This site will present conjectures and theories of more recent origins of the ancestors of Y-DNA E1a1 haplogroup men (a subclade of E) who immigrated to America and other countries in relatively recent times, not necessarily from anthropological times. These theories are offered by highly interested persons using very scarce data due to the current lack of significant evidence in the scientific arena. Some ideas may be subjective and debatable and are offered here for your consideration. A key motivation is that many of the E1a1 tested men have oral (only) histories of immigration from areas not associated with African origins.
Of particular interest to some E1a1 men is whether E1a1 which moved into the British Isles and Eastern Europe was comprised of slaves or ordinary working class individuals,
1/30/2016: FTDNA has revised their definition of the very inclusive Haplogroup E. Their comment to E hap men is "Haplogroup E is an African lineage. It is currently believed that this haplogroup dispersed south from northern Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E is also the most common lineage among African Americans. It is an old, diverse haplogroup with many branches and is found distributed throughout Africa today. It is also found at a very low frequency in North Africa and the Middle East." Almost all our project members clearly fit this low frequency.7/12/2015: E1a1 papers by Robert Hall Removed as requested by author.
9/2/2015 Revised ISOGG tentative tree
ISOGG is now reporting the most recent subclades for E1a1 based on our member testing.
Blue indicates items with tentative tree positions. Black indicates validated. The Z number indicates the SNP test assigned number authorized by ISOGG. To view a diagram of the below see E1a1 Project Testing Results
• • •E1a1 M44 (21752644 G->C) 18.9 KY
• • • •E1a1a Z17699 (9415787 A->T)
• • • • •E1a1a1 Z17697 (7590044 T->C) 3.0 KY
• • • • • •E1a1a1a Z17696 (6955886 G->A) Ashkenazi Jews of n.e. Europe
• • • • •E1a1a2 Z36092 (2806891 T->C) Lebanese Druze 3.0 KY
• • • •E1a1b Z17467 (18675604 C->T) 5.0 KY
• • • • •E1a1b1 Z20650 (2796559 G->A) English
• • • • •E1a1b2 M4507 (8503110 C->T) Mandenkas
• • • • •E1a1b3 Z31503 (2803477 A->C) English
5/1/2015 Terminal SNP Basics and Implications
2/1/2015 E1a1 Phylogenetic Time tree based on STR Analysis
1/14/20115 A review of what to expect from a Big Y test at FTDNA written by Ray Banks of ISOGG
5/2014: Many of our members are Ashkenazi Jews. When did the Ashkenazi Jews arrive in Europe? (unsourced Yahoo answer)
Origin of E1a and E1a1...
FTDNA: myOrigins Methodology Whitepaper FTDNA’s observation on African origins and movements
"7.5 Niger-Congo Genesis
Stone Age The earliest history of the Niger-Congo Genesis cluster is not well understood. Though of Africa, some have suggested that it contains part of an old migration into Africa from Eurasia. Others suggest that it shows traces of modern human interbreeding with an older African branch of the Homo lineage. In the Stone Age, it was present only in the forests to the west of the Congo.
Middle Ages The medieval period brought Arab slavery, as millions were taken north. A substantial fraction of Arab ancestry is now Sub-Saharan, though rarely a preponderant component.
Modern History Slavery in the New World by Europeans created a vast Diaspora of African ancestry people. Most of these come from West Africa and the Niger and Congo basins. Thus, Niger-Congo Genesis reached the New World."
Wikipedia: "The majority of DE male lines can be categorized as being in either Haplogroup D (Y-DNA), which likely originated
in Asia, the only
place where it has been found,
or haplogroup E, which is believed to have originated in East Africa or the Near East. The remainder are said to be
in the paragroup
DE*, confirmed cases of which are extremely rare. " Source is here
ISOGG: "Y-DNA haplogroup E would appear to have arisen in Northeast Africa based on the concentration and variety of E subclades in that area today. But the fact that Haplogroup E is closely linked with Haplogroup D, which is not found in Africa, leaves open the possibility that E first arose in the Near or Middle East and was subsequently carried into Africa by a back migration. E1b1 is by far the lineage of greatest geographical distribution. It has two important sub-lineages, E1b1a and E1b1b. E1b1a is an African lineage that probably expanded from northern African to sub-Saharan and equatorial Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E1b1a is the most common lineage among African Americans. E1b1b1 probably evolved either in Northeast Africa or the Near East and then expanded to the west--both north and south of the Mediterranean Sea. Eb1b1 clusters are seen today in Western Europe, Southeast Europe, the Near East, Northeast Africa and Northwest Africa." Source is here
Genetic Genealogy “Y-DNA Haplogroup
E “Roots in Africa, Branches Beyond” The leading
hypothesis concerning the birth of Haplogroup E is that it originated in
Northeast Africa and is one of the first emigrations of modern humans out of
Africa to other parts of the world. However, its shared phylogeny with
Haplogroup D (see Figure 4), which is not in Africa and found in the Middle
East, may indicate that Haplogroup E first appeared in the
Middle East and the migration back to Africa is responsible for its prevalence
here. The TMRCA for Haplogroup E is 37 ±10kya and its
subclades diverged from ~28-2kya (see Figure 6 and 13). The simplest
(or most parsimonious) explanation is that it arose in Northeast Africa and
subsequently spread from this location to all parts of Africa, where it is
clearly the dominant Y haplogroup. The spread of Haplogroup E was also
part of an early colonization of the Middle East and later Europe (see Figures
7-9). As a result, Egypt served many times as a crossroads for the
ancestors in Haplogroup E.
The E1a1 (M44) subclade has been detected in the Fulbe population in Cameroon at 53%. 2-5% levels have been observed in Mali and Sudan, but no other countries or populations have been reported to carry the subclade. Check this site regularly for updates on this subclade as new information will be posted as studies become available.
E1a1, the former longhand term, is now defined by a number of SNPs within the M96, usually M44 or L632 or L634 or CTS3507. It is a sub-haplogroup M96, the former longhand term E1a. Membership in the FTDNA related group project requirements: Males who to who wish to explore their potential for the subclade of M44 within M96. They may be represented by a proxy. Typically they will show STR markers DYS391=9 and/or DYS392=12. (Contact dphelps61 AT alumni.wfu.edu for further information) A private E1a1 Google forum is available for members which may accept non-ydna tested men who plan to test for specific SNPs at Yseq.com . Our project is listed at the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) YDNA haplogroup index page.
Webmaster: sailingdeac AT suddenlink.net or dphelps61 AT alumni.wfu.edu
Video: Learn about Y-DNA Haplogroup E at the Genetic Genealogy Learning Center
Something to think about
"With the information provided by the map below, it's easy to believe that E1a1 migrated any time between 1000 and 1588 A. D., the earliest time representing the Norman takeover of the British Isles and the latter date representing the invasion of the Spanish Armada" Robert Hall
Something more to think about.
People of African origin have been part of English history since Roman times. In the last quarter of the 18th century England was home to a black population of between 10-15,000 people – mostly in major ports but also in market towns and villages across the country. Many worked as domestic servants both paid and unpaid – and it was often unclear whether they were free or not. http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/discover/people-and-places/the-slave-trade-and-abolition/sites-of-memory/black-lives-in-england/
Data from the Atlantic Slave Trade