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 Site is continually being revised

4/13/2015 Revised ISOGG Tree
ISOGG is now reporting the most recent subclades for E1a1 based on our member testing. Below is as of 4/13/2015.  Please go to the ISOGG site and scroll down for the most current version.

Blue  indicates items with tentative tree positions.  The surnames are the initial test results

• • •E1a1 M44 (21752644 G->C)                                                                                          18.9 KY

• • • •E1a1a Z17697 (7590044 T->C)                                                                               5.0 KY                                          • • • •E1a1a1 Z17696 (6955886 G->A)                  Ashkenazis of n.e. Europe

• • • •E1a1b Z17467  (18675604 C->T)                                 5.0 KY

        • • • • E1a1b1 Z20650 (2796559 G->A)                        English

        • • • • E1a1b2 M4507 (8503110 C->T)                    Mandenkas

        • • • • E1a1b3 Z31502 (2803477 A->C)                             English  [Phelps]                               

• • • •E1a1c Z31497 (8204437 T->C),                          Germans      [Rhein]            5.0 KY

1/14/20115  A review of what to expect from a Big Y test at FTDNA  written by Ray Banks of ISOGG

12/2014:  "Origins of all ancestors of our e1a1 members."   FTDNA maps showing origins using autosomal data

The Future of Genetic Genealogy” Greenspan, 6/2014,Southern Cal Genealogy Society conference

6/4/2014For E1a1 related papers, numerical data, and insightful comments by Robert Hall of our project, visit the site http://exploringe1a1.wordpress.com/  Below are samples:
  • E1a1, A Very Small Haplogroup” – With a concentration on Britain, this paper focuses on African migration during the Roman occupation of the isles, our Jewish connection, slavery, the Marranos, the Normans, the Barbary Pirates, and the invasion of the Spanish Armada.  Particular reference is made to the observations of “Argiedude,” the original researcher of E1a1.
  • “E1a1, Its Jewish, Genetic, and Paternal Ties” – This paper considers the paternal relationship E1a1 has with the Dogon, who are heavily E1a and of Jewish influence, as well as the genetic association E1a1 has with
  • E1a1 By the Numbers” – This is an attempt to look at the population of E1a1, principally in Africa, the Middle East, and Europe.  The Americas are excluded, as are some other locales, since such information is either non-existent or would probably not add much to our knowledge of E1a1’s origin and initial migrations. 
  • the Jewish Beta Israel of Ethiopia, the Berber Mozabites of North Africa, and the Fulani of the
5/2014: Many of our members are Ashkenazi Jews. When did the Ashkenazi Jews arrive in Europe?  (unsourced Yahoo answer)

9/27/2013  Site now available by mobile phones

This site will present conjectures and  theories of more recent origins of the ancestors of Y-DNA E1a1 haplogroup men (a subclade of E) who immigrated to America and other countries in relatively recent times, not necessarily from anthropological times.  These theories are offered by highly interested persons using very scarce data due to the current lack of significant evidence in the scientific arena. Some ideas may be subjective and debatable and are offered here for your consideration.  A key motivation is that many of the E1a1 tested men have oral (only) histories of immigration from areas not associated with African origins. Of several questions of concern two are of special interest to some: whether E1a1 that moved into the British Isles and Eastern Europe was comprised of slaves or ordinary working class individuals, and the TMRCA between various groups comprising E1a1.

E1a1 men are a subclade of E and are expected to have tested positive for marker M44 in deep clade SNP testing, but negative for P110 (which would be E1a2)  Some have observed that two standard STR markers may indicate E1a1: DYS391=9 and DYS392 = 12.  This potential will be presented here also.

"Haplogroup E is one of the two branches of the mega-haplogroup DE. It originated approximately 50,000 years ago. Scientists believe that it either arose in Africa or represents a back migration. It has been linked to the Neolithic expansion of peoples into Southern Europe. Over sixty subclades of E have been discovered."  Source is here   

 Y-DNA Haplogroup E and its Sub-haplogroupswith associated SNP indicators (source here is being revised)
New SNP equivalents found in four E1a1 men  See below

The following is at ISOGG  11/2014

E    M96/PF1823  (and many equivalents)
•    E1   P147/PF1938   (and many equivalents)
•   •    E1a    M132  (and many equivalents)
     •    •   E1a1   M44   (and many equivalents)

               E1a2*   CTS10713/Z958   (and many equivalents)  

               E1a3   L636

FTDNA Haplotree differs with the following  11/2014

 Y-DNA haplogroup E would appear to have arisen in Northeast Africa based on the concentration and variety of E subclades in that area today. But the fact that Haplogroup E is closely linked with Haplogroup D, which is not found in Africa, leaves open the possibility that E first arose in the Near or Middle East and was subsequently carried into Africa by a back migration.E1b1 is by far the lineage of greatest geographical distribution. It has two important sub-lineages, E1b1a and E1b1b. E1b1a is an African lineage that probably expanded from northern African to sub-Saharan and equatorial Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E1b1a is the most common lineage among African Americans. E1b1b1 probably evolved either in Northeast Africa or the Near East and then expanded to the west--both north and south of the Mediterranean Sea. Eb1b1 clusters are seen today in Western Europe, Southeast Europe, the Near East, Northeast Africa and Northwest Africa. Source is here 

Added 12/7/2010 Peter Underhill, 23andMe Y chromosome expert: "E1a1 is an E1-M33 subclade defined by M44. We ascertained M44 on a couple of the frequent M33 derived Dogon from Mali. I don't think there is much M44 data, but M33 has been reported in Calabria Italy as well as Trento. Some M33 (M44 status unknown) also reported in Iberia and Cape Verde islands. Given that M33 is a rather deep branch in haplogroup E, any M33 outside of Africa might indeed reflect recent gene flow.
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Visitors since 12/2/2013

 If you have been tested at FTDNA as positive for E1a1, M44, L632, L634, please join the M44-E1a1 Project 
Also if you have YDNA
DYS391=9 and Dys392=12 you are  likely M44/E1a1, so please join us.
Contact the webmaster dkphelps AT suddenlink.net

Video: Learn about Y-DNA Haplogroup E at the Genetic Genealogy Learning Center

Concerns of applying E or E1a comment to the E1a1 subclade

Since FTDNA is typically used for YDNA testing, their haplogroups comments are informative but very general.  At FTDNA, men who do not deep clade-E test, but would be E1a1 if tested, are given the predicted haplogroup E.  FTDNA explains the  E haplogroup as "This haplogroup originates in Africa and is nearly completely restricted to African populations".  Men who are tested to be E1a or the breakout of E1a1 will be told  "This haplogroup is restricted to Africa where it occurs in intermediate frequencies.  It is less common than its brother lineage E1b1a"   FTDNA reports that E1b , another breakout of E, is the usual haplogroup of current day African-Americans. Our understanding of E1a1 continues to evolve, perhaps a bit beyond FTDNA.   At present it seems the limited publicly available comment on E1a1 tends to combine it with three other breakouts of  E1a (E1a2, E1a3, E1a4).  

As of 2014, FTDNA renamed its haplogroups.  E1a1 is now M44.  FTDNA entirely removed its description above.

Something to think about
"With the information provided by the map below, it's easy to believe that E1a1 migrated any time between 1000 and 1588 A. D., the earliest time representing the Norman takeover of the British Isles and the latter date representing the invasion of the Spanish Armada"  Robert Hall

Norman conques:  With the information provided by the map on the lower right, it's easy to believe that E1a1 migrated any time between 1000 and 1588 A. D., the earliest time representing the Norman takeover of the British Isles and the latter date representing the invasion of the Spanish Armada

Something more to think about.
People of African origin have been part of English history since Roman times. In the last quarter of the 18th century England was home to a black population of between 10-15,000 people – mostly in major ports but also in market towns and villages across the country. Many worked as domestic servants both paid and unpaid – and it was often unclear whether they were free or not.   http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/discover/people-and-places/the-slave-trade-and-abolition/sites-of-memory/black-lives-in-england/

Data from the Atlantic Slave Trade

Europe Mainland North America


  Northern U.S. Chesapeake Carolinas / Georgia Gulf states U.S.A. unspecified
1612-1625 85 0 0 0 0 0 85
1626-1650 0 0 100 0 0 0 100
1651-1675 1,281 1,116 2,854 0 0 0 5,251
1676-1700 1,615 1,710 9,234 0 0 133 12,692
1701-1725 158 1,338 29,975 5,470 2,520 0 39,461
1726-1750 3,968 11,536 53,915 35,674 4,695 852 110,639
1751-1775 1,090 10,656 31,048 75,527 1,590 0 119,912
1776-1800 23 260 474 26,726 2,856 371 30,710
1801-1825 0 338 68 66,777 9,923 507 77,613
1826-1850 0 0 0 0 91 0 91
1851-1860 0 0 0 303 110 0 413
Totals 8,220 26,955 127,668 210,477 21,785 1,862 396,967