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E1a1, the former longhand term, is now defined by a number of SNPs within the M96, usually M44 . It is a sub-haplogroup M96, the former longhand term E1a. Membership in the FTDNA related group project is open to males who who wish to explore potential subclades of M44 within M96. They may be represented by a proxy. Typically they will show STR markers DYS391=9 and/or DYS392=12. (Contact dphelps61 AT alumni.wfu.edu for further information) A private E1a1 Google forum is available for members which may accept non-ydna tested men who plan to test for specific SNPs. Our project is listed at the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) YDNA haplogroup index page.

This site will present theories of the origins of the ancestors of Y-DNA E1a1 M44 haplogroup men (a subclade of E). SNP research in 2015 and 2016 by both ISOGG and Yfull.com have given us major advances. One motivation of our members is that many of the E1a1 tested men have oral (only) histories of immigration from areas not associated with sub-Saharan African origin. While E1a2 appears to encompass Sub-Saharan origins, E1a1 testing now indicates one subgroup from that area. A larger E1a1 subgroup is identified by origins in central and eastern Europe, often Jewish .

Of particular interest to some E1a1 men is whether E1a1, which moved into the British Isles and Eastern Europe, was comprised of slaves or ordinary working class individuals,

2/9/2018 "The Two Main Divisions of E1a1 (M44), With an Emphasis on North Africa." by Robert Hall. Updated version HERE (7/21/2018)

2/8/2018 Journal of Man discussoin audio HERE

10/2017 Big Changes to YFull By Linda Jonas Link to HERE


9/19/2017 "Genetic Origins of Ashkenazi Jews". By Harry Otrer, MD. This article is based upon a presentation given at the Orlando IAJGS conference in July 2017. See on the left index under Origins: Jewish Origins.

8/2017 "The Fulani of Yarrowsburg [Md] Area" by Robert E. Hall. (View on index to left)

Overview: " Early in the beginning of our research about our haplogroup, a small study showed that the Fulani of Africa carried a significant amount of E1a1. However, after some discussion, we dismissed this as an anomaly. As it turned out, it was but the tip of the iceberg. Since those days, research has shown that the nomadic pastoral Fulani carry E1a1 at the rate of 10%. This is the largest of any group. It hardly shows up anywhere else. It is now clear that for the last 2,000 years E1a1 has been scattered across Africa by the Fulani who likely picked it up in northeast Africa or the Levant.

A couple of the interesting features of the Fulani are their Caucasian features, which are still visible in many, and their association with Judaism. The paper I have written deals with some of this, but primarily their entrance into colonial America and the impression some of them have made because of their religion and literacy. I hope you will find the paper helpful."

8/2017-2019 Five major studies on origins of E1a1/E-M44 including theories on the Fulanis of Africa By Robert Hall See the index on the left

8/2017 Thoughts on African Relatedness by Doug Phelps (Comment on the papers by Robert Hall (See the index on the to left)

2016 E-M44 origin comment: A project member reviews A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History. Nickolas Wade Wade talks about humanity as five races and he mentions such facts as these: that the Palestinians, the Somalis, and Ethiopians are admixtures of the African and Caucasian races. But, while I think that's interesting, it's beside the point I want to make. The thing that caught my attention is that he defines African as sub-Saharan and says that North Africa is largely Caucasian, which I think is important for E1a1, the reason being that most dna experts believe E1a1 had a Sub-Saharan origin and began as an African haplogroup, which I don't think is accurate. Most of our subclades, and really, maybe all of them, started in North Africa. So, whether we relate ourselves to the Dogon or the Fulani (and I think we are related to both), we are basically a North African haplogroup because both these groups were North African at the time our haplogroup was formed, and the Fulani clearly have a Caucasian past.

July, 2016 Of the 66 members in the M44 E1a1 project, one African American tested using FTDNA's Big Y SNP test, with analysis at Yfull.com He has been confirmed to be in a new subclade or subgroup of E-Z20646 See at this site He matched a Mandenka African from the HGDP project. Only one other African American is in the project and is now testing for that SNP. 9/2016: Two members have this SNP. We encourage other African Americans who suspect they are M44 to join us and test.

June, 2016 Rare E1a1 found in 3 British Brays From the Bray ydna project The Bray surname featured in Y-DNA research by geneticists Dr Turi E. King and Professor Mark A. Jobling, of the University of Leicester, entitled “Founders, Drift, and Infidelity: The Relationship between Y Chromosome Diversity and Patrilineal Surnames” , which was published in 2009 in Molecular Biology and Evolution (Mol Biol Evol. 2009 May; 26(5): 1093–1102). Although Dr King’s principal area of research is Y-DNA, she is best known for her analysis of mitochondrial DNA from the exhumed body identified by University of Leicester as that of King Richard III. Professor Jobling’s principal area of research is Y-DNA. They analysed 1678 Y-DNA samples within 40 British surnames; the latter were chosen to represent a wide range of surname type and frequency. They concluded that sharing a surname significantly elevates the probability of sharing a Y-chromosomal haplogroup, and that rarer surnames show higher degrees of shared ancestry. The study also included a control group of 110 men who all had different surnames from each other and from the 40 surname-specific groups. The total number of bearers of the Bray surname (including surname variants) in the 1996 UK electoral register was documented as 12195, making Bray the third most common surname (after Smith and King) of the 40 surnames studied in this research. 29 of the 1678 Y-DNA surname-specific samples were collected from male Brays, with fewer samples from Brays than from most of the other surnames studied. Of the 29 Bray samples, 52% were haplogroup R1b1, 28% were haplogroup I, 3% were haplogroup R1a, 3% were haplogroup R1*, 3% were haplogroup J2, and, unusually, 10% were haplogroup E1a. Haplogroup E1a is very rare, and none of the other surname-specific or control samples belonged to this haplogroup.

Thus the potential for a large number of E1a1 Brays in the UK seems very possible. The study was first discovered by member Robert E. Hall.e

April, 2016 Based on the Big Y SNP tests of our members and the analysis of ISOGG and Yfull.com we encourage everyone to look at YFULL.COM's revised E1a section of their E tree HERE . Be sure to view the aging provided there for the common ancestors (or subgroups). There are new subgroups offered in the E1a, especially in our E1a1-M44 portion of the tree - apparently because of their access to the HGDP project and the Sardinian project. As they provide updates to the tree about monthly we can expect more of this. The aging presented in their tree is now showing the huge time separation of our M44 (E1a1) with what was previously called E1a2 and 3 at the E1a project. Noteworthy is that the common ancestor of our E1a1 subgroup with E1a2 is said to be 19100 years! At one time it was thought we were rather recently connected.

Using as a guide the only current tree that continues to equate the former term with the new SNPs, the ISOGG tree, below is the YFULL tree with the old subgroup terms added.

E1: P147

E1a: M132 and a host of equivalents. Time to Most Recent Common ancestor: 19100 years

E1a1: M44 and a host of equivalents

E1a2: CTS10713/Z958, CTS230 and a host of equivalents

E1b: P177/PF1939 and a host of equivalents

FTDNA’s current tree is the same except in some cases they use equivalent SNPs. They also show a third subgroup of E1a with the snp L636 That would be the former E1a3. The other two organizations have not chosen to do so at this time.

Origins of E1a and E1a1...

Recommended reports, by Robert Hall, member of the M44 E1a1 Project

Comment by member R. Hall, 4/2016: "Intense research over a long period has provided lots of information. I now am convinced, for example, that E1a1 started out either in north Africa or just beyond. And I am thoroughly convinced that E1a1 developed basically among the Hebrews as it became associated with that population. At that point, E1a1 moved northward following the migrations of the Hebrews and the movements of the Roman Empire, but also back into Africa, where it was carried by the light-skinned Fulani nomads whose background is Jewish and whose origin is likely Persian or Middle Eastern. Over time, the wanderings of these nomads sprinkled E1a1 in minute portions here and there, but none of these portions has equaled the 10% that remains among the Fulani.

Mali is sometimes cited as the location of African E1a1. But that is not the case at all. Mali is the home of E1a, not E1a1. I have it on the authority and research of two ladies who did the study of the E1a Dogon. E1a1 became separated from E1a long ago. E1a, with few exceptions, developed strictly African characteristics. E1a1 took on the characteristics of their more northern neighbors, as well as the particular population in which it lived. Today, it seems that we carriers of E1a1 are either Jewish, African remnants from Africa, or ancient residue in European-based populations."

FTDNA: myOrigins Methodology Whitepaper FTDNA’s observation on African origins and movements

"7.5 Niger-Congo Genesis

Stone Age The earliest history of the Niger-Congo Genesis cluster is not well understood. Though of Africa, some have suggested that it contains part of an old migration into Africa from Eurasia. Others suggest that it shows traces of modern human interbreeding with an older African branch of the Homo lineage. In the Stone Age, it was present only in the forests to the west of the Congo.

Middle Ages The medieval period brought Arab slavery, as millions were taken north. A substantial fraction of Arab ancestry is now Sub-Saharan, though rarely a preponderant component.

Modern History Slavery in the New World by Europeans created a vast Diaspora of African ancestry people. Most of these come from West Africa and the Niger and Congo basins. Thus, Niger-Congo Genesis reached the New World."

Wikipedia: "The majority of DE male lines can be categorized as being in either Haplogroup D (Y-DNA), which likely originated in Asia, the only place where it has been found,[1] or haplogroup E, which is believed to have originated in East Africa[4][5] or the Near East.[6] The remainder are said to be in the paragroup DE*, confirmed cases of which are extremely rare. " Source is here

ISOGG: "Y-DNA haplogroup E would appear to have arisen in Northeast Africa based on the concentration and variety of E subclades in that area today. But the fact that Haplogroup E is closely linked with Haplogroup D, which is not found in Africa, leaves open the possibility that E first arose in the Near or Middle East and was subsequently carried into Africa by a back migration. E1b1 is by far the lineage of greatest geographical distribution. It has two important sub-lineages, E1b1a and E1b1b. E1b1a is an African lineage that probably expanded from northern African to sub-Saharan and equatorial Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E1b1a is the most common lineage among African Americans. E1b1b1 probably evolved either in Northeast Africa or the Near East and then expanded to the west--both north and south of the Mediterranean Sea. Eb1b1 clusters are seen today in Western Europe, Southeast Europe, the Near East, Northeast Africa and Northwest Africa." Source is here

3/2016: The following paper and web site are not currently available, thus the reliability is questioned. From Geneancestry.com's library: Y-DNA Haplogroup E “Roots in Africa, Branches Beyond” The leading hypothesis concerning the birth of Haplogroup E is that it originated in Northeast Africa and is one of the first emigrations of modern humans out of Africa to other parts of the world. However, its shared phylogeny with Haplogroup D (see Figure 4), which is not in Africa and found in the Middle East, may indicate that Haplogroup E first appeared in the Middle East and the migration back to Africa is responsible for its prevalence here. The TMRCA for Haplogroup E is 37 ±10kya and its subclades diverged from ~28-2kya (see Figure 6 and 13). The simplest (or most parsimonious) explanation is that it arose in Northeast Africa and subsequently spread from this location to all parts of Africa, where it is clearly the dominant Y haplogroup. The spread of Haplogroup E was also part of an early colonization of the Middle East and later Europe (see Figures 7-9). As a result, Egypt served many times as a crossroads for the ancestors in Haplogroup E.

The E1a1 (M44) subclade has been detected in the Fulbe population in Cameroon at 53%. 2-5% levels have been observed in Mali and Sudan, but no other countries or populations have been reported to carry the subclade. Check this site regularly for updates on this subclade as new information will be posted as studies become available.

What about testing the female mtDNA (mitochondrial dna) and compare for example against the "Cheddar man" uncovered in England.

I’ll try to answer. As you know, our surname projects research strictly father to son lineage back through the ages, beginning with paternal genealogy, and then even the movements many 1000s of years ago using: YDNA, father to son only. In addition, scientists have researched the ancient movements of ydna men using ydna (grouping as haplogroups). Thus a male can connect to those ancient movements (origins) by a group of many men in the past and of today. It would be extremely unlikely to find an ancient skeleton man and have his specific ydna match ours well, considering that these dna can mutate slightly or greatly .

On the other hand, using mtDNA we see a totally different haplogroup (female) because it is mother to her mother to her mother. And thus mtdna connections to ancient movements (like the mtdna in a Cheddar man) involved the female haplogroup movements (origins)- probably(?) not the same as the male movements .

So….to research ancient origins using one'smtdna (the cheddar man) we cant use Ydna. You use mtDNA but that means a completely different test and any related lineage (genealogy) – your mother’s mother, etc lineage, not your father’s father. So how likely is it that the ancient maternal ancestor was in the same location as the ancient paternal ancestor? I really do not know.. It has been said that women actually moved around more than men.

Beyond this. one can test for Autosomal dna (which is neither ydna or mtdna) and see one’s origins based on ALL his ancestors as far back as until it is “washed out” A single African, for example, can conceivably be represented at a tiny, tiny percentage.

Doug Phelps

The History of African Gene Flow into Southern Europeans, Levantines, and Jews

Southern Europeans and Middle Eastern populations are known to have inherited a small percentage of their genetic material from recent sub-Saharan African migrations, but there has been no estimate of the exact proportion of this gene flow, or of its date. Here, we apply genomic methods to show that the proportion of African ancestry in many Southern European groups is 1%–3%, in Middle Eastern groups is 4%–15%, and in Jewish groups is 3%–5%. To estimate the dates when the mixture occurred, we develop a novel method that estimates the size of chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry in individuals of mixed ancestry. We verify using computer simulations that the method produces useful estimates of population mixture dates up to 300 generations in the past. By applying the method to West Eurasians, we show that the dates in Southern Europeans are consistent with events during the Roman Empire and subsequent Arab migrations. The dates in the Jewish groups are older, consistent with events in classical or biblical times that may have occurred in the shared history of Jewish



The results of the craniometric analysis indicated that the majority of the York population had European origins, but that 11% of the Trentholme Driveand 12% of The Railway study samples were likely of African decent...Although based on arelatively small sample of the overall population at York,this multidisciplinary approach made it possible toidentify incomers, both men and women, from acrossthe Empire. Evidence for possible second generationmigrants was also suggested. The results confirmthe presence of a heterogeneous population resident in York and highlight the diversity, rather than theuniformity, of the population in Roman Britain


Something to think about

"With the information provided by the map below, it's easy to believe that E1a1 migrated any time between 1000 and 1588 A. D., the earliest time representing the Norman takeover of the British Isles and the latter date representing the invasion of the Spanish Armada": Robert Hall

(source http://www.paradoxplace.com/Perspectives/Sicily%20&%20S%20Italy/History/Normans%20in%20Italy.htm

Norman conques:  With the information provided by the map on the lower right, it's easy to believe that E1a1 migrated any time between 1000 and 1588 A. D., the earliest time representing the Norman takeover of the British Isles and the latter date representing the invasion of the Spanish Armada

Something more to think about.

People of African origin have been part of English history since Roman times. In the last quarter of the 18th century England was home to a black population of between 10-15,000 people – mostly in major ports but also in market towns and villages across the country. Many worked as domestic servants both paid and unpaid – and it was often unclear whether they were free or not. http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/discover/people-and-places/the-slave-trade-and-abolition/sites-of-memory/black-lives-in-england/

Data from the Atlantic Slave Trade



Spring 2016: Several members had their Big Y "bam" files analyzed both by ISOGG and at Yfull.com resulting in confirmed downstream haplogroup snps. Yfull's tree is at this link FTDNA's tree - viewable at a member's login showing haplotree - now incorporates most of the tree.

YSEQ.com is now offering a full test panel of our SNPs for $88. This is a complete E1a haplogroup snp test for not only our E1a1 -M44 and the downstream SNPs - but also for E1a2 and E1a3 (previousliy used identifications still seen at ISOGG)

The snps for M44 are those found in the trees at ISOGG, FTDNA (more or less) and to some extent at YFULL.com .At present i am not aware of an E1a panel test elsewhere although I requested on from FTDNA months ago. I doubt they will respond.. Alternatively, individual SNP tests are $39 at FTDNA and $17.50 at Yseq. Thus YSEQ offers a low cost way for those who are uncertain of which SNPs to test. The disadvantages of using Yseq are the results will not be shown on the official FTDNA pages/records (but i will continue to reflect the results in our project as best I can) - and a scrub must be sent to Germany.

The panel name at YSEQ is E1a-M132 Panel and is linked to at http://www.yseq.net/product_info.php?products_id=24215 I recommend you link and read this interesting approach.


Our current haplogroup SNPs are the following... with the Simms African American SNP to be added later:














1/30/2016: FTDNA has revised their definition of the very inclusive Haplogroup E. Their comment to E hap men is "Haplogroup E is an African lineage. It is currently believed that this haplogroup dispersed south from northern Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E is also the most common lineage among African Americans. It is an old, diverse haplogroup with many branches and is found distributed throughout Africa today. It is also found at a very low frequency in North Africa and the Middle East." Almost all he E1a1 project members clearly fit this low frequency.

9/2/2015 Revised ISOGG tentative tree (click to view)

ISOGG is now reporting the most recent subclades for E1a1 based on our member testing.

2/1/2015 E1a1 Phylogenetic Time tree based on STR Analysis

1/14/20115 A review of what to expect from a Big Y test at FTDNA written by Ray Banks of ISOGG

5/2014: Some of our members are Ashkenazi Jews. When did the Ashkenazi Jews arrive in Europe? (unsourced Yahoo answer)

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