Kang, S. M.*, C. Deser*, X. Zhang, I.-S. Kang, S.-S. Lee, K. B. Rodgers, and P. Ceppi, 2023: Global impacts of recent Southern Ocean cooling, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., doi:10.1073/pnas.2300881120. official link

Kang, S. M.*, Y. Shin, H. Kim, S.-P. Xie, and S. Hu, 2023: Disentangling the mechanisms of equatorial Pacific climate change. Science Advances, 9, eadf5059. official link 

Xiang, B., S.-P. Xie, S. M. Kang, and R. J. Kramer, 2023: An emerging Asian aerosol dipole pattern reshapes the Asian summer monsoon and exacerbates northern hemisphere warming, npj Clim. Atm. Sci., doi:10.1038/s41612-023-00400-8. official link


Kim, J., S. M. Kang*, S.-P. Xie, B. Xiang, D. Kim, X.-T. Zheng, and H. Wang, 2022: Large-scale climate response to regionally confined extratropical cooling: effect of ocean dynamics. Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-022-06500-0. official link 

Kim, H., S. M. Kang*, J. E. Kay, and S.-P. Xie, 2022: Subtropical clouds key to Southern Ocean teleconnections to the tropical Pacific. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., doi:10.1073/pnas.2200514119. official link

Kim, D., H. Kim, S. M. Kang*, M. F. Stuecker, and T. M. Merlis, 2022: Weak Hadley cell intensity changes due to compensating effects of tropical and extratropical radiative forcing. npj Clim. Atm. Sci., doi:10.1038/s41612-022-00287-x. official link

Geng, Y., Xie, S., Zheng, X., Long, S., Kang, S. M., Lin, X., & Song, Z., 2022: CMIP6 Intermodel Spread in Interhemispheric Asymmetry of Tropical Climate Response to Greenhouse Warming: Extratropical Ocean Effects, J. Climate, 35(14), 4869-4882. official link

Hsiao, W.-T., Y.-T. Hwang, Y.-J. Chen, and S. M. Kang, 2022: The Role of Clouds in Shaping Tropical Pacific Response Pattern to Extratropical Thermal Forcing. Geo. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2022GL098023. official link

Park, C., S. M. Kang*, M. F. Stuecker, and F.-F. Jin, 2022: Distinct Surface Warming Response Over the Western and Eastern Equatorial Pacific to Radiative Forcing. Geo. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2021GL095829. official link

Lee, J., S. M. Kang*, H. Kim, and B. Xiang, 2022: Disentangling the effect of regional SST bias on the double-ITCZ problem. Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-021-06107-x. official link

Kim, H., A. G. Pendergrass, and S. M. Kang* , 2022: The dependence of mean climate state on shortwave absorption by water vapor. J. Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-21-0417.1. official link


Shin, Y., and S. M. Kang*, 2021: How does the high-latitude thermal forcing in one hemisphere affect the other hemisphere? Geo. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2021GL095870. official link

Hu, S., S.-P. Xie, and S. M. Kang, 2021: Global warming pattern formation: the role of ocean heat uptake. J. Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-21-0317.1. official link

Kim, D., S. M. Kang*, T. Merlis, and Y. Shin, 2021: Atmospheric circulation sensitivity to changes in the vertical structure of polar warming. Geo. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2021GL094726. official link

Kang, S. M.*, S.-P. Xie, C. Deser, and B. Xiang, 2021: Zonal mean and shift modes of historical climate response to evolving aerosol distribution. Science Bulletin, doi:10.1016/j.scib.2021.07.013. official link

Shin, Y., S. M. Kang*, K. Takahashi, M. F. Stuecker, Y.-T. Hwang, and D. Kim, 2021: Evolution of the Tropical Response to Periodic Extratropical Thermal Forcing. J. Climate, 34(15), 6335-6353. official link

Hwang, Y. T.*, Tseng, H. Y., Li, K. C., Kang, S. M., Chen, Y. J., & Chiang, J. C., 2021: Relative roles of energy and momentum fluxes in the tropical response to extratropical thermal forcing. Journal of Climate, 34(10), 3771-3786. official link

Kim, H., Kang, S. M.*, Takahashi, K., Donohoe, A., & Pendergrass, A. G., 2021: Mechanisms of tropical precipitation biases in climate models. Climate Dynamics, 56(1), 17-27. official link


Kang, S. M.*, Xie, S. P., Shin, Y., Kim, H., Hwang, Y. T., Stuecker, M. F., ... & Hawcroft, M., 2020: Walker circulation response to extratropical radiative forcing. Science advances, 6(47), eabd3021. official link

Kang, S. M.*, 2020: Extratropical Influence on the Tropical Rainfall Distribution. Curr. Clim. Change Rep., doi:10.1007/s40641-020-00154-y. official link

Stuecker, M. F.*, and Coauthors, 2020: Strong remote control of future equatorial warming by off-equatorial forcing. Nature Climate Change, 10, 124–129. official link


Kang, S. M.*, and Coauthors, 2019: Extratropical–Tropical Interaction Model Intercomparison Project (Etin-Mip): Protocol and Initial Results. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100, 2589–2606. official link

Cai W. and Coauthors, 2019: Pantropical climate interactions, Science, 363(6430), doi:10.1126/science.aav4236. official link


Kang, S. M.*, K. Park, Y.-T. Hwang, and W.-T. Hsiao, 2018: Contrasting tropical climate response pattern to localized thermal forcing over different ocean basins, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45(22), 12,544-12,552. official link

Stuecker, M. F.*, C. M. Bitz, K. C. Armour, C. Proistosescu, S. M. Kang, S.-P. Xie, D. Kim, S. McGregor, W. Zhang, S. Zhao, W. Cai, Y. Dong, and F.-F. Jin, 2018: Polar amplification dominated by local forcing and feedbacks, Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0339-y. http://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-018-0339-y. official link

White, R. H.*, A. A. McFarlane, D. M. W. Frierson, S. M. Kang, Y. Shin, M. Friedman, 2018: Tropical Precipitation and Cross-Equatorial Heat Transport in Response to Localized Heating: Basin and Hemisphere Dependence, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi: 10.1029/2018GL078781. official link

Kang, S. M.*, Y. Shin, and F. Codron, 2018: The partitioning of poleward energy transport response between the atmosphere and Ekman flux to prescribed surface forcing in a simplified GCM, Geoscience Letters, 5:22, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40562-018-0124-9. official link

Biasutti, M.*, Voigt, A., Boos, W.R., Braconnot, P., Hargreaves, J. C.., Harrison, S. P., Kang, S. M., Mapes, B. E., Scheff, J., Schumacher, C., Sobel, A. H., and Xie, S. P., 2018: Global energetics and local physics as drivers of past, present and future monsoons, Nature Geo., 11, 392-400. official link

Xiang, B.*, M. Zhao, Y. Ming, W. Yu, and S. M. Kang., 2018: Contrasting Impacts of radiative forcing in the Southern Ocean versus Southern Tropics on ITCZ position and energy transport in one GFDL climate model, J. Climate, 31, 5609-5628. official link

Kim, D., S. M. Kang*, Y. Shin, and N. Feldl, 2018: Sensitivity of polar amplification to varying insolation conditions, J. Climate, 31, 4933-4947. official link

Cho, M.-H., A.-R. Yang, E.-H. Baek, S. M. Kang, S.-J. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, B.-M. Kim*, 2018: Vegetation-cloud feedbacks to future vegetation changes in the Arctic regions, Clim. Dyn., 50, 3745-3755. official link

Park, K., S. M. Kang*, D. Kim, M. F. Stuecker, and F.-F. Jin, 2018: Contrasting local and remote impacts of surface heating on polar warming and amplification. J. Climate, 31(8), 3155-3166. official link

Swart, N. C., J. Busecke, G. Langendijk, K. A. Reed, S. M. Kang*, E. Behrens, ... and D. Nath, 2018: Reflections on the CLIVAR Early Career Scientists Symposium 2016. npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 1, doi:10.1038/s41612-018-0015-y.

Kang, S. M.*, Y. Shin, and S. P. Xie, 2018: Extratropical forcing and tropical rainfall distribution: energetics framework and ocean Ekman advection. npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 1, doi:10.1038/s41612-017-0004-6. official link


Kang, S. M.*, K. Park, F.-F. Jin, and M. F. Stuecker, 2017: Common Warming Pattern Emerges Irrespective of Forcing Location, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., doi:10.1002/2017MS001083. official link

Hwang, Y.-T.*, S.-P. Xie, C. Deser, and S. M. Kang, 2017: Connecting Tropical Climate Change with Southern Ocean Heat Uptake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 9449–9457, doi:10.1002/2017GL074972. official link

Shin, Y., S. M. Kang*, and M. Watanabe, 2017: Dependence of Arctic climate on the latitudinal position of stationary waves and to high-latitudes surface warming, Clim. Dyn.., DOI:10.1007/s00382-017-3543-y. official link

Seo, J., S. M. Kang*, and T. Merlis, 2017: A model intercomparison of the tropical precipitation response to a CO2 doubling in aquaplanet simulations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 993-1000, doi:10.1002/2016GL072347. official link


Voigt, A.*, et al., 2016: The tropical rain belts with an annual cycle and a continent model intercomparison project: TRACMIP, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 08, doi:10.1002/2016MS000748. official link

Maroon, E. A.*, D. M. W. Frierson, S. M. Kang, and J. Scheff, 2016: The precipitation response to an idealized subtropical continent. J. Climate, 29, 4543-4564. official link


Shaw, T. A.*, A. Voigt, S. M. Kang, and J. Seo, 2015. Response of the intertropical convergence zone to zonally asymmetric subtropical surface forcings. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42(22), 9961-9969. official link

Webb, M. J.*, A. P. Lock, C. S. Bretherton, S. Bony, J. N. Cole, A. Idelkadi, S. M. Kang, T. Koshiro, H. Kawai, T. Ogura, R. Roehrig, Y. Shin, T. Mauritsen, S. C. Sherwood, J. Vial, M. Watanabe, M. D. Woelfle, and M. Zhao, 2015: The impact of parametrized convection on cloud feedback. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 373(2054), 20140414. official link

Kang, S. M.*, B.-M. Kim, D. M. W. Frierson, S.-J. Jeong, J. Seo, and Y. Chae, 2015: Seasonal dependence of the effect of Arctic greening on tropical precipitation, J. Climate, 28, 6086-6095. official link

Kim, H., S. M. Kang*, Y.-T. Hwang, and Y.-M. Yang, 2015: Sensitivity of the climate response to the altitude of black carbon in the norther subtropics in an aquaplanet GCM, J. Climate, 28, 6351-6359. official link

Chae, Y., S. M. Kang*, S.-J. Jeong, B. Kim, and D. M. W. Frierson, 2015: Arctic greening can cause earlier seasonality of Arctic amplification, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, DOI:10.1002/2014GL061841. official link


Seo, J., S. M. Kang*, and D. M. W. Frierson, 2014: Sensitivity of Intertropical Convergence Zone Movement to the Latitudinal Position of Thermal Forcing, J. Climate, 27(8), 3035-3042. Highlighted in BAMS as Papers of Note. official link

Kang, S. M.*, R. Seager, D. M. W. Frierson, and X. Liu, 2014: Croll Revisited: Why is the Northern Hemisphere Warmer than the Southern Hemisphere, Clim. Dyn., DOI:10.1007/s00382-014-2147-z. official link

Kang, S. M.*, and S.-P. Xie, 2014: Dependence of climate response on meridional structure of external thermal forcing,  J. Climate, 27, 5593-5600. official link

Kang, S. M.*, I. M. Held, and S.-P. Xie, 2014: Contrasting the Tropical Responses to Zonally Asymmetric Extratropical and Tropical Thermal Forcing, Clim. Dyn., 42, 2033-2043. official link


Frierson, D. M. W.*, Y.-T. Hwang, N. S. Fuckar, R. Seager, S. M. Kang, A. Donohoe, E. A. Maroon, X. Liu, and D. S. Battisti, 2013: Contribution of ocean overturning circulation to tropical rainfall peak in the Northern Hemisphere, Nature Geo., DOI:10.1038/NGEO1987. official link

Kang, S. M.*, C. Deser, and L. M. Polvani, 2013: Uncertainty in climate change projections of the Hadley circulation: the role of internal variability,  J. Climate, 26(19), 7541-7554. official link PDF

Kang, S. M.*, L. M. Polvani, J. C. Fyfe, S.-W. Son, M. Sigmond, and G. J. P. Correa, 2013: Modeling evidence that ozone depletion has impacted extreme precipitation in the austral summer, Geophys. Res. Lett., DOI: 10.1002/grl.50769. official link, highlighted at Nature Geo

Hwang, Y.-T.*, D. M. W. Frierson, and S. M. Kang, 2013: Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol and the southward shift of tropical precipitation in the late 20th century, Geophys. Res. Lett.,  DOI:10.1002/grl.50502. official link PDF


Kang, S. M.*, and J. Lu, 2012: Expansion of the Hadley cell under global warming: winter versus summer. J. Climate, 25(24), 8387-8393. official link PDF

Kang, S. M.*, and I. M. Held, 2012: Tropical precipitation, SSTs and the surface energy budget: a zonally symmetric perspective. Clim. Dyn., 38(9-10), 1917-1924. official link PDF


Kang, S. M.*, L. M. Polvani, J. C. Fyfe, and M. Sigmond, 2011: Impact of polar ozone depletion on subtropical precipitation. Science, 332(6032), 951-954. official link PDF

Kang, S. M.*, and L. M. Polvani, 2011: The interannual relationship between the latitude of the eddy-driven jet and the edge of the Hadley cell. J. Climate, 24(2), 563-568. official link PDF

Zhang, R.*, S. M. Kang, and I. M. Held, 2010: Sensitivity of climate change induced by the weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to cloud feedback. J. Climate, 23, 378-389. official link PDF

Kang, S. M.*, D. M. W. Frierson, and I. M. Held, 2009: The tropical response to extratropical thermal forcing in an idealized GCM: the importance of radiative feedbacks and convective parameterization. J. Atm. Sci., 66, 2812-2827. official link PDF

Kang, S. M.*, I. M. Held, D. M. W. Frierson, and M. Zhao, 2008: The response of the ITCZ to extratropical thermal forcing: Idealized slab-ocean experiments with a GCM. J. Climate, 21(14), 3521-3532. official link PDF

* Corresponding author