Sample Assessments Relates SE Learning and Development
Social Emotional Scales (including Assets/Strengths and Empathy)
Note. Some of these tabled SEL assessment measures above are discussed here
Brief COPE is a 28-item multidimensional measure of strategies used for coping or regulating cognitions in response to stressors. This abbreviated inventory (based on the complete 60-item COPE Inventory) is comprised of items that assess the frequency with which a person uses different coping strategies (e.g., “I've been turning to work or other activities to take my mind off things,” “I've been making fun of the situation,” “I’ve been criticizing myself”) rated on a scale from 1, I haven't been doing this at all, to 4, I've been doing this a lot. There are 14 two-item subscales within the Brief COPE, and each is analyzed separately: (1) self-distraction, (2) active coping, (3) denial, (4) substance use, (5) use of emotional support, (6) use of instrumental support, (7) behavioral disengagement, (8) venting, (9) positive reframing, (10) planning, (11) humor, (12) acceptance, (13) religion, and (14) self-blame.
CASEL Assessment The Assessment Guide provides several resources for practitioners to select and use measures of student SEL, including guidance on how to select an assessment and use student SEL data, a catalog of SEL assessments equipped with filters and bookmarking, and real-world accounts of how practitioners are using SEL assessments.
Center on Standards & Assessment Implementation (SEL Information and Assessments)
Davis's Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980) is one of the classic empathy scales, that contains both affective and cognitive subscales. It is easily accessible, however, some questions have been raised recently around the validity of two of its scales.
Davis, M. H. (1980). A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85ff.
Devereux Student Strengths Assessment and four-item accompanying screener, the DESSA-Mini, are behavior rating scales completed by parents and/or teachers. The DESSA measures child strengths that map directly onto the SEL skills; provides ratings on 72 items across eight scales, including: · Optimistic thinking · Self-management · Goal-directed behavior · Self-awareness · Social awareness· Personal responsibility· Decision making · Relationship skills
Empathy Quotient (Baron-Cohen & Wheelwright, 2004). Note. Given advances in neuroscience research in this field, we now know that it is very important to distinguish between cognitive and emotional empathy.
Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2004). The empathy quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 34(2), 163-175.
The Middle Years Development Instrument (MDI) self-report survey for students in grades 4 to 7; measures these areas: social and emotional competence, connectedness, school experiences, physical and mental health, and constructive use of time.
Multifaceted Empathy Test (Dziobek et al., 2008) allows for separate assessments of cognitive and affective dimensions of functioning and appears to be a measure. It has reasonable validity (especially ecological) and reliability (lower for cognitive than implicit/explicit affective scales). This one is unique and involved in that it shows a series of context and person pictures for a set time on a computer screen, allowing participants to answer a series of questions between each.
Dziobek, I., Rogers, K., Fleck, S., Bahnemann, M., Heekeren, H. R., Wolf, O. T., et al. (2008). D (MET). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 464–473. doi: 10.1007/s10803-007-0486-x
Note. Researchers suggest that it is best practice to include a measure of social desirability with self-report empathy measures.
U. of Penn. Positive Psychology Center provides multiple assessment tools related to positive psychology research: https://ppc.sas.upenn.edu/resources/questionnaires-researchers. Here are examples:
Psychological Well-Being Scales (measures the following areas)
Purpose in life
Ready, Set, Go, Review: Screening for Behavioral Health Risk in Schools source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: Ready, Set, Go, Review: Screening for Behavioral Health Risk in Schools. Rockville, MD: Office of the Chief Medical Officer, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2019.
Search Institute: 40 Developmental Assets see SEARCH Survey
Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS) measures of K-12 students' assets and resilience, including problem-solving skills, interpersonal skills, ability to make and maintain friendships, ability to cope with adversity, and ability to be optimistic when faced with adversity. (student, parent and teacher versions)
Social-Emotional Learning Scale (SELS) (For elementary-age, 20-items) ES level; measures: Task Articulation, Peer Relationships, and Self-Regulation (Available in this publication: Coryn, C. L., Spybrook, J. K., Evergreen, S. D., & Blinkiewicz, M. (2009).Development and evaluation of the social-emotional learning scale. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 27(4), 283-295.)
Social Emotional Questionnaire for Children (SEQ-C) assess the ability to recognize emotions and empathic reactions MS and HS level (self-report and parent versions) (Available in this publication: Wall, S.E., Williams, W. H., Morris., R. G, & Bramham, J. (2011). The development of a new measure of social-emotional functioning for young adolescents. Clinical Child Psychology Psychiatry, 16, 301-315.)
SSIS™ Social–Emotional Learning Edition (SSIS SEL)
Age Range: 3:0–18:0. Intervention program is most appropriate for children ages 4 to 14. Completion Time: 10–25 mins Norms: Assessments normed for ages 3 to 18. Intervention program is most appropriate for children ages 4 to 14. Teacher, student and parent forms available. Basically you’d use the SSIS’s assessment tools. Measures Self-awareness, Self-Management, Social Awareness, Relationship Skills, and Responsible Decision Making
The Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) is a behavior rating scale assessing the frequency of socially competent and socially
interfering behavior (Gresham & Elliott, 1990) also measures, e.g., cooperation, assertiveness, and self-control.
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) measures 3 to 16 year olds’ psychological attributes (25 items). With 5 sub-scales: 1. Emotional symptoms, 2. Conduct problems, 3. Hyperactivity and inattention, 4. Peer relationship problems, and 5. prosocial behavior. Has teacher version, a self-report version (for ages 11 to 16). Questionnaires, scoring instructions, and record sheets are available at NO cost in multiple languages.
VIA Survey of Character Strengths. Measures 24 Character Strengths
VIA Strength Survey for Children. Measures 24 Character Strengths for Children
Brief Strengths Test. Measures 24 Character Strengths (short)
Other Related Measures
The Children's Self-Efficacy for Peer Interaction Scale (reformatted and attached below) (Also available through this publication: Wheeler, V. A., & Ladd, G. W. (1982). Assessment of children's self-efficacy for social interactions with peers. Developmental Psychology, 18(6), 795-805. doi:10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.1245) Measuring aspects of student engagement in upper elementary through high school: A survey of 21 vetted measures.
Self-determination model relates well to social-emotional development, motivation to learn and academic/cognitive development (see questionnaires)
School and Classroom Climate Issues and Measures
In theory and practice, SEL should positively influence school and classroom climate. An excellent study that looked at the major dimensions of school climate is available
Zullig, K. J., Koopman, T. M., Patton, J. M., & Ubbes, V. A. (2010). School climate: Historical review, instrument development, and school assessment.Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28(2), 139-152.
The National School Climate Center is a useful resource for researchers and practitioners to access. According to the Center's own definition: "School climate refers to the quality and character of school life. School climate is based on patterns of students', parents' and school personnel's experience of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational structures. There are numerous measures of school and classroom climate that are relatively well validated.
The Center touts this measure: The Comprehensive School Climate Inventory (CSCI)
"The Comprehensive School Climate Inventory (CSCI) is one of the nation’s most scientifically sound and helpful surveys that provide immediate feedback on how students, parents, and school personnel perceive your school's particular climate for learning. Vetted by the National School Climate Council, three independent reviews of school climate measures, a core group of practice and policy leaders, the CSCI is considered to be one of the top school climate surveys in the field. This social, emotional and civic as well as intellectual information provides a foundation for the five-stage school climate improvement process."
Sample school and classroom climate instruments that are well cited are:
Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) is another recently developed and well-respected classroom climate observational system. The CLASS examines three domains of behavior including emotional support (e.g., positive climate, negative climate, teacher sensitivity), classroom organization, and instructional support.
Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS) School Satisfaction Subscale (Huebner, 1994). The MSLSS School Satisfaction subscale consists of eight items assessing a respondent’s satisfaction with his or her school experience.
My Classroom Inventory-Short Form (MCI-SF; Fraser and Fisher, 1982a) Student, Parent/Caregiver, and Teacher Versions. The Studeent MCI-SF is a 25-item, self-report measure. There is an elementary school measure.
Mariani, M., Sink, C. A., Villares, E., & Berger, C. (in press). Measuring Classroom Climate: A Validation Study of the My Child’s Classroom Inventory-Short Form for Parents. Professional School Counseling.
Mariani, M., Villares, E., Sink, C. A., Colvin, K., & Kuba, S. P. (2016). Confirming the structural validity of the My Class Inventory – Short Form Revised. Professional School Counseling, 19(1), 92-102. doi: 10.5330/1096-2409-19.1.92
Sink, C. A., & Spencer, L. R. (2005). My Class Inventory-Short Form as an accountability tool for elementary school counselors to measure classroom climate. Professional School Counseling, 9(1), 37-48.
Sink, C. A., & Spencer, L. R. (2007). Teacher version of the My Class Inventory—Short Form: An accountability tool for elementary school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 11(2), 129-139.
Villares, E., Mariani, M., Sink, C. A., & Colvin, K. (2016). Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis of the Teacher My Class Inventory–Short Form. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 49(4), 1-11. doi:10.1177/0748175616639107
School Climate Measure (SCM: Zullig et al., 2010). See: Zullig, K. J., Huebner, E. S., & Patton, J. M. (2011). Relationships among school climate domains and school satisfaction. Psychology in the Schools,48(2), 133-145.