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Learning Beliefs

    In contemporary society, innovation is key to success, and an education should foster the necessary skills for innovation. Innovation can be described as the process by which new ideas are created. Being that "innovation" refers to either a process or idea or product that does not exist yet, it cannot be taught by simply memorizing facts or steps for procedures. Essentially, one cannot learn innovation in of itself. However, one can learn how to be innovative by practicing the necessary skills required for creating innovations. Such skills are outline by the Common Core, which promotes higher order thinking abilities in order to create solutions for authentic problems. 
    Evaluation, analysis and creation are among the skills which the Common Core places most emphasis. Evaluative and analytical abilities are necessary for creation, and thus, innovation. However, of the skills mentioned, the former two refer to abstract processes; analysis and evaluation take place in the mind, whereas creation is a resulting physical manifestation of those processes. As such, it is important for the resulting creation to have some type of relevance in a variety of real-world settings, and technology can provide teachers and students with this. This is indicative of constructivist and constructionist teaching philosophies. Traditionally, education has emphasized the memorization and recitation of facts and the ability to follow procedures. Higher order thinking skills would be practiced, but the resulting product or creation would be an essay, more times than not. Constructivist and constructionist methods of teaching, on the other hand, emphasize "...how knowledge is constructed in our heads..." and "...the role of constructions in the world as a support for those in the head" (Bers, 2008, p. 15). Essentially, these teaching philosophies deal with how ideas are conceived, as well as creating a context for authentic applications of these ideas, which go beyond simply writing an essay.