Redundancy Principle



We can see many multimedia-learning scenarios have simultaneous text and audio in our lives. The redundancy principle states that learners can learn better just with animation and narration. The visual text information, which is presented simultaneously to the verbal information, becomes a redundant material. Eliminating redundant material, avoiding narration and "identical" text will be a good way to let learners learn well. The basic reason is people can't focus when they both hear and see the same verbal message during a presentation (Hoffman, 2006).

Potential Problems with Adding Redundant On-Screen Text

The common belief that uses spoken and printed forms during the presentations should always be better for learners. Learners can choose the format depended on their learning preferences. But this learning styles hypothesis normally is not established. Clark and Mayer (2011) described several potential problems.
  • Learners may attract by printed words and may pay less attention to the accompanying graphics.
  • Learners may experience cognitive overload in the visual channel during a fast pace multimedia presentation which has redundant on-screen text.
  • Learners may try to compare the different formats. 
Special Situations for the Redundancy Principle

There are a few special situations where using redundant text is acceptable and even suggested.
  • There is a complete absence of any onscreen pictorial information.
  • There has enough time to process the pictorial presentation.
  • The related audio might be difficult for the learner to understand--as with foreign language learning or certain auditory learning disabilities. The visual text will be helpful for learners to understand.
Studies that Support the Redundancy Principle

A variety of studies support the redundancy principle. Kalyuga, Chandler & Sweller (2004) suggested that a working memory load will be generated if learners are required to coordinate redundant materials. Soon Fook, & Aldalalah(2010) investigated the effects of instructional the redundancy principles on the learning of music theory among primary pupils. An AI (audio and image) mode is more effectively than the TI (text with image) and AIT (audio with image and text) modes.
 
Critique of the Redundancy Principle

The redundancy theory may work for certain cases, but it may not apply to all. More research is needed to determine the situations in which the redundancy principle does not hold (Clark & Mayer, 2011). Sorden (2005) discussed that depending on the learners’ experiences, people may feel different about redundant information varies. A diagram with text may be help beginner to understand. At the same time, the same strategy might become redundant for a more experienced learner.
 
References
  • Hoffman, B.(2006). The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. San Diego, CA: Montezuma Press
  • Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2011). E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2004). When Redundant On-Screen Text in Multimedia Technical Instruction Can Interfere With Learning. Human Factors, 46(3), 567-581.
  • Soon Fook, F., & Aldalalah, O. (2010). Effects of Computer-based Instructional Designs among Internals-Externals: A Cognitive Load Perspective. European Journal of Social Science, 14(12), 164-182.
  • Sorden S. D. (2005). A cognitive approach to instructional design for multimedia learning. Information Science Journal, 8(1), 263-279.

 
Examples of the Redundancy Principle
 
 
 
            Redundant:

 

Audio: " The f-number, or f-stop, is related to the aperture in the camera which adjusts the amount of light let in. Remember that the smaller the f-number, the larger the opening or aperture that will let light into the camera. Here is a sequence of photos taken at f-numbers ranging from f2.7 to f7.1."

 

 Non-Redundant:

 
 

Audio: "The f-number, or f-stop, is related to the aperture in the camera which adjusts the amount of light let in. Remember that the smaller the f-number, the larger the opening or aperture that will let light into the camera. Here is a sequence of photos taken at f-numbers ranging from f2.7 to f7.1."

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