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IPA Reference English

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IPA English  Description
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i   ē        Close front unrounded vowel; Long 'e'
y            Close front rounded vowel
ɨ            Close central unrounded vowel
ʉ            Close central rounded vowel
ɯ            Close back unrounded vowel
u   ü        Close back rounded vowel; Latin 'u'
ɪ   ĭ        Near-close near-front unrounded vowel; Short 'i'
ʏ            Near-close near-front rounded vowel
ʊ            Near-close near-back vowel
e            Close-mid front unrounded vowel
ø            Close-mid front rounded vowel
ɘ            Close-mid central unrounded vowel
ɵ            Close-mid central rounded vowel
ɤ            Close-mid back unrounded vowel
o            Close-mid back rounded vowel
ə            Mid central vowel
ɛ   ĕ        Open-mid front unrounded vowel; Short 'e'
œ            Open-mid front rounded vowel
ɜ            Open-mid central unrounded vowel
ɞ            Open-mid central rounded vowel
ʌ   ŭ        Open-mid back unrounded vowel; Short 'u'
ɔ            Open-mid back rounded vowel
æ            Near-open front unrounded vowel
ɐ   ŭ        Near-open central unrounded vowel
a   ă        Open front unrounded vowel; Short 'a'
ɶ            Open front rounded vowel
ɑ            Open back unrounded vowel
ɒ   ŏ        Open back rounded vowel; Short 'o'
m   m        Bilabial nasal
ɱ            Labiodental nasal
n   n        Alveolar nasal
ɳ            Retroflex nasal
ɲ            Palatal nasal
ŋ   ng       Velar nasal
ɴ            Uvular nasal
p   p        Voiceless bilabial plosive
b   b        Voiced bilabial plosive
t   t        Voiceless alveolar plosive
d   d        Voiced alveolar plosive
ʈ            Voiceless retroflex plosive
ɖ            Voiced retroflex plosive
c            Voiceless palatal plosive
ɟ            Voiced palatal plosive
k   k c      Voiceless velar plosive
ɡ   g        Voiced velar plosive
q   q        Voiceless uvular plosive
ɢ            Voiced uvular plosive
ʡ            Epiglottal plosive
ʔ   .        Glottal stop
ɸ            Voiceless bilabial fricative
β            Voiced bilabial fricative
θ   th       Voiceless dental fricative
ð   th       Voiced dental fricative
f   f ph     Voiceless labiodental fricative
v   v        Voiced labiodental fricative
s   s        Voiceless alveolar fricative
z   z        Voiced alveolar fricative
ʃ   sh       Voiceless postalveolar fricative
ʒ            Voiced postalveolar fricative
ʂ            Voiceless retroflex fricative
ʐ            Voiced retroflex fricative
ç            Voiceless palatal fricative
ʝ            Voiced palatal fricative
x   ch       Voiceless velar fricative
ɣ            Voiced velar fricative
χ            Voiceless uvular fricative
ʁ            Voiced uvular fricative
ħ            Voiceless pharyngeal fricative
ʕ            Voiced pharyngeal fricative
ʜ            Voiceless epiglottal fricative
ʢ            Voiced epiglottal fricative
h   h        Voiceless glottal transition
ɦ            Breathy-voiced glottal transition
ʋ            Labiodental approximant
ɹ   r        Alveolar approximant
ɻ            Retroflex approximant
j   y        Palatal approximant
ɰ            Velar approximant
ʙ            Bilabial trill
r            Alveolar trill
ʀ            Uvular trill
ⱱ            Labiodental flap
ɾ            Alveolar tap
ɽ            Retroflex flap
ɬ            Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative
ɮ            Voiced alveolar lateral fricative
l   l        Alveolar lateral approximant
ɭ            Retroflex lateral approximant
ʎ            Palatal lateral approximant
ʟ            Velar lateral approximant
ɺ            Alveolar lateral flap
ɫ            Velarized alveolar lateral approximant
ɕ            Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative        
ʑ            Voiced alveolo-palatal fricative
ɧ            Voiceless palatal-velar fricative
ʍ            Voiceless labio-velar approximant
w   w        Voiced labio-velar approximant
ɥ            Labial-palatal approximant
kp           Voiceless labial-velar plosive
ɡp           Voiced labial-velar plosive
ŋm           Labial-velar nasal
ʘ            Bilabial clicks
ǀ            Dental clicks
ǃ            Alveolar clicks
ǂ            Palatal clicks
ǁ            Lateral clicks
ɓ            Voiced bilabial implosive
ɗ            Voiced alveolar implosive
ʄ            Voiced palatal implosive
ɠ            Voiced velar implosive
ʛ            Voiced uvular implosive
pʼ           Bilabial ejective
ť            Alveolar ejective
kʼ           Velar ejective
qʼ           Uvular ejective
sʼ           Alveolar ejective fricative
eɪ  ā        
aɪ  ī        
oʊ  ō        
ju  ū       
ts           Voiceless alveolar affricate
dz           Voiced alveolar affricate
tʃ  ch       Voiceless postalveolar affricate
dʒ  j        Voiced postalveolar affricate
tɕ           Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
dʑ           Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
ʈʂ           Voiceless retroflex affricate
ɖʐ           Voiced retroflex affricate
tɬ           Voiceless alveolar lateral affricate
dɮ           Voiced alveolar lateral affricate
ˈ            Primary stress
ˌ            Secondary stress
ː            Long
ˑ            Half-long
.            Syllable break
↗            Global rise
↘            Global fall
˥            Extra high / top
˦            High
˧            Mid
˨            Low
˩            Extra low / bottom

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