Important early blog post by Ted Pollak on why it's important to look at total cost of ownership (not just purchase price).

Nice online "Workshop" by on a stepwise approach to reducing gaming PC energy use (hardware + software tweaks).

Benchmark tests showing how motherboard power varies by model (for identical CPU).

EnergyStar PCs (but not gaming PCs).

EnergyStar displays.


Beck, N., P. May-Ostendorp, C. Calwell, B. Vairamohan, and T. Geist. 2012. “How Low Can You Go? A White Paper on Cutting Edge Efficiency in Commercial Desktop Computers.” Prepared for the California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research Program. CEC 500-2012-065, 29pp.

Brightman, J. 2013. “Console Declines Delay $100 Billion Mark for Industry to 2019 - DFC.” (accessed January 22, 2015).

Brocklehurst, F. and J. Wood. 2014. “Energy Consumption of Gaming Computers in the US: Relative to the ENERGY STAR Version 6 Benchmark.” CLASP. 29pp.

Business Wire. 2012. “PS Gaming Hardware Market to hit $23.6 Billion in 2012 says Jon Peddie Research.” (accessed November 3, 2014)

Calwell, C. and P. Ostendorp. 2005. “80 Plus: A Strategy for Reducing the Inherent Environmental Impacts of Computers.” IEEE International Symposium.

Crijns, K. 2014. “Workshop: Making Your PC as Energy Efficient as Possible.” (accessed December 15, 2014)

Cutress, I. 2014.”ASRock Z97 OC Formula Motherboard Review: Less Lamborghini, More Yellow.” “ (accessed December 14, 2014).

Delforge, P and N. Horowitz. 2014. “The Latest-Generation Video Game Consoles.” Natural Resources Defense Council Issue Paper IP:14-04-B. 19pp.

Desroches, L-B., J. B. Greenblatt, S. Pratt, H. Willem, E. S. Claybaugh, B. Beraki, M. Nagaraju, S. K. Price, S. J. Young, S. M. Donovan, and M. Goaneshalingam. 2015."Video Game Console Usage and US National Energy Consumption: Results from a Field-metering Study." Energy Efficiency 8(3):509-526.

Ecova. 2012. “Desktop Graphics Cards Idle Power Measurement: Test Approach and Component Selection Criteria”, Durango, CO, 22pp.

ESA. 2014. “Essential Facts About The Computer and Video Game Industry.” Entertainment Software Association, 16pp.

Forrester Research. 2013. “World Tablet Adoption Forecast, 2012 to 2017 (Global).” (accessed December 10, 2014)

HardwareCanucks. 2014. “Quad-Fire R9 295X2 Custom Watercooling Rig (ExtravaLANza 2014)” (accessed December 30, 2014)

International Energy Agency. 2009. “Gadgets and Gigawatts: Policies for Energy Efficient Electronics.” (accessed November 20, 2014)

JPR. 2014a. “GPU Shipments (MarketWatch) Q2 2014”. Jon Peddie Research (accessed November 10, 2014).

JPR. 2014b. Jon Peddie Market News. (accessed November 20, 2014).

Koomey, J.G. 2012. “The Economics of Green DRAM in Servers.” Analytics Press, 27pp.

Koomey, J.G. 2011. S. Berard, M. Sanchez, and H. Wong. “Implications of Historical Trends in The Electrical Efficiency of Computing.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 33(3):46-54 (accessed February 21, 2015).

Mills, E., G. Shamshoian, M. Blazek, P. Naughton, R.S. Seese, W. Tschudi, and D. Sartor. 2007. "The Business Case for Energy Management in High-Tech Industries." Energy Efficiency, 1(1):5-20.

PC Gaming Alliance. 2013. “PCGA Pinnacle Report.” (accessed November 15, 2014)

Open Gaming Alliance. 2015. (accessed February 20, 2015)

Peddie, J. 2014. Private communication, December 15.

Pollak, T. 2010. “Calculating the Total Cost of Ownership.” Jon Peddie Research (accessed December 15, 2014)

Ragaza, L.A. 2013. “The 10 Best Gaming Desktops.” PC Magazine, October 22.,2817,2393552,00.asp (accessed November 7, 2014).

Short, J.E. 2013. “How Much Media: Report on American Consumers”, Institute for Communications Technology Management, Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California, 52pp. (accessed October 15, 2014)

Urban, B., V. Shmakova, B. Lim, and K. Roth. 2014. “Energy Consumption of Consumer Electronics in U.S. Homes in 2013.” Fraunhofer USA, 158pp.

USEPA. 2013. “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers: Eligibility Criteria Version 6.0, Rev. Oct-2013.”

USEAP. 2010. “The Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID): 2010 Data.” [accessed January 17, 2015]

Webb, A., K. Mayers, C. France, and J. Koomey. 2013. “Estimating the Energy Use of High Definition Games Consoles.” Energy Policy 61:1412-1421.