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Cruwys of Cruwys Morchard

This article pertains to the family of Cruwys of Cruwys Morchard and Anstey Cruwys from the earliest times down to Robert Cruwys (d. c1404) at which point my ancestry descends through his daughters Thomasina and Elizabeth.  It differs significantly from pedigrees usually presented by eliminating two generations between Robert Cruwys (b. aft. 1221) and Robert Cruwys (b. 1299).  Also, it eliminates Isabel de St. Aubyn as the mother of Alexander Cruwys (b. c1342).  An attempt was made to provide a reference for every genealogic statement made.

v. 1.0  This is a first draft.  I know typos and strangely worded sentences remain and need to be cleaned up. (6/23/2013)



Early References

    The Cruwys family of Devon was long associated with and gave their name to the manors Cruwys Morchard and Anstey Cruwys.  John Prince, writing in 1701, stated that there was a tradition that the family had existed in Devon since before the Norman conquest of 1066 “according to that old saw often used among us in discourse:”[1]

Crocker, Cruwys and Coplestone,

When the Conqueror came, were at home.

It is highly unlikely that there is any truth to this and there is certainly no evidence to support it.  The records are typical of a Norman family who came to England in the early to mid 12th century.  It has been speculated that the family could have originated in St. Croix or Croix in Normandy. 

 

    At the time of the Domesday survey in 1086, Morchet’ (Cruwys Morchard) was held by William Capra and in the time of the Saxons by Almer.[2]  It was taxed at 1 hide and had land for 20 ploughs, 200 acres of meadow, 40 acres of meadow, and 30 acres of wood.  The manor was part William Capra’s large feudal barony of Bradninch which consisted of up to 40 manors in Devon.   The ‘honor of Bradninch’ was escheated to the king and was subsequently granted to the Tracy family which leads us to our first known mention of the Cruwys family. In the Red Book among the fees of Oliver de Tracy is:[3]

‘Otvel de Crues tenet iij partes militis’

or Otuel de Crues hold three parts of a knight’s fee of Oliver de Tracy

With Cruwys Morchard being part of the honor of Bradninch in 1086 and then being held by the Cruwys family of the same honor for centuries afterwards, it is reasonable to assume that this fee in 1166 represents Otuel de Crues holding Cruwys Morchard of Oliver de Tracy.

    Anstey Cruwys, also called at times simply Anstey or East Anstey, was held in 1086 by Earl Hugh.[4]  It was one of two manors called Anestinga (probably representing the later manors of East and West Anstey) though it is not now possible to distinguish which was which.  The earliest time when East Anstey can be associated with the Cruwys family is 1242 when the heirs of Alexander Cruwys held it.

     The next mention of the Cruwys family in Devon  is Robert de Crues who occurs in the Pipe Rolls of 1175 and 1177.[5] [6]  This Robert de Crues would fill the gap between Oteul de Crues in 1166 and Richard de Crues who occurs c1200-1220 though there is no evidence yet of any family relationship between these men.

 


Richard Cruwys  

Died: Perhaps 1216 (primary evidence unknown)

 

     From about 1199 to 1242 the name of Richard de Crues occurs not infrequently in Devon.  Based solely on the length of time of activity it would seem probable that this represents two men.  It is not improbable that the Richard de Crues of the very early 13th century was the father of Richard de Cruwys and of Alexander de Cruwys both holding land in 1242 in the Book of Fees.  However, at this point it remains just conjecture.

     The first mention of Richard de Crues is in the Curia Regis Rolls of 1 John 1199-1200.[7]   According to Margaret Cruwys in her presidential address to the Devonshire Association, a “Richard Cruwys was taken into custody being accused of the death of Jordan de la Cell on Exmoor in 1200.”[8] 

     According to Charles Fitch-Northen, Richard is found in Cruwys Morchard but was succeeded by Alexander de Cruwys by 1216.[9]  If so, the records of a Richard de Cruwys of Netherex, Little Torington and Bradstone which stretch from c1220 to 1242 likely represent a son of this Richard de Cruwys and a brother of Alexander de Cruwys, the next holder of Cruwys Morchard.

      The oldest document at Cruwys Morchard, often referred to as the ‘Tracy Deed,’ is often attributed to this Richard de Cruwys.[10]  However, it has been certainly misdated and belongs to the next generation.  Richard de Cruwys and Alexander de Cruwys both served as witnesses to the deed where Henry de Tracy of Barnstaple granted to Oliver de Tracy of Woolacombe land in Bremridge and Aller.  This grant originally dated to the time to before 1199.  However, of the 12 witnesses to the deed, 5 can be identified as living land holders in Devon with a 6th recently dead in 1242.  They are William de Widworthy of Widworthy, Philip de Beaumont of Shirwell, Richard de Cruwys of Netherex, Nicholas de Filleigh of Filleigh, Hugh de Chagford of Chagford and Alexander de Cruwys of Cruwys Morchard.  In 1236, Henry de Tracy was a defendant in suit involving disaffection with the sheriff of Devon – 4 of the 6 primary witnesses to the Tracy deed are also found in this suit.[11]  Philip de Bello Monte (Beaumont) occurs together with Henry de Tracy in a deed as late as 1255.[12]  These men occur frequently as witnesses to each others deeds throughout the 1230’s and the Tracy Deed should probably be dated to this time. 

     Some time before 1217 Richard de Crus witnessed a charter of the earl of Devon.[13]  He was a justice for an assize of novel disseisin in 1217, 1222 and 1223.[14] [15]   In 1221 Richard de Crewes was sheriff of Devon.[16]  He was a collector of the fortieth tax of 1232 for Devon along with Henry de Tracy.[17]  In 1228, the abbot of Dunkeswell purchased 360 acres of land in Coleton from Richard de Crues.[18] 

     If this Richard was the father of Richard de Crues who held Netherex, Little Torington and Bradstone in 1242, he was likely married to a daughter of Geoffrey de Lohereng (Loring).  Little Torrington and Bradstone belonged to Geoffrey de Lohereng who died in 1213/4 and was succeeded by his son John de Lohereng.[19] Before 1226, this John granted land in Little Torrington to the abbey of Athelney; sometime between 1227 and 1241 (possibly 1229); Richard de Crues confirmed this gift calling Geoffrey de Lohereng his uncle.[20] 

 


Sir Alexander Cruwys

Died: Between 1238 and 1242

 

     Alexander de Cruwys is the first of the name clearly holding Cruwys Morchard and Anstey Cruwys.  He does not occur as frequently in the records as his presumed brother, Richard de Cruwys of Netherex.  He along with Richard de Crues were witnesses to the ‘Tracy Deed’ which is best dated to the 1230’s.[21]  In 1236, he is among the list of knights in a case regarding many of the lords of Devon’s disaffection with the sheriff of Devon.[22]  In November or December 1236 he had a writ for an assize of novel disseisin against Robert of Cadeleigh and others, concerning a tenement in Kilmington.[23].  He occurs in the 1238 Crown Pleas of the Devon Eyre.[24] 

     Living concurrently with Alexander Cruwys were two other Cruwys families in Devon.  In 1242, a Richard de Cruwys was holding Little Torrington and Netherex.  He was succeeded by a son, William de Cruwys, who died in 1263.  At this point Little Torrington was distributed among the daughters and grand-daughters of William and Little Torrington passed from the Cruwys family.  The relationship between Alexander and Richard is not known though they were likely closely related.

     The third family found in the Book of Fees in 1242 was a Robert de Cruwys who held Bradstone of William de Cruwys who held it of the earl of Devon of the honor of Plymton.  Though a Robert de Cruwys presented at Bradstone on 29 July 1272, he was probably not as the same as Robert de Cruwys of Cruwys Morchard who presented at Cruwys Morchard in 1262 and Anstey Cruwys in 1263 as Bradstone followed a completely different descent.  In 1285 it was held by John de Cruwys of the heirs of William de Cruwys, and again in 1303 by John de Cruwys.  In 1346 it was held by Eleanor de Bradestone.

     Alexander de Cruwys was last known living in 1238 when he is found in a suit.[25]  He was dead by 1242 when the heirs of ‘Alexandri de Crues’ held 1 fee in Morceth’ (Morchard Cruwys) of the honor of Bradninch and Anstey (East Anstey) of the barony of Cardinan.[26] 

 

 

Sir Robert de Cruwys

Born:  1221-1235  (under age in 1242, of age in 1256 PR)

Dead: 1310 (or 1269)

 

     Sir Robert de Cruwys is the presumed son of Alexander de Cruwys based him being the next holder of the Cruwys Morchard and Anstey Cruwys. He would have been born after 1221 as he was under age in 1242 when the heirs of Alexander de Cruwys were holding Morceth’ (Morchard Cruwys) and Anstey (East Anstey).  He is presumably the same man as Robert de Crues of Devon who received a respite from knighthood for three years on 11 July 1256 which would further place his birth as before 1235.[27]  There may be a contemporary also named Robert de Cruwys who presented at Bradstone in 1272.  As Bradstone followed a completely path of descent, it is unlikely that the Robert de Cruwys of Cruwys Morchard is the same person who presented at Bradstone. 

    Charles Fitch-Northen, Tom Jones and Margaret Cruwys all state that Sir Robert de Cruwys died in 1269 and was succeeded by his son and heir Sir Alexander de Cruwys, and that this Sir Alexander died in 1280.[28] [29] [30]  It is likely that Fitch-Northen and Jones were following Margaret Cruwys’ research into the records at Cruwys Morchard, however, the supporting evidence for this is not known.  If true, it would create some problem with the estimated birth dates.  For this Robert to have been born after 1221 and to have a great-great-grandson born c1299 would require 5 generations to be born in only 78 years – a highly improbable event even in this time period.  In 1297, a Robert de Crues, knight, gave evidence at the proof of age Eleanor de Mohun and was said to be aged 60 and more.[31]  This age is approximately correct, and suggests that the Robert de Cruwys who died in 1310 could be the same as this Robert.  Now for Robert to have had a grandson born c1299 would require an unusually long gap of a minimum of 64 year (1235 to 1299) between the two generations.  However, the fact that this Robert giving evidence in 1297 had a daughter only 16 years old would support the necessary supposition that he was having children relatively late for a 13th century knight.  Given the unlikelihood of 3 generations between this Robert Cruwys and the one born in c1299, it is presumed that this Robert de Cruwys is the grandfather and not the great-great-grandfather of the Robert Cruwys born c1299.

     Robert Cruwys presented at Cruwys Morchard on 13 February 1262 and at Anstey Cruwys on Christmas 1263.  In both cases he is called a knight.[32]  By the time of the Feudal Aids in 1285 he had acquired a third manor.  He held Cruwys Morchard of the earl of Cornwall who held it of the king[33]  and East Anstey of Oliver de Dinham who at that time held a portion of the Cardinan barony.[34]  The third manor of Over Woolacombe he held of Galfried de Camville who held it of Thomas de Merton who held it of the king.[35]  This acquisition of Over Woolacombe has been used as evidence that Robert’s wife was Matilda (or Maud) Fitz Pain, the daughter of Robert Fitz Payne and Nesta his wife.[36]  In 1242, Robert Fitz Payne and Nesta held a fee in Owlacombe, Over Woolacombe and Blymethesham.[37]  By 1303 it would appear that Robert de Cruwys had distributed land to his sons.  He still held Cruwys Morchard, but Over Woolacombe and Blymethesham were now held by his son and eventual heir Alexander Cruwys, and East Anstey by his younger son John Cruwys.[38]  All three of the Fitz Payn manors of Owlacombe, Over Woolacombe and Blymethesham in 1242 were given as a single fee held by Robert de Cruwys in 1326.[39] 

 

     Margaret Cruwys states that Sir Robert de Cruwys died in 1310.[40]  The evidence for this is not known.  He was certainly dead by 1316 when his son Alexander Cruwys had succeeded to Cruwys Morchard.[41] 

 

Children of Robert de Cruwys and Matilda Fitz Payn:

1.  Alexander de Cruwys, See next

 

Anstey Cruwys Branch

2.  John de Cruwys was the apparent younger son of Robert de Cruwys and founder of the Anstey Cruwys cadet branch of the Cruwys family.  He is said to have been given the manor of Anstey Cruwys (aka East Anstey) during his father’s life time.  He held the manor by the 1 September 1301 IPM of Joyce de Dinham and in the 1303 Feudal Aids.[42] [43]   He was married to Agnes.  Shortly following the death of his brother Alexander in 1331, John de Cruwys was sued by his nephew Robert for recovery of Anstey Cruwys.[44]  Robert stated the manor had been given by Nesta Corbet to Robert de Cruwys and Matilda his wife and that he was the rightful owner of the manor as their grandson (Robert, son of Alexander, son of Robert and Matilda).  Robert, in fact, won this suit and recovered possession from his uncle John, and it was Robert who held the manor in the 20 May 1332 IPM of John de Dinham.[45] [46]  However, whether by further litigation or by some other agreement, it appears John de Cruwys came back into possession of Anstey Cruwys; he presented to the rectory on 30 January 1336.[47]  On 7 September 1339, Robert de Cruwys granted to his uncle John de Cruwys and Agnes his wife numerous lands in East and West Anstey (Coulehulle, East Bonckerisland, West Bonckerisland, Bonckerismore, Ryngedon park, Mayonnislond, Choppillislond, Holemyddfal, Monispark) for the price of 1 rose yearly.[48]  

     By 1346 his son William de Cruwys had succeeded to Anstey Cruwys.[49]  He presented to East Anstey on 27 May 1349.[50]  On 29 August 1360, ‘William de Cruwys son and heir of John de Cruwys of Anstey Cruwys’ granted some of the same lands his father received in 1339 (Bonkesmore and Moneyspark) to John Uppecote of Cheriton Fitzpain.[51]  It would appear at this point the Anstey Cruwys branch ended without a male heir and Anstey Cruwys returned to the main branch.  In 1372, Alexander de Cruwys of Cruwys Morchard is found placing the manors of Anstey Cruwys, Little Rackenford and Sydeham in trust.[52] 

     The Prowse family of Chagford quartered the Cruwys arms based on the marriage of John Prowse to Matilda Cruwys.[53]  The published version of the 1564 Visitation says she was the daughter and heir of Alexander Cruwys, son of Robert Cruwys.[54]  This descent does not make sense as we know Alexander had surviving male heirs.  The DCNQ article on the Prowse arms makes her the daughter of John Cruwys of Anstey Cruwys, son of Alexander Cruwys.  Again, by dates it is almost impossible she could be a daughter of this John Cruwys (and his father was not Alexander).  This may be following Vivian’s greatly flawed pedigree in his version of the Visitations.[55]  Sir William Pole writing in the early part of the 17th century says she was a daughter of Alexander Crwuys.[56]  All would seem to agree that Prowse quartered Cruwys by marrying an heiress of the Anstey Cruwys branch of the family; however, though there is no proof, it would seem most likely that she was a daughter of the last known male holder, William de Cruwys.

 


Alexander de Cruwys 

Born: before 1280

Died: shortly before 13 October 1331 (writ DCE)

Married: Constance (probably de London)

 

     Alexander de Cruwys was the son of Sir Robert de Cruwys and Matilda Fitz Payn.  Given that his elder son was born in 1299 it is reasonable to place his birth as before, and probably well before, 1280.  He is named in a suit concerning Anstey Cruwys as the son of Sir Robert de Cruwys and Matilda and the father of Robert de Cruwys.[57] 

     It is this Alexander de Cruwys who is said to have quarreled with Carew and “on Bicklegh Bridge ran him through, and the rails breaking, threw him into the river.”[58]  The story goes that it cost Alexander twenty-two manors to obtain a pardon.  This last part of the story casts doubt on this family tradition as at no point did the family possess anywhere close to this amount of land.

    During his father’s lifetime, he was given the manors of Over Woolecombe, Colecomb and Blythemesham.[59]  This represents the single fee held by Robert Fitz Payn and Nesta his wife in 1242.[60]  He had succeeded to Cruwys Morchard by 1316.[61] 

    He married Constance in whose right he held Little Rackenford, Great Rackenford and Sydeham.[62]  Her parentage is uncertain but as an heiress to the property it would be reasonable to assume she was the daughter of the previous immediate holder of Rackenford, Stephen de London.  Rackenford had long been held by the De Sideham family.  On 3 November 1234, Robert de Sydeham and his heirs were granted a manor at Rackenford.[63]  He held the manor in the 1242 Testa de Neville.[64]  Robert was succeeded by Philip de Sideham who presented at Rackenford on   3 October 1267. [65]  In 1286, the manor was described as having split into moieties with Philip holding both halves, just with different overlords.  One part was held of Henry Tyrrell and the other of Hugh de Courtenay.[66]  At this point the Rackenford and Sydeham estates passed perhaps by way of an heiress to Stephen de London.  The property could have transferred by way of purchase but this seems less likely given that all of Philip de Sydeham’s property ended up passing to the Cruwys family.  The dates are also correct for Philip de Sydeham, an adult in the 1260’s, to have a daughter of marrying a man active in the 1290’s.  In the 1292 IPM of Hugh de Courtenay, the manor and advowson of Rackenford was held by Stephen de London.[67]  He was still holding the manor in the 1303 Feudal Aids.[68]  On 14 August 1312 it was Alexander de Cruwys who presented at Rackenford.[69] 

     Alexander died shortly before 13 October 1331 when his writ of diem clausit extremum was issued; the subsequent IPM was held on 10 December 1331.[70]  The printed IPM shows him holding Little Rackenford; Great Rackenford and Sydham of the inheritance of Constance his wife by the courtesy of England.  His heir was Robert de Cruwes, age 32 years and more.


Children of Robert de Cruwys and Constance:

1.  Robert – son and heir, see next.

2.  Richard – younger son.  Shortly after their father’s death, Richard served as a trustee for his brother Robert and Isabel his wife.[71] [72]  Robert and Isabel were settling essentially all of their land on themselves and the heirs of their bodies with separate reversions if they failed to have children. In the fine, he is specifically named as Robert’s brother.

 


Sir Robert de Cruwys  

Born:  c1299

Died: shortly before 21 November 1361

Married: 1st Isabel de St. Aubyn, by 14 April 19 Ed. II (1326)

Married 2nd:  Unknown, mother of his children.

 

     Sir Robert de Cruwys was the son of Alexander de Cruwys and Constance (de London?).  He was born c1299 as he was found to be age 32 and more in the 10 December 1331 IPM of his father.[73]  His ancestry is further established in a suit where Robert sued his uncle John de Cruwys to recover the manor East Anstey.  He gave his ancestry as Robert, son of Alexander, and grandson of Sir Robert de Cruwys and Matilda.[74] 

                                                                                   

     Prince in the early 18th century wrote an biography of Robert and his exploits as a knight in the retinue of Walter, lord Manny.[75]  Robert “whose father having greatly exhausted and encumbered his estate, …  betook himself to the wars.  … He rather sought danger than declined it, and having acquitted himself well, returned back to his native country with great reputation.”  He would have been with Lord Manny as they moved across France, burning three hundred villages, been at the siege of Nantz and at the battle of Cressi.  He is said to have been “knighted for his valiant service in France under the leading of the Lord Walter Manny.”  “Sir Robert Cruwys returned into his own country ; loaden with trophies of honour and the military spoils of the declared enemies thereof ; whose rents also being carefully improved in his absence, at home,  and his purse filled by his services abroad, he became able to take off the encumbrances on his estate, and to pay his just and honest debts, under which he lay. And this he did, as I am told by the present heir of the family.”

 

     He was married 1st to Isabelle St. Aubyn, sister and co-heir of Mauger St. Aubyn, and daughter of Mauger St. Aubyn by Isabelle de Pidekeswell.  They were married by 14 April 1326 when Robert de Cruwes and Jordan le Vautort held Pydikwell, eaching having married coheirs of the inheritance of Mauger de Sancto Albino.[76]  Isabelle brought to the marriage a moiety of the manors of Overhamme, Netherhamme and Pickswell.  She had previously been married to Jordan de Haccombe by whom she had a daughter Cecilia.  This Cecilia married by a papal dispensation dated 23 December 1327 to John.   Lercedekene.[77]  Jordan de Haccombe was dead in 1324.[78] 

 

     In 1332, soon after the death of his father, Robert de Cruwys and Isabella de St. Aubyn his wife settled both his and her estates on themselves and the heirs of their bodies.[79]  The reversions were worded so that the properties that each of them brought to the marriage would go to their separate rightful heirs if they should die without a child between them.  This was in apparent exclusion of her daughter, Cecilia Lercedekne.  As it turned out, when Robert died in 1361 all of the St. Aubyn properties reverted Cecelia and her husband.  None passed into the Cruwys family.  In fact in December 1361, it was Cecilia Lercedekne who presented at Georgeham.[80]  It is clear from the fine that if Robert and Isabella had surviving children they would have inherited the St. Aubyn (a moiety of the) manors of Georgeham, Pickwell in Georgeham, and Netherham. 

 

     Isabel was dead by 1341 when an archpresbytery and chantry were founded at the family church of St. Blase in Haccombe.[81]  It was founded by Isabel’s son-in-law John Lercedekne, following the wishes of Sir Stephen de Haccombe.[82]  An archpriest with five other priests were to celebrate the perpetual obits of their ancestors including Isabel.  Robert must have married soon thereafter for a second time to an unknown wife who was the mother of his son and heir, Alexander de Cruwys.

 

Robert de Cruwys died shortly before 21 November 1361 when a writ of diem clausit extremum was issued.[83] 

 

 

Alexander de Cruwys

Born: circa 1342 (uncertain, but called a minor in 1363 and also clearly of age in 1363)

Died: Between 15 August 1382 and 10 October 1382 (fine dates where clearly alive and then dead)

Married: Julianne

  Her marriages:            John de Bromford Between 1362 and 1363

                                    Alexander de Cruwys by 1367

                                    Mathew de Hordeleigh between August 1382 and 1383

                                    Lee

 

     Alexander de Cruwys was the son of Robert de Cruwys and an unknown 2nd wife of Robert de Cruwys.  Most references make him the son of Robert’s wife Julianne de St. Aubyn, however, this is almost certainly incorrect.  In 1332, Robert and Isabelle settled each of their properties on themselves with a remainder to the heirs of their bodies, and failing such heirs on to their individual right heirs.[84] As none of the extensive St. Aubyn properties continued in the Cruwys line, it must be assumed that Isabelle was not the mother of Alexander.  He was probably born circa 1342 as on 1 July 1363 Edward of Woodstock, prince of Wales presented to Morchard Cruwys by reason of the minority of Alexander Cruys; however, it seems Alexander was already of age as it was his candidate who was accepted and not the prince’s.[85] [86]  He a license to alienate land to the parson of Cruwys Morchard on 14 Feb. 1363, indicating he had already come of age by this date.  On 12 July 1363, as Alexander Crewes, lord of Morchard he witnessed a quitclaim of Walter Corte.[87]  Though the Prince was incorrect in claiming the patronage based on Alexander’s minority, this would seem to imply that Alexander had only recently come of age.

 

     There is some contradictory evidence in the record regarding the parentage of Alexander Cruwys.  Both Prideaux and Fitch-Northen in their articles on the Cruwys family assumed with reservations (for lack of direct proof) that the Alexander who succeeded to Morchard Cruwys in 1362 was the son of the Robert who died in 1361.[88] [89]  However they were unaware of two entries in the Register of Edward, the Black Prince:[90]

June 1363 “Alexander de Cruwes, son and heir, of John de Crwes, did homage to the prince for certain lands which he holds of the prince by knight service in Crwes Morchard and Alfredesworthi 

And shortly thereafter on 1 July 1363:

presentation of Sir William de Spridlyngton to the church of Morchard Cruys, in the prince's gift by reason of the minority of Alexander Cruys, son and heir of John de Cruys 

Obviously both of these entries call Alexander a son of John, not Robert.  Furthermore, a jury in 1474 (more than 90 years after his death) stated that Robert never had a son Alexander.[91]  It would seem clear then that the usual descent is incorrect.  However, on 23 May 1365, two years after the first entries in the Register of Edward, the Black Prince, there was again a vacancy at Cruwes Morchard and this time we find an order from the prince to determine whether or not “Alexander son and heir of Sir Robert Cruys was of full age when the church of Morchard Cruys became void.”[92]   In 1377, William Poleyn quitclaimed to Alexander Cruwys son of Robert Cruwys rent in Cruwys Morchard which Robert Cruwys had previously granted to William Cruwys.[93]   Other records from 1331 and 1350 show Robert Cruwys in agreements with William Poelyn and his father Richard.[94]  It is difficult to reconcile these records where 2 call Alexander a son of John and 2 call him a son of Robert. 

 

     Alexander held lands in Cruwys Morchard, Anstey Cruwys, Little Rackenford, Great Rackenford, and Sydeham along with the advowsons of Cruwys Morchard, Anstey Cruwys and Rackenford.  He first presented to Cruwys Morchard on 6 May 1363, and again on 18 April 1365, Again the prince ordered an inquiry to determine ‘whether Alexander son and heir of Sir Robert Cruys was of full age when the church of Morchard Cruys became void.’  He also presented at Morchard Cruwys on 3 January 1376, 22 July 1378 and 28 July 1382.  On 19 September 1375, Alexander Cruwys presented at Anstey Cruwys. Pole would seem to suggest that the Alexander holding Anstey Cruwys was a different person than the Alexander Cruwys, lord of Morchard Cruwys.[95]  However, Anstey Cruwys, Little Rackenford, and Sydeham was placed in the hands of trustees in 1372, namely Sir John Morton parson of Rackenford and William Clauton of Anstey Cruwys.  These same two trustees were used when Morchard Cruwys and Great Rackenford were placed in trust in 1380.  This, when combined with the fact that Anstey Cruwys was part of the dower of his wife, shows that there was only one Alexander Cruwys in this time period.  The 1380 grant (and presumably the one of 1372) specify that ‘if there were no male heirs of the body of Alexander or of his heirs the property passed to the male heirs (if any), in preference to other heirs of Alexander’s successors.’[96]  This entailment would lead to an almost 100 year legal battle between his grandchildren, great-grandchildren, and great-great-grandchildren.  The 1380 grant mentions 5 children, namely Robert, Joan, Lucy, Elizabeth and Alice.  It is presumed then that another son John was born after this deed was made.

                           

     Alexander de Cruwys was married to Julianne whose ancestry is not known.  She was previously married as the second wife of John de Bromford of Bromford and Jacobstowe.  She could not have been married to him for very long if he had a son by a previous wife born after 1362 and his own death occurring in early 1363.  He was previously married to Margaret atte Croft, by whom he had a son and heir, Nicholas de Bromford, born after 1362;[97]  John Cary held the wardship of Nicholas Bromford and by reason of Nicholas’ minority presented at Honeychurch on 12 September 1376 and at on Jacobstow on 18 September 1383.[98]  It is in an inquisition following the attainder of this same John Cary that we learn that Julianne, wife of Alexander de Cruwys and formerly wife of John de Bromford held 1/3 of the manor of Bromford in dower.[99]  John de Bromford died shortly before 28 April 1463.[100] 

 

     Julianne and Alexander de Cruwys were married as her second husband by 1367 as their son Robert had come of age by 1388.[101]  In 1388, Robert de Cruwys ‘on coming of age’ confirmed his mother’s dower which included land in Cruwys Morchard, Anstey Cruwys, Rackenford, Sydeham, Woolfardisworthy, and elsewhere. 

 

     Julianne married as her third husband Matthew de Hordelegh by 15 December 1387 when they presented at Rackenford.[102] He was again named as ‘Matthew Hordelegh who has married the widow Julianna Cruwys’ when Robert Cruwys confirmed the ‘dower from her late husband Alexander Cruwys’ in 1388.[103]   The presentation at Rackenford was disputed as Robert de Cruwys had put forth a candidate which was immediately disputed by Julianna and Matthew de Hordelegh; the subsequent inquisition found that Robert was still a minor.[104]  Edward Coutenay, earl of Devon then put forth a third candidate by reason of the minority of Robert Cruwys.  The candidate of Julianna and Matthew was eventually installed at Rackenford  but not until 16 June 1396.[105]  A similar dispute occurred almost 15 years later in March 1413 when Humphrey Cruwys (Julianne’s grandson) tried to present at Rackenford, challenged by the earl of Devon by who presented by reason of the minority of Humphrey, and by Julianna and Mathew de Hordelegh.[106]  Matthew de Hordelegh is last known living on 29 September 1414 when he and Julianna assigned her dower rights to John Cruwys the ‘heir male’ of her grandson Humphrey Cruwys.[107] 

 

Alexander de Cruwys died between 15 August 1382 when he gave a power of attorney to place many of his properties in trust with William Clauton, parson of Anstey Cruwys and others, and 10 October 1382 when the same William Clauton transferred these properties back to Julianna, formerly the wife of Alexander Cruwys.[108] 

 

Children of Alexander and Julianne de Cruwys:

1.  Robert de Cruwys.  Born 1367.  See next

2.  Joan.. Named in 1380 fine regarding Cruwys Morchard.

3.  Elizabeth  Named in 1380 fine regarding Cruwys Morchard.

4.  Lucy  Named in 1380 fine regarding Cruwys Morchard.

5.  Alice  Named in 1380 fine regarding Cruwys Morchard.

6.  John.  John was the youngest but eventual male heir of Alexander following the death of his brother Robert and nephew Humphrey.  He was likely born between 1380 and 1383 as he is not named in the 1380 trust settlement of Cruwys Morchard and his father died in late 1382. 

 

 


 

Robert de Cruwys

Born:  In 1367 (underage in January 1388, and ‘of age’ later that same year)

Died:  Bet. 1403 – 8 June 1404

 

Married:  Margaret de Cornu

     Re-married:  Bef. 2 Sept. 1406, William Wilford (d. bet. 30 June and 19 July 1413)

     Died:  After 30 June 1413  (Living when William Wilford made his will)

 

     Robert de Cruwys was the son of Alexander de Cruwys by Juliana.  He was born in 1367 as on 20 January 1388 Edward Coutenay, earl of Devon presented at Rackenford by reason of the minority of Robert de Cruwys, but he came of age later that same year when ‘Robert Cruwys on coming of age’ confirmed his mother’s dower.[109] [110] 

 

     This was actually the third presentation to the same vacancy at Rackenford. On 15 December 1387, Robert Cruwes presented at Rackenford; this was immediately disputed and Matthew de Hordelegh and Juliana his wife put forth their own candidate.[111]  An inquisition was ordered to determine who the rightful patron of Rackenford was.  It was not until 16 July 1396 when John Croke, the candidate of Matthew and Juliana, was finally installed.[112]  The advowson at Rackenford must have been part of the dower of Julianna as she and Matthew still claimed the patronage in 1413.[113]  On 9 January 1391, Robert de Cruwys presented at Morchard Cruwys.[114]  In 1388 as Robert son and heir of Alexander Cruwys he confirmed an grant of his father in Little Rackenford.[115]  ‘Robert, son and heir of Alexander Cruwys’ confirmed his father’s grant to Edward de Rothenysch of land in East Anstey on 4 December 1400.[116] 

     Robert was last known living in 1403 when he placed Cruwys Morchard in the hands of trustees; in May of 1406 these same trustees returned the manor to Humphrey Cruwys, son and heir of Robert Cruwys.[117] [118]   Margaret Cornu remarried to William Wilford, a prominent and wealthy merchant from the city of Exeter.  Robert was dead by 8 June 1404 when William Wilford and Margaret his wife are found in a grant regarding land which she would inherit following the death of Walter Corun (her father).[119]  On 2 September 1406, it was William Wilford, who presented at Anstey Cruwys in her right.[120]  In 1405, Mathew Hordelegh and Juliana his wife granted to Humphrey Cruwys and Robert Yeo all of lands held in dower in Cruwys Morchard, Rackenford, East Anstey and Sideham at a rent of £7 13s. 4d. during Juliana’s life.[121]

     William Wilford died between 30 June 1413 when his will was made and 19 July 1413 when a new mayor of Exeter was elected to fill the vacancy caused by his death.[122] [123]  In his will proved  on 2 October 1413, he named his daughter Elizabeth, wife of John Parker, his son Robert who was under-aged, and his wife Margaret.  Among his many bequests he mentions the churches at Cruwys Morchard, Rackenford and East Anstey.  Margaret was last known to be living on the date William’s will was made, 30 June 1413.

Following his death and the subsequent death of his son Humphrey in 1413, the Cruwys properties became the subject of decades of bitter dispute and litigation between Robert’s daughters and their heirs and Robert’s brother John and his heirs.[124]  John claimed the entire inheritance as the rightful male heir of his father Alexander; Robert’s daughters Thomasina Pollard and Elizabeth Norton were claiming certain lands had been granted to them.  Back in 1372 and 1380, Alexander Cruwys had entailed his lands to his male heirs; the 1380 grant (and presumably the one of 1372) specify that ‘if there were no male heirs of the body of Alexander or of his heirs the property passed to the male heirs (if any), in preference to other heirs of Alexander’s successors.’[125]   On 20 September 1413, soon after the death of Humphrey, Richard Pollard and Thomasina his wife put up a £100 bond as part of an agreement to enter arbitration on a dispute with John Cruwys regarding the manors of Anstey Cruwys and Little Rackenford.[126] [127]  Julianne would seem to be in support of her son over her granddaughters when on 29 September 1414  Matthew and Julianne Hordelgh assigned all of her dower rights to John Cruwys, ‘his heirs male.’  It is likely that it is from the time of this first suit that the story of the attempted theft by forgery of Anstey Cruwys and Little Rackenford was born.  From Polwhele’s History of Devonshire we find a transcript which goes far in explaining the nature of the dispute over Anstey Cruwys:[128]

 

“On the back of a deed, dated 1463, 4th Edward 4th is this curious indorsement:-

     Margaret, wife of Robert Cruys, was the daughter of Walter Coru.  After

     the death of S. John Cruys enters and had issue John and Thomas.  That said

     Walter Corun privily took away said Alexander Cruy’s seal of arms, unknown to

     him, and as it lay with his purse under his bed, that while sick, and

     counterfeited a deed, as it were by the assent of the sd Alex’, upon the

     marriage of his daughter, which the sd Alex’ was never privy to, but died

     while the deed was making, and this deed was of the manors of Cruys-Ansty

     and Little Rakenforde, to said Robert Cruys, and Marg’ his wife and

     their heirs coming between them, and then said Walter kept said false deed,

     and let it ly till Humphry, son of sd Robert was dead without issue.  Then

     came John Cruwys, brother to Robert, and uncle to Humphry, by force of a

     limitation therein mentioned, to the heir males enterd, and upon that

     entry Richard Pollard, William Norton and their wives, claimed sd manors

     by sd false deed, made by said Walter, and upon that a day was set up at

     Kyrton, before John Copstone and Nicholas Rudeford, and there in

     presence of him, and many other worshipful persons, it was openly proved

     that sd deed was counterfeited, and that there passed no livery thereby,

     and sd John & Nicholas would have cancelled and destroyed the said false

     deed. – And sd W. Norton and R. Pollard went to them, and besoughte atte the

     reverence of God not to put them to open shame, and they wod be sworne

     never again claim under sd deed, but would stand to their award in all

     things, and then they wod be sworn so to do, and thereupon the award was

     made in writing.”

 

     Though Polwhele states it was attached to a “deed, dated 1463, 4th Edward 4th”,  it is likely that the detailed events occurred much earlier.  It should also be noted that the 4th year of Edward IV was actually March 1464 to March 1465.  It also happens to match the later suit found in the Pedigrees of the Plea Rolls.[129]  Of the two judges or arbiters mentioned, Nicholas Radford and John Copplestone were two very well-known and prominent lawyers whose primary careers spanned from the 1420’s to the 1450’s.  John Copplestone died in 1458, Nicholas Radford was murdered in 1455.[130]  Of the principles in the dispute, William Norton died by 1445 and John Cruwys died in 1430.  In fact, Nicholas Radford occurs with the Cruwys family as early as 1414 when he was one of the witnesses to Julianna’s assignment of her dower to her son John Cruwys.  It seems likely that the above account refers to the initial suit which was initiated in 1413 and was then used as evidence in the suit of 1464.

 

     Prideaux suggests that the joint presentation at Anstey Cruwys in 1426 by John Cruwys, William Norton and Richard Pollard represented a temporary compromise between the two sides.[131]  In the 1428 Feudal Aids, all three men were returned as holding Anstey Cruwys.[132]  When the rectory at Anstey Cruwys again opened up in March 1455, two competing claims were put forward for the right of presentation.  In April, by the king’s writ, there was a prohibition against installing anyone at Anstey Cruwys until a suit between Thomas Cruwys (son of John) and the heirs of Elizabeth Norton and Thomasina Pollard had been decided.[133] 

 

Children of Robert Cruwys and Margaret Cornu:

1.  Humphrey Cruwys.  Son and heir.  He was still a minor 6 March 1413 when the earl of Devon attempted to present at Rackenford.[134]  However, he was dead by 20 September 1413 when Richard Pollard and Thomasina his wife put up a £100 bond as part of an agreement to enter arbitration on a dispute with John Cruwys regarding the manors of Anstey Cruwys and Little Rackenford.[135] [136]  This was the beginning of the very long dispute regarding these properties.  On 29 September 1414, Matthew and Julianne Hordelgh assigned all of her dower rights to John Cruwys, the ‘heirs male’ of Humphrey Cruwys.

 

2.  Thomasina married Richard Pollard, the son of John Pollard and Emma Doddescombe.[137]  On 20 September 1413, Richard Pollard posted a £100 bond to enter arbitration with John Cruwys regarding the dispute over East Anstey and Little Rackenford.  The pedigrees given in the suits to follow help prove their place in the ancestry.[138]  In 1426, in perhaps a compromise of the dispute, John Cruwys, William Norton and Richard Pollard jointly presented to East Anstey and all three were listed as holding East Anstey in 1428.[139] [140] A moiety of the manor of Over Wallacombe would descend through them to their daughter Elizabeth Pollard, wife of Humphrey Poyntz.[141] [142] 

 

3.  Elizabeth married by 1417 to William Norton when land of his father, Thomas Norton, was transferred to him and Elizabeth his wife by trustees.[143]  As noted, he presented to East Anstey with his wife’s uncle and his brother-in-law in 1426 and held East Anstey with them in the 1428 Feudal Aids.  William Norton was living in 1441 when he placed land in Oxton, Teingmouth and elsewhere in the hands of trustees, but dead in 1445 when Elizabeth, widow of William Norton granted land to Robert Wilford, John Moore and Andrew Chalvedon.[144] 

 



[1] Danmonii Orientales Illustres: or, The Worthies of Devon, by John Prince (1810, originally published 1701).  P. 274-277    Available at www.hathitrust.org    http://tinyurl.com/a5d6qjs  

[2] The Devonshire Domesday and Geld Inquest, Vol. 2, By Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science (1884-1892).  P. 709-710   http://tinyurl.com/at9az5a 

[3] The Red Book of the Exchequer or Liber Rubeus de Scaccario, Vol. 1, ed. by Hubert Hall (1896).  P. 255  http://tinyurl.com/8k9wh6t 

[4] The Devonshire Domesday and Geld Inquest, Vol. 1, By Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science (1884-1892).  P. 286-287.   http://tinyurl.com/afjuh4s 

[5] Great Roll of the Pipe for the Twenty-second Year of the Reign of Henry the Second  A.D. 1175-1176, Vol. 25 (1175-1176), pub. by Pipe Roll Society (1904).  P. 146  http://tinyurl.com/a7xwr9m 

[6] Great Roll of the Pipe for the Twenty-fourth Year of the Reign of Henry the Second  A.D. 1177-1178, vol. 27 (1177-1178), pub. by the Pipe Roll Society (1906).  P. 15   http://tinyurl.com/bzcp4hk    

[7] Rotuli Curiae Regis : Rolls and Records of the Court held before the King’s Justiciars or Justices, Vol. 2 : Michaelmas 1 John (1199) to Easter 1 John (1200), ed. By Sir Francis Palgrave.  P. 125.  http://tinyurl.com/bfkt7ts  

[8] Report and Transactions of the Devonshire Association, vol. 84 (1952). P. 1-19 ‘Address of the President: Records at Cruwys Morchard,’ by Mrs. M.C.S. (Margaret Campbell Speke) Cruwys.  P. 2.

[9] The Genealogist, vol. 9 no. 1 (Spring 1988). P. 3-39 ‘The Trowbridge Ancestry,’ by Charles Fitch-Northen.  P. 20

[10] Devon & Cornwall Notes & Queries, Vol. 20 (1939)  p. 85-97  ‘The Tracy’s,’ by Margaret Cruwys.

[11] Curia Regis Rolls ...: 17-21 Henry III, ed. by Cyril Thomas Flower (1972).  P. 510-511.  http://tinyurl.com/bks4zz8 

[12] Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society , Volume 52.  P. 16  http://tinyurl.com/aw26cyc  

[13] Charters of the Redvers Family and the Earldon of Devon 1090-1217, by Robert Bearman (1994)  P. 127-128.

[14] A2A: Access to Archives.  Petre [123M/TB1 - 123M/Z6].  http://tinyurl.com/b8pkhk6 

[15] Patent Rolls of the Reign of Henry III.: 1216-1225, Great Britain. Public Record Office, ed. by H. C. Maxwell Lyte.  P. 216, 346, 398.  http://tinyurl.com/bat8pea 

[16] Online Fine Rolls of Henry III Project.  http://www.finerollshenry3.org.uk/home.html  Fine Roll C 60/15, 5 HENRY III (28 October 1220–27 October 1221).  Fine no. 346 & 352.   http://tinyurl.com/8l9rt7x   

[17] Close Rolls of the Reign of Henry III, Vol. 2. 1231-1234 (1905).  P. 158. http://tinyurl.com/a4vd728  

[18] Contributions to a History of the Cistercian houses of Devon, by Joshua Brooking Rowe (1878). P. 160  http://tinyurl.com/bjpaq97

[19] Charters of the Redvers Family and the Earldon of Devon 1090-1217, by Robert Bearman (1994)  P. 174.

[20] Two Cartularies of the Benedictine Abbeys of Muchelney and Athelney in the County of Somerset, (1899). p. 184  Charter nos. 198-202. http://tinyurl.com/d9d6lnm                

[21] Devon & Cornwall Notes & Queries, Vol. 20 (1939)  p. 85-97  ‘The Tracy’s,’ by Margaret Cruwys.

[22] Curia Regis Rolls ...: 17-21 Henry III, ed. by Cyril Thomas Flower (1972  ).  P. 510-511.  http://tinyurl.com/bks4zz8 

[23] Online Fine Rolls of Henry III Project.  http://www.finerollshenry3.org.uk/home.html  Fine Roll E 371/4, 21 HENRY III (28 October 1236–27 October 1237).  No date, but on membrane 10 so approx. Nov.-Dec. 1236

[24] Crown pleas of the Devon Eyre of 1238, Vol. 28; 1238, ed. by Henry Summerson (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, 1985).  P. 65  http://tinyurl.com/bj4yoks 

[25] Crown pleas of the Devon Eyre of 1238, Vol. 28 (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, 1985). P. 65  http://tinyurl.com/a8kqg4n 

[26] The Book of Fees commonly called Testa de Nevill, pt. 2. A.D. 1242-1293 and appendix, by Public Record Office, (1923, reprint 1971).  Vol. 2,  page 758, 793, 796.  http://tinyurl.com/aaxmbe8   

[27] Patent Rolls of the Reign of Henry III preserved in the Public Record Office vol. 4 (1247-1258), by Great Britain. Public Record Office (1908).  P. 487   http://tinyurl.com/aaw7kxs   http://tinyurl.com/aexqkjz  

[28] The Genealogist, vol. 9 no. 1 (Spring 1988). P. 3-39 ‘The Trowbridge Ancestry,’ by Charles Fitch-Northen.  P. 20

[29] Crewes of South Cornwall, and their Ancestors in Liskeard, Cornwall, and Cruwys Morchard, Devon, compiled by T.F. Johns (privately published and in possession of Debbie Kennett, 2001).  P. 13.

[30] ‘A Cruwys Morchard Notebook, 1066-1874,’ by Margaret C.S. Cruwys. (Exeter and London, 1939).

[31] Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Vol. 3 (20-28 Edward I, 1291-1300).  P. 329, no. 431.  Proof of age of Eleanor de Mohun.  http://tinyurl.com/auhzgc4 

[32] Registers of Walter Bronescombe (A.D. 1257-1280), and Peter Quivil (A.D 1280-1291), Bishops of Exeter, by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1889). P. 133.   http://tinyurl.com/a38f7ez 

[33] Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids, vol. I (Bedford - Devon), By Great Britain. Public Record Office (1899).  P. 342.  http://tinyurl.com/ahg2te3 

[34] Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids, vol. I (Bedford - Devon), By Great Britain. Public Record Office (1899).  P. 325.  http://tinyurl.com/behcg4y  

[35] Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids, vol. I (Bedford - Devon), By Great Britain. Public Record Office (1899).  P. 336.  http://tinyurl.com/asvjlfv 

[36] Report and Transactions of the Devonshire Association, vol. 84 (1952). P. 1-19 ‘Address of the President: Records at Cruwys Morchard,’ by Mrs. M.C.S. (Margaret Campbell Speke) Cruwys. 

[37] The Book of Fees commonly called Testa de Nevill, pt. 2. A.D. 1242-1293 and appendix, by Public Record Office, (1923, reprint 1971).  P. 775.  http://tinyurl.com/aaxmbe8     

[38] Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids, vol. I (Bedford - Devon), by Great Britain. Public Record Office (1899).  P. 359, 362    http://tinyurl.com/atn8zel   http://tinyurl.com/ba4vhhy 

[39] Calendar of the Close Rolls, Edward II, 1323-1327 (Great Britain Public Record Office, 1898).  P. 595, 601  http://tinyurl.com/b9qpfjz 

[40] Report and Transactions of the Devonshire Association, vol. 84 (1952). P. 1-19 ‘Address of the President: Records at Cruwys Morchard,’ by Mrs. M.C.S. (Margaret Campbell Speke) Cruwys.  P. 19.

[41] Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids, vol. I (Bedford - Devon), By Great Britain. Public Record Office (1899).  P. 372.    http://tinyurl.com/b5hdynl 

[42] Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Vol. 4 (29-35 Edward I, 1300-1307) p. 24 no. 44 John de Crewes holds Anstey Crewes of Joyce de Dynham 1 Sept. 1301  http://tinyurl.com/b3dcnwt  

[43] Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids, vol. I (Bedford - Devon), By Great Britain. Public Record Office (1899).  P. 362.    http://tinyurl.com/ba4vhhy  

[44] Pedigrees from the Plea Rolls, by George Wrottesley.  P. 16 http://tinyurl.com/b24jrf5 

[45] MS List of Records at Cruwys Morchard House. Devon Record Office Acquisition no. 1285.  Compiled by Margaret Cruwys and deposited in the Devon Record Office in 1964, transcribed by Debbie Kennett. Copy obtained January 2013.  Doc. no. 65.

[46] Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Vol. 7 (1-9 Edward III, 1327-1336). p. 327  no. 462 John de Dynham 20 May 1332  http://tinyurl.com/acc9k4o 

[47] Register of John de Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter, (A.D. 1327-1369), part III, by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1899).   P. 1311  http://tinyurl.com/7ox7kf3 

[48] MS List of Records at Cruwys Morchard House. Devon Record Office Acquisition no. 1285.  Compiled by Margaret Cruwys and deposited in the Devon Record Office in 1964, transcribed by Debbie Kennett. Copy obtained January 2013.  Doc. no. not given.

[49] Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids, vol. I (Bedford - Devon), by Great Britain. Public Record Office (1899).  P. 418.   http://tinyurl.com/a7sajrm  

[50] Register of John de Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter, (A.D. 1327-1369), part III, by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1899).   P. 1388  http://tinyurl.com/a8pz73k  

[51] MS List of Records at Cruwys Morchard House. Devon Record Office Acquisition no. 1285.  Compiled by Margaret Cruwys and deposited in the Devon Record Office in 1964, transcribed by Debbie Kennett. Copy obtained January 2013.  Doc. no. 19.

[52] MS List of Records at Cruwys Morchard House. Devon Record Office Acquisition no. 1285.  Compiled by Margaret Cruwys and deposited in the Devon Record Office in 1964, transcribed by Debbie Kennett. Copy obtained January 2013.  Doc. no. 29.

[53] Devon and Cornwall Notes and Queries, vol. IX (1917).  ‘Prowse Memorials in Chagford Church,’ by Mrs. C. Lega-Weeks.  P. 81-89, P. 121-123, 150-151.  http://tinyurl.com/byt86gk    Discussion of the Prowse of Chagford arms including their quartering of Cruwys.

[54] Visitation of the County of Devon in the year 1564, with additions from the earlier Visitation of 1531, ed. by Frederic Thomas Colby, D.D. (1881).  P. 177   http://tinyurl.com/az5nd6g 

[55] Visitations of the County of Devon, Comprising the Heralds Visitations of 1531, 1564 and 1620, by J.L. Vivian (1895).  P. 256, 626  http://tinyurl.com/aftjy2f 

[56] Collections Towards a Description of the County of Devon, by Sir William Pole (who died 1635) (London, 1791).    P. 246  http://tinyurl.com/azfkkog  

[57] Pedigrees from the Plea Rolls, by George Wrottesley.  P. 16   http://tinyurl.com/b24jrf5

[58] Danmonii Orientales Illustres: or, The Worthies of Devon, by John Prince (1810, originally published 1701).  P. 274-277    Available at www.hathitrust.org      http://tinyurl.com/a5d6qjs

[59] Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids, vol. I (Bedford - Devon), by Great Britain. Public Record Office (1899).  P. 359, 362    http://tinyurl.com/atn8zel   http://tinyurl.com/ba4vhhy 

[60] The Book of Fees commonly called Testa de Nevill, pt. 2. A.D. 1242-1293 and appendix, by Public Record Office, (1923, reprint 1971).  P. 775.  http://tinyurl.com/aaxmbe8     

[61] Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids, vol. I (Bedford - Devon), By Great Britain. Public Record Office (1899).  P. 372.    http://tinyurl.com/b5hdynl

[62] Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Vol. 7 (1-9 Edward III, 1327-1336). p. 253 No. 344 Alexander de Cruwes.   http://tinyurl.com/b78j66k

[63] Calendar of the Charter Roll vol. I (1226-1257), by Great Britain. Public Record Office (1903).  P. 193 Grant of fair  http://tinyurl.com/ao3qfqj  

[64] The Book of Fees commonly called Testa de Nevill, pt. 2. A.D. 1242-1293 and appendix, by Public Record Office, (1923, reprint 1971).  Vol. 2 p. 761 Robert de Sideham holds Little Rackenford of the Hospital of Bothemescumb   http://tinyurl.com/aaxmbe8     

[65] Registers of Walter Bronescombe (A.D. 1257-1280), and Peter Quivil (A.D 1280-1291), Bishops of Exeter, by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1889).  P. 164.  http://tinyurl.com/b5hzcq2 

[66] Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids, vol. I (Bedford - Devon), by Great Britain. Public Record Office (1899).  P. 343.  http://tinyurl.com/ahg2te3  

[67] Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Vol. 3 (20-28 Edward I, 1291-1300).  P. 27  Stephen de London holds Rackenford in the IPM of Hugh de Courtenay.  http://tinyurl.com/b9hbw38 

[68] Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids, vol. I (Bedford - Devon), by Great Britain. Public Record Office (1899).  P. 363  http://tinyurl.com/ba4vhhy 

[69] Register of Walter de Stapeldon, Bishop of Exeter, (A.D. 1307-1326), vol. 2, by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1892).  P. 245  http://tinyurl.com/b8qhslc

[70] Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Vol. 7 (1-9 Edward III, 1327-1336). p. 253 No. 344 Alexander de Cruwes.   http://tinyurl.com/b78j66k 

[71] MS List of Records at Cruwys Morchard House. Devon Record Office Acquisition no. 1285.  Compiled by Margaret Cruwys and deposited in the Devon Record Office in 1964, transcribed by Debbie Kennett. Copy obtained January 2013.  Doc. no. 13.

[72] Devon Feet of Fines. Volume 2. 1 Edward I-43 Edward III. 1272-1369. ed. By Rev. Oswald J. Reichel, Lieut.-Colonel F. B. Prideaux and H. Tapley-Soper. (Devon and Cornwall Record Society; Exeter, 1939).

p. 283 no. 1254  

[73]  Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Vol. 7 (1-9 Edward III, 1327-1336) P. 253 No. 344 Alexander de Cruwes   http://tinyurl.com/b78j66k

[74] Pedigrees from the Plea Rolls, by George Wrottesley.  P. 16   http://tinyurl.com/b24jrf5

[75] Danmonii Orientales Illustres: or, The Worthies of Devon, by John Prince (1810, originally published 1701).  P. 274-277    Available at www.hathitrust.org      http://tinyurl.com/a5d6qjs   

[76] Calendar of Inquisitions Port Mortem, Vol 6 (10-20 Edward II, 1316-1327)

P. 449, 451  no. 710 William, son of William Martyn    http://tinyurl.com/atdwt55 

[77] Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers Relating to Great ..., Vol. 2 1305-1342, by William Henry Bliss (1895).    p. 266   http://tinyurl.com/armk45b    

[78] Devon Feet of Fines. Volume 2. 1 Edward I-43 Edward III. 1272-1369. ed. By Rev. Oswald J. Reichel, Lieut.-Colonel F. B. Prideaux and H. Tapley-Soper. (Devon and Cornwall Record Society; Exeter, 1939).  P. 435, fine  no. 1521 fn. 3, citing ‘Cornwall Fines, no. 486.’

[79] Devon Feet of Fines. Volume 2. 1 Edward I-43 Edward III. 1272-1369. ed. By Rev. Oswald J. Reichel, Lieut.-Colonel F. B. Prideaux and H. Tapley-Soper. (Devon and Cornwall Record Society; Exeter, 1939).

p. 283 no. 1254   

[80] Register of John de Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter, (A.D. 1327-1369), part III, by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1899).   P 1472.  http://tinyurl.com/bvnn3tb  

[81] Register of John de Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter, (A.D. 1327-1369), part III, by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1899).  P. 852-855    http://tinyurl.com/avr723b 

[82] Historic Collections, Relating to the Monasteries in Devon, by George Oliver (1820).  P. 134 Some info on the archpresbytery at Haccombe.  http://tinyurl.com/b4m44pl    

[83] Register of Edward, the Black Prince, vol. II  (Great Britain. Public Record Office, 1931).  P. 185  http://tinyurl.com/ag28tpj  http://tinyurl.com/bab5hjq 

[84] Devon Feet of Fines. Volume 2. 1 Edward I-43 Edward III. 1272-1369. ed. By Rev. Oswald J. Reichel, Lieut.-Colonel F. B. Prideaux and H. Tapley-Soper. (Devon and Cornwall Record Society; Exeter, 1939).  Fine no. 1254, p. 283-284.

[85] Register of Edward, the Black Prince, vol. II  (Great Britain. Public Record Office, 1931).  P. 204.

[86] Register of John de Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter, (A.D. 1327-1369), part III, by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1899).  P. 1491.  http://tinyurl.com/azypca7 

[87] Website: English Deeds Prior to 1570.  Citing ‘A Cruwys Morchard Notebook, 1066-1874,’ by Margaret C.S. Cruwys. (Exeter and London, 1939).  http://tinyurl.com/a8mav9y  

[88] Devon and Cornwall Notes and Queries, vol. XIII part III (July 1924). P. 134-137 ‘Cruwys of Morchard and East Anstey,’ by F.B. Prideaux.

[89] The Genealogist, vol. 9 no. 1 (Spring 1988). P. 3-39 ‘The Trowbridge Ancestry,’ by Charles Fitch-Northen.

[90] Register of Edward, the Black Prince, vol. II  (Great Britain. Public Record Office, 1931).  P. 204.

[91] Pedigrees from the Plea Rolls, by George Wrottesley.  P. 435   http://tinyurl.com/a7pus69  

[92] Register of Edward, the Black Prince, vol. II  (Great Britain. Public Record Office, 1931).  P. 210.

[93] MS List of Records at Cruwys Morchard House. Devon Record Office Acquisition no. 1285.  Compiled by Margaret Cruwys and deposited in the Devon Record Office in 1964, transcribed by Debbie Kennett. Copy obtained January 2013. Doc. no. 67.

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[95] Collections Towards a Description of the County of Devon, by Sir William Pole (who died 1365) (London, 1791).  P. 420, 441  http://tinyurl.com/bgo5sb4  

[96] Crewes of South Cornwall, and their Ancestors in Liskeard, Cornwall, and Cruwys Morchard, Devon, compiled by T.F. Johns (privately published and in possession of Debbie Kennett, 2001).  P. 13.

[97] The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1386-1421, ed. J.S. Roskell, L. Clark, C. Rawcliffe., 1993.  Also, History of Parliament online.  Section 1386-1421, biography of Nicholas Broomford.  http://tinyurl.com/by5zzux 

[98] Register of Thomas de Brantyngham, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1370-1394) part 1, by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1901). P. 45 and 86 http://tinyurl.com/az47svh   http://tinyurl.com/azlg6cw 

[99] Calendar of Inquisitions Miscellaneous, Chancery, Preserved in the Public Record Office: 1399-1422.  Great Britain. Public Record Office, 1968.  P. 116.   http://tinyurl.com/ayazfm7 

[100] Cal. of the Fine Rolls, Vol. 7 (1923), Edward III, A.D. 1356-1368.  P. 277  WCE for John Bromford 28 April 1363  http://tinyurl.com/a7yr2r9   

[101] MS List of Records at Cruwys Morchard House. Devon Record Office Acquisition no. 1285.  Compiled by Margaret Cruwys and deposited in the Devon Record Office in 1964, transcribed by Debbie Kennett. Copy obtained January 2013. Doc. nos. 73 and 74.

[102] Register of Thomas de Brantyngham, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1370-1394) part 1, by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1901).  P. 177, 178.  http://tinyurl.com/aet9lfh 

[103] MS List of Records at Cruwys Morchard House. Devon Record Office Acquisition no. 1285.  Compiled by Margaret Cruwys and deposited in the Devon Record Office in 1964, transcribed by Debbie Kennett. Copy obtained January 2013. Doc. no. 73.

[104] Register of Thomas de Brantyngham, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1370-1394) part 1, by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1901).  P. 177, 178.  http://tinyurl.com/aet9lfh 

[105] Register of Edmund Stafford, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1395-1419), by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1895).  P. 196  http://tinyurl.com/b3qurln 

[106] Register of Edmund Stafford, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1395-1419), by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1895).  P. 302  http://tinyurl.com/bxjzh5d 

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[108] Crewes of South Cornwall, and their Ancestors in Liskeard, Cornwall, and Cruwys Morchard, Devon, compiled by T.F. Johns (privately published and in possession of Debbie Kennett, 2001).

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[110] MS List of Records at Cruwys Morchard House. Devon Record Office Acquisition no. 1285.  Compiled by Margaret Cruwys and deposited in the Devon Record Office in 1964, transcribed by Debbie Kennett. Copy obtained January 2013. Doc. no. 73.

[111] Register of Thomas de Brantyngham, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1370-1394) part 1, by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1901).  P. 177  http://tinyurl.com/9wr8zye 

[112] Register of Edmund Stafford, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1395-1419), by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1895).  http://tinyurl.com/b3qurln  

[113] Register of Edmund Stafford, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1395-1419), by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1895).  P. 302  http://tinyurl.com/bxjzh5d 

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[115] MS List of Records at Cruwys Morchard House. Devon Record Office Acquisition no. 1285.  Compiled by Margaret Cruwys and deposited in the Devon Record Office in 1964, transcribed by Debbie Kennett. Copy obtained January 2013.  Doc. no. 74.

[116] MS List of Records at Cruwys Morchard House. Devon Record Office Acquisition no. 1285.  Compiled by Margaret Cruwys and deposited in the Devon Record Office in 1964, transcribed by Debbie Kennett. Copy obtained January 2013.  Doc. no. 80.

[117] MS List of Records at Cruwys Morchard House. Devon Record Office Acquisition no. 1285.  Compiled by Margaret Cruwys and deposited in the Devon Record Office in 1964, transcribed by Debbie Kennett. Copy obtained January 2013. Doc. no. 82 and 85.

[118] Crewes of South Cornwall, and their Ancestors in Liskeard, Cornwall, and Cruwys Morchard, Devon, compiled by T.F. Johns (privately published and in possession of Debbie Kennett, 2001).  P. 16.

[119] Website:  Notes on Medieval Genealogy - by Chris Phillips, accessed January 2013.  Feet of Fine Transcriptions, CP 25/1/45/75, number 129.  http://tinyurl.com/bblhdl9   

[120] Register of Edmund Stafford, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1395-1419), by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1895).  P. 165.     http://tinyurl.com/aa7mfjx  

[121] MS List of Records at Cruwys Morchard House. Devon Record Office Acquisition no. 1285.  Compiled by Margaret Cruwys and deposited in the Devon Record Office in 1964, transcribed by Debbie Kennett. Copy obtained January 2013.  Doc. no. 83.

[122] Register of Edmund Stafford, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1395-1419), by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1895).  P. 401.    http://tinyurl.com/bdy5qj8 

[123] The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1386-1421, ed. J.S. Roskell, L. Clark, C. Rawcliffe., 1993.  Also, History of Parliament Online – Section 1386-1421, Biography of William Wilford.  http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org   http://tinyurl.com/cwqh6d9 

[124] Pedigrees from the Plea Rolls, by George Wrottesley.  P. 408, 435, 452  http://tinyurl.com/3yl58jx 

[125] Crewes of South Cornwall, and their Ancestors in Liskeard, Cornwall, and Cruwys Morchard, Devon, compiled by T.F. Johns (privately published and in possession of Debbie Kennett, 2001).  P. 13.

[126] Crewes of South Cornwall, and their Ancestors in Liskeard, Cornwall, and Cruwys Morchard, Devon, compiled by T.F. Johns (privately published and in possession of Debbie Kennett, 2001).  P. 17.

[127] MS List of Records at Cruwys Morchard House. Devon Record Office Acquisition no. 1285.  Compiled by Margaret Cruwys and deposited in the Devon Record Office in 1964, transcribed by Debbie Kennett. Copy obtained January 2013. Doc. no. 89.

[128] The History of Devonshire: In Three Volumes, by Richard Polwhele (1793-1806, reprint 1977).  P. 268.

[129] Pedigrees from the Plea Rolls, by George Wrottesley.  P. 408   http://tinyurl.com/3yl58jx 

[130] The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1386-1421, ed. J.S. Roskell, L. Clark, C. Rawcliffe., 1993.  Also, History of Parliament Online – Section 1386-1421, Biographies of Nicholas Radford and John Copplestone.  http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org  

[131] Devon and Cornwall Notes and Queries, vol. XIII part III (July 1924). P. 134-137 ‘Cruwys of Morchard and East Anstey,’ by F.B. Prideaux.  P. 137.

[132] Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids, vol. I (Bedford - Devon), By Great Britain. Public Record Office (1899).   P.  468.  http://tinyurl.com/afc8oas  

[133] Register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1420-1455) part III, by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1968).  Vol. 3 p. 208.  Ancestry.com subscription http://tinyurl.com/asps7qf  

[134] Register of Edmund Stafford, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1395-1419), by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1895).  P. 302.   http://tinyurl.com/bxjzh5d 

[135] Crewes of South Cornwall, and their Ancestors in Liskeard, Cornwall, and Cruwys Morchard, Devon, compiled by T.F. Johns (privately published and in possession of Debbie Kennett, 2001).  P. 17.

[136] MS List of Records at Cruwys Morchard House. Devon Record Office Acquisition no. 1285.  Compiled by Margaret Cruwys and deposited in the Devon Record Office in 1964, transcribed by Debbie Kennett. Copy obtained January 2013. Doc. no. 89.

[137] Visitations of the County of Devon, Comprising the Heralds Visitations of 1531, 1564 and 1620, by J.L. Vivian (1895).  P. 597  http://tinyurl.com/3h4anxh 

[138] Pedigrees from the Plea Rolls, by George Wrottesley.  P. 408, 435, 452  http://tinyurl.com/3yl58jx 

[139] Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids, vol. I (Bedford - Devon), By Great Britain. Public Record Office (1899).  P. 468  http://tinyurl.com/afc8oas 

[140] Register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1420-1455) part I, by Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (1909).  P. 88  http://tinyurl.com/7o822o9  

[141] Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids, vol. I (Bedford - Devon), By Great Britain. Public Record Office (1899).  P. 467  http://tinyurl.com/bnuh2hn 

[142] Website:  Notes on Medieval Genealogy - by Chris Phillips, accessed January 2013.  Feet of Fine Transcriptions, CP 25/1/46/93, number 1.  http://tinyurl.com/ce3ubnu 

[143] The Genealogist, vol. 9 no. 1 (Spring 1988). P. 3-39 ‘The Trowbridge Ancestry,’ by Charles Fitch-Northen.  P. 22-23. 

[144] The Genealogist, vol. 9 no. 1 (Spring 1988). P. 3-39 ‘The Trowbridge Ancestry,’ by Charles Fitch-Northen.  P. 23

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