current lack of significant evidence in the scientific arena. Some ideas may be subjective and debatable and are offered here for your consideration.  A key motivation is that many of the E1a1 tested men have oral (only) histories of immigration from areas not associated with African origins.


Of particular interest to some E1a1 men is whether E1a1 which moved into the British Isles and Eastern Europe was comprised of slaves or ordinary working class individuals,

E1a1 developed outside Sub-Sahara, or back migrated ???

FTDNA:   FTDNA’s observation on African origins and movements  : found here  

"7.5  Niger-Congo Genesis

Stone Age  The earliest history of the Niger-Congo Genesis cluster is not well understood. Though of Africa, some have suggested that it contains part of an old migration into Africa from Eurasia. Others suggest that it shows traces of modern human interbreeding with an older African branch of the Homo lineage.  In the Stone Age, it was present only in the forests to the west of the Congo.

Middle Ages The medieval period brought Arab slavery, as millions were taken north. A substantial fraction of Arab ancestry is now Sub-Saharan, though rarely a preponderant component.

Modern History Slavery in the New World by Europeans created a vast Diaspora of African ancestry people. Most of these come from West Africa and the Niger and Congo basins. Thus, Niger-Congo Genesis reached the New World."


Wikipedia:   "The majority of DE male lines can be categorized as being in either Haplogroup D (Y-DNA), which likely originated in Asia, the only place where it has been found,[1] or haplogroup E, which is believed to have originated in East Africa[4][5] or the Near East.[6] The remainder are said to be in the paragroup DE*, confirmed cases of which are extremely rare. " Source is here



ISOGG:     "Y-DNA haplogroup E would appear to have arisen in Northeast Africa based on the concentration and variety of E subclades in that area today. But the fact that Haplogroup E is closely linked with Haplogroup D, which is not found in Africa, leaves open the possibility that E first arose in the Near or Middle East and was subsequently carried into Africa by a back migration.E1b1 is by far the lineage of greatest geographical distribution. It has two important sub-lineages, E1b1a and E1b1b. E1b1a is an African lineage that probably expanded from northern African to sub-Saharan and equatorial Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E1b1a is the most common lineage among African Americans. E1b1b1 probably evolved either in Northeast Africa or the Near East and then expanded to the west--both north and south of the Mediterranean Sea. Eb1b1 clusters are seen today in Western Europe, Southeast Europe, the Near East, Northeast Africa and Northwest Africa."  Source is here





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 If you have been tested at FTDNA as positive for E1a1, M44, L632, L634, please join the M44-E1a1 Project 
Also if you have YDNA
DYS391=9 and Dys392=12 you are  likely M44/E1a1, so please join us.
Contact the webmaster dkphelps AT suddenlink.net


Video: Learn about Y-DNA Haplogroup E at the Genetic Genealogy Learning Center

African Gene Flow

The History of African Gene Flow into Southern Europeans, Levantines, and Jews

Southern Europeans and Middle Eastern populations are known to have inherited a small percentage of their genetic material from recent sub-Saharan African migrations, but there has been no estimate of the exact proportion of this gene flow, or of its date. Here, we apply genomic methods to show that the proportion of African ancestry in many Southern European groups is 1%–3%, in Middle Eastern groups is 4%–15%, and in Jewish groups is 3%–5%. To estimate the dates when the mixture occurred, we develop a novel method that estimates the size of chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry in individuals of mixed ancestry. We verify using computer simulations that the method produces useful estimates of population mixture dates up to 300 generations in the past. By applying the method to West Eurasians, we show that the dates in Southern Europeans are consistent with events during the Roman Empire and subsequent Arab migrations. The dates in the Jewish groups are older, consistent with events in classical or biblical times that may have occurred in the shared history of Jewish
http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1001373

MIGRATION AND DIVERSITY IN ROMAN BRITAIN: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF IMMIGRANTS IN ROMAN YORK, ENGLAND.

The results of the craniometric analysis indicated that the majority of the York population had European origins, but that 11% of the Trentholme Driveand 12% of The Railway study samples were likely of  African decent...Although based on arelatively small sample of the overall population at York,this multidisciplinary approach made it possible toidentify incomers, both men and women, from acrossthe Empire. Evidence for possible second generationmigrants was also suggested. The results confirmthe presence of a heterogeneous population resident in York and highlight the diversity, rather than theuniformity, of the population in Roman Britain
https://www.academia.edu/215491/MIGRATION_AND_DIVERSITY_IN_ROMAN_BRITAIN_A_MULTIDISCIPLINARY_APPROACH_TO_THE_IDENTIFICATION_OF_IMMIGRANTS_IN_ROMAN_YORK_ENGLAND




Something to think about
"With the information provided by the map below, it's easy to believe that E1a1 migrated any time between 1000 and 1588 A. D., the earliest time representing the Norman takeover of the British Isles and the latter date representing the invasion of the Spanish Armada"  Robert Hall
(source
  http://www.paradoxplace.com/Perspectives/Sicily%20&%20S%20Italy/History/Normans%20in%20Italy.htm


Norman conques:  With the information provided by the map on the lower right, it's easy to believe that E1a1 migrated any time between 1000 and 1588 A. D., the earliest time representing the Norman takeover of the British Isles and the latter date representing the invasion of the Spanish Armada


Something more to think about.
People of African origin have been part of English history since Roman times. In the last quarter of the 18th century England was home to a black population of between 10-15,000 people – mostly in major ports but also in market towns and villages across the country. Many worked as domestic servants both paid and unpaid – and it was often unclear whether they were free or not.   http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/discover/people-and-places/the-slave-trade-and-abolition/sites-of-memory/black-lives-in-england/

Data from the Atlantic Slave Trade
 http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/assessm
ent/estimates.faces



Europe Mainland North America


Totals

  Northern U.S. Chesapeake Carolinas / Georgia Gulf states U.S.A. unspecified
1612-1625 85 0 0 0 0 0 85
1626-1650 0 0 100 0 0 0 100
1651-1675 1,281 1,116 2,854 0 0 0 5,251
1676-1700 1,615 1,710 9,234 0 0 133 12,692
1701-1725 158 1,338 29,975 5,470 2,520 0 39,461
1726-1750 3,968 11,536 53,915 35,674 4,695 852 110,639
1751-1775 1,090 10,656 31,048 75,527 1,590 0 119,912
1776-1800 23 260 474 26,726 2,856 371 30,710
1801-1825 0 338 68 66,777 9,923 507 77,613
1826-1850 0 0 0 0 91 0 91
1851-1860 0 0 0 303 110 0 413
Totals 8,220 26,955 127,668 210,477 21,785 1,862 396,967