* Corresponding author


Hwang, Y. T., Tseng, H. Y., Li, K. C., Kang, S. M., Chen, Y. J., & Chiang, J. C. (2021). Relative roles of energy and momentum fluxes in the tropical response to extratropical thermal forcing. Journal of Climate, 34(10), 3771-3786.

Kim, H., Kang, S. M., Takahashi, K., Donohoe, A., & Pendergrass, A. G. (2021). Mechanisms of tropical precipitation biases in climate models. Climate Dynamics, 56(1), 17-27.


Kang, S. M., Xie, S. P., Shin, Y., Kim, H., Hwang, Y. T., Stuecker, M. F., ... & Hawcroft, M. (2020). Walker circulation response to extratropical radiative forcing. Science advances, 6(47), eabd3021.

Kang, S. M.*, 2020: Extratropical Influence on the Tropical Rainfall Distribution. Curr. Clim. Change Rep., doi:10.1007/s40641-020-00154-y. official link

Stuecker, M. F., and Coauthors, 2020: Strong remote control of future equatorial warming by off-equatorial forcing. Nature Climate Change, 10, 124–129. official link


Kang, S. M.*, and Coauthors, 2019: Extratropical–Tropical Interaction Model Intercomparison Project (Etin-Mip): Protocol and Initial Results. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100, 2589–2606. official link

Cai W. and coauthors, 2019: Pantropical climate interactions, Science, 363(6430), doi:10.1126/science.aav4236. official link


Kang, S. M.*, K. Park, Y.-T. Hwang, and W.-T. Hsiao, 2018: Contrasting tropical climate response pattern to localized thermal forcing over different ocean basins, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45(22), 12,544-12,552. official link

Stuecker, M. F.*, C. M. Bitz, K. C. Armour, C. Proistosescu, S. M. Kang, S.-P. Xie, D. Kim, S. McGregor, W. Zhang, S. Zhao, W. Cai, Y. Dong, and F.-F. Jin, 2018: Polar amplification dominated by local forcing and feedbacks, Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0339-y. official link

White, R. H.*, A. A. McFarlane, D. M. W. Frierson, S. M. Kang, Y. Shin, M. Friedman, 2018: Tropical Precipitation and Cross-Equatorial Heat Transport in Response to Localized Heating: Basin and Hemisphere Dependence, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi: 10.1029/2018GL078781. official link

Kang, S. M.*, Y. Shin, and F. Codron, 2018: The partitioning of poleward energy transport response between the atmosphere and Ekman flux to prescribed surface forcing in a simplified GCM, Geoscience Letters, 5:22, official link

Biasutti, M., Voigt, A., Boos, W.R., Braconnot, P., Hargreaves, J. C.., Harrison, S. P., Kang, S. M., Mapes, B. E., Scheff, J., Schumacher, C., Sobel, A. H., and Xie, S. P., 2018: Global energetics and local physics as drivers of past, present and future monsoons, Nature Geo., 11, 392-400. official link

Xiang, B., M. Zhao, Y. Ming, W. Yu, and S. M. Kang., 2018: Contrasting Impacts of radiative forcing in the Southern Ocean versus Southern Tropics on ITCZ position and energy transport in one GFDL climate model, J. Climate, 31, 5609-5628. official link

Kim, D., S. M. Kang*, Y. Shin, and N. Feldl, 2018: Sensitivity of polar amplification to varying insolation conditions, J. Climate, 31, 4933-4947. official link

Cho, M.-H., A.-R. Yang, E.-H. Baek, S. M. Kang, S.-J. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, B.-M. Kim, 2018: Vegetation-cloud feedbacks to future vegetation changes in the Arctic regions, Clim. Dyn., 50, 3745-3755. official link

Park, K., S. M. Kang*, D. Kim, M. F. Stuecker, and F.-F. Jin, 2018: Contrasting local and remote impacts of surface heating on polar warming and amplification. J. Climate, 31(8), 3155-3166. official link

Swart, N. C., J. Busecke, G. Langendijk, K. A. Reed, S. M. Kang*, E. Behrens, ... and D. Nath, 2018: Reflections on the CLIVAR Early Career Scientists Symposium 2016. npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 1, doi:10.1038/s41612-018-0015-y.

Kang, S. M.*, Y. Shin, and S. P. Xie, 2018: Extratropical forcing and tropical rainfall distribution: energetics framework and ocean Ekman advection. npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 1, doi:10.1038/s41612-017-0004-6. official link


Kang, S. M.*, K. Park, F.-F. Jin, and M. F. Stuecker, 2017: Common Warming Pattern Emerges Irrespective of Forcing Location, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., doi:10.1002/2017MS001083. official link

Hwang, Y.-T., S.-P. Xie, C. Deser, and S. M. Kang, 2017: Connecting Tropical Climate Change with Southern Ocean Heat Uptake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 9449–9457, doi:10.1002/2017GL074972. official link

Shin, Y., S. M. Kang*, and M. Watanabe, 2017: Dependence of Arctic climate on the latitudinal position of stationary waves and to high-latitudes surface warming, Clim. Dyn.., DOI:10.1007/s00382-017-3543-y. official link

Seo, J., S. M. Kang*, and T. Merlis, 2017: A model intercomparison of the tropical precipitation response to a CO2 doubling in aquaplanet simulations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 993-1000, doi:10.1002/2016GL072347. official link


Voigt, A., et al., 2016: The tropical rain belts with an annual cycle and a continent model intercomparison project: TRACMIP, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 08, doi:10.1002/2016MS000748. official link

Maroon, E. A., D. M. W. Frierson, S. M. Kang, and J. Scheff, 2016: The precipitation response to an idealized subtropical continent. J. Climate, 29, 4543-4564. official link


Shaw, T. A., A. Voigt, S. M. Kang, and J. Seo, 2015. Response of the intertropical convergence zone to zonally asymmetric subtropical surface forcings. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42(22), 9961-9969. official link

Webb, M. J., A. P. Lock, C. S. Bretherton, S. Bony, J. N. Cole, A. Idelkadi, S. M. Kang, T. Koshiro, H. Kawai, T. Ogura, R. Roehrig, Y. Shin, T. Mauritsen, S. C. Sherwood, J. Vial, M. Watanabe, M. D. Woelfle, and M. Zhao, 2015: The impact of parametrized convection on cloud feedback. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 373(2054), 20140414. official link

Kang, S. M., B.-M. Kim, D. M. W. Frierson, S.-J. Jeong, J. Seo, and Y. Chae, 2015: Seasonal dependence of the effect of Arctic greening on tropical precipitation, J. Climate, 28, 6086-6095. official link

Kim, H., S. M. Kang*, Y.-T. Hwang, and Y.-M. Yang, 2015: Sensitivity of the climate response to the altitude of black carbon in the norther subtropics in an aquaplanet GCM, J. Climate, 28, 6351-6359. official link

Chae, Y., S. M. Kang*, S.-J. Jeong, B. Kim, and D. M. W. Frierson, 2015: Arctic greening can cause earlier seasonality of Arctic amplification, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, DOI:10.1002/2014GL061841. official link


Seo, J., S. M. Kang*, and D. M. W. Frierson, 2014: Sensitivity of Intertropical Convergence Zone Movement to the Latitudinal Position of Thermal Forcing, J. Climate, 27(8), 3035-3042. Highlighted in BAMS as Papers of Note. official link

Kang, S. M., R. Seager, D. M. W. Frierson, and X. Liu, 2014: Croll Revisited: Why is the Northern Hemisphere Warmer than the Southern Hemisphere, Clim. Dyn., DOI:10.1007/s00382-014-2147-z. official link

Kang, S. M. and S.-P. Xie, 2014: Dependence of climate response on meridional structure of external thermal forcing, J. Climate, 27, 5593-5600. official link

Kang, S. M., I. M. Held, and S.-P. Xie, 2014: Contrasting the Tropical Responses to Zonally Asymmetric Extratropical and Tropical Thermal Forcing, Clim. Dyn., 42, 2033-2043. official link

Frierson, D. M. W., Y.-T. Hwang, N. S. Fuckar, R. Seager, S. M. Kang, A. Donohoe, E. A. Maroon, X. Liu, and D. S. Battisti, 2013: Contribution of ocean overturning circulation to tropical rainfall peak in the Northern Hemisphere, Nature Geo., DOI:10.1038/NGEO1987. official link

Kang, S. M., C. Deser, and L. M. Polvani, 2013: Uncertainty in climate change projections of the Hadley circulation: the role of internal variability, J. Climate, 26(19), 7541-7554. official link PDF

Kang, S. M., L. M. Polvani, J. C. Fyfe, S.-W. Son, M. Sigmond, and G. J. P. Correa, 2013: Modeling evidence that ozone depletion has impacted extreme precipitation in the austral summer, Geophys. Res. Lett., DOI: 10.1002/grl.50769. official link, highlighted at Nature Geo

Hwang, Y.-T., D. M. W. Frierson, and S. M. Kang, 2013: Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol and the southward shift of tropical precipitation in the late 20th century, Geophys. Res. Lett., DOI:10.1002/grl.50502. official link PDF

Kang, S. M., and J. Lu, 2012: Expansion of the Hadley cell under global warming: winter versus summer. J. Climate, 25(24), 8387-8393. official link PDF

Kang, S. M., and I. M. Held, 2012: Tropical precipitation, SSTs and the surface energy budget: a zonally symmetric perspective. Clim. Dyn., 38(9-10), 1917-1924. official link PDF

Kang, S. M., L. M. Polvani, J. C. Fyfe, and M. Sigmond, 2011: Impact of polar ozone depletion on subtropical precipitation. Science, 332(6032), 951-954. official link PDF

Kang, S. M., and L. M. Polvani, 2011: The interannual relationship between the latitude of the eddy-driven jet and the edge of the Hadley cell. J. Climate, 24(2), 563-568. official link PDF

Zhang, R., S. M. Kang, and I. M. Held, 2010: Sensitivity of climate change induced by the weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to cloud feedback. J. Climate, 23, 378-389. official link PDF

Kang, S. M., D. M. W. Frierson, and I. M. Held, 2009: The tropical response to extratropical thermal forcing in an idealized GCM: the importance of radiative feedbacks and convective parameterization. J. Atm. Sci., 66, 2812-2827. official link PDF

Kang, S. M., I. M. Held, D. M. W. Frierson, and M. Zhao, 2008: The response of the ITCZ to extratropical thermal forcing: Idealized slab-ocean experiments with a GCM. J. Climate, 21(14), 3521-3532. official link PDF