DIVEST FROM FOSSIL FUELS

"DIVEST FROM FOSSIL FUELS" records expert opinion and numerous individual activists, organizations, towns, cities, colleges, universities and churches and favoring Boycotts, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) against the climate criminals who are hell-bent on destroying  the planet - ecocide, speciescide, omnicide and  terracide - for short-term private profit. For user  convenience this  compendium of expert opinion is organized alphabetically.


THE PROBLEM.


The World is facing a climate emergency due to global warming from man-derived greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution. The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is now (2016) a record 405 parts per million (ppm) and increasing at a record 3 ppm per year. Until recently the atmospheric CO2 concentration was in the range of 180-300 ppm for the last 800,000 years, fluctuations in this range giving rise to successive glacial and inter-glacial periods that imposed selection pressures upon evolving humanity. The average surface temperature is now +0.8C above that in 1900 and this has already been associated with major climate, weather and biological disruptions. Indeed the species extinction rate is now 100-1,000 timers greater than normal. [1].

Both Dr James Lovelock FRS (Gaia hypothesis) and Professor Kevin Anderson ( Director, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Manchester, UK) have recently estimated that only about 0.5 billion people will survive this century due to unaddressed, man-made global warming. Noting that the world population is expected to reach 9.5 billion by 2050 (UN Population Division) , these estimates translate to a Climate Genocide involving deaths of 10 billion people this century, this including roughly twice the present population of particular mainly non-European groups, specifically 6 billion under-5 year old infants, 3 billion Muslims in a terminal Muslim Holocaust, 2 billion Indians, 1.3 billion non-Arab Africans, 0.5 billion Bengalis, 0.3 billion Pakistanis and 0.3 billion Bangladeshis. [2].

Collective, national responsibility for this already commenced Climate Genocide is in direct proportion to per capita national pollution of the atmosphere with greenhouse gases (GHGs). Indeed, fundamental to any international agreement on national rights to pollute our common atmosphere and oceans should be the belief that “all men are created equal”. However reality is otherwise: “annual per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution” in units of “tonnes CO2-equivalent per person per year” (2005-2008 data) is 0.9 (Bangladesh), 0.9 (Pakistan), 2.2 (India), less than 3 (many African and Island countries), 3.2 (the Developing World), 5.5 (China), 6.7 (the World), 11 (Europe), 16 (the Developed World), 27 (the US) and 30 (Australia; or 54 if Australia’s huge Exported CO2 pollution is included). [2].

Basically we know what the problem is (man-made GHG pollution) and how to solve it. Fundamentally, as enunciated by 300.org, we need to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentration to about 300 ppm for a safe planet for all peoples and all species. [3].

To achieve 300 ppm CO2 we must achieve the following [4]:

1. Change of societal philosophy to one of scientific risk management and biological sustainability with complete cessation of species extinctions and zero tolerance for lying.

2. Urgent reduction of atmospheric CO2 to a safe level of about 300 ppm as recommended by leading climate and biological scientists.

3. Rapid switch to the best non-carbon and renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, wave, tide and hydro options that are currently roughly the same market price as coal burning-based power) and to energy efficiency, public transport, needs-based production, re-afforestation and return of carbon as biochar to soils coupled with correspondingly rapid cessation of fossil fuel burning, deforestation, methanogenic livestock production and population growth.

We understand the problem and have the technological solutions – the impending catastrophe simply does not have to happen. Are we going to be able to overcome the current political stasis and act before it is too late for Humanity and the Biosphere? Is it too late? Are we all doomed?

Professor  Jorgen Randers (professor at the Norwegian Business School BI and co-author of The Limits to Growth in 1972, the Report to the Club of Rome, and its two sequels; his most recent book, published in May 2012, is 2052 - A Global Forecast for the Next Forty Years, also a report to The Club of Rome; see: http://www.climatecodered.org/2012/11/systematic-short-termism-climate.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+ClimateCodeRed+%28climate+code+red%29 ): “I am a climate pessimist. I believe (regrettably) that humanity will not meet the climate challenge with sufficient strength to save our grandchildren from living in a climate-damaged world. Humanity (regrettably) will not make what sacrifice is necessary today in order to ensure a better life for our ancestors forty years hence. The reason is that we are narrowly focused on maximum well-being in the short term. This short-termism is reflected in the systems of governance that we have chosen to dominate our lives: Both democracy and capitalism place more emphasis on costs today that on benefits forty years in the future. The global result of this human myopia is described in my book 2052 – A Global Forecast for the Next Forty Years, a report to the Club of Rome commemorating the forty year anniversary of The Limits to Growth. The 2052 book forecasts a world of plus 2°C in 2050, and the likelihood of run-away climate change in the second half of the 21st century. Its website www.2052.info gives the statistical detail…     In sum, I don’t believe that the free market, regulation, political leadership, or public education will solve the climate problem in time. Capitalism is unable to handle this long term challenge, and democratic society is unwilling to modify the market. In my view, we need something stronger, something that can counter the root problem: Man’s short-term nature. His tendency to disregard the long term consequences of current action.  What can be done? Can democratic society be modified to solve the climate challenge? Eco-dictatorship may be to go too far. But something is needed to temper the short-termism of the nation state, probably something at the supranational level. For example a global central bank for climate gas emissions, introduced through democratic means – like the normal central banks. This is easier said than done. But still necessary. Otherwise, I predict, it will be the Chinese who solve the global climate challenge - singlehandedly. Through a sequence of 5-year plans established with a clear long term vision, and executed without asking regular support from the Chinese. They are already well on the way, for the benefit of our grandchildren.” [5, 6].

 

KEY SOLUTIONS TO THE POLITICAL STASIS & CLIMATE CHANGE INACTION.

The Western democracies have become Murdochracies, Lobbyocracies and Corporatocracies in which Big Money buys people, politicians, parties, policies, public perception of reality and political power. This transformation  has crippled effective action against climate change.

Some key strategies that should be adopted by decent people around the world are (a) to urge and apply Boycotts, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) against all people, politicians, parties, candidates, countries and corporations involved in man-made climate change and (b) to inform everyone they can about the worsening climate emergency and the need for urgent action. 

Top climate change economist Professor Lord Stern on the Carbon Tracker report about risks to investment in fossil fuels:"Smart investors can see that investing in companies that rely solely or heavily on constantly replenishing reserves of fossil fuels is becoming a very risky decision. The report raises serious questions as to the ability of the financial system to act on industry-wide long term risk, since currently the only measure of risk is performance against industry benchmarks.” (see Carbon Tracker, “Unburnable carbon 2013: Wasted capital and stranded assets”: http://www.carbontracker.org/wastedcapital ).

Successful –isms and –ists have an ABC strategy involving Accountability (negative feedback for non-adherence), Badge (symbol) and Credo (brief statement of position). Environmental-ism requires (A) accountability e.g. holding people, politicians, parties, candidates, countries and corporations accountable by boycotts, divestment, sanctions, exposure and scorn, (B) wearing a badge at all times (e.g.  “300 ppm CO2”) and (C) a simple credo e.g. “For a safe planet for all peoples and all species we must urgently return the atmospheric  CO2 from the present 400 ppm CO2 to the safe and sustainable pre-industrial 300 ppm CO2”.[7]. 


2010 EMISSIONS & CUMULATIVE 1864-2010 EMISSIONS OF TOP TWENTY INVESTOR-OWNED COMPANIES (IOCs) AND STATE-OWNED ENTITIES (SOEs)  .

Richard Heede (associated with Climate Accountability Institute, Colorado, USA) (2013): ”Abstract: This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the historic fossil fuel and cement production records of the 50 leading investor-owned, 31 state-owned, and 9 nation-state producers of oil, natural gas, coal, and cement from as early as 1854 to 2010. This analysis traces emissions totaling 914 GtCO2e—63 % of cumulative worldwide emissions of industrial CO2 and methane between 1751 and 2010—to the 90 “carbon major” entities based on the carbon content of marketed hydrocarbon fuels (subtracting for non-energy uses), process CO2 from cement manufacture, CO2 from flaring, venting, and own fuel use, and fugitive or vented methane. Cumulatively, emissions of 315 GtCO2e have been traced to investor-owned entities, 288 GtCO2e to state-owned enterprises, and 312 GtCO2e to nation-states. Of these emissions, half has been emitted since 1986. The carbon major entities possess fossil fuel reserves that will, if produced and emitted, intensify anthropogenic climate change. The purpose of the analysis is to understand the historic emissions as a factual matter, and to invite consideration of their possible relevance to public policy…

Table 3

Top twenty investor- & state-owned entities and attributed CO2 & CH4 emissions

 

2010 emissions

Cumulative 1854–2010

Percent of global

Entity

MtCO2e

MtCO2e

1751–2010

1. Chevron, USA

423

51,096

3.52 %

2. ExxonMobil, USA

655

46,672

3.22 %

3. Saudi Aramco, Saudi Arabia

1,550

46,033

3.17 %

4. BP, UK

554

35,837

2.47 %

5. Gazprom, Russian Federation

1,371

32,136

2.22 %

6. Royal Dutch/Shell, Netherlands

478

30,751

2.12 %

7. National Iranian Oil Company

867

29,084

2.01 %

8. Pemex, Mexico

602

20,025

1.38 %

9. ConocoPhillips, USA

359

16,866

1.16 %

10. Petroleos de Venezuela

485

16,157

1.11 %

11. Coal India

830

15,493

1.07 %

12. Peabody Energy, USA

519

12,432

0.86 %

13. Total, France

398

11,911

0.82 %

14. PetroChina, China

614

10,564

0.73 %

15. Kuwait Petroleum Corp.

323

10,503

0.73 %

16. Abu Dhabi NOC, UAE

387

9,672

0.67 %

17. Sonatrach, Algeria

386

9,263

0.64 %

18. Consol Energy, Inc., USA

160

9,096

0.63 %

19. BHP-Billiton, Australia

320

7,606

0.52 %

20. Anglo American, United Kingdom

242

7,242

0.50 %

Top 20 IOCs & SOEs

11,523

428,439

29.54 %

Top 40 IOCs & SOEs

 

546,767

37.70 %

All 81 IOCs & SOEs

18,524

602,491

41.54 %

Total 90 carbon majors

27,946

914,251

63.04 %

Total global emissions

36,026

1,450,332

100.00 %

Right column compares each entity’s cumulative emissions to CDIAC’s global emissions 1751–2010.” [8].

For expert comments on this important analysis see [9].

 [1]. Dr Gideon Polya ,“Climate change course”, 2011 via Yarra Valley Climate Action Group: http://yvcag.blogspot.com/2011_08_01_archive.html and

https://sites.google.com/site/yarravalleyclimateactiongroup/2011-climate-change-\
course
  and 300.org (see: http://300org.blogspot.com/2011_08_01_archive.html
and https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/2011-climate-change-course .

[2]. “Climate Genocide”: https://sites.google.com/site/climategenocide/ .

[3]. 300.org: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/ .

[4]. “Climate crisis facts and required actions”, Yarra Valley Climate Action Group: https://sites.google.com/site/yarravalleyclimateactiongroup/climate-crisis-facts-required-actions

[5].  Jorgen Randers, “Systematic short-termism:  Climate, capitalism and democracy”, Climate Code red, 2012: http://www.climatecodered.org/2012/11/systematic-short-termism-climate.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+ClimateCodeRed+%28climate+code+red%29 .

[6]. "Are we doomed?: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/are-we-doomed .

[7]. Gideon Polya, "100 ideas for climate change activists trying to save the Biosphere and Humanity", Countercurrents, 10 August 2013: http://www.countercurrents.org/polya100813.htm .

[8]. Richard Heede , “Tracing anthropogenic carbon dioxide and methane emissions to fossil fuel and cement producers , 1854-2010”, Climate Change, 22 November 2013: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10584-013-0986-y/fulltext.html#Sec6 .

[9]. Suzanne Goldenberg, “Just 90 companies caused two-thirds of man-made global warming emissions”, Guardian, 21 November 2013: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/nov/20/90-companies-man-made-global-warming-emissions-climate-change .

Some useful compendia about climate change information, requisite actions & expert opinions:


“1% ON 1%: one percent annual wealth tax on One Percenters”: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/1-on-1 .

 “2011 climate change course”: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/2011-climate-change-course .

300.org: . https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/300-org .

“300.org – return atmosphere CO2 to 300 ppm CO2”: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/300-org---return-atmosphere-co2-to-300-ppm .

“Carbon Debt Carbon Credit”: https://sites.google.com/site/carbondebtcarboncredit/ .

"Climate Revolution Now": https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/climate-revolution .

“Cut carbon emissions 80% by 2020”: https://sites.google.com/site/cutcarbonemissions80by2020/ .

“100% renewable energy by 2020”: https://sites.google.com/site/100renewableenergyby2020/ .

“Climate Genocide”: https://sites.google.com/site/climategenocide/ .

“Gas is not clean energy”: https://sites.google.com/site/gasisnotcleanenergy/ .

 “Biofuel Genocide”: https://sites.google.com/site/biofuelgenocide/ .

“Divest from fossil fuels”: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/divest-from-fossil-fuels .

“Climate Justice & Intergenerational Equity”: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/climate-justice .

“Science & economics experts: Carbon Tax needed NOT Carbon Trading”: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/sciennce-economics-experts-carbon-tax-needed-not-carbon-trading/ .

“Stop climate crime”: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/stop-climate-crime .

“Stop air pollution deaths”: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/stop-air-pollution-deaths

“Are we doomed?”: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/are-we-doomed .

“Methane Bomb Threat”: https://sites.google.com/site/methanebombthreat/ .

"Too late to avoid global warming catastrophe": https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/too-late-to-avoid-global-warming .

“Nuclear weapons ban, end poverty and reverse climate change”: https://sites.google.com/site/drgideonpolya/nuclear-weapons-ban .

“Stop state terrorism” : https://sites.google.com/site/stopstateterrorism/  [state and corporate complicity in worsening climate genocide and 7 million annual air pollution deaths from carbon fuel burning].

"State crime and non-state terrorism": https://sites.google.com/site/statecrimeandnonstateterrorism/  [state and corporate complicity in worsening climate genocide and 7 million annual air pollution deaths from carbon fuel burning].

“Climate terrorism: 400,000 climate change-related deaths globally annually versus an average of 4 US deaths from political terrorism annually since 9-11”: https://sites.google.com/site/statecrimeandnonstateterrorism/climate-terrorism .

“Carbon terrorism: 3 million US air pollution deaths versus 53 US political terrorism deaths since 9-11 (2001-2015)”: https://sites.google.com/site/statecrimeandnonstateterrorism/carbon-terrorism .

 

Some key analyses by Dr Gideon Polya (Melbourne scientist):

 

Gideon Polya, “Expert Witness Testimony To Stop Gas-Fired Power Plant Installation”, Countercurrents,  14 June, 2013: http://www.countercurrents.org/polya140613.htm .

Gideon Polya,  " Doha climate change inaction. Only 5 years left to act", MWC News, 9 December 2012: http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/23373-gideonpolya-climate-change.html .

Gideon Polya, “Australia 's Huge Coal, Gas & Iron Ore Exports Threaten Planet”, Countercurrents, 15 May 2012: http://www.countercurrents.org/polya150512.htm .

Gideon Polya, “Country By Country Analysis Of Years Left Until Science-demanded Zero Greenhouse Gas Emissions”, Countercurrents, 11 June 2011: http://www.countercurrents.org/polya110611.htm

Gideon Polya , “2015 A-to-Z  Alphabetical List Of Actions And Advocacies For Climate Change Activists”,  Countercurrents,  14 January, 2015: http://www.countercurrents.org/polya140115.htm

Gideon Polya, “100 Ideas For Climate Change Activists Trying To Save The Biosphere And Humanity”,  Countercurrents, 10 August, 2013: http://www.countercurrents.org/polya100813.htm .

Gideon Polya, “Biochemical  Targets Of Plant Bioactive Compounds”: moral & utilitarian reasons to stop ecocide, speciescide, omnicide & terracide”, Countercurrents, 22 February, 2015: http://www.countercurrents.org/polya220215.htm .

Gideon Polya. “Polya's 3 Laws Of Economics Expose Deadly, Dishonest  And Terminal Neoliberal Capitalism”, Countercurrents, 17 October, 2015: http://www.countercurrents.org/polya171015.htm . Polya's 3 Laws of Economics mirror the 3 Laws of Therrnodynamics of science and are (1) Price minus COP (Cost of Production) equals profit; (2) Deception about COP strives to a maximum; and (3) No work, price or profit on a dead planet. These fundamental laws help  expose the failure of neoliberal capitalism in relation to wealth inequality, massive tax evasion by multinational corporations, and  horrendous avoidable deaths from poverty and pollution culminating in general ecocide, speciescide, climate genocide, omnicide and terracide.

“Climate change articles by Dr Gideon Polya”: https://sites.google.com/site/drgideonpolya/climate-change-articles .

“Climate change websites created by Dr Gideon Polya”: https://sites.google.com/site/drgideonpolya/climate-change-websites .

“Gideon Polya”: https://sites.google.com/site/drgideonpolya/home .

 “Gideon Polya Writing”: https://sites.google.com/site/gideonpolyawriting/ .

Gideon Polya, “Revised Annual Per Capita Greenhouse Gas Pollution For All Countries – What Is Your Country Doing?”, Countercurrents, 6 January, 2016: http://www.countercurrents.org/polya060116.htm

Open Letter to Australian Federal MPs: young betrayed & climate revolution now: https://sites.google.com/site/gideonpolyawriting/2015-9-6 .

“Free university education”: https://sites.google.com/site/freeuniversityeducation/ .

Carbon Debt:

Carbon Debt reflects the inescapable future cost in today's dollars of fixing the remorselessly increasing climate damage. Carbon Debt  is the historical contribution of countries  to the carbon pollution of the atmosphere and can be variously expressed as Gt CO2-e (gigatonnes or billions of tonnes of CO2-equivalent) or in dollar terms by applying a Carbon Price. Thus leading climate economist Dr Chris Hope from 90-Nobel-Laureate Cambridge  University has estimated a damage-related Carbon Price in US dollars of $150 per tonne CO2-e (see Dr Chris Hope, “How high should climate change taxes be?”, Working Paper Series, Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, 9.2011: http://www.jbs.cam.ac.uk/fileadmin/user_upload/research/workingpapers/wp1109.pdf  ).

The World added 350 Gt C (1285 Gt CO2) to the atmosphere in 1751-2006 (see James Hansen, “Letter to PM Kevin Rudd by Dr James Hansen”, 2008: http://www.aussmc.org.au/documents/Hansen2008LetterToKevinRudd_000.pdf ) and currently adds a further 64 Gt CO2-e annually (see Robert Goodland and Jeff Anfang, “Livestock and climate change. What if the key actors in climate change are … cows, pigs and chickens?”, World Watch, November/December 2009: http://www.worldwatch.org/files/pdf/Livestock%20and%20Climate%20Change.pdf ).

The World  has a 1751-2006 Carbon Debt of     350 Gt C x (3.67 Gt CO2/Gt C) x $150 per tonne CO2-e = $193 trillion plus a 2007-2015 Carbon Debt of (64 Gt CO2-e /year) x  ($150 /t CO2-e) x 8 years  = $76.8 trillion or a total 1751-2015 Carbon Debt of $270 trillion (about 3 times the annual world GDP of $85 trillion)  that is increasing by about 64 Gt CO2-e/year  x ($150 /t CO2-e)  = $9.6 trillion/year or about $10 trillion each year.

By way of a national example, Australia is a world-leading annual per capita  GHG polluter with a 1751-2006 Carbon Debt of 5.9 Gt C x (3.67 Gt CO2-e/Gt C) x ($150 /t CO2-e) = $3.2 trillion plus a 2007-2015 Carbon Debt of  2 Gt CO2-e/year  x ($150 /t CO2-e) x 8 years  = $2.4 trillion i.e. a total 1751-2015 Carbon Debt of $5.6 trillion (A$7.2 trillion) that is increasing at 2 Gt CO2-e /year x ($150 /t CO2-e) = $300 billion (A$385 billion) per year. Thus Australia (population 24 million) with 0.34% of the world's population has 2.1% of the world's Carbon Debt. The Australian Carbon Debt will have to be paid by the young and future generations and for under-30 year old Australians is increasing at about $30,000 (A$38,500) per person per year, noting that the annual Australian per capita income is about $65,000 (A$83,000) (see Gideon Polya, “2015 A-to-Z  alphabetical list of actions and advocacies for climate change activists”,  Countercurrents, 14 January, 2015: http://www.countercurrents.org/polya140115.htm ).




This alphabetically-organized website records the opinions and actions of leading scientists, writers, activists and organizations (cities, counties, towns, universities, colleges, churches, investment groups and corporations)  on Divestment from dirty energy that is destroying the Biosphere (n
ote that this website also has a Postscript recording those opposed to Divestment from Fossil fuels). 




COUNTRIES, CITIES, COUNTIES, TOWNS


ANN ARBOR, Michigan, votes to divest from fossil fuel companies.

Report:A resolution on divestment from fossil fuel companies has been approved by the Ann Arbor city council on a 9-2 vote. [1].

[1]. “Ann Arbor OKs fossil fuel divestment”, The Ann Arbor Chronicle, 22 October 2013: http://annarborchronicle.com/2013/10/22/ann-arbor-oks-fossil-fuel-divestment/ .


AUSTRALIAN TOWNS & CITIES -  as of 2015, 7 Australian town and city  councils have divested from fossil fuels.

Guardian Australia and Sydney Morning  Herald report on the world’s biggest coal port, Newcastle, Australia, joining 6 other Australian councils in  fossil fuel divestment (2015): “Newcastle is the seventh council in Australia to announce it will shun fossil fuels. To date, 35 institutions in Australia and 350 globally have pledged to exit from fossil fuels. Newcastle’s announcement follows a divestment commitment from the ACT government last week” (Amanda Saunders, “World’s biggest coal port joins fossil fuel divestment push”, Guardian Australia, 29 August 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/aug/28/worlds-biggest-coal-port-joins-fossil-fuel-divestment-push ).  


BAYFIELD, Wisconsin, USA commits to divestment from fossil fuels.

 350.org on 10 US cites perusing fossil fuel divestment (2013): “The Mayor of Seattle [WA], 350.org, and the Mayors Innovation Project announced today that nine mayors and city councils across the country are joining the Mayor of Seattle in urging their cities to divest from the top 200 fossil fuel companies because of the industry’s responsibility for the climate crisis.

“Divestment is just one of the steps we can take to address the climate crisis,” said Mayor Mike McGinn of Seattle, who this November urged the city’s pension fund to divest from the fossil fuel industry and is now encouraging other mayors to do the same. “Cities that do so will be leaders in creating a new model for quality of life, environmental sustainability and economic success. We’ve got a head start on that here in Seattle, but there’s a lot more work to do.” 

The other cities who have agreed to pursue divestment include: Madison, WI, Bayfield, WI, Ithaca, NY, Boulder, CO, State College, PA Eugene, OR, Richmond, CA, Berkeley, CA, and San Francisco, CA. In San Francisco, the city’s Board of Supervisors voted unanimously on Tuesday to urge the city's $16 billion pension fund to divest over $583 million from the fossil fuel industry. Elsewhere, the mayors have agreed to pursue ways to keep their city funds out of fossil fuel companies and urge either their city or state pension fund to divest. 

Today’s announcement marked the official launch of the city and state divestment campaign, which is led by the Mayors Innovation Project and 350.org, an international climate campaign.” [1].

[1]. 350.org, “Ten U.S. cities commit to pursue fossil fuel divestment”, 350.org: http://350.org/media/city-divestment .


BERKELEY, California, USA commits to divestment from fossil fuels.

 350.org on 10 US cites perusing fossil fuel divestment (2013): “The Mayor of Seattle [WA], 350.org, and the Mayors Innovation Project announced today that nine mayors and city councils across the country are joining the Mayor of Seattle in urging their cities to divest from the top 200 fossil fuel companies because of the industry’s responsibility for the climate crisis.

“Divestment is just one of the steps we can take to address the climate crisis,” said Mayor Mike McGinn of Seattle, who this November urged the city’s pension fund to divest from the fossil fuel industry and is now encouraging other mayors to do the same. “Cities that do so will be leaders in creating a new model for quality of life, environmental sustainability and economic success. We’ve got a head start on that here in Seattle, but there’s a lot more work to do.” 

The other cities who have agreed to pursue divestment include: Madison, WI, Bayfield, WI, Ithaca, NY, Boulder, CO, State College, PA Eugene, OR, Richmond, CA, Berkeley, CA, and San Francisco, CA. In San Francisco, the city’s Board of Supervisors voted unanimously on Tuesday to urge the city's $16 billion pension fund to divest over $583 million from the fossil fuel industry. Elsewhere, the mayors have agreed to pursue ways to keep their city funds out of fossil fuel companies and urge either their city or state pension fund to divest. 

Today’s announcement marked the official launch of the city and state divestment campaign, which is led by the Mayors Innovation Project and 350.org, an international climate campaign.” [1].

[1]. 350.org, “Ten U.S. cities commit to pursue fossil fuel divestment”, 350.org: http://350.org/media/city-divestment .



BOULDER, Colorado, USA commits to divestment from fossil fuels.

 350.org on 10 US cites perusing fossil fuel divestment (2013): “The Mayor of Seattle [WA], 350.org, and the Mayors Innovation Project announced today that nine mayors and city councils across the country are joining the Mayor of Seattle in urging their cities to divest from the top 200 fossil fuel companies because of the industry’s responsibility for the climate crisis.

“Divestment is just one of the steps we can take to address the climate crisis,” said Mayor Mike McGinn of Seattle, who this November urged the city’s pension fund to divest from the fossil fuel industry and is now encouraging other mayors to do the same. “Cities that do so will be leaders in creating a new model for quality of life, environmental sustainability and economic success. We’ve got a head start on that here in Seattle, but there’s a lot more work to do.” 

The other cities who have agreed to pursue divestment include: Madison, WI, Bayfield, WI, Ithaca, NY, Boulder, CO, State College, PA Eugene, OR, Richmond, CA, Berkeley, CA, and San Francisco, CA. In San Francisco, the city’s Board of Supervisors voted unanimously on Tuesday to urge the city's $16 billion pension fund to divest over $583 million from the fossil fuel industry. Elsewhere, the mayors have agreed to pursue ways to keep their city funds out of fossil fuel companies and urge either their city or state pension fund to divest. 

Today’s announcement marked the official launch of the city and state divestment campaign, which is led by the Mayors Innovation Project and 350.org, an international climate campaign.” [1].

[1]. 350.org, “Ten U.S. cities commit to pursue fossil fuel divestment”, 350.org: http://350.org/media/city-divestment .



BOXTEL, Netherlands, the first European municipality to  divest from fossil fuel companies.

Report (2013): “At a Fossil Free Europe tour event in Amsterdam on Tuesday, two aldermen from Boxtel, Netherlands announced that their town would be divesting from the 200 fossil fuel companies that hold the largest coal, oil, and gas reserves. This makes Boxtel the first municipality in Europe to make a commitment to divest from fossil fuels, joining over 20 U.S. towns and cities that have vowed similar commitments.” [1].

 

[1]. Ari Phillips, Boxtel ,Netherlands,  becomes first in Europe to divest from fossil fuels”, Clean Technica, 2013: http://cleantechnica.com/2013/11/08/boxtel-netherlands-becomes-first-europe-divest-fossil-fuels/ .


DANE COUNTY, Wisconsin, may be first county in the USA to divest from fossil fuels.

Report: “Activists claim Dane County may be the first in the country to pledge against investing in fossil fuels. Thursday night the board voted unanimously to keep from financial stakes in the 200 companies with the largest reserves. The board cited environmental and global warming concerns echoed by local activists 350 Madison.” [1].

[1]. Phil Levin, “Dane County divests from fossil fuels” , WMTV, 27 November 2013: http://www.nbc15.com/home/headlines/Dane-County-divests-from-fossil-fuels-210517061.html .



EUGENE, Oregon, USA commits to divestment from fossil fuels.

 350.org on 10 US cites perusing fossil fuel divestment (2013): “The Mayor of Seattle [WA], 350.org, and the Mayors Innovation Project announced today that nine mayors and city councils across the country are joining the Mayor of Seattle in urging their cities to divest from the top 200 fossil fuel companies because of the industry’s responsibility for the climate crisis.

“Divestment is just one of the steps we can take to address the climate crisis,” said Mayor Mike McGinn of Seattle, who this November urged the city’s pension fund to divest from the fossil fuel industry and is now encouraging other mayors to do the same. “Cities that do so will be leaders in creating a new model for quality of life, environmental sustainability and economic success. We’ve got a head start on that here in Seattle, but there’s a lot more work to do.” 

The other cities who have agreed to pursue divestment include: Madison, WI, Bayfield, WI, Ithaca, NY, Boulder, CO, State College, PA Eugene, OR, Richmond, CA, Berkeley, CA, and San Francisco, CA. In San Francisco, the city’s Board of Supervisors voted unanimously on Tuesday to urge the city's $16 billion pension fund to divest over $583 million from the fossil fuel industry. Elsewhere, the mayors have agreed to pursue ways to keep their city funds out of fossil fuel companies and urge either their city or state pension fund to divest. 

Today’s announcement marked the official launch of the city and state divestment campaign, which is led by the Mayors Innovation Project and 350.org, an international climate campaign.” [1].

[1]. 350.org, “Ten U.S. cities commit to pursue fossil fuel divestment”, 350.org: http://350.org/media/city-divestment .


IRELAND to be the first country to fully divest from fossil fuels.

Ireland to be the first country to fully divest from fossil fuels, as reported by the UK Independent (2017): “Ireland has voted to be the world’s first country to fully divest public money from fossil fuels. The Irish Parliament passed the historic legislation in a 90 to 53 vote in favour of dropping coal, oil and gas investments from the €8bn (£6.8bn) Ireland Strategic Investment Fund, part of the Republic’s National Treasury Management Agency” ( Samuel Osborne, “Ireland votes in favour of law to become world’s first country to fully divest from fossil fuels”, Independent, 27 January 2017: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/ireland-votes-divest-fossil-fuels-climate-change-world-first-country-parliament-renewable-energy-a7549121.html ).


ITHACA, New York, USA commits to divestment from fossil fuels.

 350.org on 10 US cites perusing fossil fuel divestment (2013): “The Mayor of Seattle [WA], 350.org, and the Mayors Innovation Project announced today that nine mayors and city councils across the country are joining the Mayor of Seattle in urging their cities to divest from the top 200 fossil fuel companies because of the industry’s responsibility for the climate crisis.

“Divestment is just one of the steps we can take to address the climate crisis,” said Mayor Mike McGinn of Seattle, who this November urged the city’s pension fund to divest from the fossil fuel industry and is now encouraging other mayors to do the same. “Cities that do so will be leaders in creating a new model for quality of life, environmental sustainability and economic success. We’ve got a head start on that here in Seattle, but there’s a lot more work to do.” 

The other cities who have agreed to pursue divestment include: Madison, WI, Bayfield, WI, Ithaca, NY, Boulder, CO, State College, PA Eugene, OR, Richmond, CA, Berkeley, CA, and San Francisco, CA. In San Francisco, the city’s Board of Supervisors voted unanimously on Tuesday to urge the city's $16 billion pension fund to divest over $583 million from the fossil fuel industry. Elsewhere, the mayors have agreed to pursue ways to keep their city funds out of fossil fuel companies and urge either their city or state pension fund to divest. 

Today’s announcement marked the official launch of the city and state divestment campaign, which is led by the Mayors Innovation Project and 350.org, an international climate campaign.” [1].

[1]. 350.org, “Ten U.S. cities commit to pursue fossil fuel divestment”, 350.org: http://350.org/media/city-divestment


MADISON, Wisconsin, USA commits to divestment from fossil fuels.

 350.org on 10 US cites perusing fossil fuel divestment (2013): “The Mayor of Seattle [WA], 350.org, and the Mayors Innovation Project announced today that nine mayors and city councils across the country are joining the Mayor of Seattle in urging their cities to divest from the top 200 fossil fuel companies because of the industry’s responsibility for the climate crisis.

“Divestment is just one of the steps we can take to address the climate crisis,” said Mayor Mike McGinn of Seattle, who this November urged the city’s pension fund to divest from the fossil fuel industry and is now encouraging other mayors to do the same. “Cities that do so will be leaders in creating a new model for quality of life, environmental sustainability and economic success. We’ve got a head start on that here in Seattle, but there’s a lot more work to do.” 

The other cities who have agreed to pursue divestment include: Madison, WI, Bayfield, WI, Ithaca, NY, Boulder, CO, State College, PA Eugene, OR, Richmond, CA, Berkeley, CA, and San Francisco, CA. In San Francisco, the city’s Board of Supervisors voted unanimously on Tuesday to urge the city's $16 billion pension fund to divest over $583 million from the fossil fuel industry. Elsewhere, the mayors have agreed to pursue ways to keep their city funds out of fossil fuel companies and urge either their city or state pension fund to divest. 

Today’s announcement marked the official launch of the city and state divestment campaign, which is led by the Mayors Innovation Project and 350.org, an international climate campaign.” [1].

[1]. 350.org, “Ten U.S. cities commit to pursue fossil fuel divestment”, 350.org: http://350.org/media/city-divestment .


NEWCASTLE, AUSTRALIA: the world’s biggest coal port, Newcastle, Australia, joins global fossil fuel divestment.

Guardian Australia and Sydney Morning  Herald report on the world’s biggest coal port, Newcastle, Australia, joining global  fossil fuel divestment (2015) : “Newcastle city council in Australia has voted to exit holdings in the big four banks if they continue to fund fossil fuel projects. About 80% of the Australian city of Newcastle council’s $270m investment portfolio is held in the big four banks, mostly through term deposits. Those investments are spread evenly across the big four. But after the council passed a motion on Tuesday, six votes to five, it will dump holdings in the banks for more “environmentally and socially responsible” institutions when deposits come up for renewal. This will be done only if the rate of return is comparable with the council’s holdings in the big four and the council’s credit rating criteria is met” (Amanda Saunders, “World’s biggest coal port joins fossil fuel divestment push”, Guardian Australia, 29 August 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/aug/28/worlds-biggest-coal-port-joins-fossil-fuel-divestment-push ).  


NORTHAMPTON, Massachusetts, approves resolution for divestment from fossil fuel companies.

Report:NORTHAMPTON — A few days after the City Council approved a resolution calling for divestment from fossil fuel companies earlier this month, two of its backers took the message to Beacon Hill. City Council President William H. Dwight and resident Adele Franks testified at a Joint Committee on Public Service hearing last week, urging committee members to support a bill requiring the state’s pension fund to divest from fossil fuel companies.” [1].

[1]. Chad Cain, “” Northampton leaders srepad divestment in fossil fuel message on Beacon Hill”, Daily Hampshire Gazette, Gazettenet, 17 Septemebr 2013: http://www.gazettenet.com/home/8528552-95/northampton-leaders-spread-divestment-in-fossil-fuel-message-on-beacon-hill .



PROVIDENCE, Rhode Island, USA votes to divest from fossil fuels.

Drew Williams on Providence divestment from fossil fuels (2013): “Providence City Council passed a resolution 11-1 in June that committed the city to divestment from any of its holdings in the top 200 fossil fuel companies in the next five years, making Providence the first capital city in the United States to do so. Councilman Seth Yurdin, Ward 1, lead sponsor of the resolution, said its passage stemmed from the City Council’s concern over the possible environmental dangers fossil fuels present. “Climate change is probably the most important issue that everybody’s facing,” he said. Divestment, which involves withdrawing current investments in fossil fuel companies and committing to discontinue the practice, is seen by many activists as a powerful way to stand up to the fossil fuel industry. Jamie Henn, co-founder and communications director of 350.org, an organization that runs worldwide campaigns to fight climate change, said that while divestment does not immediately hurt fossil fuel companies economically, it does send a political message. Calls for divestment “show that (fossil fuel companies) are morally bankrupt,” he said.” [1].

Drew Williams, “Providence City Council passes resolution  divest from coal”, The Brown Daily Herald, 3 October 2013: http://www.browndailyherald.com/2013/10/03/providence-city-council-passes-resolution-divest-coal/ .


RICHMOND, California, USA commits to divestment from fossil fuels.

 350.org on 10 US cites perusing fossil fuel divestment (2013): “The Mayor of Seattle [WA], 350.org, and the Mayors Innovation Project announced today that nine mayors and city councils across the country are joining the Mayor of Seattle in urging their cities to divest from the top 200 fossil fuel companies because of the industry’s responsibility for the climate crisis.

“Divestment is just one of the steps we can take to address the climate crisis,” said Mayor Mike McGinn of Seattle, who this November urged the city’s pension fund to divest from the fossil fuel industry and is now encouraging other mayors to do the same. “Cities that do so will be leaders in creating a new model for quality of life, environmental sustainability and economic success. We’ve got a head start on that here in Seattle, but there’s a lot more work to do.” 

The other cities who have agreed to pursue divestment include: Madison, WI, Bayfield, WI, Ithaca, NY, Boulder, CO, State College, PA Eugene, OR, Richmond, CA, Berkeley, CA, and San Francisco, CA. In San Francisco, the city’s Board of Supervisors voted unanimously on Tuesday to urge the city's $16 billion pension fund to divest over $583 million from the fossil fuel industry. Elsewhere, the mayors have agreed to pursue ways to keep their city funds out of fossil fuel companies and urge either their city or state pension fund to divest. 

Today’s announcement marked the official launch of the city and state divestment campaign, which is led by the Mayors Innovation Project and 350.org, an international climate campaign.” [1].

[1]. 350.org, “Ten U.S. cities commit to pursue fossil fuel divestment”, 350.org: http://350.org/media/city-divestment .



SAN FRANCISCO, California, USA commits to divestment from fossil fuels.

 350.org on 10 US cites perusing fossil fuel divestment (2013): “The Mayor of Seattle [WA], 350.org, and the Mayors Innovation Project announced today that nine mayors and city councils across the country are joining the Mayor of Seattle in urging their cities to divest from the top 200 fossil fuel companies because of the industry’s responsibility for the climate crisis.

“Divestment is just one of the steps we can take to address the climate crisis,” said Mayor Mike McGinn of Seattle, who this November urged the city’s pension fund to divest from the fossil fuel industry and is now encouraging other mayors to do the same. “Cities that do so will be leaders in creating a new model for quality of life, environmental sustainability and economic success. We’ve got a head start on that here in Seattle, but there’s a lot more work to do.” 

The other cities who have agreed to pursue divestment include: Madison, WI, Bayfield, WI, Ithaca, NY, Boulder, CO, State College, PA Eugene, OR, Richmond, CA, Berkeley, CA, and San Francisco, CA. In San Francisco, the city’s Board of Supervisors voted unanimously on Tuesday to urge the city's $16 billion pension fund to divest over $583 million from the fossil fuel industry. Elsewhere, the mayors have agreed to pursue ways to keep their city funds out of fossil fuel companies and urge either their city or state pension fund to divest. 

Today’s announcement marked the official launch of the city and state divestment campaign, which is led by the Mayors Innovation Project and 350.org, an international climate campaign.” [1].

[1]. 350.org, “Ten U.S. cities commit to pursue fossil fuel divestment”, 350.org: http://350.org/media/city-divestment .



SANTA MONICA, California, USA  votes to disinvest from fossil fuels.

Below 350 Massachusetts (2013):On Sunday, June 2nd, First Parish in Cambridge, Unitarian Universalist, voted unanimously at its semi-annual members meeting to divest its holdings in fossil fuels stocks over the next five years. With this vote First Parish Cambridge joined a growing nationwide movement of colleges, religious organizations, and town and state governments that are working to fight global warming by removing the stocks of fossil fuel companies from their portfolios.… Although it is impossible to track all the participation in this movement, other institutions that have voted to divest from fossil fuels include: Green Mountain College, Poultney, VT, Sterling College, Craftsbury Common, VT, College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME, Unitarian Universalist South Church, Portsmouth NH, First Unitarian Church of Salt Lake City UT, First Unitarian Society of Milwaukee, more than a hundred Evangelical Lutheran churches in Oregon, City of Santa Monica, CA. Founded in 1636, First Parish in Cambridge is dedicated to working for justice and building the Beloved Community of Dr. King’s dream.” [1].

[1]. “First Parish in Cambridge MA votes to disinvest from fossil fuels”, Below 350, 2013: http://350ma.org/2013/06/first-parish-in-cambridge-ma-votes-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/ .



SEATTLE, Washington, USA commits to divestment from fossil fuels.

 350.org on 10 US cites perusing fossil fuel divestment (2013): “The Mayor of Seattle [WA], 350.org, and the Mayors Innovation Project announced today that nine mayors and city councils across the country are joining the Mayor of Seattle in urging their cities to divest from the top 200 fossil fuel companies because of the industry’s responsibility for the climate crisis.

“Divestment is just one of the steps we can take to address the climate crisis,” said Mayor Mike McGinn of Seattle, who this November urged the city’s pension fund to divest from the fossil fuel industry and is now encouraging other mayors to do the same. “Cities that do so will be leaders in creating a new model for quality of life, environmental sustainability and economic success. We’ve got a head start on that here in Seattle, but there’s a lot more work to do.” 

The other cities who have agreed to pursue divestment include: Madison, WI, Bayfield, WI, Ithaca, NY, Boulder, CO, State College, PA Eugene, OR, Richmond, CA, Berkeley, CA, and San Francisco, CA. In San Francisco, the city’s Board of Supervisors voted unanimously on Tuesday to urge the city's $16 billion pension fund to divest over $583 million from the fossil fuel industry. Elsewhere, the mayors have agreed to pursue ways to keep their city funds out of fossil fuel companies and urge either their city or state pension fund to divest. 

Today’s announcement marked the official launch of the city and state divestment campaign, which is led by the Mayors Innovation Project and 350.org, an international climate campaign.” [1].

[1]. 350.org, “Ten U.S. cities commit to pursue fossil fuel divestment”, 350.org: http://350.org/media/city-divestment .


STATE COLLEGE, Pennsylvania, USA commits to divestment from fossil fuels.

 350.org on 10 US cites perusing fossil fuel divestment (2013): “The Mayor of Seattle [WA], 350.org, and the Mayors Innovation Project announced today that nine mayors and city councils across the country are joining the Mayor of Seattle in urging their cities to divest from the top 200 fossil fuel companies because of the industry’s responsibility for the climate crisis.

“Divestment is just one of the steps we can take to address the climate crisis,” said Mayor Mike McGinn of Seattle, who this November urged the city’s pension fund to divest from the fossil fuel industry and is now encouraging other mayors to do the same. “Cities that do so will be leaders in creating a new model for quality of life, environmental sustainability and economic success. We’ve got a head start on that here in Seattle, but there’s a lot more work to do.” 

The other cities who have agreed to pursue divestment include: Madison, WI, Bayfield, WI, Ithaca, NY, Boulder, CO, State College, PA Eugene, OR, Richmond, CA, Berkeley, CA, and San Francisco, CA. In San Francisco, the city’s Board of Supervisors voted unanimously on Tuesday to urge the city's $16 billion pension fund to divest over $583 million from the fossil fuel industry. Elsewhere, the mayors have agreed to pursue ways to keep their city funds out of fossil fuel companies and urge either their city or state pension fund to divest. 

Today’s announcement marked the official launch of the city and state divestment campaign, which is led by the Mayors Innovation Project and 350.org, an international climate campaign.” [1].

[1]. 350.org, “Ten U.S. cities commit to pursue fossil fuel divestment”, 350.org: http://350.org/media/city-divestment .



US CITIES (10) commit to divestment from fossil fuels.

 350.org on 10 US cites perusing fossil fuel divestment (2013): “The Mayor of Seattle [WA], 350.org, and the Mayors Innovation Project announced today that nine mayors and city councils across the country are joining the Mayor of Seattle in urging their cities to divest from the top 200 fossil fuel companies because of the industry’s responsibility for the climate crisis.

“Divestment is just one of the steps we can take to address the climate crisis,” said Mayor Mike McGinn of Seattle, who this November urged the city’s pension fund to divest from the fossil fuel industry and is now encouraging other mayors to do the same. “Cities that do so will be leaders in creating a new model for quality of life, environmental sustainability and economic success. We’ve got a head start on that here in Seattle, but there’s a lot more work to do.” 

The other cities who have agreed to pursue divestment include: Madison, WI, Bayfield, WI, Ithaca, NY, Boulder, CO, State College, PA Eugene, OR, Richmond, CA, Berkeley, CA, and San Francisco, CA. In San Francisco, the city’s Board of Supervisors voted unanimously on Tuesday to urge the city's $16 billion pension fund to divest over $583 million from the fossil fuel industry. Elsewhere, the mayors have agreed to pursue ways to keep their city funds out of fossil fuel companies and urge either their city or state pension fund to divest. 

Today’s announcement marked the official launch of the city and state divestment campaign, which is led by the Mayors Innovation Project and 350.org, an international climate campaign.” [1].

[1]. 350.org, “Ten U.S. cities commit to pursue fossil fuel divestment”, 350.org: http://350.org/media/city-divestment .



RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS


ANGLICAN CHURCH in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia pledges to divest from fossil fuel companies.

350 Aotearoa Press  Release: "350 Aotearoa is celebrating the news that the Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia has pledged to divest from fossil fuel companies.

They are the latest of more than 90 other churches, universities, trusts and cities around the world who have committed to stop investing in the fossil fuel industry for ethical and financial reasons, in what is a rapidly growing international movement." [1].

[1]. Scoop, 350 Aotearoa Press  Release, 19 May 2014:

http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/PO1405/S00299/anglican-church-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels.htm .

:


ANGLICAN - AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND ANGLICAN DIOCESE will divest from fossil fuels. .

The New Zealand Anglican Church’s Episcopal News Service (ENS)(2013):The Diocese of Auckland has decided to divest from the fossil fuels industry – the first institutional body in New Zealand to do so.

On the final day of its annual meeting September 7, the Diocesan Synod voted overwhelmingly to support a motion calling on the diocese to withdraw its investments from companies whose main business is the extraction and/or production of fossil fuels.

The decision is a landmark event for environmental action in New Zealand.

The diocese thus becomes the first body in New Zealand to join the global divestment movement initiated by the international climate action organization, 350.org.” [1].


The New Zealand Anglican Church’s Episcopal News Service (ENS)(2013):The dioceses of Wellington and Waiapu have voted to remove all of their investments in companies that extract or produce fossil fuels.

The Wellington decision came at the annual synod in Palmerston North last weekend and follows a similar decision by the Diocese of Auckland earlier this month.

Wellington diocese says the church is concerned about the effect of carbon emissions on climate change and also about the long-term health of investments in the fossil fuel industry.

Its share holdings will be divested within the next two years.” [2].


[1]. The New Zealand Anglican Church’s Episcopal News Service (ENS)(2013), “Auckland diocese to divest from fossil fuels”, 10 September 2013: http://episcopaldigitalnetwork.com/ens/2013/09/10/auckland-diocese-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/ .

[2]. The New Zealand Anglican Church’s Episcopal News Service (ENS), “New Zealand: more dioceses vote to divest from fossil fuels”, 23 September 2013: http://episcopaldigitalnetwork.com/ens/2013/09/23/new-zealand-more-dioceses-vote-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/ .



ANGLICAN - DUNEDIN, NEW ZEALAND ANGLICAN DIOCESE has voted to divest from fossil fuels.

Coal Action Network, Aotearoa (New Zealand) (2013): “Earlier this month, the Auckland Diocese of the Anglican Church became the first New Zealand institution to decide to divest from fossil fuels – that is, to withdraw  investments from companies whose main business is the extraction and/or production of fossil fuels… We’re delighted to report that the four other Anglican dioceses which have been considering divestment motions have also voted to divest from fossil fuels – making 5 out of 5 dioceses that have voted to divest: Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, Dunedin, and Waikato and Taranaki.” [1].

[1]. “Five out of five Anglican dioceses vote to divest from fossil fuels”, Coal Action Network, Aotearoa, 29 September 2013: http://coalactionnetworkaotearoa.wordpress.com/2013/09/29/five-out-of-five-anglican-dioceses-vote-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/



ANGLICAN - NEW ZEALAND ANGLICAN DIOCESES OF AUCKLAND, WAIAPU & WELLINGTON will divest from companies that extract or produce fossil fuels.

The New Zealand Anglican Church’s Episcopal News Service (ENS)(2013):The dioceses of Wellington and Waiapu have voted to remove all of their investments in companies that extract or produce fossil fuels.

The Wellington decision came at the annual synod in Palmerston North last weekend and follows a similar decision by the Diocese of Auckland earlier this month.

Wellington diocese says the church is concerned about the effect of carbon emissions on climate change and also about the long-term health of investments in the fossil fuel industry.

Its share holdings will be divested within the next two years.” [1].

[1]. The New Zealand Anglican Church’s Episcopal News Service (ENS), “New Zealand: more dioceses vote to divest from fossil fuels”, 23 September 2013: http://episcopaldigitalnetwork.com/ens/2013/09/23/new-zealand-more-dioceses-vote-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/ .



ANGLICAN - WAIAPU, NEW ZEALAND ANGLICAN DIOCESE will divest from fossil fuels. .

The New Zealand Anglican Church’s Episcopal News Service (ENS)(2013):The dioceses of Wellington and Waiapu have voted to remove all of their investments in companies that extract or produce fossil fuels.

The Wellington decision came at the annual synod in Palmerston North last weekend and follows a similar decision by the Diocese of Auckland earlier this month.

Wellington diocese says the church is concerned about the effect of carbon emissions on climate change and also about the long-term health of investments in the fossil fuel industry.

Its share holdings will be divested within the next two years.” [1].

[1]. The New Zealand Anglican Church’s Episcopal News Service (ENS), “New Zealand: more dioceses vote to divest from fossil fuels”, 23 September 2013: http://episcopaldigitalnetwork.com/ens/2013/09/23/new-zealand-more-dioceses-vote-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/.



ANGLICAN - WAIKATO AND TARANAKI, NEW ZEALAND ANGLICAN DIOCESE has voted to divest from fossil fuels.

Coal Action Network, Aotearoa (New Zealand) (2013): “Earlier this month, the Auckland Diocese of the Anglican Church became the first New Zealand institution to decide to divest from fossil fuels – that is, to withdraw  investments from companies whose main business is the extraction and/or production of fossil fuels… We’re delighted to report that the four other Anglican dioceses which have been considering divestment motions have also voted to divest from fossil fuels – making 5 out of 5 dioceses that have voted to divest: Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, Dunedin, and Waikato and Taranaki.” [1].

[1]. “Five out of five Anglican dioceses vote to divest from fossil fuels”, Coal Action Network, Aotearoa, 29 September 2013: http://coalactionnetworkaotearoa.wordpress.com/2013/09/29/five-out-of-five-anglican-dioceses-vote-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/ .



ANGLICAN - WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND ANGLICAN DIOCESE will divest from fossil fuels. .

The New Zealand Anglican Church’s Episcopal News Service (ENS)(2013):The dioceses of Wellington and Waiapu have voted to remove all of their investments in companies that extract or produce fossil fuels.

The Wellington decision came at the annual synod in Palmerston North last weekend and follows a similar decision by the Diocese of Auckland earlier this month.

Wellington diocese says the church is concerned about the effect of carbon emissions on climate change and also about the long-term health of investments in the fossil fuel industry.

Its share holdings will be divested within the next two years.” [1].

[1]. The New Zealand Anglican Church’s Episcopal News Service (ENS), “New Zealand: more dioceses vote to divest from fossil fuels”, 23 September 2013: http://episcopaldigitalnetwork.com/ens/2013/09/23/new-zealand-more-dioceses-vote-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/ .



BRIGHTHELM CHURCH – first UK church to divest from dirty energy.

Report (2014): “This week, Brighthelm Church and Community Center in Brighton became the first church in the United Kingdom to divest from fossil fuel. “We don’t want our money to support an industry that is killing the planet,” said Brighthelm’s minister, Rev. Alex Mabbs. “Instead, we want to contribute to a world in which all life can flourish”” [1].

[1]. “UK’s first church to divest from fossil fuels is… “, Clean Technica, May 2014: http://cleantechnica.com/2014/05/28/uk-first-church-cutting-fossil-fuels/ .



EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN - OREGON - more than a hundred Evangelical Lutheran churches vote to disinvest from fossil fuels.

Below 350 Massachusetts (2013):On Sunday, June 2nd, First Parish in Cambridge, Unitarian Universalist, voted unanimously at its semi-annual members meeting to divest its holdings in fossil fuels stocks over the next five years. With this vote First Parish Cambridge joined a growing nationwide movement of colleges, religious organizations, and town and state governments that are working to fight global warming by removing the stocks of fossil fuel companies from their portfolios.… Although it is impossible to track all the participation in this movement, other institutions that have voted to divest from fossil fuels include: Green Mountain College, Poultney, VT, Sterling College, Craftsbury Common, VT, College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME, Unitarian Universalist South Church, Portsmouth NH, First Unitarian Church of Salt Lake City UT, First Unitarian Society of Milwaukee, more than a hundred Evangelical Lutheran churches in Oregon, City of Santa Monica, CA. Founded in 1636, First Parish in Cambridge is dedicated to working for justice and building the Beloved Community of Dr. King’s dream.” [1].

[1]. “First Parish in Cambridge MA votes to disinvest from fossil fuels”, Below 350, 2013: http://350ma.org/2013/06/first-parish-in-cambridge-ma-votes-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/ .


ISLAMIC DECLARATION ON GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE - calls "upon corporations, finance, and the business sector to...  shift investments into renewable energy

Islamic Declaration on Global Climate Change (2015): “Leading climate scientists now believe that a rise of two degrees centigrade in global temperature, which is considered to be the “tipping point”, is now very unlikely to be avoided if we continue with business-as-usual; other leading climate scientists consider 1.5 degrees centigrade to be a more likely “tipping point”. This is the point considered to be the threshold for catastrophic climate change, which will expose yet more millions of people and countless other creatures to drought, hunger and flooding. The brunt of this will continue to be borne by the poor, as the Earth experiences a drastic increase in levels of carbon in the atmosphere brought on in the period since the onset of the industrial revolution… We particularly call on the well-off nations and oil-producing states to – Lead the way in phasing out their greenhouse gas emissions as early as possible and no later than the middle of the century… We call on the people of all nations and their leaders to – Aim to phase out greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible in order to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere; Commit themselves to 100 % renewable energy and/or a zero emissions strategy as early as possible, to mitigate the environmental impact of their activities… We call upon corporations, finance, and the business sector to – Shoulder the consequences of their profit-making activities, and take a visibly more active role in reducing their carbon footprint and other forms of impact upon the natural environment; In order to mitigate the environmental impact of their activities, commit themselves to 100 % renewable energy and/or a zero emissions strategy as early as possible and shift investments into renewable energy” (International Islamic Climate Change Symposium, “Islamic Declaration on Global Climate Change”, 2015: http://islamicclimatedeclaration.org/islamic-declaration-on-global-climate-change/ ).



QUAKERS (RELIGIOUS SOCIETY OF FRIENDS) UK  strongly urge disinvestment in fossil fuels.

According to themselves: “Quakers are known formally as the Religious Society of Friends. Around 23,000 people attend nearly 475 Quaker meetings in Britain. Their commitment to equality, justice, peace, simplicity and truth challenges them to seek positive social and legislative change” (see: http://www.quaker.org.uk/news/quakers-disinvest-fossil-fuels ).  

The Quakers’ Meeting for Sufferings (their representative decision-making body) meeting in London on 5 October 2013 made the following fully minuted recording of their encouragement to Trustees of Quaker assets to disinvest  in fossil fuels (2013) :
“We have considered whether the discernment of Quakers in Britain leads us towards a policy of not investing in fossil fuel extraction. We feel strongly that we should disinvest and hope Trustees will take this into account in their decision making. We want to invest in renewable energy and energy-saving schemes. Action we will take as individuals, as meetings and as Britain Yearly Meeting Trustees should aim to minimise damage and strengthen our advocacy position. We have expressed our difficulties, especially since we all depend in many ways on fossil fuels, but we need to make positive steps towards the change we want to see. We are encouraged to hear that the Trustees are to review their investment policy, and hope our discussion today will feed into it. Local Meetings can engage in these issues, especially during Ethical Investment Week [13 to 19 October].” [1].

The UK Quakers’ Investment Committee  divests from fossil fuels. Report: (10 October 2013): “British Quakers have resolved to end all investment in fossil fuel companies and have begun steps to sell all the shares in question. They are the first major church denomination in the UK to make such a decision, increasing pressure on other churches to follow suit. Things have moved rapidly since Quaker representatives recommended divestment at a meeting last week. It was expected that the final decision would have to wait until later in the month, when the Quaker trustees met. But the trustees devolved the decision to their Investment Committee, who gave the go-ahead on Tuesday (8 October 2013). Quaker shares in companies engaged in fossil fuel extraction or exploration will now be sold. Their trustees will also review the organisation’s entire investment policy. It is thought that there may be more investments in renewable energy.” [2].

[1]. Quaker news release, “Quakers to disinvest from fossil fuels”, 8 October 2013:  http://www.quaker.org.uk/news/quakers-disinvest-fossil-fuels

[2]. “Quakers move quickly to ditch shares in fossil fuels”, Ekklesia, 10 October 2013: http://www.ekklesia.co.uk/node/19196 .


SISTERS OF LORETO (KENTUCKY), inspired by Pope Francis' Encyclical "Laudato si",  unanimously vote to divest from fossil fuels.

Report (2015):The Sisters of Loretto, a Kentucky-based Catholic community, are joining a growing movement of religious groups taking a stand for the environment.The sisters voted unanimously during their July assembly meeting to divest from fossil fuels, citing Pope Francis's landmark encyclical on the environment. Sister Maureen Fiedler, who spent months working on the resolution, said she was "stunned" by her community's unified decision."This resolution has been in process since late 2014, but the new encyclical by Pope Francis -- 'Laudato Si’, on Care for Our Common Home -- gave us a boost," Fiedler wrote in a column for National Catholic Reporter. The papal letter, released in June, never outwardly mentions divestment but takes a strong, clear stance against fossil fuels” (Antonia Blumberg, “”Sisters of Loreto divest from fossil fuels, cite Pope’s encyclical. They voted unanimously”, Huffington Post, 30 July 2015: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/sisters-of-loretto-divest-from-fossil-fuels-cite-popes-encyclical_55ba897ee4b06363d5a1795b  ).


UNITARIAN - FIRST PARISH UNIVERSALIST CHURCH, CAMBRIDGE, votes to divest from fossil fuels.

Below 350 Massachusetts (2013):On Sunday, June 2nd, First Parish in Cambridge, Unitarian Universalist, voted unanimously at its semi-annual members meeting to divest its holdings in fossil fuels stocks over the next five years. With this vote First Parish Cambridge joined a growing nationwide movement of colleges, religious organizations, and town and state governments that are working to fight global warming by removing the stocks of fossil fuel companies from their portfolios.… Although it is impossible to track all the participation in this movement, other institutions that have voted to divest from fossil fuels include: Green Mountain College, Poultney, VT, Sterling College, Craftsbury Common, VT, College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME, Unitarian Universalist South Church, Portsmouth NH, First Unitarian Church of Salt Lake City UT, First Unitarian Society of Milwaukee, more than a hundred Evangelical Lutheran churches in Oregon, City of Santa Monica, CA. Founded in 1636, First Parish in Cambridge is dedicated to working for justice and building the Beloved Community of Dr. King’s dream.” [1].

[1]. “First Parish in Cambridge MA votes to disinvest from fossil fuels”, Below 350, 2013: http://350ma.org/2013/06/first-parish-in-cambridge-ma-votes-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/ .


UNITARIAN - MILWAUKEE First Unitarian Society votes to disinvest from fossil fuels.

Below 350 Massachusetts (2013):On Sunday, June 2nd, First Parish in Cambridge, Unitarian Universalist, voted unanimously at its semi-annual members meeting to divest its holdings in fossil fuels stocks over the next five years. With this vote First Parish Cambridge joined a growing nationwide movement of colleges, religious organizations, and town and state governments that are working to fight global warming by removing the stocks of fossil fuel companies from their portfolios.… Although it is impossible to track all the participation in this movement, other institutions that have voted to divest from fossil fuels include: Green Mountain College, Poultney, VT, Sterling College, Craftsbury Common, VT, College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME, Unitarian Universalist South Church, Portsmouth NH, First Unitarian Church of Salt Lake City UT, First Unitarian Society of Milwaukee, more than a hundred Evangelical Lutheran churches in Oregon, City of Santa Monica, CA. Founded in 1636, First Parish in Cambridge is dedicated to working for justice and building the Beloved Community of Dr. King’s dream.” [1].

[1]. “First Parish in Cambridge MA votes to disinvest from fossil fuels”, Below 350, 2013: http://350ma.org/2013/06/first-parish-in-cambridge-ma-votes-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/ .



UNITARIAN CHURCH, MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA divests from fossil fuel companies.

ABC Environment report (2013): “The Melbourne Unitarian Church has become the second Australian religious organisation to announce it will no longer invest in fossil fuel companies. The small Melbourne church will sell its shares in fossil fuel companies, and the banks that finance their projects, by the end of the year. Peter Castaldo, the church member who proposed the divestment, said he was inspired by the NSW and ACT branches of the Uniting Church of Australia who announced in April they would ban investment in fossil fuels.” [1].

[1]. “Unitarian Church divests from fossil fuels”,  ABC Environment, 1 August 2013: http://www.abc.net.au/environment/articles/2013/08/01/3816046.htm .



UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST - PORTSMOUTH Unitarian Universalist South Church, Portsmouth, New Hampshire, USA votes to disinvest from fossil fuels.

Below 350 Massachusetts (2013):On Sunday, June 2nd, First Parish in Cambridge, Unitarian Universalist, voted unanimously at its semi-annual members meeting to divest its holdings in fossil fuels stocks over the next five years. With this vote First Parish Cambridge joined a growing nationwide movement of colleges, religious organizations, and town and state governments that are working to fight global warming by removing the stocks of fossil fuel companies from their portfolios.… Although it is impossible to track all the participation in this movement, other institutions that have voted to divest from fossil fuels include: Green Mountain College, Poultney, VT, Sterling College, Craftsbury Common, VT, College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME, Unitarian Universalist South Church, Portsmouth NH, First Unitarian Church of Salt Lake City, First Unitarian Society of Milwaukee, ore than a hundred Evangelical Lutheran churches in Oregon, City of Santa Monica, CA. Founded in 1636, First Parish in Cambridge is dedicated to working for justice and building the Beloved Community of Dr. King’s dream.” [1].

[1]. “First Parish in Cambridge MA votes to disinvest from fossil fuels”, Below 350, 2013: http://350ma.org/2013/06/first-parish-in-cambridge-ma-votes-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/ .



UNITARIAN - SALT LAKE CITY First Unitarian Church of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA votes to disinvest from fossil fuels.

Below 350 Massachusetts (2013):On Sunday, June 2nd, First Parish in Cambridge, Unitarian Universalist, voted unanimously at its semi-annual members meeting to divest its holdings in fossil fuels stocks over the next five years. With this vote First Parish Cambridge joined a growing nationwide movement of colleges, religious organizations, and town and state governments that are working to fight global warming by removing the stocks of fossil fuel companies from their portfolios.… Although it is impossible to track all the participation in this movement, other institutions that have voted to divest from fossil fuels include: Green Mountain College, Poultney, VT, Sterling College, Craftsbury Common, VT, College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME, Unitarian Universalist South Church, Portsmouth NH, First Unitarian Church of Salt Lake City, First Unitarian Society of Milwaukee, more than a hundred Evangelical Lutheran churches in Oregon, City of Santa Monica, CA. Founded in 1636, First Parish in Cambridge is dedicated to working for justice and building the Beloved Community of Dr. King’s dream.” [1].

[1]. “First Parish in Cambridge MA votes to disinvest from fossil fuels”, Below 350, 2013: http://350ma.org/2013/06/first-parish-in-cambridge-ma-votes-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/ .




UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST CONVENTION votes to divest from fossil fuels.

Report:The United Church of Christ (UCC) is known for its progressive stances on women's issues, LGBT rights and economic justice. So it is no surprise that they have adopted a strategy to combat climate change at their annual convention underway in Long beach, Calif. However, the vote by the General Synod to investigate, and possibly divest from fossil fuel companies was hailed in an interview with The Huffington Post as a first by any religious group and the first by a national body of any kind. “Today, the UCC added another ‘first’ when it became the first national faith communion to vote to divest from fossil fuel companies –- and to do it with the support of its major investment institution, United Church Funds,” said the Rev. Jim Antal, conference minister of the Massachusetts Conference of the UCC and a major proponent of the resolution.” [1].

[1].Paul Raushenbush,  Fossil fuel divestment strategy passes at United Church of Christ Convention (UCC)”, Huffington Post Religion,  2 July 2013: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/02/fossil-fuel-divestment-ucc_n_3535729.html .


UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST , Massachusetts & 10 other Conferences "voted to endorse or sponsor the resolution [to divest from fossil fuels]" . 

Report: "Between January and June 2013, ten of the 37 other Conferences of the UCC voted to endorse or co-sponsor the resolution. This kind of support was unprecedented."

[1]. .Paul Raushenbush,  Fossil fuel divestment strategy passes at United Church of Christ Convention (UCC)”, Huffington Post Religion,  2 July 2013: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/02/fossil-fuel-divestment-ucc_n_3535729.html .


UNITNG CHURCH OF AUSTRALIA votes to divest from fossil fuels.

The Australian report (2014):The Uniting Church in Australia Assembly has resolved to divest from investments in corporations engaged in the extraction of fossil fuels. Uniting Church president Professor Andrew Dutney has welcomed the resolution of the Assembly Standing Committee, calling the decision an important act of public witness. “As Christians we are called to respect and care for the whole of creation,” said Rev. Prof. Dutney… The Assembly Standing Committee resolution follows similar decisions on divestment by the Synod of NSW and ACT in April 2013 and the Synod of Victoria and Tasmania in February 2014.” [1].

[1]. John Conroy, “Uniting Church’s Assembly to divest from fossil fuels”, The Australian, 1 September 2014: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/latest/uniting-churchs-assembly-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/story-e6frg90f-1227044025553 .


 

UNITING CHURCH OF AUSTRALIA, NEW SOUTH WALES (NSW) BRANCH divests from fossil fuel companies.

ABC Environment report (2013): “The Melbourne Unitarian Church has become the second Australian religious organisation to announce it will no longer invest in fossil fuel companies. The small Melbourne church will sell its shares in fossil fuel companies, and the banks that finance their projects, by the end of the year. Peter Castaldo, the church member who proposed the divestment, said he was inspired by the NSW and ACT branches of the Uniting Church of Australia who announced in April they would ban investment in fossil fuels.” [1].

[1]. “Unitarian Church divests from fossil fuels”,  ABC Environment, 1 August 2013: http://www.abc.net.au/environment/articles/2013/08/01/3816046.htm .

 

UNITING CHURCH OF AUSTRALIA, AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY  (ACT) BRANCH divests from fossil fuel companies.

ABC Environment report (2013): “The Melbourne Unitarian Church has become the second Australian religious organisation to announce it will no longer invest in fossil fuel companies. The small Melbourne church will sell its shares in fossil fuel companies, and the banks that finance their projects, by the end of the year. Peter Castaldo, the church member who proposed the divestment, said he was inspired by the NSW and ACT branches of the Uniting Church of Australia who announced in April they would ban investment in fossil fuels.” [1].

[1]. “Unitarian Church divests from fossil fuels”,  ABC Environment, 1 August 2013: http://www.abc.net.au/environment/articles/2013/08/01/3816046.htm .



WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES divests from fossil fuels.

Report (2014): ”In addition to the Rockefellers, the World Council of Churches, which represents some 590 million people in 150 countries – also pulled its investments from fossil fuels on Monday. The move represented a turning point for a movement which began by demanding that universities purge their financial holdings of ties to the fossil fuel industry.” [1].

[1]. Suzanne Goldenberg, “Heirs to Rockefeller oil fortune divest from fossil fuels over climate change””, Guardian, 23 September 2014: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/sep/22/rockefeller-heirs-divest-fossil-fuels-climate-change .



COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES


AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY (ANU) becomes first Australian university to divest from fossil fuels.   

Sydney Morning Herald report: “The ANU [Australian National University] said this month it would shed holdings worth $16 million – or less than 2 per cent of its investments – in seven resources companies, including oil and gas developer Santos. The action whipped up a storm of indignation from Coalition politicians and mining companies. [Australian PM] Mr Abbott used a visit to a new $3.9 billion BHP Billiton-run mine in central Queensland to declare coal was "essential for the prosperity of the world". The clamour over coal, though, is unlikely to diminish, with prominent academics at Melbourne University and the University of Queensland signing open letters calling for fossil fuel holdings to be ditched. The ANU move "shows that divestment is really a powerful tool for generating debate", said Vicky Fysh from Fossil Free Melbourne University and also a national co-ordinator for activist group 350.org. The Melbourne University response involves two separate faculty letters, including from about 75 leading medical researchers and staff, such as Professor Ian Gust, chairman of Biomedical Research Victoria, and Professor Rob Shepherd, director of the Bionics Institute.. In contrast to Mr Abbott's statement that "coal is good for humanity", the medical researchers said the fuel had been shown to cause a variety of ill-health effects, "including low birth-weight pregnancies, birth defects, respiratory disease in children and adults, cardiovascular disease in adults, and cancer". [1].

[1]. Peter Hannam. “More Australian universities come under pressure to divest from fossil fuels”, Sydney Morning Herald, 20 October 2014:  www.smh.com.au/environment/climate-change/more-australian-universities-come-under-pressure-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels-20141019-118bao.html .    


COLLEGE OF THE ATLANTIC, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA votes to disinvest from fossil fuels.

Below 350 Massachusetts (2013):On Sunday, June 2nd, First Parish in Cambridge, Unitarian Universalist, voted unanimously at its semi-annual members meeting to divest its holdings in fossil fuels stocks over the next five years. With this vote First Parish Cambridge joined a growing nationwide movement of colleges, religious organizations, and town and state governments that are working to fight global warming by removing the stocks of fossil fuel companies from their portfolios.… Although it is impossible to track all the participation in this movement, other institutions that have voted to divest from fossil fuels include: Green Mountain College, Poultney, VT, Sterling College, Craftsbury Common, VT, College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME, Unitarian Universalist South Church, Portsmouth NH, First Unitarian Church of Salt Lake City UT, First Unitarian Society of Milwaukee, more than a hundred Evangelical Lutheran churches in Oregon, City of Santa Monica, CA. Founded in 1636, First Parish in Cambridge is dedicated to working for justice and building the Beloved Community of Dr. King’s dream.” [1].

[1]. “First Parish in Cambridge MA votes to disinvest from fossil fuels”, Below 350, 2013: http://350ma.org/2013/06/first-parish-in-cambridge-ma-votes-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/ .



FOOTHILL-DE ANZA COMMUNITY COLLEGE Foundation the first US community college foundation to divest from fossil fuels.  

Bea Karnes report (2013): “Responding to a thoughtful campaign by students and citing the community college district’s commitment to environmental sustainability, the Board of Directors of the Foothill-De Anza Foundation has voted to discontinue direct investments in fossil fuel companies and minimize investments in comingled assets that include such companies. The board set a deadline of June 30, 2014, to divest from companies with the largest holdings of unburned carbon reserves as determined using Fossil Free’s Carbon Tracker of the top 200 fossil fuel companies. The unanimous vote on Oct. 23 makes the Foothill-De Anza Foundation the first community college foundation in the nation to commit to divesting from fossil fuels, according to Jamie Henn, communications director for 350.org, a leader in the national divestment movement.” [1].

[1]. Bea Karnes, “Foothill-De Anza Foundation to divest from fossil fuels”, Los Altos Patch, 4 November 2013: http://losaltos.patch.com/groups/schools/p/foothillde-anza-foundation-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels .


GLASGOW UNIVERSITY becomes the first academic institution in Europe to divest from the fossil fuel industry.

Guardian report (2014):Glasgow University has become the first academic institution in Europe to divest from the fossil fuel industry, in a turning point for the British arm of the student-led global divestment movement. After 12 months of campaigning, led by the Glasgow University Climate Action Society and involving over 1,300 students, the university court on Wednesday voted to begin divesting £18m from the fossil fuel industry and freeze new investments across its entire endowment of £128m.” [1]

[1]. Libby Brooks, “Glasgow becomes first university in Europe to divest from fossil fuels”, Guardian, 9 October 2014: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/oct/08/glasgow-becomes-first-university-in-europe-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels .



GREEN MOUNTAIN COLLEGE,  Poultney, Vermont, USA votes to disinvest from fossil fuels.

Below 350 Massachusetts (2013):On Sunday, June 2nd, First Parish in Cambridge, Unitarian Universalist, voted unanimously at its semi-annual members meeting to divest its holdings in fossil fuels stocks over the next five years. With this vote First Parish Cambridge joined a growing nationwide movement of colleges, religious organizations, and town and state governments that are working to fight global warming by removing the stocks of fossil fuel companies from their portfolios.… Although it is impossible to track all the participation in this movement, other institutions that have voted to divest from fossil fuels include: Green Mountain College, Poultney, VT, Sterling College, Craftsbury Common, VT, College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME, Unitarian Universalist South Church, Portsmouth NH, First Unitarian Church of Salt Lake City UT, First Unitarian Society of Milwaukee, more than a hundred Evangelical Lutheran churches in Oregon, City of Santa Monica, CA. Founded in 1636, First Parish in Cambridge is dedicated to working for justice and building the Beloved Community of Dr. King’s dream.” [1].

[1]. “First Parish in Cambridge MA votes to disinvest from fossil fuels”, Below 350, 2013: http://350ma.org/2013/06/first-parish-in-cambridge-ma-votes-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/ .



HAMPSHIRE COLLEGE in Amherst, Massachusetts, USA endorses campaign to divest from fossil fuels.

Michael McDonald Bloomberg (2103): “Students at more than 300 schools in the U.S. have formed groups in the past year seeking to pressure colleges to divest from Exxon Mobil Corp. (XOM), BP Plc and about 200 other companies with the largest reserves of oil, gas and coal. While some smaller institutions such as Unity College in Unity, Maine, and Hampshire College in Amherst, Massachusetts, endorsed the campaign, most have declined.” [1].

[1]. Michael McDonald, “Harvard won’t divest from fossil fuels, Faust says”, Bloomberg, 4 October 2013: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-10-03/harvard-fossil-fuels.html .



NAROPA UNIVERSITY, Boulder, Colorado, USA divests from fossil fuels.

Naropa Univerisity Press release, Boulder, Colorado (October 31, 2013): “Following a unanimous vote by Naropa University's endowment committee, the institution has fully divested from their holdings in companies identified by 350.org as having the highest potential greenhouse gas emissions, based on their carbon reserves. Naropa's board of trustees concluded that the divestment would not threaten the stability of their stock portfolio, and that continuing to practice shareholder activism involving those companies would not result in significant changes in behavior. The decision places Naropa among only a handful of other United States colleges and universities leading the charge toward more environmentally responsible investing. This divestment further represents a close partnership between the board of trustees, the administration, and a group of deeply committed students.  Students not only raised their concerns, but also collaborated with the university to further discussion around divestment, shareholder advocacy, and investment strategy.” [1].

[1]. Naropa University Press release, October 31, 2013, “Naropa University  divests from fossil fuels”: http://www.naropa.edu/media/naropa-press-releases/press-2013/naropa-divests-from-fossil-fuels.php .



SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION  votes to divest from coal, tars sands and look into divesting from all fossil fuels.

Report:San Francisco State University will stop investing its endowment in coal and tar sands companies, joining a growing list of universities that are avoiding investments in fossil fuels, the school said Tuesday.  The university's foundation, which oversees a $51.2 million endowment, also voted in May to look into removing all future investments in fossil fuels companies.” [1].

[1]. Associated Press, “San Francisco State University votes to divest investments in coal,  tars sands”,  San Jose Mercury News, 12 June 2013: http://www.mercurynews.com/ci_23443908/san-francsico-state-university-votes-divest-investment-coal .


SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY, New York, the biggest university in the world to have committed to remove its endowment from direct investments in coal, oil and gas companies

Report: Syracuse University will remove its $1.18bn (£800m) endowment from direct investments in fossil fuel companies, it announced on Tuesday. Syracuse is the biggest university in the world to have committed to remove its endowment from direct investments in coal, oil and gas companies. It aims to make additional investments in clean energy technologies such as solar, biofuels and advanced recycling. In a statement, the university said it will “not directly invest in publicly traded companies whose primary business is extraction of fossil fuels and will direct its external investment managers to take every step possible to prohibit investments in these public companies as well”(Emma Howard, “Syracuse University to divest $1.18 bn endowment from fossil fuels”, Guardian, 2 April 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/apr/01/syracuse-university-to-divest-800m-endowment-from-fossil-fuels ) .


STANFORD UNIVERSITY decides to divest from coal.

Report: "Stanford University will not make direct investments of endowment funds in publicly traded companies whose principal business is the mining of coal for use in energy generation, the Stanford Board of Trustees decided today.

In taking the action, the trustees endorsed the recommendation of the university's Advisory Panel on Investment Responsibility and Licensing (APIRL). This panel, which includes representatives of students, faculty, staff and alumni, conducted an extensive review over the last several months of the social and environmental implications of investment in fossil fuel companies." [1].

[1]. Standorf News, 6 May 2014: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2014/may/divest-coal-trustees-050714.html .




STERLING COLLEGE, Craftsbury Common, Vermont, USA  votes to disinvest from fossil fuels.

Below 350 Massachusetts (2013):On Sunday, June 2nd, First Parish in Cambridge, Unitarian Universalist, voted unanimously at its semi-annual members meeting to divest its holdings in fossil fuels stocks over the next five years. With this vote First Parish Cambridge joined a growing nationwide movement of colleges, religious organizations, and town and state governments that are working to fight global warming by removing the stocks of fossil fuel companies from their portfolios.… Although it is impossible to track all the participation in this movement, other institutions that have voted to divest from fossil fuels include: Green Mountain College, Poultney, VT, Sterling College, Craftsbury Common, VT, College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME, Unitarian Universalist South Church, Portsmouth NH, First Unitarian Church of Salt Lake City UT, First Unitarian Society of Milwaukee, ore than a hundred Evangelical Lutheran churches in Oregon, City of Santa Monica, CA. Founded in 1636, First Parish in Cambridge is dedicated to working for justice and building the Beloved Community of Dr. King’s dream.” [1].

[1]. “First Parish in Cambridge MA votes to disinvest from fossil fuels”, Below 350, 2013: http://350ma.org/2013/06/first-parish-in-cambridge-ma-votes-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/ .



UNITY COLLEGE, Unity, Maine, USA endorses campaign to divest from fossil fuels.

Michael McDonald Bloomberg (2103): “Students at more than 300 schools in the U.S. have formed groups in the past year seeking to pressure colleges to divest from Exxon Mobil Corp. (XOM), BP Plc and about 200 other companies with the largest reserves of oil, gas and coal. While some smaller institutions such as Unity College in Unity, Maine, and Hampshire College in Amherst, Massachusetts, endorsed the campaign, most have declined.” [1].

[1]. Michael McDonald, “Harvard won’t divest from fossil fuels, Faust says”, Bloomberg, 4 October 2013: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-10-03/harvard-fossil-fuels.html .



UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH to divest from 3 major fossil fuel providers.  

Report (2015): “The University of Edinburgh has announced that it intends to fully divest from three of the world’s biggest fossil fuel producers within six months. The decision follows a 10-day occupation of its finance department by student protesters over the institution’s initial commitment to put engagement before divestment. The university’s investment committee met on Tuesday afternoon for the first time since the change in investment policy for Edinburgh’s £298m endowment fund was announced earlier this month, and was greeted with disappointment by climate change campaigners. Outlining what was essentially a company-by-company approach, vice-principal Prof Charlie Jeffery explained on 12 May that the university would divest from companies involved in the extraction of coal and tar sands, only where feasible alternative sources of energy exist, and where companies do not invest in low-carbon technologies” (see Libby Brooks, “University of Edinburgh to divest from three major fossil fuel providers”, Guardian, 27 May 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/may/26/university-edinburgh-divest-fossil-fuel-student-protestors ).


UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD votes to disinvest from fossil fuels.

Report (2015):In a statement released Monday morning, Oxford University officials announced the university will no longer be investing in fossil fuels. The announcement is a major victory in the student divestment movement and the broader battle against climate change” (Lauren Gaynor, “Oxford University to divest from fossil fuels”, In These Times, 2015: http://inthesetimes.com/article/17958/oxford-university-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels ).

61-Nobel-Laureate Oxford University stated in part (2015):  Oxford University is a world leader in the battle against climate change. Our researchers have played a large part in developing the understanding of climate change and its link to man-made carbon emissions.  Today, the Oxford Energy Network, an interdisciplinary group of more than 180 senior researchers, works to tackle the social, economic and political challenges of sustainable energy for all. Meanwhile, the University’s Environmental Sustainability Policy has been shrinking the carbon footprint of our considerable estate since 2008. We have set ourselves the target of reducing our carbon emissions by one third by 2021 and have ring-fenced £14.6 million to be spent on carbon reduction targets” (Oxfrod University and fossil fuel divestment”, University of Oxford, News ^& Events, 2015: http://www.ox.ac.uk/news-and-events/fossil-fuel-divestment ,


UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII SYSTEM votes to disinvest from fossil fuels.

Report (2015):The University of Hawaii System has announced it will divest its $66m (£42m) endowment from oil, coal and gas companies, following a vote by its board of regents on Thursday. It becomes the 30th higher education institution in the world to join the fast-growing global fossil fuel divestment movement. The campaign, which started in September 2013, brought together more than 1,300 supporters including students, faculty and board members” (Emma Howard, “University of Hawaii system votes to divest from fossil fuels”, The Guardian, 22 May 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/keep-it-in-the-ground-blog/2015/may/22/university-of-hawaii-system-votes-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels ).


UK UNIVERSITIES - as of November 2016, 43 UK universities (one quarter of the total) have voted to divest from fossil fuels.

Report by The Guardian (UK) (2016):The number of British universities divesting from fossil fuels has leaped to 43, a quarter of the total. The surge means the UK leads the world in campus action to pull university funds from oil, gas and coal. Financial institutions and charities are also divesting and at least $2.6tn (£2.1tn) of assets are covered by such pledges around the world. Scientists have shown that most fossil fuel reserves cannot be burned without dangerous climate change. Campaigners argue this makes fossil fuel companies bad investments on both moral and financial grounds. The total number of UK universities that are divesting was published on Tuesday by the student group, People & Planet. It found 16 new institutions have committed to divestment, taking the total funds affected to more than £10bn” (Daman Carrington, “Fossil fuel divestment soars in UK universities”, The Guardian, 23 November 2016: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/nov/22/fossil-fuel-divestment-soars-in-uk-universities?utm_source=esp&utm_medium=Email&utm_campaign=KIITG+series+2016&utm_term=201007&subid=10385929&CMP=ema-60 ).


US  COLLEGE STUDENTS  urge college divestment from fossil fuels.

Stephen Mulkey on US college students urging college divestment from fossil fuels (2013): “Doing what is right pays dividends. That is a lesson learned in the weeks and months following Unity College’s divestment from investment in fossil fuels. In 2012, Unity College, an environmental college founded in 1965 by Unity, Maine-area residents became the first college in the United States to divest from investments in fossil fuels. With a modest endowment of $13.5 million, we could not afford to get this wrong. If divesting from investments in fossil fuels produced negative results for us, there would be no lifejacket at the ready -- we would sink, and fast. Far from possessing some special dispensation due to an economy of both the size of our student body and comparatively modest endowment of $13.5 million at the time, Unity had more to lose than large universities… Just weeks after Unity announced its decision to divest, our director of development, Martha Nordstrom, received a call from the Richard David Stutzke Foundation. The foundation, impressed by Unity’s divestment, offered a generous gift. That gift has since transformed into scholarships in perpetuity for students pursuing studies at Unity as part of its sustainable energy management and environmental policy, law, and society programs… Since Unity announced its decision to divest, more than 300 college and university campuses across the United States have seen the development of robust student movements encouraging divestment. Bill McKibben’s organization, 350.org, is leading this effort and encourages any who are interested in divesting to contact them.” [1].

 

[1]. Stephen Mulkey, “Divestment can pay off”, Inside Higher Ed, 8 October 2013: http://www.insidehighered.com/views/2013/10/08/essay-why-one-college-stopped-investing-fossil-fuels .





OTHER ORGANIZATIONS


300.org - return atmosphere CO2 to 300 ppm & divest from fossil fuels.

300.org: “300.org exists to inform people about the Climate Emergency and the need to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentration to a safe and sustainable level of about 300 ppm. 

The fundamental position of 300.org is that  There must be a safe and sustainable existence for all peoples and all species on our warming-threatened Planet and this requires a rapid reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration  to about 300 parts per million”. 

300.org urges the World to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2) to about 300 parts per million (ppm). In urging a target of an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 300 ppm, 300.org is informed by the advice of top world climate scientists as set out in carefully researched and  documented presentations on this site (see Sitemap).” [1].

300.org: “Divest from fossil fuels”. [2].

[1]. 300.org: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/Home .

[2]. 300.org, “Divest from fossil fuels”: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/divest-from-fossil-fuels .



350.org – join the Fossil Free Divestment Movement.

350.org says that we must reduce atmospheric CO2 to no more than 350 ppm (see: http://350.org/  ).

350.org on "fossil free divestment" : “We’re jumpstarting a new movement, and we need your help.

It’s simple math: we can emit 565 more gigatons of carbon dioxide and stay below 2°C of warming — anything more than that risks catastrophe for life on earth. The only problem? Burning the fossil fuel that corporations now have in their reserves would result in emitting 2,795 gigatons of carbon dioxide – five times the safe amount.

Fossil fuel companies are planning to burn it all — unless we rise up to stop them. In November 2012, Bill McKibben and 350.org hit the road to build a movement strong enough to change the terrifying math of the climate crisis. The Do the Math Tour was a massive success, with sold out shows in every corner of the country.

The USA tour is now over, but the campaign it launched is just getting started and the tour has gone global. 

Join the Fossil Free Divestment Movement at www.GoFossilFree.org .” [1].

[1]. 350.org, “Do the math tour”, 2012 : http://math.350.org/ .



AMP CAPITAL RESPONSIBLE SUPERANNUATION FUND (AUSTRALIA)

Report (2014): “Investment in coal and gas companies has been on the radar recently, with some super funds deciding to scale back some portfolios with exposure to oil, coal and gas projects. AMP Capital revealed plans for its responsible super funds to limit ­exposure to the oil and gas industry, citing “growing interest and concern” about climate change from investors.

Education industry fund Unisuper has similar plans and will remove fossil fuel companies from its socially ­responsible funds in September.” [1].

[1]. Tom Cowie, “Bendigo and Adelaide Bank join super funds in fossil fuel rethink”, Bendigo Advertiser, 7 June 2014: http://www.bendigoadvertiser.com.au/story/2336225/bendigo-and-adelaide-bank-joins-super-funds-in-fossil-fuel-rethink/ .


 
 ARABELLA ADVISORS issue 2016 Global Divestment Report on $5.2 trillion of divestment from fossil fuels.

Arabella Advisors (“helps foundations, philanthropists, and investors who are serious about impact create meaningful change”) issue Global Divestment Report on $5.2 trillion of divestment from fossil fuels (2016): “Executive Summary. On the one-year anniversary of the Paris climate agreement, the value of assets represented by institutions and individuals committing to some sort of divestment from fossil fuel companies has reached $5 trillion.1To date, 688 institutions and 58,399 individuals across 76 countries have committed to divest from fossil fuel companies, doubling the value of assets represented in the last 15 months.2Pension funds and insurance companies now represent the largest sectors committing to divestment, reflecting increased financial and fiduciary risks of holding fossil fuels in a world committed to stay below 2°Celsius warming” (Arabella Advisors, “The global fossil fuel divestment and clean energy investment movement”, December 2016: https://www.arabellaadvisors.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Global_Divestment_Report_2016.pdf ).



ASSET OWNERS DISCLOSURE PROJECT - "to protect members' retirement savings from the risks posed by climate change by improving the level of disclosure and industry best practice”.

Asset Owners Disclosure Project (AODP) in its own words: “The Asset Owners Disclosure Project is an independent not-for-profit global organisation whose objective is to protect members' retirement savings from the risks posed by climate change by improving the level of disclosure and industry best practice” (see: http://aodproject.net/ ).

AODP on the Global Climate Index 2013-14: “The second ever Global Climate Index demonstrating how the world’s biggest investors are managing climate risk has revealed that many of the world’s investment funds are setting investors up for massive losses through exposure to these risks.” [1].

AODP Global Climate Index rates the following Pension Funds as AAA in terms of climate risk avoidance: (1) Environment Agency Active Pension fund (UK), (2) Local Government Super (Australia), (3) CalPERS (USA),  (4)  Stichting Pensioenfonds Zorg en Welzijn (PFZW), and (5) VicSuper (Australia) [2].

AODP on Climate Change Best Practice: “Climate change is perhaps the largest single threat to pension and superannuation funds’ long-term returns. The ability of these funds to build capability in the management of climate change risks and opportunities is therefore becoming core to their business. Not only is it certain that this capability will be required over the long-term but it will become a determining factor in both the risk/return profile of the investment portfolio and also the fund’s position in the market place relative to its peers.The Climate Change Best Practice Methodology is a step-by-step guide and toolkit designed to assist these funds – the world’s largest investors – in designing and implementing a programme that will raise the standard of climate change management in their organisation to the highest global industry benchmarks.” . [3].

[1]. AODP on the Global Climate Index 2013-14: http://aodproject.net/ .

[2]. AODP Global Climate Index 2013-14: http://aodproject.net/climate-ratings/aodp-global-climate-index.html .

[3]. AODP Climate Change Best Practice:   http://aodproject.net/best-practice.html .


AUSTRALIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE divests from fossil fuels.

 Report (2015):The growing fossil fuel divestment movement yesterday welcomed a trifecta of influential institutions into the ethical investment fold, with Melbourne City Council, the Australian Academy of Science, and the National Tertiary Education Union all pledging to put their money where their mouth is on climate change. According to climate advocacy group 350.org, the organisations join over 450 global institutions in their decision to pull out of fossil fuel stocks. Yesterday’s announcements follow the recent divestment of Newcastle Council’s $269 million portfolio, the Australian Capital Territory government’s decision to phase out fossil fuels, and the Australian National University’s pledge to drop investments in coal” (see Thom Mitchell, “Fossil Fuel Divestment Campaign Bags Trifecta Of New Backers Including First Australian Union”, New Matilda, 28 October 2015: https://newmatilda.com/2015/10/28/fossil-fuel-divestment-campaign-bags-trifecta-of-new-backers-including-first-australian-union/ ).



AUSTRALIAN STUDENT ENVIRONMENTAL NETWORK (ASEN) urges university divestment from fossil fuels.

Australian Student Environmental Network: “Fossil free universities”. [1].

[1]. Australian Student Environmental Network: http://asen.org.au/ .



BENDIGO AND ADELAIDE BANK becomes first major Australian Bank to oppose investment in fossil fuels. 

 

Report (2014):Bendigo and Adelaide Bank has become the first major bank to publicly oppose investing in coal and gas projects, joining a number of big superannuation funds.

The decision by Australia’s fifth-biggest bank puts it at odds with the big four banks, which have been criticised by activist investment groups for lending to fossil fuel industries.

Bendigo Bank executive Marnie Baker said the company was ­committed to minimising environmental harm, which included the ­operations of the businesses in which it invested.”,[1].

[1]. Tom Cowie, “Bendigo and Adelaide Bank join super funds in fossil fuel rethink”, Bendigo Advertiser, 7 June 2014: http://www.bendigoadvertiser.com.au/story/2336225/bendigo-and-adelaide-bank-joins-super-funds-in-fossil-fuel-rethink/ .



BLACKROCK co-launches the Ex  Fossil Fuels Index Series, an equity global index series that will exclude dirty energy companies.

BlackRock, Inc. is a world-leading, multinational investment management corporation based in New York City, USA.

Report: “NEW YORK (April 29, 2014) – The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), BlackRock and FTSE Group, the global index provider, partnered today in launching a groundbreaking equity global index series that will exclude companies linked to exploration, ownership or extraction of carbon-based fossil fuel reserves. The new investment tool will allow climate-conscious investors, including foundations, universities and certain pension groups, to match their investment strategy and financial interests with their values… The FTSE Developed ex-Fossil Fuels Index Series is an innovative set of benchmark indices that excludes companies directly engaged in extracting so-called “stranded assets” in the hydrocarbons industry.  This ground-breaking series is the first to implement total exclusion of fossil fuel linked stocks so that these enterprises are removed entirely from the constituency.  The global benchmark includes over 2,000 securities across 25 countries. As an integral member of the collaboration with the NRDC and FTSE, BlackRock has developed a solution that incorporates these advances and supports its goals. The index series and BlackRock’s solution are the first steps toward creating more opportunities for fossil fuel-free investing ” [1].

[1]. NRDC, BlackRock and FTSE Jumpstart Mainstream Climate-Conscious Investing. New Index Excludes Fossil Fuel Extraction Companies, NRDC Press release,  April 29, 2014: http://www.nrdc.org/media/2014/140429.asp .



CARBON TRACKER warns “investors to re-evaluate energy business models against carbon budgets, to prevent $6trillion carbon bubble in the next decade”.

 

The Carbon Tracker Initiative is “aiming to improve the transparency of the carbon embedded in equity markets. This will be done by identifying the scale of unburnable carbon currently listed on stock exchanges around the world in order to demonstrate the systemic risk to markets” (see : http://www.carbontracker.org/ ).

Carbon Tracker: “This new research from Carbon Tracker and the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment at LSE calls for regulators, governments and investors to re-evaluate energy business models against carbon budgets, to prevent $6trillion carbon bubble in the next decade.

Unburnable carbon 2013: Wasted capital and stranded assets has revealed that fossil fuel reserves already far exceed the carbon budget to avoid global warming of 2°C, but in spite of this, spent $674billion last year to find and develop new potentially stranded assets.

“Smart investors can see that investing in companies that rely solely or heavily on constantly replenishing reserves of fossil fuels is becoming a very risky decision. The report raises serious questions as to the ability of the financial system to act on industry-wide long term risk, since currently the only measure of risk is performance against industry benchmarks.” Professor Lord Stern.

The carbon budget deficit.

Between 60-80% of coal, oil and gas reserves of publicly listed companies are ‘unburnable’ if the world is to have a chance of not exceeding global warming of 2°C. The total coal, oil and gas reserves listed on the world’s stock exchanges equals 762GtCO2 – approximately a quarter of the world’s total reserves. If you apply the same proportion to the global carbon budgets to have an 80% chance of limiting global warming to 2°C, their allocation of the carbon budget is between 125GtCO2 and 225GtCO2, illustrating the scale of ‘unburnable carbon’.” [1].

[1]. Carbon Tracker, “Unburnable carbon 2013: Wasted capital and stranded asserts”: http://www.carbontracker.org/wastedcapital .



CHESAPEAKE CLIMATE ACTION NETWORK (CCAN),  the first grassroots, nonprofit organization dedicated exclusively to fighting global warming in Maryland, Virginia, and Washington, D.C.,  demands fossil fuel divestment.

 

Chesapeake Climate Action Network (CCAN):It's wrong to profit from wrecking the climate. And it's wrong for our colleges to invest in the fossil fuel corporations that threaten to destroy our future. That's the simple ethic that is driving a powerful campaign taking hold on campuses across our region and the country: fossil fuel divestment.” [1].

 

[1]. Chesapeake Climate Action Network (CCAN), “Divest from fossil fuels”: http://www.chesapeakeclimate.org/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=3717:divest-from-fossil-fuels&Itemid=21 .




DIVEST-INVEST PHILANTHROPY – 17 US foundations pledge to divest from fossil fuels.

 

Divest-Invest Philanthropy in its own words:We are foundations divesting from fossil fuels and switching to clean energy investments, joining college, health, pension and religious endowments doing the same. Ethically, our investments shouldn’t contribute to dangerous climate change. Financially, fossil fuel stocks are over-valued as most of their reserves cannot be burned. We can get good, safe returns while helping to build a new energy system. [1].

 

The 17 foundations initially who are divesting from fossil fuels and who signed the Divest-Invest Philanthropy pledge statement above are (January  2014):

 

1. Ben & Jerry's Foundation
2. The Chorus Foundation
3. Compton Foundation
4. The Educational Foundation of America
5. Granary Foundation
6. Jesse Smith Noyes Foundation
7. The John Merck Fund
8. The Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust
9. KL Felicitas Foundation
10. Nia Community Fund
11. Park Foundation
12. The Russell Family Foundation
13. Schmidt Family Foundation
14. The Sierra Club Foundation
15. Singing Field Foundation
16. Solidago Foundation
17. Wallace Global Fund [2].

 

 

[1]. Divest-Invest Philanthropy: http://divestinvest.org/philanthropy/ .

 

[2]. Dana Hull, “Foundations pledge to divest from fossil fuels”, San Jose Mercury News, 30 January 2014: http://www.mercurynews.com/business/ci_25027894/foundations-pledge-divest-from-fossil-fuels .



FOSSIL FREE
campaigns for divestment from fossil fuels.

Fossil Free campaigns for divestment from fossil fuels (see: http://gofossilfree.org/about/ ).

Fossil Free: “If it is wrong to wreck the climate, then it is wrong to profit from that wreckage. We believe that educational and religious institutions, city and state governments, and other institutions that serve the public good should divest from fossil fuels.

We want institutions to immediately freeze any new investment in fossil fuel companies, and divest from direct ownership and any commingled funds that include fossil fuel public equities and corporate bonds within 5 years.

200 publicly-traded companies hold the vast majority of the world’s proven coal, oil and gas reserves. Those are the companies we’re asking our institutions to divest from. Our demands to these companies are simple, because they reflect the stark truth of climate science:

  • They need immediately to stop exploring for new hydrocarbons.
  • They need to stop lobbying in Washington and state capitols across the country to preserve their special breaks.
  • Most importantly, they need to pledge to keep 80% of their current reserves underground forever.” [1].

[1]. Fossil Free, “About the Fossil Free campaign” : http://gofossilfree.org/about/ .


 

FOSSIL FREE AUSTRALIA  urges divestment from fossil fuels.

 Fossil Free Australia urges divestment from fossil fuels (2013): “Securing a safe climate means that 80% of current fossil fuel reserves must remain in the ground—yet most of our public institutions are invested in these reserves. We believe it’s time to change this. It’s time to move our money out of fossil fuels and into the clean energy economy. Australia is one of the most carbon-intense economies in the world, yet we are rich in renewable energy resources. As members, beneficiaries, and customers of super funds, banks, educational and religious institutions, and governments, each of us can play a powerful role in divesting Australia’s economy from fossil fuels… Go Fossil Free Australia is a national campaign to move public institutions’ and individuals’ money out of fossil fuels and into clean energy. Led by 350.org Australia, we work in partnership with the Australian Student Environment Network to campaign for fossil fuel divestment from universities, the Australian Religious Response to Climate Change to encourage faith-based divestment, The Vital Few to encourage super funds to invest more in the low-carbon economy and Market Forces to pressure our “Big 4” banks to stop funding destructive fossil fuel projects. Join the Fossil Free Australia community today to bring on the clean energy revolution! “[1].

[1]. Fossil Free Australia: http://gofossilfree.org/australia/ .




FTSE co-launches the  Ex  Fossil Fuels Index Series, an equity global index series that will exclude dirty energy companies.

The FTSE 100 Index, also called FTSE 100, FTSE, or the "footsie", is a share index of the 100 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange with the highest market capitalization.

Report: “NEW YORK (April 29, 2014) – The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), BlackRock and FTSE Group, the global index provider, partnered today in launching a groundbreaking equity global index series that will exclude companies linked to exploration, ownership or extraction of carbon-based fossil fuel reserves. The new investment tool will allow climate-conscious investors, including foundations, universities and certain pension groups, to match their investment strategy and financial interests with their values… The FTSE Developed ex-Fossil Fuels Index Series is an innovative set of benchmark indices that excludes companies directly engaged in extracting so-called “stranded assets” in the hydrocarbons industry.  This ground-breaking series is the first to implement total exclusion of fossil fuel linked stocks so that these enterprises are removed entirely from the constituency.  The global benchmark includes over 2,000 securities across 25 countries. As an integral member of the collaboration with the NRDC and FTSE, BlackRock has developed a solution that incorporates these advances and supports its goals. The index series and BlackRock’s solution are the first steps toward creating more opportunities for fossil fuel-free investing ” [1].

[1]. NRDC, BlackRock and FTSE Jumpstart Mainstream Climate-Conscious Investing. New Index Excludes Fossil Fuel Extraction Companies, NRDC Press release,  April 29 2014: http://www.nrdc.org/media/2014/140429.asp .



GREENS,  AUSTRALIA  urge  that Australia’s Future Fund  should divest from fossil fuels.

 

The Greens in Australia are pro-peace, pro-environment, pro-equity,  pro-human rights but at the 7 September  2013 Australian Federal election secured only about 8% of the vote.

 

The Greens on why the Australia’s Future Fund should divest from fossil fuels (2013):Investing in coal, oil and gas companies is risky business. Either their vast carbon reserves are left responsibly in the ground or they are burned, fuelling catastrophic global warming.  Our Future Fund, Australian investment fund for the future, should not be backing risky investment decisions with taxpayers' money. The Fund's board decided to stop investing in tobacco after a campaign spearheaded by our Senator Richard Di Natale. Right now, we estimate that the Future Fund holds around $2 ½ billion of assets in fossil fuels, or around 3% of its portfolio. Investing that money responsibly will be straightforward. Organisations across the United States, and here in Australia, are divesting from fossil fuels. Australia's public Future Fund should do the same.” [1].

 

[1]. The Greens, “Future Fund out of coal”: http://greens.org.au/future-fund-out-coal .


GUARDIAN MEDIA GROUP INVESTMENT FUND the largest yet known to pull out of coal, oil and gas companies.

Report:The Guardian Media Group (GMG) is to sell all the fossil fuel assets in its investment fund of over £800m, making it the largest yet known to pull out of coal, oil and gas companies.The decision was justified on both financial and ethical grounds, said Neil Berkett, GMG chair: “It is a hard-nosed business decision, but it is influenced by the values of our organisation. It is a holistic decision taking into account all of those things.”Berkett said fossil fuel assets had performed relatively poorly in recent years and were threatened by future climate change action, while an ethical fund already held by GMG had been a “stellar” performer and renewable energy was growing strongly. “This means we can adopt socially responsible investment criteria without putting at risk the core purpose of GMG’s investment funds: to generate long-term returns that guarantee the financial future and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity,” he said” (see Damian Carrington, “Guardian Media Group to divest its £800m fund from fossil fuels”, Guardian, 2 April 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/apr/01/guardian-media-group-to-divest-its-800m-fund-from-fossil-fuels ).



UK GUARDIAN “Keep it in the ground” petition for divestment in fossil  fuels &

UK Guardian  “Keep it in the ground” petition for divestment in fossil  fuels: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/ng-interactive/2015/mar/16/keep-it-in-the-ground-guardian-climate-change-campaign?CMP=ema-60 .

“To Bill and Melinda Gates, founders of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; Jeremy Farrar and Sir William Castell, director and chair of the Wellcome Trust:

Your organisations have made a huge contribution to human progress and equality by supporting scientific research and development projects. Yet your investments in fossil fuels are putting this progress at great risk, by undermining your long term ambitions.

Climate change poses a real threat to all of us, and it is morally and financially misguided to invest in companies dedicated to finding and burning more oil, gas and coal. Many philanthropic organisations are divesting their endowments from fossil fuels. We ask you to do the same: to commit now to divesting from the top 200 fossil fuel companies within five years and to immediately freeze any new investments in those companies.”

Report:The Guardian Media Group (GMG) is to sell all the fossil fuel assets in its investment fund of over £800m, making it the largest yet known to pull out of coal, oil and gas companies.The decision was justified on both financial and ethical grounds, said Neil Berkett, GMG chair: “It is a hard-nosed business decision, but it is influenced by the values of our organisation. It is a holistic decision taking into account all of those things.”Berkett said fossil fuel assets had performed relatively poorly in recent years and were threatened by future climate change action, while an ethical fund already held by GMG had been a “stellar” performer and renewable energy was growing strongly. “This means we can adopt socially responsible investment criteria without putting at risk the core purpose of GMG’s investment funds: to generate long-term returns that guarantee the financial future and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity,” he said” (see Damian Carrington, “Guardian Media Group to divest its £800m fund from fossil fuels”, Guardian, 2 April 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/apr/01/guardian-media-group-to-divest-its-800m-fund-from-fossil-fuels ).


HCF first Australian health insurer to divested from fossil fuels.

HCF (Australian medical insurance company) has been the first Australian health insurer to divested from fossil fuels. Report (2017): “HCF has become the first Australian health insurer to commit to divesting from fossil fuels, saying it cannot keep funding activities that could threaten its members' health. The 1.5 million member-strong health fund has $1.39 billion in equities through an investment trust and says about 1 per cent of that, or $14 million, is in fossil fuel holdings” (Patrick Hatch, “”Health risk”: HCF first health insurer to divest from fossil fuels”, Sydney Morning Herald, 10 February 2017: http://www.smh.com.au/business/health-risk-hcf-first-health-insurer-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels-20170210-gua160.html  ).


HEALTH CARE WORKERS, UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE petition for divestment from fossil fuels.

Health Care workers, University of Melbourne. “Our work in the health sciences, in public health, and in the frontline of patient-centred health care is constituted by a diverse variety of projects, but at some level we are all concerned with improving human health. This is an overarching project that climate change threatens to undermine in a fundamental way.

In Australia, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warns of more heat-waves, which threaten vulnerable populations in our society like the young, the old and the already ill. We are likely to see an increase in extreme weather events such as cyclones, floods, storms and bushfires which have the potential to devastate the physical and mental health of communities directly as well as the health infrastructure that supports them. Climate change also threatens to shift the profile of infectious diseases, including food-borne, water-borne and mosquito-borne illnesses like dengue fever and Ross River fever.

Beyond our own borders, the health implications of these impacts are huge for more vulnerable countries. Super-typhoon Haiyan in November 2013 will be but one in a series of extreme weather events as climate change alters the volatility of our weather systems. Beyond the calculations of death-tolls and economic costs, there emerges a humanitarian crisis with millions displaced without food, shelter or water and vulnerable to disease. Elsewhere, heatwaves and drought threaten food and water security, leading to conflict, mass migration and political and social instability.

As members of the University of Melbourne's world-leading community of health researchers, educators, advocates, professionals and students, we believe that it is crucial for the integrity of our work that the institutions which support us do not undermine our projects towards achieving better health.

In the past, the University of Melbourne has supported us in this aim by distancing itself from other damaging industries such as the tobacco industry. To this end we call on the University of Melbourne to join other leading institute, such as Stanford University in the USA and ANU in Australia, by removing its investments in fossil fuels.

Click here to view FULL OPEN LETTER

Petition:

In full support of Fossil Free Melbourne University, and in recognition of the consequences of inaction in the face of climate change, we, the undersigned, call on the University to:

1. Investigate and disclose its investments in companies whose primary business is the exploration, extraction, processing and transportation of fossil fuels;

2. Stop any new investments in these companies;

3. Develop a plan to end its investments in the fossil fuel sector within 5 years, with ongoing transparency of its investments” [1].

 

[1]. Health Care workers, University of Melbourne,  “University of Melbourne, Fossil Fuel Divestment”, Go Petition:  http://www.gopetition.com/petitions/divest-the-university-of-melbourne-from-fossil-fuels.html .


MARKET FORCES believes that the banks, superannuation funds and governments that have custody of our money should use it to protect - not damage - our environment.

Market Forces about itself:Market Forces believes that the banks, superannuation funds and governments that have custody of our money should use it to protect - not damage - our environment. Our vision is a future where institutions invest with a high degree of respect for the environment, utilising our money to deliver solutions to major environmental issues, and where the community holds to account the custodians of their money to ensure it is used to benefit the environment. Our work will expose the institutions that are financing environmentally destructive projects and help Australians hold these institutions accountable. We will work with the community to prevent investment in projects that would harm the environment and drive global warming... Our success will only come from working with others. Market Forces is proud to be an affiliate project of Friends of the Earth Australia and a member of the BankTrack international network, connecting us with passionate campaigners, environmental issue experts and advocated of environmentally sustainable behaviour from the finance sector( Market Forces: http://www.marketforces.org.au/about.html ).

Market Forces (that has previously lobbied Medibank to move out of fossil fuels) on HCF health fund divestment from fossil fuels over health risks; executive director (2017): "One of the things that's most exciting about this announcement is that it's leadership. Insurers have really taken a few backwards steps over the last 10  years: it was talking up the risks of climate change and being quite outspoken ... [but] as those impacts started to become real for insurers it became a harder conversation because then they were talking about hits to their bottom lines. HCF is doing this, and doing it very clearly for the right reasons, sets a very clear example and hopefully makes it easier for others to follow" (Patrick Hatch, “”Health risk”: HCF first health insurer to divest from fossil fuels”, Sydney Morning Herald, 10 February 2017: http://www.smh.com.au/business/health-risk-hcf-first-health-insurer-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels-20170210-gua160.html  ).


NATIONAL TERTIARY EDUCATION UNION (NTEU, Australia) divests from fossil fuels.

Report (2015):The growing fossil fuel divestment movement yesterday welcomed a trifecta of influential institutions into the ethical investment fold, with Melbourne City Council, the Australian Academy of Science, and the National Tertiary Education Union all pledging to put their money where their mouth is on climate change. According to climate advocacy group 350.org, the organisations join over 450 global institutions in their decision to pull out of fossil fuel stocks. Yesterday’s announcements follow the recent divestment of Newcastle Council’s $269 million portfolio, the Australian Capital Territory government’s decision to phase out fossil fuels, and the Australian National University’s pledge to drop investments in coal” (see Thom Mitchell, “Fossil Fuel Divestment Campaign Bags Trifecta Of New Backers Including First Australian Union”, New Matilda, 28 October 2015: https://newmatilda.com/2015/10/28/fossil-fuel-divestment-campaign-bags-trifecta-of-new-backers-including-first-australian-union/ ).



NATURAL RESOURCES DEFENCE COUNCIL (NRDC) co-launches the Ex  Fossil Fuels Index Series, an equity global index series that will exclude dirty energy companies

The NRDC in its own words: “NRDC is the nation's most effective environmental action group, combining the grassroots power of 1.4 million members and online activists with the courtroom clout and expertise of more than 350 lawyers, scientists and other professionals. The New York Times calls us "One of the nation's most powerful environmental groups." The National Journal says we're "A credible and forceful advocate for stringent environmental protection" (see: http://www.nrdc.org/about/ ).

Report: “NEW YORK (April 29, 2014) – The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), BlackRock and FTSE Group, the global index provider, partnered today in launching a groundbreaking equity global index series that will exclude companies linked to exploration, ownership or extraction of carbon-based fossil fuel reserves. The new investment tool will allow climate-conscious investors, including foundations, universities and certain pension groups, to match their investment strategy and financial interests with their values… The FTSE Developed ex-Fossil Fuels Index Series is an innovative set of benchmark indices that excludes companies directly engaged in extracting so-called “stranded assets” in the hydrocarbons industry.  This ground-breaking series is the first to implement total exclusion of fossil fuel linked stocks so that these enterprises are removed entirely from the constituency.  The global benchmark includes over 2,000 securities across 25 countries. As an integral member of the collaboration with the NRDC and FTSE, BlackRock has developed a solution that incorporates these advances and supports its goals. The index series and BlackRock’s solution are the first steps toward creating more opportunities for fossil fuel-free investing ” [1].

[1]. NRDC, BlackRock and FTSE Jumpstart Mainstream Climate-Conscious Investing. New Index Excludes Fossil Fuel Extraction Companies, NRDC Press release,  April 29, 2014: http://www.nrdc.org/media/2014/140429.asp .


NORWAY to remove all coal-related investments from its $900bn sovereign wealth fund

Report: “Norway’s decision to dump all coal-focused investments from its $900bn sovereign wealth fund could unleash a wave of divestment from other large funds, according to investment experts. The fund, the largest in the world, is one of the top 10 investors in the global coal industry. The move, agreed late on Wednesday, is one of the most significant victories to date for a fast-growing and UN-backed fossil-fuel divestment campaign. It will affect $9bn-$10bn (£5.8-£6.5bn) of coal-related investments, according to the Norwegian government” (see Damian Carrington, “Norway fund could trigger wave of large fossil fuel divestments”, Guardian, 29 May 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/may/28/norway-fund-could-trigger-wave-of-large-fossil-fuel-divestments-say-experts ).


OPERATION NOAH (UK) calls on churches and the Christian  community to disinvest from companies involved in the extraction of fossil fuels

Operation Noah in its own words: “Vision. Operation Noah works for the complete decarbonisation of the British economy by 2030.

Operation Noah is...

·         a Christian organisation which provides leadership, focus and inspiration in response to the growing threat of catastrophic climate change endangering God’s creation.

·         informed by the science of climate change, motivated to care for creation by our faith and hope in God, and driven by the desire to transform and enrich our society through radical change in lifestyles and patterns of consumption.

·         rational regarding scientific insights, responsible in addressing the long term consequences of today’s actions, and radical about future lifestyles” (see: http://www.operationnoah.org/aboutus ).

Operation Noah Press Release on fossil free churches campaign (2013): “ Operation Noah launched their campaign Bright Now: towards fossil free Churches on Friday 20th September 2013.

ON is calling on the churches and Christian community to:

·         disinvest from companies involved in the extraction of fossil fuels

·         take a leading and influential role in the national debate on the ethics of investment in fossil fuels

·         support the development of clean alternatives to fossil fuels through their investment policies.” [1].

[1]. Operation Noah “Press Release: Operation Noah launches Bright Now and calls on churches to divest from fossil fuels”, 20 September 2013: http://www.operationnoah.org/bright_now .


ROCKEFELLER BROTHERS FUND divests from fossil fuels including  tar sands oil.

Report (2014): “The heirs to the fabled Rockefeller oil fortune withdrew their funds from fossil fuel investments on Monday, lending a symbolic boost to a $50bn divestment campaign ahead of a United Nations summit on climate change.…

The Rockefeller Brothers Fund controls about $860m in assets, said Beth Dorsey, the chief executive of the Wallace Global Fund and the Divest-Invest movement, which has led the divestment campaign. About 7% are invested in fossil fuels.

But the Rockefellers’ decision to cut their ties with oil lends the divestment campaign huge symbolic importance because of their family history. The divestment move also helps bring a campaign launched by scrappy activists on college campuses into the financial mainstream.

But for oil, there may not have been a Rockefeller fortune. John and William Rockefeller were the co-founders of the Standard Oil Company, which at the time operated the world’s biggest refineries, and overtime spawned Exxon, Amoco and Chevron.

Now, after a year of deliberations, the descendants of those original Rockefellers had decided the time had come to move away from oil.

“John D Rockefeller, the founder of Standard Oil, moved America out of whale oil and into petroleum,” Stephen Heintz, president of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, said in a statement. “We are quite convinced that if he were alive today, as an astute businessman looking out to the future, he would be moving out of fossil fuels and investing in clean, renewable energy.”” [1].

[1]. Suzanne Goldenberg, “Heirs to Rockefeller oil fortune divest from fossil fuels over climate change””, Guardian, 23 September 2014: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/sep/22/rockefeller-heirs-divest-fossil-fuels-climate-change .



STOREBRAND.  Major Norwegian pensions and insurance company ditches 19 fossil fuel companies from its investment portfolio.

Storebrand is a major Norwegian pensions and insurance company (see: http://econews.com.au/news-to-sustain-our-world/major-european-investor-ditches-fossil-fuel-assets/ ).

Report (2013):In what’s seen as a major victory for the global divestment campaign a Nordic investment giant has excluded 19 fossil fuel companies from its portfolio. The global campaign to encourage institutional investors to divest from fossil fuel assets secured a major victory as the Norwegian pensions and insurance giant Storebrand announced it has excluded a further 19 fossil fuel companies from its portfolio. The company, which is one of the largest financial services companies in the Nordic region, issued a statement confirming that would no longer hold investments in 13 coal and six oil sands companies. British environmental website BusinessGreen reports the move means Storebrand has now excluded 177 companies and 32 countries from its investment portfolio for failing to meet its minimum sustainability standards.” [1].

Professor Juan Cole (2014): “Divestment is a growing phenomenon. The Norwegian pensions company, Storebrand, has excluded nearly two hundred coal, oil and gas companies from its holdings, and kicked off a further 19 oil and coal companies last summer.” [2].

[1]. “Major European investor ditches fossil fuel assets”, Eco News, 9 July 2013: http://econews.com.au/news-to-sustain-our-world/major-european-investor-ditches-fossil-fuel-assets/ .

[2]. Juan Cole, “Pension managers should divest from fossil fuels: UN official”, Informed comment, 16 January 2014: http://www.juancole.com/2014/01/pension-managers-official.html .



 THE AUSTRALIA INSTITUTE (TAI) : "screening out fossil fuel extraction and downstream industries can have negligible impact on risk-adjusted returns".

The Australia Institute (TAI) is in its own words “An independent think tank dedicated to develop and conduct research and policy analysis and to participate forcefully in public debates. The Institute is funded by donations from philanthropic trusts and individuals, and commissioned research. With no formal political or commercial ties, the Institute is in a position to maintain its independence while advancing a vision for a fair and progressive Australia (see: http://www.tai.org.au/node/1  ). The current Executive Director is economist Richard Denniss. Denniss's immediate predecessor was Clive Hamilton.(see Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Australia_Institute ).

Australia Institute on divestment from fossil fuels (2014): “These results suggest that screening out fossil fuel extraction and downstream industries can have negligible impact on risk-adjusted returns. That might seem surprising given the attention paid to the Australian mining boom and ongoing (but declining) incumbency of fossil fuels in Australia’s energy mix. In fact this simply illustrates a well-established result from a substantial body if theoretic and empirical literature. The impact on risk-adjusted returns from screening out companies  or sectors is minimal provided the screen is not excessively restrictive.”  

[1]. The Australia Institute, “Screening out fossil fuel exposure from the ASX200”, Summary Paper, March 2014: https://s3.amazonaws.com/s3.350.org/images/Climate_Proofing_Summary_Report.pdf  .



THE VITAL FEW want disinvestment from  anything that jeopardises that future e.g. fossil fuels.

The Vital Few: “In 1995, global stockmarkets were owned mostly by governments and high net worth individuals. By 2010, over 50% (and rising) of global stockmarkets were owned by pension funds. Who owns those pension funds? YOU DO! The Vital Few are a community of people who are being inspired to speak up and take action to make the investments made on their behalf more sustainable. This is the new power of the ‘Citizen Investor’ Switched on to the evasive actions of the pension fund industry, The Vital Few are demanding disclosure and transparency on details about climate risk. They are determined to exercise their rights as pension members to ensure their future prosperity is secured - both financially and environmentally. The Vital Few know who they are and what they want more or less of in the future. They no longer choose to continue accidentally investing in anything that jeopardises that future. They want to make their choices and their money count.” [1].

 

[1]. The Vital Few: http://www.areyouthevitalfew.org/vision.php .



 

UNISUPER RESPONSIBLE SUPERANNUATION FUND (AUSTRALIA)

Report (2014): “Investment in coal and gas companies has been on the radar recently, with some super funds deciding to scale back some portfolios with exposure to oil, coal and gas projects. AMP Capital revealed plans for its responsible super funds to limit ­exposure to the oil and gas industry, citing “growing interest and concern” about climate change from investors.

Education industry fund Unisuper has similar plans and will remove fossil fuel companies from its socially ­responsible funds in September.” [1].

[1]. Tom Cowie, “Bendigo and Adelaide Bank join super funds in fossil fuel rethink”, Bendigo Advertiser, 7 June 2014: http://www.bendigoadvertiser.com.au/story/2336225/bendigo-and-adelaide-bank-joins-super-funds-in-fossil-fuel-rethink/ .




INDIVIDUALS


ALLSTADT, Lou. Former senior executive at Mobil Oil lauds progress to "fossil fuels are out and clean energy is in”.

Lou Allstadt ( former senior executive at Mobil Oil) re Arabella Advisors report on $5.2 trillion of divestment from fossil fuels (2016):   “Divestment is speeding up the clock on the final accounting that will show fossil fuels are out and clean energy is in ” (Damian Carrington, “Fossil fuel divestment funds double to $5tn in a year”, Guardian, 13 December 2016: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/dec/12/fossil-fuel-divestment-funds-double-5tn-in-a-year ).



ANTAL. Reverend Jim Antal, United Church of Christ, successfully advocates divestment from fossil fuel companies.

Reverend Jim Antal:To many, our resolution to divest from fossil fuels was a scandal. So much so that months before the national Synod of the United Church of Christ (UCC) would consider it a well-funded, all-out campaign to defeat the resolution was underway. It didn’t have to be that way. As soon as I read Bill McKibben’s Rolling Stone article on the terrifying math of global warming it was clear to me that the church needed to provide leadership. Bill and I had been arrested twice at the White House protesting the Keystone XL pipeline, and the three days we spent in jail further clarified for me that in response to the reality of climate change, God is calling the church to a new vocation. Over Thanksgiving I drafted a resolution calling upon the UCC to divest from fossil fuel companies. In late December 2012, the Board of the Mass. Conference UCC, representing 370 UCC churches, voted to bring the resolution to the national UCC Synod. Rooted in an understanding of love of neighbor — one that regards future generations as no less our neighbors than those seated next to us in church — it also drew from language available from 350.org.  That vote was the first by any religious body in America to divest from fossil fuel companies....Between January and June 2013, ten of the 37 other Conferences of the UCC voted to endorse or co-sponsor the resolution. This kind of support was unprecedented.” [1].

[1]. .Paul Raushenbush,  Fossil fuel divestment strategy passes at United Church of Christ Convention (UCC)”, Huffington Post Religion,  2 July 2013: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/02/fossil-fuel-divestment-ucc_n_3535729.html .



ASTILL, Isaac. Australian Assistant Director of Campaigns with Fossil Free.

Isaac Astill is Bob Brown’s Young Environmentalist of the Year 2013 and the Assistant Director of Campaigns with FossilFree.com.au .

Charlotte Wood and Isaac Astill (2014): “The question is, will this [dirty energy] decline be fast enough to avoid runaway climate change, yet smooth enough to ensure a just transition away from coal? For governments and investors serious about creating long-term, sustainable wealth, these two questions should be at the fore. Sadly, in Australia they are often drowned out by the political and financial noise of the coal lobby. But as Australia’s fossil fuel wars heat up, a groundswell of individuals and institutions are putting these vital questions front and centre. And one of the most powerful tools this movement wields is divestment. The divestment strategy is simple. Fossil fuel companies currently plan to burn five times more carbon than the climate can safely handle. To win, we’ll have to rein in that plan. The massive financial power of Australia’s coal lobby has proven that governments aren’t about to help with this task, so how do we break the deadlock? We divest. By publicly moving our money out of coal, oil and gas companies, we help to erode the industry’s social license to freely pollute the planet, in turn unlocking the political deadlock on climate action. The beauty of divestment is that we can all take part. If you have superannuation or a bank account, chances are it’s being used to fund coal. Market Forces estimates that since 2008, Australia’s Big four banks have loaned almost $19 billion to coal and gas projects in Australia. What’s more, at the time of writing there isn’t a superannuation fund in Australia that doesn’t have at least some exposure to fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly” [1].

[1].  Charlotte Wood and Isaac Astill, “Divestment: can moving our money move us beyond coal?”, New Internationalist blog, 26 February 2014: http://www.newint.com.au/blog/divestment-beyond-coal/ .



BEINECKE, Frances. President of the US Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) backs ex- Fossil Fuels Index Series for clean investment.

Frances Beinecke is  president of the US Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC).

Frances Beinecke on the NRDC, BlackRock and FTSE, co-launche of the  Ex  Fossil Fuels Index Series, an equity global index series that will exclude dirty energy companies (2014):  “This initiative is about creating the kind of world we want to leave for the next generation,” said “We want to move toward a world that no longer relies on dirty energy that threatens our future, damages our communities and destabilizes our climate. A fossil fuel-free future is where we see opportunity and promise, and that’s where NRDC wants to direct our financial resources” [1].

[1]. NRDC, BlackRock and FTSE Jumpstart Mainstream Climate-Conscious Investing. New Index Excludes Fossil Fuel Extraction Companies, NRDC Press release,  April 29 2014: http://www.nrdc.org/media/2014/140429.asp .



BLAZEVIC, Sara. Organizer for divestment at Swarthmore College urges fossil fuel divestment.

Sara Blazevic on the need for fossil fuel divestment (2013). "I see the connection to the anti-apartheid movement as taking away the hold that the fossil fuel industry has over our political system by making it socially unacceptable and morally unacceptable to be financing fossil fuel extraction… [however student board members] essentially got shouted down by older members of the board who had been around for divestment from South Africa and referred to it as the worst thing that ever happened to the Swarthmore Board of Managers and for them in the 80s". [1].

[1]. Sara Blazevic quoted in Andrea Schmidt, “Heirs of anti-apartheid movement rise up”, Al Jazeera, 15 December 2013: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2013/12/heirs-anti-apartheid-movement-rise-up-201312158526777700.html .




BROWN, Brian. The Reverend Dr Brian Brown is the Moderator of Uniting Church in Australia, Synod of NSW & the ACT (see: https://newmatilda.com/2014/03/12/how-ditch-dirty-investments ).

The Reverend Dr Brian Brown on Uniting Church Church divestment from fossil fuels (2014):  The Uniting Church in Australia has long advocated for better environmental protection and strong climate policies – both because the environment has intrinsic value and because social justice and environmental sustainability are deeply connected. We have heard first-hand from our Pacific and Asian neighbours about the effects of sea-level rise on low-lying areas. Droughts in Africa are causing extreme water shortages which put millions of lives at risk. It is always the poorest who are hit hardest, even though they have contributed least to the problem. Here in Australia we have witnessed summer after summer of extreme weather, including the devastating Black Saturday bushfires. Yet the response of our state and federal governments has been overwhelming support for the rapid expansion of our coal and gas industries. They may claim to accept the science of climate change, but the major parties are in functional denial. For example, if the proposed Galilee Basin mines in Queensland are fully developed, the annual carbon dioxide emissions caused by burning their coal alone would exceed those of the United Kingdom or Canada. Faced by the increasing climate emergency, last year the Synod of NSW and the ACT resolved by consensus to divest ourselves from companies involved in the extraction of fossil fuels. The decision adds these industries to tobacco, military equipment and gambling as those we cannot, in good conscience, profit from. In the months that followed, our investment managers researched and developed an implementation strategy, building on our existing ethical investment guidelines. We are now implementing this strategy in a staged approach, and will withdraw from shares in some of the world’s largest fossil fuel companies, including BHP Billiton, Woodside and others, over the next 3 years. We are not alone. Among the institutions having agreed to divest are the United Church of Christ in the United States (the first national religious institution to do so), five Anglican dioceses in New Zealand, the Unitarians in Melbourne and most recently the Uniting Church Synod of Victoria and Tasmania. Also joining the global movement are universities and city and state governments. In truth, every investment decision is an ethical one. We cannot pretend our use of money is a morality-free zone. If it is wrong to wreck the earth, it is also wrong to profit from that wreckage. [1].

[1]. Brian Brown, “How to ditch dirty investments”, New Matilda, 12 March 2014: https://newmatilda.com/2014/03/12/how-ditch-dirty-investments



CALDECOTT, Ben, Professor and leader of the Stranded Assets programme at the University of Oxford on acute  risks from fossil fuel investment.

Ben Caldecott is head of policy at Climate Change Capital (CCC), a visiting fellow at Oxford University's Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment and a trustee of the Green Alliance thinktank.

ABC reporter Brewster questions Professor Ben Caldecott about Oxford University secrecy over its fossil fuel inevestments: "KERRY BREWSTER: Even Britain's Oxford University has turned John Hewson down [on his request for dirty investment details]. Just as one of its leading economists warns Australians to expect unprecedented falls in the future value of coal and other fossil fuels.

BEN CALDECOTT, OXFORD UNIVERSITY: There has been a confluence of new risks coming together, all of which are related to the environment. You can take value destruction above and beyond what we've seen before.

KERRY BREWSTER: As director of Oxford's Stranded Assets program, Ben Caldicott is telling audiences that demand for coal will peak as early as 2016.

BEN CALDECOTT: All these other things make expanding coal output a pretty bad idea and a risky strategy and then you add in the climate change dimensions and it just becomes ridiculous really." [1]. 

[1]. Kerry Brewster, "Monash [University] letters reveal secretive attitude over fossil fuel investments"m ABC TV Lateline, 27 March 2014:

http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2014/s3973194.htm .


CASTALDO,  Peter. Peter Castaldo, engineer, Australian climate change activist & Banyule City councillor for Griffin Ward, urges “snowballing” divestment from fossil fuel companies.

Peter Castaldo, the Melbourne Unitarian Church member who successfully  proposed the divestment from fossil fuels by the Melbourne Unitarian Church (2013): “It's a snowball effect that occurs. For me the Uniting Church started that snowball. And although we might be small, we're an organisation with all sorts of connections... Hopefully other churches also take it on. I've heard of several other churches in discussion on the issue and well and I look forward to hearing them start to take action."

[1]. “Unitarian Church divests from fossil fuels”,  ABC Environment, 1 August 2013: http://www.abc.net.au/environment/articles/2013/08/01/3816046.htm .



COLE, Juan. Michigan , USA, Professor Juan Cole argues why we should divest from fossil fuels

John Ricardo I. "Juan" Cole (born: October 23, 1952) is an anti-racist, humanitarian  American scholar, public intellectual, and historian of the modern Middle East and South Asia. He is Richard P. Mitchell Collegiate Professor of History at the University of Michigan (see Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Cole ).

Professor Juan Cole on why we should divest from fossil fuels (2014): “ Divestment is a growing phenomenon. The Norwegian pensions company, Storebrand, has excluded nearly two hundred coal, oil and gas companies from its holdings, and kicked off a further 19 oil and coal companies last summer. Likewise, the mayor of Seattle has instructed city pension fund managers not to invest in hydrocarbons. Such divestment is the only wise course of action. In reality, all coal, oil and natural gas reserves are worthless. When the public wises up to the way they are causing global climate disruption, it will want the hydrocarbons banned. Divestment is a way of protecting investments from the devastating impact of knowledge of their worthlessness.” [1].

[1]. Juan Cole, “Pension managers should divest from fossil fuels: UN official”, Informed comment, 16 January 2014: http://www.juancole.com/2014/01/pension-managers-official.html .


DOHERTY, Peter. Australian Nobel Laureate biologist supports the call for the Wellcome Trust and the Gates Foundation to divest from fossil fuels.

Professor Peter Doherty (Australian biomedical researcher; presently at the University of Melbourne; awarded the  Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with Rolf M. Zinkernagel in 1996 Nobel Prize winner for discovering how T cells recognise their target antigens in combination with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins) in supporting the call for the Wellcome Trust and the Gates Foundation to divest from fossil fuels (2015): “It is clear that while some coal producers may be in denial, the large oil companies understand exactly what is happening with anthropogenic climate change. It is also clear that the rush to find more oil and dig more coal continues unabated… Is it likely that anything other than placing a real price on carbon and withdrawing investment will influence either industry?... Those who, like me, work in biomedical research, have the greatest respect, but wonder if anything other than the bluntest of signals will influence the political dynamic that is needed for real change” (Ian Sample, “Nobel prize winners join call  for charities to divest from fossil fuels”, Guardian, 9 April 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/apr/08/nobel-laureates-echo-calls-for-charities-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels).


DORSEY, Ellen. Wallace Global Fund associate lauds $5.2 trillion of divestment from fossil fuels by 2016.

Ellen Dorsey ( philanthropic Wallace Global Fund, an early backer of the fossil fuel divestment) re Arabella Advisors report on $5.2 trillion of divestment from fossil fuels (2016):   “$5tn in five years is a stunning and unprecedented figure.  “It represents a growth the fossil fuel industry would envy” (Damian Carrington, “Fossil fuel divestment funds double to $5tn in a year”, Guardian, 13 December 2016: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/dec/12/fossil-fuel-divestment-funds-double-5tn-in-a-year ).


FIGUERES, Christiana. Executive secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change tells investors to divest from fossil fuels.

Christiana Figueres is executive secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (see http://www.juancole.com/2014/01/pension-managers-official.html ).  According to Wikipedia:Karen Christiana Figueres Olsen (born August 7, 1956) was appointed Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on May 17, 2010, succeeding Yvo de Boer.  She had been a member of the Costa Rican negotiating team since 1995, involved in both UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol negotiations. She has contributed to the design of key climate change instruments. She is a prime promoter of Latin America’s active participation in the Convention, a frequent public speaker, and a widely published author.  She won the Hero for the Planet award in 2001” (see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christiana_Figueres ).

Report: by Professor Juan Cole (2014) “Christiana Figueres, executive secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change  told investors at a conference on Wednesday that they should move pension funds out of fossil fuels. After all, she pointed out, pension funds are for retirement, and future retirees won’t get to enjoy their golden years if the average global temperature climbs above 3.6 degrees F.”  [1].

Christiana Figueres on the obligation of religious organizations to divest from fossil fuels (2014): “The World Council of Churches at its last Assembly in Busan, Republic of Korea urged its members to act on fossil fuels by 2018. The Synod of the Church of England recently voted to review its investment policy in respect to fossil fuels – again a step in the right direction and a potentially powerful signal to its 28 million followers. Divestment may be a question of morality, but it is prudent too. Experts estimate that greenhouse gas emissions need to peak in around ten years’ time and then come down sharply afterwards. The organisation Carbon Tracker estimates that in order to achieve this, 60-80% of the fossil fuel reserves of public listed companies need to stay in the ground, unburnt. It means that many fossil fuel investments could rapidly become devalued and ‘stranded assets’ undermining the value and the return to pensioners of those funds which are heavily exposed. Many mainstream funds are also going one step further, seeing higher rates of return from a switch into renewables. [2].

[1]. Juan Cole, “Pension managers should divest from fossil fuels: UN official”, Informed comment, 16 January 2014: http://www.juancole.com/2014/01/pension-managers-official.html .

[2]. Christiana Figueres, “Faith leaders need to find their voice on climate change”, The Guardian, 7 May 2014: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/may/07/faith-leaders-voice-climate-change .


GLIKSON. Dr Andrew Glikson (Australian Earth and Paleoclimate scientist) on looming climate catastrophe, climate genocide and “existential calamity for civilization and nature”(2016): “Little mention is made of the existential threats posed by the climate and nuclear issues in the context of the current elections in the US and Australia. According to the world’s climate research institutions and the bulk of the peer reviewed scientific literature, the Earth has now entered a critical stage at which amplifying feedback effects to global warming transcend points of no return. Manifestations of a shift in state of the climate include; current rise in CO2 at 3.3 parts per million per year, the fastest recorded for the last 65 million years; extreme rises in Arctic temperatures; a plethora of extreme weather events such as cyclones, floods and fires; demise of habitats such as the Great Barrier Reef where corals die due to high water temperatures and coral bleaching; and other developments. The extreme rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide since the onset of the industrial age, and the corresponding rise in mean global temperatures as a direct result of the rise in carbon gases, pose an existential risk to the future of nature and civilization. The consequences of further burning of the vast carbon reserves buried in sediments and in permafrost and bogs can only result in a mass extinction of species  which rivals that of the five great mass extinctions in Earth history… It follows that, where and when the majority of authoritative scientific institutions (NASA, NOAA, NSIDC, Hadley-Met, Tyndale, Potsdam, CSIRO, World Academy of Science, IPCC and so on), based on the bulk of the evidence, indicate beyond reasonable doubt that open-ended emissions of greenhouse gases inevitably lead to a major shift in the terrestrial climate, and thereby the demise of humans and of species, a toleration and/or condoning of continuing emissions by governments contravenes at the very least the spirit of international laws… 1. Since the mid-1980s an abrupt rise in the temperature levels of the atmosphere, driven by an increase in concentration of greenhouse gases arising from release of >600billion ton of carbon (GtC) to the atmosphere is leading to an extreme shift in state of the atmosphere-ocean system, such has no precedence in the recorded geological history, with the exception of events which resulted in the mass extinction of species, including massive volcanism, extra-terrestrial impacts and large-scale release of methane. 2. As a direct consequence of the above, as well as reduction of the transient protection by industrial sulphur dioxide since mid-1980s, mean global temperatures have risen since about 1970 by more than 0.6o Currently, had it not been for the aerosols, mean global temperature would have been higher by an additional near to 1oC. 3. Allowing for the masking effect of sulphur aerosols, the total rise in temperature since the onset of the industrial age ~1750 is reaching levels similar to those of the Pliocene period (~2.6 – 5.3 million years ago). The shift is occurring at the fastest rate recorded by paleoclimate studies. Whereas many species can adapt to gradual environmental changes, the current temperature rise rate resulting from ~2-3 parts per million (ppm) CO2/year may not be sustained. 4. The current change is manifested by an increase in the rate of melting of the major ice sheets, accelerating sea level rise and a rise in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, reflecting elevated energy level of the atmosphere-ocean system. 5.The consequences of continuing carbon emissions and consequent rise of mean global temperatures would render large parts of the Earth’s land surfaces uninhabitable due to temperature rise, droughts, storms and flooding of coastal, deltas and lower river regions by sea level rise – estimated as about 25+/-12 meters under Pliocene conditions, constituting an existential calamity for civilization and nature. 6. Excepting injection of transient short residence-time sulphur aerosols, the arrest of current climate trend would require (A) a meaningful reduction in current rate of carbon emission(~9 GtC/year) and (B) development of new methodologies for draw-down of atmospheric CO2, by at least 50 ppm, requiring research efforts on a global scale” (Andrew Glikson, “The climate Titanic and the melting icebergs”, Countercurrents, 30 June 2016: http://www.countercurrents.org/2016/06/30/the-climate-titanic-and-the-melting-icebergs/ ).


GLOVER, Anne. Former chief scientific adviser to the European commission supportds the call for the Wellcome Trust and the Gates Foundation to divest from fossil fuels.

Professor Anne Glover  (chief scientific adviser to the European commission until 2014) in supporting the call for the Wellcome Trust and the Gates Foundation to divest from fossil fuels (2015):  “These are leaders. These are people that others look to. So they have enormous responsibility. That’s why for me it is important that they react to this” (Ian Sample, “Nobel prize winners join call  for charities to divest from fossil fuels”, Guardian, 9 April 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/apr/08/nobel-laureates-echo-calls-for-charities-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels).


GORE, Al Gore, former US Vice President  and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate for climate change activism says divest from the "Carbon Bubble" that is going to burst.

Al Gore on why we must  divest from the carbon bubble (2013): “We have a carbon bubble. Bubbles by definition involve a lot of asset owners and investors who don’t see what in retrospect becomes blindingly obvious. And this carbon bubble is going to burst… The valuation of those companies and their assets is now based on the assumption that all of those carbon assets will be sold and burned. They are not going to be burned. They cannot be burned and will not be burned. No more than one-third can ever possibly be burned without destroying the future… People can make short-term profits playing the psychology of the markets. But if you’re a long-term investor and you do not take into account the stranded-assets potential for carbon-based equities and debt instruments, in my view you’re making a mistake.” [1].

[1]. Al Gore quoted in Aaron Task, ”Al Gore: Carbon Bubble” is gong to burst – avoid oil stocks:””,  Yahoo Finance, 18 October 2013: http://finance.yahoo.com/blogs/daily-ticker/al-gore-carbon-bubble-going-burst-avoid-oil-121707563.html .




GURRIA, Angel. OECD Secretary-General warns on divestment from climate change -threatened  assets.

José Ángel Gurría Treviño, also known as Ángel Gurría, is a Mexican economist and diplomat. He is the current secretary general of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development since June 1, 2006 (see Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_%C3%81ngel_Gurr%C3%ADa ). .

OECD Secretary General Angel Gurria: “The looming choice may be either stranding those assets or stranding the planet” [1].

 [1]. OECD Secretary General Angel Gurria quoted in The Australia Institute, “Screening out fossil fuel exposure from the ASX200”, Summary Paper, March 2014: https://s3.amazonaws.com/s3.350.org/images/Climate_Proofing_Summary_Report.pdf  .



HALES, Charlie, Portland, Oregon,  Mayor urges Oregon divestment from fossil fuels.

Report:With the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Resources Institute in town to mark World Environment Day, Portland Mayor Charlie Hales issued several calls for sustainability-related actions. Primarily, Hales wants the state to divest itself of all fossil fuel holdings. And, he wants the city to begin implementing a 2012 resolution instructing the city to get 100 percent of its energy from renewable sources.” [1].

[1]. Andy Giegerich, “WED2013: Hales calls on state to divest fossil fuel holdings”, Sustainable business Oregon. 5 June 2013: http://sustainablebusinessoregon.com/articles/2013/06/wed2013-hales-calls-for.html .


HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 100 academics from 152-Nobel-Laureate Harvard University urge Harvard divestment from dirty energy.

Report (2014): “A group of Harvard University faculty has joined a student-led effort to force the Ivy League school to divest from fossil-fuel companies. An open letter released today and signed by almost 100 members of the faculty calls on Harvard to sell interests in oil, gas and coal companies held in its $32.7 billion endowment. It was addressed to Drew Faust, the university’s president, and the fellows of the Harvard Corporation, the group of trustees that oversees the Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Ivy League school. The faculty members said there is no evidence “that planned divestment would damage” Harvard, the world’s richest school. It said the aim of the campaign was to “expose corporate attitudes and change corporate behavior.” In October, Faust said in the wake of a campaign led by students that she didn’t believe “university divestment from the fossil-fuel industry is warranted or wise.” Harvard is among dozens of schools that have resisted a growing divestment movement that has spread across U.S. campuses in the past two years ” [1].

[1]. Michael McDonald, “”Harvard faculty urges university to divest from fossil fuels”, Bloomberg, 11 April 2014: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-04-10/harvard-faculty-urges-university-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels.html .



HAYES, Christopher. MSNBC host compares the $10 trillion cost of abolishing slavery in 1865 with the $10 trillion cost of keeping 88% of fossil fuel reserves in the ground.

Christopher Hayes, accordinng to Wikipedia:  Christopher L. "Chris" Hayes (born February 28, 1979)[1] is an American political commentator. Hayes hosts All In with Chris Hayes, a weekday news and opinion television show on MSNBC. Hayes formerly hosted a weekend MSNBC show, Up with Chris Hayes(see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chris_Hayes_%28journalist%29 ).

Christopher Hayes on forcing fossil fuel companies to keep 88% their resources in the ground and comparing this $10 trillion cost with the $10 trillion worth of slaves in 1865: “The Carbon Tracker Initiative, a consortium of financial analysts and environmentalists, set out to tally the amount of carbon contained in the proven fossil fuel reserves of the world’s energy companies and major fossil fuel–producing countries. That is, the total amount of carbon we know is in the ground that we can, with present technology, extract, burn and put into the atmosphere. The number that the Carbon Tracker Initiative came up with is… 2,795 gigatons. Which means the total amount of known, proven extractable fossil fuel in the ground at this very moment is almost five times the amount we can safely burn.Proceeding from this fact, McKibben leads us inexorably to the staggering conclusion that the work of the climate movement is to find a way to force the powers that be, from the government of Saudi Arabia to the board and shareholders of ExxonMobil, to leave 80 percent of the carbon they have claims on in the ground. That stuff you own, that property you’re counting on and pricing into your stocks? You can’t have it. Given the fluctuations of fuel prices, it’s a bit tricky to put an exact price tag on how much money all that unexcavated carbon would be worth, but one financial analyst puts the price at somewhere in the ballpark of $20 trillion. So in order to preserve a roughly habitable planet, we somehow need to convince or coerce the world’s most profitable corporations and the nations that partner with them to walk away from $20 trillion of wealth. Since all of these numbers are fairly complex estimates, let’s just say, for the sake of argument, that we’ve overestimated the total amount of carbon and attendant cost by a factor of 2. Let’s say that it’s just $10 trillion. The last time in American history that some powerful set of interests relinquished its claim on $10 trillion of wealth was in 1865—and then only after four years and more than 600,000 lives lost in the bloodiest, most horrific war we’ve ever fought… In fact, in certain climate and investment circles, people have begun to talk about “stranded assets”—that is, the risk that either national or global carbon-pricing regimes will make the extraction of some of the current reserves uneconomical. Recently, shareholders pushed ExxonMobil to start reporting on its exposure to the risk of stranded assets, which was a crucial first step, though the report itself was best summarized by McKibben as saying, basically, “We plan on overheating the planet, we don’t think any government will stop us, we dare you to try.” That is the current stance of the fossil fuel companies: “It’s our property, and we’re gonna extract, sell and burn all of it. What are you gonna do about it?” Those people you see getting arrested outside the White House protesting Keystone XL, showing up at shareholder meetings and sitting in on campuses to get their schools to divest are doing something about it. They are attacking the one weak link in the chain of doom that is our fossil fuel economy. As the great abolitionist Frederick Douglass said, “Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will.” What the climate justice movement is demanding is the ultimate abolition of fossil fuels. And our fates all depend on whether they succeed.”

Christopher Hayes, “The New Abolitionism. Averting planetary disaster will mean forcing fossil fuel companies to give up at least $10 trillion in wealth”, The Nation: http://www.thenation.com/article/179461/new-abolitionism?page=full# .



HENN, Jamie. Co-founder of 350.org urges divestment in fossil fuels corporatations.

Jamie Henn on the climate change exacerbation of Typhoon Haiyan and why we must divest from fossil fuels: "Haiyan wasn't a natural disaster: It was a climate disaster; a disaster fueled by the coal, oil, and gas companies that continue to pour billions of tons of carbon dioxide into our atmosphere, disrupting our climate and loading the dice for extreme weather events like Haiyan. The fossil fuel industry and its allies are quick to point out that no single weather event can be tied to the climate disruption they're fueling, but scientists are making it increasingly clear that there are several ways climate change is affecting typhoons like Haiyan, and will continue to do so in the future. Much of the global warming caused by human emissions of greenhouse gases is stored in the oceans. The sea surface temperatures near the Philippines are exceptionally warm: 2 degrees Celsius above normal in some regions, on top of the baseline warming of 0.6 degrees Celsius. Since warmer air holds more water than cold, climate change is projected to increase the precipitation associated with tropical cyclones by 20 percent by the end of this century. Extreme rain is one of the largest threats from cyclones like Haiyan, since it can trigger landslides and flash floods. Much of Haiyan's destructive power came from the storm surge that the typhoon brought with it, a wall of water that drowned people in their homes, churches, and community centers where they were seeking refuge. Climate change has already caused about eight inches in global sea level rise and threatens to cause much more if left unchecked, making these storm surges all the worse…. We all have a moral responsibility to reduce our emissions, but we have a far greater responsibility to stop profiting from the wreckage caused by companies whose business plan includes destroying the planet. Changing our light bulbs, taking public transit, reducing our meat consumption: These are all important steps, but they're not going to come anywhere close to addressing the climate crisis. We need massive structural change and it's the fossil fuel industry that's holding it back.It's our duty to take them on. It's time to tell our public institutions to divest from disaster.” [1].

[1]. Jamie Henn, “In the wake of Haiyan, we must divest from fossil fuels”, Yes!, 12 November 2013: http://www.yesmagazine.org/planet/divesting-from-disaster .



HEWSON, John. Former World Bank economist, university  economics professor and former Australian Coalition (Conservative) Leader of the Opposition wants risk averse divestment from fossil fuels.

Former World Bank economist, university  economics professor and former Australian Coalition (Conservative) Leader of the Opposition heads an Asset Owners Disclosure Project but Monash Univesity responded with secrecy to his requests for information on their dirty investments. Transcript from ABC interview:

"JOHN HEWSON, ASSET OWNERS DISCLOSURE PROJECT: The response seemed to be firstly, "Let's not be part of this. Let's just ignore it, push it aside it will go away."

KERRY BREWSTER (ABC interviewer): Monash won't reveal to Lateline where it invests its money but if it follows a similar pattern to other funds then about 50 per cent of its 400 million will be in carbon-intensive stocks like oil, gas and coal with only about two per cent in low-carbon assets.

JOHN HEWSON: How do they defend running that sort of risk? Let's assume that tomorrow there is a catastrophic - series of catastrophic climate events which dramatically affects the value of some of their investments, the share prices collapse. You know people say 'oh it can't happen', I heard that all the way throughout 2007 when funds I was associated with were getting out of the stock market thinking well the market's going down 50 per cent - everyone's telling us they couldn't.All the asset managers were telling us 'oh no the market's not going to go down.' At some point you cannot go on defending the indefensible. At some point you are going to have to say whoops there, is a risk here.

KERRY BREWSTER: Some of the world's largest asset owners, including AXA group, Calpers and ASL are working with John Hewson's asset owners disclosure project which is ranking the top 1,000 funds on how they're responding to climate change. He is urging them to move some of their combined $80 trillion out of fossil fuels and into low-carbon alternatives.

JOHN HEWSON: Well, the exposure of these institutions to climate risk dwarfs anything we've seen in the subprime crisis.

KERRY BREWSTER: Recently he added the top 300 universities to his list.

JOHN HEWSON: They're at the cutting edge of knowledge, supposed to be leading the community in sort of educational frontiers and so on and you would think that you might find a more sympathetic and substantial response to the risk of climate change.

KERRY BREWSTER: But the private advice from Monash's David Pitt to his vice chancellor implies that most of Australia's eight large universities will not participate in the Hewson survey." [1].

[1]. Kerry Brewster, "Monash [University] letters reveal secretive attitude over fossil fuel investments"m ABC TV Lateline, 27 March 2014:

http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2014/s3973194.htm .


HINCKLEY, Elias. Prediction of stranded oil assets by a strategic advisor on energy finance and energy policy to investors, energy companies and governments

Elias Hinckley (a strategic advisor on energy finance and energy policy to investors, energy companies and governments, and an energy and tax partner with the law firm Sullivan and Worcester) on stranded oil assets (2015): “In 2000, Sheikh Yamani, former oil minister of Saudi Arabia, gave an interview in which he said: “Thirty years from now there will be a huge amount of oil - and no buyers. Oil will be left in the ground. The Stone Age came to an end, not because we had a lack of stones, and the oil age will come to an end not because we have a lack of oil”… Saudi Arabia has embarked on an absolute quest for dominant market share in the global oil market.  The near-term cost of grabbing that market share is immense, with the Saudis sacrificing potentially hundreds of billions of dollars if low prices persist.  In a world of endless consumption, this risk would be hard to justify merely in exchange for a temporary expansion of global market share – the current lost revenue would take years to recover with a marginally higher share of global supply. But in a world where a producer sees the end of its market on the horizon, then every barrel sold at a profit is more valuable than a barrel that will never be sold... The owner of the most valuable fossil fuel reserve on Earth just started discounting for a future without fossil fuels.  While they would never state this reasoning publicly, their actions speak on their behalf.  And that changes everything. “ [1].

[1]. Elias Hinckley, “Everything has changed: oil, Saudi Arabia and OPEC”,  The Energy Collective, 9 January 2015: http://theenergycollective.com/eliashinckley/2181166/oil-prices-saudi-arabia-and-end-of-opec?utm_source=tec_newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=newsletter .


JACKSON, Tim. , Thomas. Leading economists Professors Tim Jackson and Thomas Piketty: responsible investors must divest from fossil fuels now.

Tim Jackson (University of Surrey and author of “Prosperity Without Growth: economics for a finite planet”) and Thomas Piketty (Paris School of Economics and author of the best-selling book “Capital in the Twenty-first century”) in a joint letter to the UK Guardian : (2015):Science, ethics and economics are intersecting to form a clear market signal: in the lead-up to the COP21 climate talks, responsible investors should divest from fossil fuels (Report, 13 November). At a time when the fossil fuel industry should be shifting its businesses to focus on renewable energy, it is doing the opposite, doubling down on coal, oil and gas. Capital continues to flow into the exploration and future extraction of dirty energy. Long-term investment decisions must take into account the externalities of a business model at odds with physical realities. In the lead-up to the COP21 climate talks, the financial community has a vital role to play in the transition to a new energy economy – one where fossil fuels must be left in the ground. From a fiduciary perspective, there are a number of indicators that fossil fuel investments contain significant levels of risk. The energy sector steadily shifted from high-return, low-cost conventional projects, to high-cost, capital-intensive, complex projects. Meanwhile, clean, carbon-free energy is rapidly becoming cost-competitive with dirty energy.

Within the investor community, the early adopters have already begun a substantial movement to divest from fossil fuels, a movement representing $2.6tn in assets under management. The world’s largest institutional investors, including the Norwegian Sovereign Wealth and Rockefeller Brothers funds, have all expressed their concern for carbon-related investment risk and are adjusting their portfolios accordingly by moving out of fossil fuel holdings. Divestment also models the kind of commitments we are expecting to be taken from governments. We call on national governments to take effective commitments to end all form of subsidies to fossil fuels at the forthcoming G20.
Thomas Piketty
Paris School of Economics
Tim Jackson
University of Surrey [1].

[1]. Thomas Piketty and Tim Jackson, “Thomas Piketty and Tim Jackson: responsible investors must divest from fossil fuels now”, The Guardian, 14 November 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/nov/14/thomas-piketty-and-tim-jackson-responsible-investors-must-divest-from-fossils-fuels-now ).



KAROLY, David. Leading Australian climate scientist urges universities to divest from fiossil fuels "[that are] causing damage to the climate".

Professor David Karoly: "Monash University is pitching itself as a very green university with research on sustainability and it actually campaigns for water conservation for energy efficiency, for energy conservation on the campus. All universities, including Monash University and the University of Melbourne, where I am now, need to take extremely seriously their investments in fossil fuels which are really supporting an industry which is causing damage to the climate... It is critically important that Monash University, like all universities, walk the walk as well as just talking the talk and yet Monash University is being seen to do only the things that are easy. " [1].

[1]. Kerry Brewster, "Monash [University] letters reveal secretive attitude over fossil fuel investments"m ABC TV Lateline, 27 March 2014:

http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2014/s3973194.htm .



KIM, Jim Yong. World Bank President on screening investments for climate risk.

Jim Yong Kim MD, PhD, also known as Kim Yong, is a Korean-American physician and anthropologist who has been the 12th President of the World Bank since July 1 2012. He was President of Dartmouth College from 2009 to 2012 (see Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Yong_Kim ).

World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim: “Rethink what fiduciary responsibility means in this changing world. It’s simple self-interest. Every company, director and bank that screens new and existing investments for climate risk is simply being pragmatic”. [1].

[1]. World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim quoted in The Australia Institute, “Screening out fossil fuel exposure from the ASX200”, Summary Paper, March 2014: https://s3.amazonaws.com/s3.350.org/images/Climate_Proofing_Summary_Report.pdf  .




KI-MOON, Ban.
Former UN Secretary General lauds $5.2 trillion of divestment from fossil fuels by 2016.

Ban Ki-moon (former UN Secretary General) quoted re  Arabella Advisors report on $5.2 trillion of divestment from fossil fuels (2016):  “It’s clear the transition to a clean energy future is inevitable, beneficial and well underway, and that investors have a key role to play.  I commend today’s announcement that a growing number of investors are backing a shift away from the most carbon-intensive energy sources and into safe, sustainable energy. Investments in clean energy are the right thing to do and the smart way to build prosperity for all, while protecting our planet” (Damian Carrington, “Fossil fuel divestment funds double to $5tn in a year”, Guardian, 13 December 2016: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/dec/12/fossil-fuel-divestment-funds-double-5tn-in-a-year ).



KLEIN - Naomi Klein slams the  planet-wrecking  fossil fuel industry.

Naomi Klein  is a famous Jewish Canadian journalist, author and activist who is very well known for her books and critiques of corporate globalization and human rights abuses (for biography see Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naomi_Klein; see also Naomi Klein website: http://www.naomiklein.org/main ).

Naomi Klein on the terracidal fossil fuel industry (2012): “Lots of companies  do rotten things in the course of their business—pay terrible wages, make people work in sweatshops—and we pressure them to change those practices But these numbers make clear that with the fossil-fuel industry, wrecking the planet is their business model. It’s what they do.” [1].

[1]. Naomi Klein, quoted in Bill McKibben, “Divest from fossil fuels, Now”, Sojourners, November 2012: http://sojo.net/magazine/2012/11/divest-fossil-fuels-now .



MATZZIE, Tom. CEO of Ethical Electric based on 100% renewable energy says divestment from fossil fuels is a moral obligation.

Tom Matzzie is the founder and CEO of Ethical Electric, a company that connects consumers with 100 percent renewable energy for their homes (see: http://www.suntimes.com/news/otherviews/24455595-452/divesting-from-fossil-fuels-a-moral-obligation.html ).

 Tom Matzzie on divestment from fossil fuels (2013): "As we celebrate the life of Nelson Mandela, the clearest marker of his supporters on his walk to freedom were those who divested from   South Africa, a critical American contribution to the global battle to end Apartheid. The students who sparked a national divestment movement served as the crucible of the socially responsible investment movement and compelled Congress to act, even overriding a presidential veto. For this generation, Nobel Peace Prize winner, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, said, “Climate change is a deeply moral issue too, …. Once again, we can join together as a world and put pressure where it counts.”… Fossil fuels are cheap because we all pay their true cost. The oil and utility companies don’t pay the health-care costs of the misery their pollution causes everyone living near smokestacks, estimated by the National Academy of Sciences at over $120 billion per year. In fact, MIT estimates 53,000 premature deaths every year in the United States by the pollution of fossil fuels. That doesn’t even factor in global warming, which already appears to be damaging cities and countries around the world, particularly the most vulnerable among us. There are myriad reasons to divest from fossil fuels and reinvest in clean energy and sustainability, but the simplest reason is the most important. Climate change is a matter of life and death for millions of people.” [1]

[1]. Tom Matzzie, “Divesting from fossil fuels a moral obligation”, Chicago Sun-Times, 18 December 2013: http://www.suntimes.com/news/otherviews/24455595-452/divesting-from-fossil-fuels-a-moral-obligation.html .



MAXMIN, Chloe. Chloe Maxmin,  a   Harvard Junior and the coordinator of Divest Harvard urges divestment from fossil fuels.

Chloe Maxmin on the need for fossil fuel divestment (2013):We're taking the courage that this can work from the anti-apartheid activists and from Nelson Mandela… What the fossil fuel divestment movement is saying to companies is your fundamental business model of extracting and burning carbon is going to create an uninhabitable planet. So you need to stop. You need a new business model.” [1].

[1]. Chloe Maxmin quoted in Andrea Schmidt, “Heirs of anti-apartheid movement rise up”, Al Jazeera, 15 December 2013: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2013/12/heirs-anti-apartheid-movement-rise-up-201312158526777700.html .


MAY. Lord May, UK government chief scientist, supports the call for the Wellcome Trust and the Gates Foundation to divest from fossil fuels.

Lord May ( former  UK government chief scientist) supports the call for the Wellcome Trust and the Gates Foundation to divest from fossil fuels (Ian Sample, “Nobel prize winners join call  for charities to divest from fossil fuels”, Guardian, 9 April 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/apr/08/nobel-laureates-echo-calls-for-charities-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels ).


MCKIBBEN – Bill McKibben & 350.org campaign for divestment from fossil fuels.

 Bill McKibben, is an American journalist, a leading environmentalist,  the Schumann Distinguished Scholar at Middlebury College in Vermont, is founder of 350.org (see: http://sojo.net/magazine/2012/11/divest-fossil-fuels-now ).

Bill McKibben on the 350.org campaign for divestment from fossil fuels (2012):No, even more than weaning our own lives off coal and gas and oil, we’ve got to convert the system itself, so that renewable energy no longer faces an impossible uphill fight. We’ve got to break the power of the fossil-fuel industry.

So, beginning the day after the election, we’re mounting a 20-cities-in-20-nights roadshow designed to spark a divestment movement as big and insistent as the one that helped bring down the apartheid regime in South Africa. It won’t be easy—college trustees, pension fund boards, and church executives won’t want to divest their fossil-fuel stocks, because they comprise such a large part of the economy.

But this will be the ultimate test of whether we’re going to acquiesce to a future like the one we saw the trailer for this past summer: epic drought; global grain prices up 40 percent; unprecedented Arctic melt. It doesn’t matter if you drive a Prius: If you, or the institution that you’re a part of, makes money off the fossil- fuel industry, then you’re implicated in that destruction. You’re not loving your neighbors, not safeguarding creation. You’re selling them down the river.

And if those institutions sell that stock, it will begin to pressure those companies, make them open to political compromise, slow the headlong rush toward destruction. Right now ExxonMobil spends $100 million a day trying to find more hydrocarbons to burn. That’s the definition of irresponsible. And the definition of why we need to divest from coal and oil and gas. Now.” [1].

[1]. Bill McKibben, “Divest from fossil fuels, Now”, Sojourners, November 2012: http://sojo.net/magazine/2012/11/divest-fossil-fuels-now .



OXFORD ACADEMICS. 59 academics from 58-Nobel-Laureate Oxford University sign an Open Letter urging that Oxford divests from dirty energy.

Report (May 2014): “Fifty-nine Oxford academics have signed an open letter urging Oxford University to “take action on climate change” by ridding its £3.8bn endowment of investments in fossil fuel companies.The letter comes during a university-wide consultation on fossil fuel divestment, set to conclude on June 23. The consultation was announced following a year of sustained pressure from the student-led Fossil Free campaign, which came to a head on Saturday when over 150 students and residents marched through Oxford calling on the University and council to divest from fossil fuels. In their open letter, the academics argue that Oxford has a “responsibility to show leadership in tackling one of the greatest challenges we as a society currently face.” Henry Shue, Professor of Politics and International Relations comments, “We at Oxford like to claim the mantle of intellectual leadership. Here is our opportunity to display genuine leadership when it counts.” Signatories to the letter come from all corners of the university and  include Lord Professor Robert May, former chief scientific adviser to the UK government, Lesley Gray, Professor of Atmospheric Physics, and Professor Gordon Clark, current director of the Oxford Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment” [1].

[1]. “59 Oxford academics urge university to divest from fossil fuels”, 350.org: http://350.org/press-release/59-oxford-academics-urge-university-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels/ .


PIKETTY, Thomas. Leading economists Professors Thomas Piketty and Tim Jackson: responsible investors must divest from fossil fuels now.

Thomas Piketty (Paris School of Economics and author of the best-selling book “Capital in the Twenty-first century”) and Tim Jackson (University of Surrey and author of “Prosperity Without Growth: economics for a finite planet”) in a joint letter to the UK Guardian : (2015):Science, ethics and economics are intersecting to form a clear market signal: in the lead-up to the COP21 climate talks, responsible investors should divest from fossil fuels (Report, 13 November). At a time when the fossil fuel industry should be shifting its businesses to focus on renewable energy, it is doing the opposite, doubling down on coal, oil and gas. Capital continues to flow into the exploration and future extraction of dirty energy. Long-term investment decisions must take into account the externalities of a business model at odds with physical realities. In the lead-up to the COP21 climate talks, the financial community has a vital role to play in the transition to a new energy economy – one where fossil fuels must be left in the ground. From a fiduciary perspective, there are a number of indicators that fossil fuel investments contain significant levels of risk. The energy sector steadily shifted from high-return, low-cost conventional projects, to high-cost, capital-intensive, complex projects. Meanwhile, clean, carbon-free energy is rapidly becoming cost-competitive with dirty energy.

Within the investor community, the early adopters have already begun a substantial movement to divest from fossil fuels, a movement representing $2.6tn in assets under management. The world’s largest institutional investors, including the Norwegian Sovereign Wealth and Rockefeller Brothers funds, have all expressed their concern for carbon-related investment risk and are adjusting their portfolios accordingly by moving out of fossil fuel holdings. Divestment also models the kind of commitments we are expecting to be taken from governments. We call on national governments to take effective commitments to end all form of subsidies to fossil fuels at the forthcoming G20.
Thomas Piketty
Paris School of Economics
Tim Jackson
University of Surrey [1].

[1]. Thomas Piketty and Tim Jackson, “Thomas Piketty and Tim Jackson: responsible investors must divest from fossil fuels now”, The Guardian, 14 November 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/nov/14/thomas-piketty-and-tim-jackson-responsible-investors-must-divest-from-fossils-fuels-now ).


POLYA, Gideon. Dr Gideon Polya urges Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) against  fossil fuel.

Dr Gideon Polya, Melbourne, Australia, scientist, writer, artist and climate change activist on the need to oppose fossil fuel exploitation (2013): “Cessation of species extinction, unsustainable deforestation and fossil fuel burning means climate activists should urge and apply where practicable Boycotts, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) against all  people, politicians, parties, candidates, corporations and countries involved in destruction of the Biosphere – indeed, anything less makes one complicit in ecocide and terracide… Successful –isms and –ists have an ABC strategy involving Accountability (negative feedback for non-adherence), Badge (symbol) and Credo (brief statement of position). Environmental-ism requires (A) accountability e.g. holding people, politicians, countries and corporations accountable by boycotts, divestment, sanctions, exposure and scorn, (B) wearing a badge at all times (e.g., as I do, “300 ppm CO2”) and (C) a simple credo e.g. “For a safe planet for all peoples and all species we must urgently return the atmospheric  CO2 from the present 400 ppm CO2 to the safe and sustainable pre-industrial 300 ppm CO2”.”  [1].

[1]. Gideon Polya, “100 ideas for climate change activists trying to save the biosphere and humanity”, Countercurrents, 10 August 2013: http://www.countercurrents.org/polya100813.htm .


POPE FRANCIS.
Pope Francis in his 2015 Encyclical letter “Laudato si on the need for a rapid move away from fossil fuels  to renewable energy “in the next few years... without delay”. 

Pope Francis in his 2015 Encyclical letter “Laudato si on the need for a rapid move to renewable energy “in the next few years”:There is an urgent need to develop policies so that, in the next few years, the emission of carbon dioxide and other highly polluting gases can be drastically reduced - for example, substituting for fossil fuels and developing sources of renewable energy. Worldwide there is minimal access to clean and renewable energy. There is still a need to develop adequate storage technologies.We know that technology based on the use of highly-polluting fossil fuels - especially coal, but also oil and, to a lesser degree, gas - needs to be progressively replaced without delay. Until greater progress is made in developing widely accessible sources of renewable energy, it is legitimate to choose the lesser of two evils or to find short-term solutions. But the international community has still not reached adequate agreements about the responsibility for paying the costs of this energy transition” (Pope Francis, Encyclical Letter “Laudato si”, 2015: http://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/encyclicals/documents/papa-francesco_20150524_enciclica-laudato-si.html and Pope Francis quoted in “Key excerpts from the Pope’s encyclical on the environment”, ABC News, 19 June 2015: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-06-19/pope-francis-warns-humanity-about-pace-of-consumption/6557822  ).



ROBERTS, Richard.
Sir Richard Roberts, British Nobel Laureate biologist,  supports the call for the Wellcome Trust and the Gates Foundation to divest from fossil fuels.

Sir Richard Roberts (awarded the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Phillip Allen Sharp for the discovery of introns in eukaryotic DNA and the mechanism of gene-splicing; presently at New England Biolabs in Massachusetts) in supporting the call for the Wellcome Trust and the Gates Foundation to divest from fossil fuels (2015): “The idea that you can have insider talks and achieve some action, I don’t think that works. It’s an excuse to keep investing in something that’s profitable for the foundation, but there are many other investments that would be equally profitable. If they have done something behind the scenes, let them give us an example. If they can’t, they should divest” (Ian Sample, “Nobel prize winners join call  for charities to divest from fossil fuels”, Guardian, 9 April 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/apr/08/nobel-laureates-echo-calls-for-charities-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels ).




RUSBRIDGER, Alan. Alan Rusbridger (editor of the UK Guardian for 20 years) on terminal carbon budget and huge, 5-fold greater reserve of  fossil fuel : We need to keep it in the ground.”

Alan Rusbridger (editor of the UK Guardian for 20 years) on increased Guardian reportage on man-made climate change (2015):This summer I am stepping down after 20 years of editing the Guardian.So, in the time left to me as editor, I thought I would try to harness the Guardian’s best resources to describe what is happening and what – if we do nothing – is almost certain to occur, a future that one distinguished scientist has termed as “incompatible with any reasonable characterisation of an organised, equitable and civilised global community”.The coming debate is about two things: what governments can do to attempt to regulate, or otherwise stave off, the now predictably terrifying consequences of global warming beyond 2C by the end of the century. And how we can prevent the states and corporations which own the planet’s remaining reserves of coal, gas and oil from ever being allowed to dig most of it up. We need to keep them in the ground… There are three really simple numbers which explain this (and if you have even more appetite for the subject, read the excellent July 2012 Rolling Stone piece by the author and campaigner Bill McKibben, which – building on the work of the Carbon Tracker Initiative – first spelled them out).

1. 2C: There is overwhelming agreement – from governments, corporations, NGOs, banks, scientists, you name it – that a rise in temperatures of more than 2C by the end of the century would lead to disastrous consequences for any kind of recognised global order.

2. 565 gigatons: “Scientists estimate that humans can pour roughly 565 more gigatons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by mid-century and still have some reasonable hope of staying below 2C,” is how McKibben crisply puts it. Few dispute that this idea of a global “carbon budget” is broadly right.

3. 2,795 gigatons: This is the amount of carbon contained in the proven coal, oil and gas reserves of fossil fuel companies and states – ie the fuel we are planning to extract and burn… We need to keep it in the ground.” [1].

 [1]. Alan Rusbridger, “Climate change: why the Guardian is putting the threat  to Earth front and centre”, Guardian, 6 March 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/mar/06/climate-change-guardian-threat-to-earth-alan-rusbridger .


SHEIK, Simon. Simon Sheikh (managing director of fossil-free Future Super) on fossil-free Future Super’s  outperformance of “dirty” superannuation investment funds (2016): “Fossil fuel-free investment strategies continue to prove themselves as the responsible investment strategy to protect and grow members retirement savings".

Simon Sheikh (managing director of fossil-free Future Super) on fossil-free Future Super’s  outperformance of “dirty” superannuation investment funds (2016): “Fossil fuel-free investment strategies continue to prove themselves as the responsible investment strategy to protect and grow members retirement savings. Future Super’s outperformance comes in spite of not benefiting from the depreciation of the Australian dollar against the US dollar as we do not have investments in overseas assets that aren’t co-listed on the Australian Stock Exchange.While past performance is not always indicative of future returns, we see long-term risks for the fossil fuel industry” (Michael Slezak, “Fossil fuel investments damaging Australians’ retirement savings, research shows”, The Age, 20 January 2016: http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2016/jan/20/fossil-fuel-investments-shown-to-be-damaging-australians-retirements#comments ).


SLEZAK, Michael. Michael Slezak ( Guardian Australia writer)  (2016): “Investment in fossil fuels is dragging down the returns of Australians’ superannuation, with funds that limit or exclude fossil fuels performing above average in 2015".

Michael Slezak ( Guardian Australia writer)  (2016): “Investment in fossil fuels is dragging down the returns of Australians’ superannuation, with funds that limit or exclude fossil fuels performing above average in 2015. Balanced investment funds are estimated to have returned about 5.7% on average in the 2015 calendar year, according to preliminary analysis by Chant West, a superannuation research firm. But Future Super, which avoids any investment in fossil fuels, returned 7.04% in its balanced investment option, new figures reveal. The managing director of Future Super, Simon Sheikh, said the results showed avoiding investment in fossil fuels was a responsible financial move, not a purely ethical or environmental one. Fossil fuel-free investment strategies continue to prove themselves as the responsible investment strategy to protect and grow members retirement savings,” he said. Australian Ethical, which also limits its investment in fossil fuels, also performed above average, with its balanced investment option returning 6.5% in the 2015 calendar year .The Thomson Reuters/Future Super Australia Fossil Free Index, a tool created to compare fossil fuel-free investment strategies with the broader sharemarket, appears to show fossil-free investment strategies returned 4.96% in 2015 while the broader sharemarket returned only 2.12%” (Michael Slezak, “Fossil fuel investments damaging Australians’ retirement savings, research shows”, The Age, 20 January 2016: http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2016/jan/20/fossil-fuel-investments-shown-to-be-damaging-australians-retirements#comments ).



STERN. Professor Lord Nicholas Stern, top climate economist: “investing in companies that rely solely or heavily on constantly replenishing reserves of fossil fuels is becoming a very risky decision. 

.Professor Lord Stern is a top climate  change economist. He is IG Patel Professor of Economics and Government, Chair of the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment at the London School of Economics (LSE), 2010 Professor of Collège de France and f.rom 2013, he will be President of the British Academy (see : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_Stern,_Baron_Stern_of_Brentford ).

.Professor Lord Stern: “Smart investors can see that investing in companies that rely solely or heavily on constantly replenishing reserves of fossil fuels is becoming a very risky decision. The report raises serious questions as to the ability of the financial system to act on industry-wide long term risk, since currently the only measure of risk is performance against industry benchmarks.” [1].

[1]. Carbon Tracker, “Unburnable carbon 2013: Wasted capital and stranded asserts”: http://www.carbontracker.org/wastedcapital .



SULSTONE, John. Sir John Sulston, British Nobel Laureate biologist, University of Manchester, supports the call for the Wellcome Trust and the Gates Foundation to divest from fossil fuels.

Sir John Sulston, (British biologist, University of Manchester;  jointly awarded the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Sydney Brenner and H. Robert Horvitz for  work on the cell lineage and genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans; and founding director of the Wellcome Trust’s Sanger Centre at the University of  Cambridge)  in supporting the call for the Wellcome Trust and the Gates Foundation to divest from fossil fuels (2015): “Can the ‘Wellcome] Trust show us the evidence that its negotiations as a stockholder of Shell, BP and the other fossil fuel companies are the best route towards the rapid reduction of carbon emissions? If so, we shall be delighted and relieved to learn that doubts are misplaced and that there is a well signposted way forward. Otherwise, we must conclude that the Wellcome Trust is not part of the solution to the problem. In this matter the earth and its inhabitants cannot wait for polite business exchanges. The Trust’s statements seem to underrate its influence in the business and political landscape, and the effect that reinvestment will have on reducing the costs of renewable energy. Divestment, far from being simply a grand gesture, can be a switch onto a high speed track” (Ian Sample, “Nobel prize winners join call  for charities to divest from fossil fuels”, Guardian, 9 April 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/apr/08/nobel-laureates-echo-calls-for-charities-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels).


SWANN, Tom. Tom Swann ( researcher at the Australia Institute) “A lot of the large funds are doing next to nothing [re divestment] and that’s just not doing their job properly".

Tom Swann ( researcher at the Australia Institute) on underperformance of  “dirty” investment funds (2016): “A lot of the large funds are doing next to nothing [re divestment] and that’s just not doing their job properly. That’s putting people’s retirements at risk. But most are doing nothing and assuming it will all be good” (Michael Slezak, “Fossil fuel investments damaging Australians’ retirement savings, research shows”, The Age, 20 January 2016: http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2016/jan/20/fossil-fuel-investments-shown-to-be-damaging-australians-retirements#comments ).


TUTU, Desmond. Nobel Laureate Archbishop Desmond Tutu urges divestment from fossil fuels.

Archbishop Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of Apartheid.  In 1984, Tutu became the second South African to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.  Tutu was the first black South African Archbishop of Cape Town  and primate of the Anglican Church of the Province of Southern Africa.  Tutu chaired the post-Apartheid Truth and Reconciliation Commission.  Tutu is vocal in his defence of human rights and uses his high profile to campaign for the oppressed. Tutu also campaigns to fight disease, poverty and racism. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984, the Albert Schweitzer Prize for Humanitarianism and the Gandhi Peace Prize in 2005 and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009 (see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desmond_Tutu ).

Archbishop Desmond Tutu on divesting from fossil fuels (2014): “Twenty-five years ago people could be excused for not knowing much, or doing much, about climate change. Today we have no excuse. No more can it be dismissed as science fiction; we are already feeling the effects… The bottom line is that we have 15 years to take the necessary steps. The horse may not have bolted, but it's well on its way through the stable door… We cannot necessarily bankrupt the fossil fuel industry. But we can take steps to reduce its political clout, and hold those who rake in the profits accountable for cleaning up the mess. And the good news is that we don't have to start from scratch. Young people across the world have already begun to do something about it. The fossil fuel divestment campaign is the fastest growing corporate campaign of its kind in history… It makes no sense to invest in companies that undermine our future. To serve as custodians of creation is not an empty title; it requires that we act, and with all the urgency this dire situation demands.”. [1].

[1]. Desmond Tutu, “We need aqn apartheid-style boctt to save the planet”, The Guardian, 11 April 2014: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/apr/10/divest-fossil-fuels-climate-change-keystone-xl .


VINCENT, Julian. Executive director of Market Forces lauds HCF divestment from fossil fuels.

Julian Vincent (executive director of Market Forces that has lobbied Medibank to divest from fossil fuels) (2016) : "One of the things that's most exciting about this announcement is that it's leadership. Insurers have really taken a few backwards steps over the last 10  years: it was talking up the risks of climate change and being quite outspoken ... [but] as those impacts started to become real for insurers it became a harder conversation because then they were talking about hits to their bottom lines. HCF is doing this, and doing it very clearly for the right reasons, sets a very clear example and hopefully makes it easier for others to follow" (Patrick Hatch, “”Health risk”: HCF first health insurer to divest from fossil fuels”, Sydney Morning Herald, 10 February 2017: http://www.smh.com.au/business/health-risk-hcf-first-health-insurer-to-divest-from-fossil-fuels-20170210-gua160.html  ).


WOOD, Charlotte. 350.org Australian Campaigns Director demands divestment from dirty energy.

Charlotte Wood is Australian Campaigns Director with 350.org and 2010 ACT Young Environmentalist of the Year.

Charlotte Wood and Isaac Astill (2014): “The question is, will this [dirty energy] decline be fast enough to avoid runaway climate change, yet smooth enough to ensure a just transition away from coal? For governments and investors serious about creating long-term, sustainable wealth, these two questions should be at the fore. Sadly, in Australia they are often drowned out by the political and financial noise of the coal lobby. But as Australia’s fossil fuel wars heat up, a groundswell of individuals and institutions are putting these vital questions front and centre. And one of the most powerful tools this movement wields is divestment. The divestment strategy is simple. Fossil fuel companies currently plan to burn five times more carbon than the climate can safely handle. To win, we’ll have to rein in that plan. The massive financial power of Australia’s coal lobby has proven that governments aren’t about to help with this task, so how do we break the deadlock? We divest. By publicly moving our money out of coal, oil and gas companies, we help to erode the industry’s social license to freely pollute the planet, in turn unlocking the political deadlock on climate action. The beauty of divestment is that we can all take part. If you have superannuation or a bank account, chances are it’s being used to fund coal. Market Forces estimates that since 2008, Australia’s Big four banks have loaned almost $19 billion to coal and gas projects in Australia. What’s more, at the time of writing there isn’t a superannuation fund in Australia that doesn’t have at least some exposure to fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly” [1].

[1].  Charlotte Wood and Isaac Astill, “Divestment: can moving our money move us beyond coal?”, New Internationalist Blog, 26 February 2014: http://www.newint.com.au/blog/divestment-beyond-coal/ .


YAMANI, Sheikh. Former Saudi Arabian oil minister forecasting stranded oil assets by 2030.

Sheikh Yamani (former oil minister of Saudi Arabia) on future stranded oil assets (the major argument for divestment in fossil fuels) (2000): “Thirty years from now there will be a huge amount of oil - and no buyers. Oil will be left in the ground. The Stone Age came to an end, not because we had a lack of stones, and the oil age will come to an end not because we have a lack of oil”[1].

[1]. Sheikh Yamani quoted by Elias Hinckley, “Everything has changed: oil, Saudi Arabia and OPEC”,  The Energy Collective, 9 January 2015: http://theenergycollective.com/eliashinckley/2181166/oil-prices-saudi-arabia-and-end-of-opec?utm_source=tec_newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=newsletter .

 

POSTSCRIPT RECORDING THOSE OPPOSED TO DIVESTMENT FROM FOSSIL FUELS.


ABBOTT, Tony. Australian PM supports continuing investment in coal, declaring  "Coal is good for humanity, coal is good for prosperity, coal is an essential part of our economic future, here in Australia, and right around the world".

Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott saying coal is "good for humanity" and will be the "world's main energy source for decades to come" as he opened a new $3.9 billion BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance (BMA) Caval Ridge coal mine, south of Moranbah in central Queensland which will employ 500 fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) workers and produce about 5.5 million tonnes of coal each year (2014): "Coal is good for humanity, coal is good for prosperity, coal is an essential part of our economic future, here in Australia, and right around the world. This is a sign of hope and confidence in the future of the coal industry - it's a great industry, we've had a great partnership with Japan in the coal industry. Coal is essential for the prosperity of the world. Energy is what sustains our prosperity, and coal is the world's principal energy source and it will be for many decades to come … This mine is going to contribute some $30 million to the local economy so it's much better for the local economy that we have this mine." [1].

[1]. “Coal “good for humanity”, Prime Minister Tony Abbott says at $3.9b Queensland mine opening”, ABC News,  13 October 2014: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-10-13/coal-is-good-for-humanity-pm-tony-abbott-says/5810244 .

[Editor’s note: Australia’s Carbon Debt from greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution and expressed as billions of  tonnes C (Gt C) of GHG pollution is 20.5 Gt CO2-e. (1751-2006)  + 16 GtC (2007-2014)  = 36.5 Gt CO2-e (see “Carbon Debt Carbon Credit”; https://sites.google.com/site/carbondebtcarboncredit/ ). Top climate economist Dr Chris Hope from 90-Nobel-Laureate Cambridge University has estimated a damage-related Carbon Price of $150 per tonne CO2-e (see Dr Chris Hope, “How high should climate change taxes be?”, Working Paper Series, Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, 9.2011: http://www.jbs.cam.ac.uk/fileadmin/user_upload/research/workingpapers/wp1109.pdf  ) and hence Australia’s Carbon Debt in US dollars is  36.5 Gt CO2-e  x $150 / tonne CO2-e = $5,475 billion = $5.5 trillion or about 4 times Australia’s  annual GDP. Australia’s annual Domestic plus Exported GHG pollution is about 2 Gt CO2-e and hence Australia’s Carbon Debt is increasing at $300 billion annually under the Abbott  Coalition Government.

Burning 12 t carbon yields 44 t CO2 i.e. burning 1 t carbon  yields  44 /12 = 3.67 t CO2 Accordingly  complete combustion of 1 t of black coal (about 80% carbon: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_coal ) would yield 0.8 x 3.67 = 2.9  t CO2 and  complete combustion of 1 t brown coal (about 30% carbon: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_coal ) would yield 0.3 x 3.67 = 1.1  t CO2. The Carbon Debt associated with this mine (assuming it to be black coal) will be (5.5 million t coal/year) x (2.9 t CO2/t coal) x US$150 / t CO2) = $2,393  million/year = $2.4 billion /year (to be paid by future generations).]


AUSTRALIAN COALITION FEDERAL GOVERNMENT suggests law changes to criminalize consumer boycotts of companies involved in anti-social and anti-environmental activities.

 

After the 7 September 2013 election, Australia got an ultra-conservative  Liberal Party-National Party Coalition Federal Government under Prime Minister Tony Abbott. .   

Sum-of-US Petition: “The Abbott government wants to make boycotts illegal -- criminalising our ability to hold corporations to account when they jeopardise our health or our environment. We can’t let them get away with this. Sign the petition now to tell the Australian government not to criminalise consumer boycotts. Under the proposed law, it would be illegal to call on another individual or company to boycott a product because it was unsafe or destroying the environment. It's explicitly designed to silence groups like Greenpeace and SumOfUs -- with Liberal Senator Richard Colbeck saying that he is "very concerned" about what environmental groups were doing, and wants to stop them. Landmark campaigns like those that have saved Tasmania's forests and challenged live animal exports would suddenly be illegal. We can't let this attack on free speech and environmental protection go unchallenged. Senator Colbeck hasn't committed to the new law yet -- he's testing the waters to see what reaction he gets. Let's come together now to demand the Abbott government drops this crazy assault on our rights.” [1].

Julian Brezniak and Lewis d’Avigdor (lawyers) on Australian Coalition Governments plans to change consumer laws to make environmental boycotts problematical (2013): “As it stands, the Competition and Consumer Act does not prohibit these “primary boycotts” in most circumstances. Individuals are usually free to agree to not acquire products from companies that, for example, source products from environmentally harmful or morally dubious sources. Only primary boycotts relating to a business that is engaging in international trade are banned – it is currently prohibited for individuals to collectively engage in boycotts that are aimed at disrupting Australian trade. However, the Competition and Consumer Act does prohibit “secondary boycotts”. A secondary boycott occurs when two or more people act together to hinder or prevent a business from acquiring products from or selling products to another business. Secondary boycotts of this nature are not illegal if the ACCC gives an authorisation to conduct one.  Secondary boycotts (and primary boycotts affecting international trade) are lawful when the “dominant purpose” of the boycott is for environmental protection or for consumer protection. And it is this exception to the prohibition on secondary boycotts that is at the centre of the public debate about the coalition’s “root and branch” review of Australia’s competition laws. These environmental and consumer protections were included in the Competition and Consumer Act in 1996 as a compromise for support for Howard’s 1996 workplace legislation by Cheryl Kernot and the Democrats in the Senate. It is not clear whether the Coalition will seek to remove only the protection for environmental and consumer activists conducting secondary boycotts. It is possible that the Coalition would also seek to prohibit primary boycotts – an unprecedented restriction.The particularly concerning aspect of the Coalition’s proposal is the chilling effect it may have on public debate.” [2].

[1]. Sum-of US Petition, “Tell Tony Abbott not to ban the boycott”: http://action.sumofus.org/a/abbott-boycotts/?sub=taf .

[2].  Julian Brezniak and Lewis d’Avigdor, “Boycott reforms target environmentalists”, New Matilda, 25 September 2013: https://newmatilda.com/2013/09/25/boycott-reforms-target-environmentalists .

 

 

 FAUST, Drew. Drew Faust, President of Harvard University, opposes Harvard university divestment from fossil fuels.

Michael McDonald Bloomberg (2103): “Harvard University, the world’s richest school, won’t sell its investments in fossil-fuel companies amid pressure from students, President Drew Faust said in a letter released today. “I do not believe, nor do my colleagues on the Corporation, that university divestment from the fossil fuel industry is warranted or wise,” Faust said in the letter, referring to Harvard Corporation, the school’s governing board. “The endowment is a resource, not an instrument to impel social or political change.”  [1].

[1]. Michael McDonald, “Harvard won’t divest from fossil fuels, Faust says”, Bloomberg, 4 October 2013: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-10-03/harvard-fossil-fuels.html .

 

 

 HARVARD UNIVERSITY WON’T DIVEST from fossil fuels.

Michael McDonald Bloomberg (2103): “Harvard University, the world’s richest school, won’t sell its investments in fossil-fuel companies amid pressure from students, President Drew Faust said in a letter released today. “I do not believe, nor do my colleagues on the Corporation, that university divestment from the fossil fuel industry is warranted or wise,” Faust said in the letter, referring to Harvard Corporation, the school’s governing board. “The endowment is a resource, not an instrument to impel social or political change.”  [1].

[1]. Michael McDonald, “Harvard won’t divest from fossil fuels, Faust says”, Bloomberg, 4 October 2013: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-10-03/harvard-fossil-fuels.html .


APPENDIX - ALPHABETICALLY-ORGANIZED, DETAILED EXPLANATIONS OF KEY TERMS RELATING TO ADVOCACY & ACHIEVEMENT OF  A SAFE PLANET, CLIMATE JUSTICE,  INTERGENERATIONAL JUSTICE & INTERGENERATIONAL EQUITY

ABC Strategy. Successful –isms and –ists have an ABC strategy involving Accountability (negative feedback for non-adherence), Badge (symbol) and Credo (brief statement of position). Environmental-ism requires (A) accountability e.g. holding people, politicians, parties, candidates, countries and corporations accountable by boycotts, divestment, sanctions, exposure and scorn, (B) wearing a badge at all times (e.g.  “300 ppm CO2”) and (C) a simple credo e.g. “For a safe planet for all peoples and all species we must urgently return the atmospheric  CO2 from the present 400 ppm CO2 to the safe and sustainable pre-industrial 300 ppm CO2”,

Accelerated Weathering of Limestone (AWL).  Proposed but not yet commercial Accelerated Weathering of Limestone (AWL) involves  waste gas from burning coal or gas being  passed through a sea water-limestone (CaCO3) scrubber with the following reaction: CO2 (gas) + CaCO3 (solid) + H2O <-> Ca2+ (aqueous) + 2 HCO3- (aqueous) . The scrubbing solution is then piped to the sea. Carbon in the oceans as bicarbonate is 10 times that in all recoverable fossil fuel reserves and about 60 times that in the CO2 in the atmosphere. The carbon in carbonate minerals is about 4,000 times greater than the carbon in oil and coal fossil fuel reserves and the AWL process would in part reverse the deleterious acidification the oceans due to the massive CO2 pollution of the atmosphere [1].

Anthropogenic Climate Change (AGW) (see Climate Change and Man-made Climate Change). Anthropogenic Climate Change refers to the change in the Earth’s climate due to Man’s pollution of the atmosphere with greenhouse gases (GHGs), principally carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), since the start of the Industrial  Revolution  in the mid-18th century [1].  CO2 is the major contributor to anthropogenic global warming (AGW), deriving from aerobic respiration involving oxidation of carbohydrate  ( (CH2O)n + O2 -> n CO2 + nH2O), lime (CaO) in cement production (CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2), and the combustion of fossil   fuels such as coal ( C + O2 -> CO2) , oil (CH3(CH2)nH + ((3n +4)/2)O2 -> (n+1)CO2 + (n+2)H2O)  and natural gas, mainly methane (CH4 + 2O2 -> CO2 + 2 H2O).  Other GHGs (Global Warming Potential, GWP,  relative to CO2 on a 20 year time frame in parentheses) include  methane (CH4; 79, or 105 with aerosol impacts included) (from natural gas and anaerobic biomass degradation),  nitrous oxide (N2O, 289) (from power plants and agriculture) and man-made GHGs e.g. chlorofluorohydrocarbon CFC-12, CCl2F2 (11,000),  hydrochlorofluorohydrocarbon HFC-22, CHClF2 (5,160), hydrofluorohydrocarbon HFC-23, CHF3 (12,000), sulphur hexafluoride SF6 (16,300), nitrogen trifluoride NF3 (12,300).

Avoidable Death (see Avoidable Mortality, Excess Death, Excess Mortality). Avoidable Mortality (Avoidable Mortality, Excess Death, Excess Mortality) is the difference between the ACTUAL mortality in a country and the mortality EXPECTED in a peaceful, decently-run country with the same demographics. By 1950 ALL the World potentially had access to the requisites for very the low avoidable mortality obtaining in European countries, namely clean water, sanitation, proper nutrition, literacy (especially female literacy), primary health care, antibiotics and major preventive medicine programs including public health education, prophylactics (such as insecticides, antiseptics, mosquito netting, soap and condoms) and major vaccinations. However such benefits took decades to arrive in many countries and are still variously lacking in African countries. Nevertheless, in most countries outside Africa the annual mortality rate (expressed as deaths per 1,000 people per year) typically declined to a minimum and in the best countries (typically European and East Asian countries) eventually began to rise, with this reflecting aging populations. Using United Nations Population Division demographic data going back to 1950 (the 2002 Revision), it was possible to make base-line estimates of expected mortality for various demographically distinct groups. For many high birth-rate Third World countries the base-line mortality estimates clustered about 4 deaths per 1,000 of population [2].

Avoidable Mortality (see Avoidable Death, Excess Death, Excess Mortality).

Biochar. Biochar is the charcoal ( i.e. carbon, C) derived from the anaerobic (minus oxygen) heating of cellulosic waste to about 400-700C:  [3]. This represents one of the major ways if reducing  the atmospheric  CO2 from the present circa 400 ppm to a safe and sustainable circa 300 ppm CO2 that had obtained until the last century for about 1 million years (as advocated by 300.org: [4, 5] as compared to the politically pragmatic but insufficient 350 ppm CO2 advocated by 350.org [6] ).

Biofuel Genocide. The legislatively mandated “food for fuel” perversion is grossly wasteful, involves a huge Carbon Debt,  and drives up grain price in a hungry  world with the potential for famine  as in the WW2 BegkaFamine in which 6-7 million poeope doed because f a 4-fold increase in the price of rice [2] ( see the :Biofuel Genocide” website)..    

Boycott. (see Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions  (BDS)). Peace is the only way but silence kills and silence is complicity. Decent people are obliged to (a) inform everyone they can about the worsening Climate Crisis and (b) urge and apply Boycotts as appropriate against all   people, politicians, parties, policies, companies, corporations and countries complicit in the worsening Climate Emergency .e.g. Boycott the climate change denialist Murdoch Media [7]. :    

Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions  (BDS) (see Boycott).  BDS was successfully applied against Apartheid South Africa and is now widely applied against Apartheid Israel in the interests of 1-man-1-vote democracy, justice, human rights and  reconciliation in Palestine [8]. Many people, notably anti-racist Jewish humanitarians , demand BDS in support of  equal human rights and indeed any human  rights for 10 million human rights-deprived Palestinians [8] and BDS is surely required agaisn the climate criminals threatening to extinguish the very lives of 10 billion mostly Third World people this century through unaddressed climate change.  Some advocate Boycott of Murdoch media and other Mainstream media (MSM) which have variously promoted Climate Change Denialism (Climate Change Scepticism) and/or Effective Climate Change Denialism (Effective Climate Change Scepticism) [7].

Cap and Trade (see Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS)). This is basically a fraudulent device to allow particular countries to set a notional cap on greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution and then trade limited and dodgy Carbon Credits and limited and dodgy licences to pollute the one common atmosphere of all countries. This  might be a bit more plausible if the licences were sold by acutely global warming –threatened countries like mega-delta nations (e.g. Bangladesh and Myanmar) and Island States (e.g. Tuvalu and Kiribati)

Carbon Burning. Carbon burning is the burning of carbon-containing  substances e.g. wood, coal, gas and oil to yield carbon dioxide (CO2) and other substances (see Carbon Burning Pollutants) [2, 5]. Thus , for example,  the compete combustion of carbon-containing  fuels is as follows: carbohydrate (e.g. wood cellulose)  ( (CH2O)n + O2 -> n CO2 + nH2O), coal ( C + O2 -> CO2) , oil (CH3(CH2)nH + ((3n +4)/2)O2 -> (n+1)CO2 + (n+2)H2O)  and natural gas, mainly methane (CH4 + 2O2 -> CO2 + 2 H2O) [5].  

Carbon Burning-related Deaths. About 10,000  Australians die each year from the effects of pollutants from vehicles, coal burning for electricity and other carbon burning, the estimates being  2,200, 4,600 and 2,800, respectively. Given Australia's annual Domestic GHG pollution of about 552 Mt CO2-e (2011) and given a "value of a statistical life" (VOSL) of $7.6 million per person  ($73 billion pa for Australian carbon burning-related deaths) and $10 billion pa in fossil fuel subsidies, the minimum Carbon Price to cover carbon burning-derived deaths and carbon burning subsidies is  $7.6 million X 9,600 = $73 billion plus $10 billion = $83,000 million/552 Mt CO2-e =  or $150 per tonne CO2-e (A$555 per tonne C) as compared to the best political offer yet in Australia of $23 per tonne CO2-e.” [9]. It is estimated that about 5 million people die each year worldwide from climate change (0.5 million) and 4.5 million (carbon burning pollutants), it being estimated that 100 million people will have died thus by 2030 if climate change is not properly addressed [10, 11]. .

Carbon Burning Pollutants. Gas-fired power plants (GFPPs) are clean-er than coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in the sense that per unit of electrical energy they emit lower amounts of pollutants such as  the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2), and the very toxic pollutants carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen  oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulates (fine soot to ultrafine particles), and heavy metals such as mercury (Hg) [12]. Thus according to Naturalgas.org [13], the fossil fuel-derived pollutant emissions levels (in pounds per Btu of energy input) are as follows (noting that this is for average gas burning and not specifically for gas-turbine power stations) - for CO2: 117,000 (gas), 164,000 (oil) and 208,000 (coal); for CO: 40 (gas), 33 (oil) and 208 (coal); for NOx: 92 (gas), 448 (oil) and 457 (coal); for SO2:  1 (gas), 1,122 (oil), and 2,591 (coal); for particulates: 7 (gas), 84 (oil) and 2,744 (coal); and for Hg: 0.000 (gas), 0.007 (oil) and 0.016 (coal). In addition, radioactive material is a significant pollutant from coal burning but not from gas burning.  However, while Hg and radioactivity are negligible pollutants  for gas burning and SO2 emission is very low, CO2, NOx and particulate matter (PM) are significant pollutants from GFPPs [12, 13]. Particulate matter (PM) is generated by GFPPs and CFPPs but gas-fired power plants disproportionately  produce fine PM that is of particular concern because it can penetrate deep into the lungs [12]. Thus according to the World Health Organization (WHO) “no threshold for PM has been identified below which no damage to health is observed.” [14].

Carbon Credit (see Carbon Debt). The Historical Carbon Debt (aka Historical Climate Debt) of a country can be measured by the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) it has introduced into the atmosphere since the start of the Industrial revolution in the mid-18th century. The Carbon Credit of a country can be measured by the amount of GHG it can generate as its "fair share" of the 600 billion tnnes of CO2 the World is permitted to generate between 2010 and zero emissions in 2050 if it is to have a 75% chance of avoiding a catastrophic 2C temperature rise (EU policy). Historical Carbon debt minus Carbon Credit equals Net Carbon Debt - and when a negative number can be called Net Carbon Credit (aka Net Climate Credit) [15].

Carbon Debt (see Carbon Credit). NASA’s Dr James Hansen has provided a breakdown  of global responsibility for fossil fuel-derived CO2 pollution between 1751 and 2006 as a percentage (%) of the Historical Carbon  Debt (1751-2006) of 346 Gt C [16]. A  US dollar value can be placed on that Carbon Debt from the estimate of a requisite Carbon Price for effective climate change action of $150 per tonne CO2-e [15. Thus  $150 per tonne CO2-e x 346 billion tonnes C x 3.7 tonne CO2-e per tonne C = $192 trillion or about 2.3 times the World’s GDP. Annual GHG pollution is 64 billion tonnes CO2-e and thus Carbon Debt for future generations in increasing  each year by $150 per tonne CO2-e x 0.064 trillion tonnes CO2-e = $9.6 trillion i.e. by about $10 trillion annually.

Carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon dioxide (CO2  for convenience on the web but in chemical  convention  CO2 ) is the major contributor to anthropogenic global warming (AGW), deriving from aerobic respiration involving oxidation of carbohydrate (e.g. wood cellulose)  ( (CH2O)n + O2 -> n CO2 + nH2O), lime (CaO) generation  in cement production (CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2), and the combustion of fossil   fuels such as coal ( C + O2 -> CO2) , oil (CH3(CH2)nH + ((3n +4)/2)O2 -> (n+1)CO2 + (n+2)H2O)  and natural gas, mainly methane (CH4 + 2O2 -> CO2 + 2 H2O) [1].  

Carbon Dioxide-equivalent (CO2-e).  CO2-equivalent (CO2-e) is the sum of all the GHGs (excluding water, H2O) expressed as CO2-equivalents). Water is excluded on the assumption that the hydrological cycle means that there no net effect of water [1].

Carbon Pollution. Carbon pollution refers to the increased atmospheric CO2 and CO2-e [1].  Note that carbon (C) has an atomic weight of 12 and carbon dioxide (CO2) has a molecular weight of 44 so one converts from “atmospheric C”  to “atmospheric  CO2” by multiplying  by 44/12 = 3.7 e.g. 750 Gt atmospheric C =  750 GtC x 3.7 t CO2/t C = circa 2,800 Gt atmospheric  CO2 . More specifically,  Carbon Pollution refers of extra carbon dioxide (CO2), extra methane (CH4) or extra CO2-equivalent (CO2-e, this including all GHGs excluding water (H2O) expressed as CO2-equivalents). Until the mid-20th century, CO2 in the atmosphere had been no higher than 300 ppm for about 1 million years but has now reached 400 ppm (at Mauna Loa) and increasing at 2.4 ppm CO2 each year. CO2 also dissolves in the ocean and about 90% of the extra heart from global warming is in the ocean [1].

Carbon Pollution-related Deaths (also see Carbon Burning-related Deaths). About 5 million people die each year world-wide due to Carbon Pollution-derived climate change (0.5 million) and from Carbon Burning Pollutants (4.5 million) and it it being estimated that 100 million people will have died thus by 2030 if climate change is not properly addressed [10, 11]. Toxic pollutants from the burning of carbon-containing fuels (e.g. in wood burning, vehicles, industry and in gas-fired and coal-fired power stations) variously include carbon monoxide (CO0, nitrogen oxides (NOx e.g. N2O, NO2), heavy metals (e,g, mercury), radioactivity, fine Particulate Matter (e.g. PM10, PM2.5)), Volatile Organic Compounds (some carcinogenic) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) [12-14].

Carbon Sequestration (also see Carbon Storage). Carbon Sequestration can refer to the so far non-commercially- proven scheme  for sequestering CO2 from power stations underground or at the bottom of the oceans.  Carbon sequestration can also be achieved by generating Biochar (charcoal, carbon) and burying it safe from combustion. Proposed but not yet commercial Accelerated Weathering of Limestone (AWL) involves  waste gas from burning coal or gas being  passed through a sea water-limestone (CaCO3) scrubber with the following reaction: CO2 (gas) + CaCO3 (solid) + H2O <-> Ca2+ (aqueous) + 2 HCO3- (aqueous) . The scrubbing solution is then piped to the sea. Carbon in the oceans as bicarbonate is 10 times that in all recoverable fossil fuel reserves and about 60 times that in the CO2 in the atmosphere. The carbon in carbonate minerals is about 4,000 times greater than the carbon in oil and coal fossil fuel reserves and the AWL process would in part reverse the deleterious acidification the oceans due to the massive CO2 pollution of the atmosphere [1].

Carbon Storage (also see Carbon Sequestration). There is presently:    700- 750 GtC (billion tonne carbon) in atmosphere (mostly as 750 GtC x 3.7 t CO2/t C = circa 2,800 Gt CO2 and about half due to historical fossil fuel combustion);  700 GtC in biomass (mostly wood); 1,600 GtC in soil; 36,000 GtC in ocean as bicarbonate ion (HCO3-); there is no net CO2 from vulcanism and weathering (on a time scale of less than  100,000 years) [1].

Carbon Price (see Carbon Tax). Man-made climate change is happening because GHG polluters are not held financially responsible for the health and environmental consequences i.e. governments are hugely subsidizing the killing of the planet. Thus, for example, in Australia (one of the world’s worst annual per capita GHG polluters), the Coalition Federal Government insists on a Carbon Price of $0 (zero dollars) per tonne CO2-e i.e. it allows climate criminal polluters to dangerously pollute the one common atmosphere and ocean of all countries on earth for free. In contrast, leading climate change economist Dr Chris Hope from 89-Nobel-Laureate Cambridge University estimates that a Carbon Price of about $150 per tonne CO2-e is required for effective climate change action [17]. Australia’s current annual Domestic greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution  is about 2 Gt CO2-e (2 billion CO2-e) [1] and hence the climate criminal Australian Coalition Government is subsidizing this deadly, terracidal activity to the tune of $150 per tonne CO2-e x 2 billion tonnes CO2-e per year = $300 billion per year [18].

Carbon Tax (see Carbon Price). A Carbon Price can be established fraudulently via a Cap and Trade (see Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS)). However it can be honestly set by a direct Carbon Tax analogous to an excise tax on alcohol. Thus leading climate scientist Dr James Hansen has suggested the following: “A price on emissions that cause harm is essential. Yes, a carbon tax. Carbon tax with 100 percent dividend is needed to wean us off fossil fuel addiction. Tax and dividend allows the marketplace, not politicians, to make investment decisions. Carbon tax on coal, oil and gas is simple, applied at the first point of sale or port of entry. The entire tax must be returned to the public, an equal amount to each adult, a half-share for children. This dividend can be deposited monthly in an individual’s  bank account. Carbon tax with 100 percent dividend is non-regressive. On the contrary, you can bet that low and middle income people will find ways to limit their carbon tax and come out ahead. Profligate energy users will have to pay for their emissions. Demand for low-carbon high-efficiency products will spur innovation, making our products more competitive on international markets. Carbon emissions will plummet as energy efficiency  and renewable energies grow rapidly.  Black soot, mercury and other fossil fuel emissions will decline. A brighter, cleaner future , with energy independence, is possible” [19].

Climate Change (see Man-made Climate Change). Climate Change refers to the change in the Earth’s climate due to Man’s pollution of the atmosphere with greenhouse gases (GHGs), principally carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), since the start of the Industrial  Revolution  in the mid-18th century [1]. The Greenhouse Effect  due to absorption of (infrared) radiation by CO2  was discovered by UK scientist John Tyndall in the mid-19th century [1].

Climate Change Action (see Climate Change Inaction). The World is rapidly running out of time to deal with man-made climate change. Thus according to the German WBGU and Australian  Climate Commission (sacked by the effective climate change denialist Coalition Federal Government and now surviving unfunded as the Australian Climate Council), relative to 2014 we have only 15 years left before we exceed the Terminal Carbon Budget  of 600 Gt CO2 that must not be exceeded if we are to have a 75% chance of avoiding a catastrophic 2C temperature rise [20, 21]. However a more stringent analysis taking methane CO2-e  contributions  into account estimates that relative to 2014 we have only 4 years left before we exceed 600 Gt CO2-e [22, 23]. Business As Usual (BAU) and exploitation if all fossil fuel reserves  means that the world will exceed the Terminal Carbon Budget by a factor of 5 [24] and Australian exploitation of all its fossil fuel and iron ore reserves means that it will exceed the terminal Carbon Budget by a factor of 3 [25]. An estimate of “years left to zero emissions” has been determined for all countries relative to mid-2011 -  countries that must cease GHG pollution within 10 years relative to mid-2011 are  Belize (1.3 years), Qatar (2.3), Guyana (2.4), Malaysia (3.4), United Arab Emirates (3.4), Kuwait (4.1),  Papua New Guinea (4.3), Brunei (4.8), Australia (4.8),  Antigua & Barbuda (4.9), Zambia (5.1), Canada (5.1), Bahrain (5.2), United States (5.5), Trinidad & Tobago (6.4), Luxembourg (5.9), Panama (6.3), New Zealand (6.5),  Estonia (6.9),  Botswana (7.0), Ireland (7.4),  Saudi Arabia (7.6),  Venezuela (7.9),  Indonesia (8.4),  Equatorial Guinea (8.6), Belgium (8.7), Turkmenistan (8.8), Singapore (8.9),  Czech Republic (9.0), Liberia (9.0), Netherlands (9.3), Russia (9.3),  Nicaragua (9.3), Finland (9.5),  Oman (9.7), Palau (9.8), Brazil (9.8),  Uruguay (9.8), Denmark (10.0). If one considers Australia’s Domestic plus Exported GHG pollution, Australia used up its “fair share” of the World’s Terminal Carbon Budget in 2011 (3 years ago) [26].

Climate Change Cost (see Climate Cost). (A). Leading climate change economist Dr Chris Hope from 89-Nobel-Laureate Cambridge University estimates that a Carbon Price of about $150 per tonne CO2-e is required for effective climate change action [17]. World Bank analysts have revised upwards the annual global GHG pollution from 42 Gt CO2-e to 64 Gt CO2-e [27]. One can accordingly estimate the annual cost of climate change inaction (i.e. a Carbon Price of $0 per tonne CO2-e) at $150 per tonne CO2-e x 64 billion tonnes CO2-e per year = $9,600 billion = $9.6 trillion or about 11% of Global GDP of $85 trillion. (B). Another way is to consider the biochar-based cost of reducing the atmospheric CO2  from the present dangerous 400 ppm to a safe and sustainable 300 ppm CO2 [3-4].  The cost of conversion of cellulosic waste to biochar in the US mid-West is about $49-$74 per tonne CO2 as compared to $210-$303 per tonne CO2 in the UK. There are 700 billion tonnes  of CO2 in the atmosphere  and the cost of reversing 2 centuries of fossil fuel burning by means of biochar-based return of the  atmospheric CO2 concentration to the pre-industrial 300 ppm  from the current 400 ppm by removing 0.25 x 700 = 175 billion tonnes CO2 has been estimated at $13 trillion to $53 trillion (US dollars)  or 15-62% of the current world annual GDP of $85 trillion. (C) A further way is to consider the US EPA recently estimating the Value of a Statistical  Life (VOSL, VSL) at $7.4 million per person. All men being equal, we can apply this estimate to the 5 million people who die annually from climate change and carbon burning [10, 11] to get a Climate Change Cost  estimate of $37 trillion per year. These  numbers, while horrifying,  nevertheless show that it is still conceivable (albeit very unlikely) that we could  save the world from climate disaster [1, 28, 29].

Climate Change Denialism (see Climate Change Scepticism). Science is about the critical  testing of potentially falsifiable hypotheses and thus is inherently sceptical.  Climate Change Denialism (Climate Change Scepticism) of a tiny minority of independent or fossil fuel corporation-backed scientists is overly sceptical to the point of radical and dangerous divergence from an overwhelming consensus of circa 97% of scientists. Big Money (notably fossil fuel corporations and the Murdoch media Empire) has ensured substantial  layperson Climate Change Denialism (Climate Change Scepticism)   in the neoliberal Western Murdochracies, Lobbyocracies and Corporatocracies with this leading to  Effective Climate Change Denialism (Effective Climate Change Scepticism) and dangerous Climate Change Inaction in countries like Canada, Australia and the USA.  However US Secretary of State John Kerry has signalled a change in the US Democrat postion in a recent speech in Djakarta, Indonesia: “But because of climate change, it is no secret that today, Indonesia is also one of the most vulnerable countries on Earth… First and foremost, we should not allow a tiny minority of shoddy scientists and science and extreme ideologues to compete with scientific fact… The science is unequivocal. And those who refuse to believe it are simply burying their heads in the sand” [30].

Climate Change Inaction (see Climate Change Action, Climate Change Denialism and  Climate Change Scepticism). The  Synthesis Report from the 2,500-delegate, March 2009 Copenhagen Climate Change Scientific Conference concluded “Inaction is inexcusable” [31]. A 2010 Open Letter by 255 members of the prestigious US National Academy of Sciences  (including 11 Nobel Laureates) concluded “Delay is not an option” [32]. The World is rapidly running out of time and money to deal with the worsening climate crisis - thanks to climate criminals  the Carbon Debt cost for future generations to restore a safe planet is now $192 trillion and increasing by about $10 trillion each year.

Climate Change-related Deaths. DARA has estimated 0.5 million climate change-related deaths each year [10, 11] . However  this may be a considerable under-estimate because it can be readily determined from UN Population Division data that 18 million people die avoidably each year in a Developing World that is increasingly impacted by climate change (it was estimated that total global annual avoidable deaths in 2003 totalled 16 million [1]).

Climate Change Scepticism (see  Climate Change Denial).

Climate Corruption. Worsening GHG pollution means continuing pollution of the one common atmosphere and one common ocean of all countries i.e. it is theft of common resources. This dangerous theft is compounded by the absence of a Carbon Price due to fossil fuel lobbying in the neoliberal Murdochracies, Lobbyocracies and Corporatocracies in which Big Money buys people, politicians, parties, policies, public perception of reality and political power in utter perversion of public life and democracy  i.e. egregious corruption that also involves  murderous depraved indifference  toward the 5 million people who perish each year due to climate change (0.5 million) and carbon burning pollutants (4.5 million) [10, 11]. Thanks to climate criminals  the Carbon Debt cost for future generations to restore a safe planet is now $192 trillion and increasing by about $10 trillion each year.

Climate Cost (see Climate Change Cost). The annual cost of climate change can be estimated at (A) $9.6 trillion (from non-application of a Carbon Price), (B)  $13-53 trillion (the cheapest cost of biochar-based return of atmospheric CO2 to a safe 300 ppm, and (C)  $37 trillion (from a US VOSL applied to 5 million annual deaths from carbon burning and climate change).  Thanks to climate criminals  the Carbon Debt cost for future generations to restore a safe planet is now $192 trillion and increasing by about $10 trillion each year.

Climate Crimes. The current Climate Crimes involve (1) illegal, remorseless, corrupt, charge-free pollution of the one common atmosphere and ocean of all countries, (2) depraved indifference  to 5 million annual deaths from climate change and carbon burning, (3) an annual increase in Carbon Debt by about $10 trillion, (4) worsening damage and threat to vulnerable Humanity (climate racism, climate terrorism), (5) worsening damage to the Biosphere (the extinction rate is already 100-1000 times greater than normal [33] and most coral and coral reefs have only 20 years to go before the tipping point of irreversible decline [34], and (6) worsening  Climate Genocide that will see 10 billion mostly  Third World people perish this century if climate change is not properly addressed [35]. Thanks to climate criminals  the Carbon Debt cost for future generations to restore a safe planet is now $192 trillion and increasing by about $10 trillion each year.

Climate Criminal. Climate criminals are those who commit climate crimes (see Climate Crimes) and include corporate leaders and complicit politicians “persuaded” into climate change inaction and complicity in climate criminality.Thanks to climate criminals  the Carbon Debt cost for future generations to restore a safe planet is now $192 trillion and increasing by about $10 trillion each year.

Climate Crisis. With as few as 4 years left at current rates of GHG pollution before the World exceeds the Terminal Carbon Budget of 600 Gt CO2  [22] , energy-related GHG pollution at a record high [36], the World running at the worst-case scenario of the IPCC  [37, 38], the Arctic summer sea ice set to disappear in 2015 [39],  over 5,025 Gt CO2-e of methane set to be released in coming decades [40]  and atmospheric CO2 at 400 ppm and increasing at a record rate [41] we have a climate crisis and a climate emergency that are made worse by World governments not in effect recognizing  the crisis and emergency [42, 43]. Thanks to climate criminals  the Carbon Debt cost for future generations to restore a safe planet is now $192 trillion and increasing by about $10 trillion each year.

Climate Denialism (see Climate Change Denialism,  Climate Change Scepticism, and  Climate Scepticism).

Climate Emergency (see Climate Crisis).

Climate Holocaust. Holocaust simply means death of a huge number of people as exampled by the WW2 Jewish Holocaust (5-6 million people killed, 1 in 6 dying from deprivation), the WW2 Holocaust in general (30 million Slavs, Jews and Gypsies killed), the WW2 Bengali Holocaust (6-7 million Indians deliberately starved to death by the British) and the 35 million Chinese killed associated with the Japanese occupation of China in the1930s and 1940s. [2]. A predicted Climate Genocide involving the  avoidable deaths of 10 billion people this century due to unaddressed climate change certainly represents a Climate Holocaust  as well as a Climate Genocide (see Climate Genocide). .

Climate Genocide. Holocaust simply means death of a huge number of people as exampled by the WW2 Jewish Holocaust (5-6 million people killed, 1 in 6 dying from deprivation), the WW2 Holocaust in general (30 million Slavs, Jews and Gypsies killed), the WW2 Bengali Holocaust (6-7 million Indians deliberately starved to death by the British) and the 35 million Chinese killed associated with the Japanese occupation of China in the1930s and 1940s. [2]. However the International Law  definition of “genocide” is by Article 2 of the UN Genocide Convention: it  involves Assessment of “intent’ by those responsible, and states “In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: a) Killing members of the group; b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.” [44]. Intent” to commit mass murder is only rarely explicitly expressed but can be readily established through the horrendous, ongoing reality. Javier Sethness-Castro comments in relation to “intent” in relation to the related phenomenon of “climate genocide” that similarly arises from racist First World greed and depraved indifference: “Dominant relations can hence be characterized as governed by what Chomsky calls “depraved indifference” to human life. Australian scientist Gideon Polya has termed the current situation “climate genocide”, while Bangladeshi climatologist Atiq Rahman similarly labels it “climatic genocide”. The phrases are accurate if the word genocide is to be understood as murder of persons belonging to particular classes and social groups, as originally formulated by Raphael Lemkin, the concept’s inventor. If the definition is extended to membership or residence in particular  geographic regions – a collective of sorts – the term fits better, even if the question of intent for such eventualities is left unresolved: Under the internationally accepted definition, acts of genocide occur only if governed by conscious intent. Against this view, Chomsky is right to suggest that those concerned with such problems focus on “predictable outcome as evidence for intent”. Not to work to undermine global capitalism is effectively to be complicit with the genocide of southern peoples. Jean-Paul Sartre put it well in a statement he issued as president of the International War Crimes Tribunal on Vietnam: “The genocidal intent is implicit in the facts. It is not necessarily premeditated.” [45]. Dr Gideon Polya has made a Formal Complaint to the International Criminal Court over Australian involvement in Climate Genocide and other genocidal atrocities (2008). [46].  

Climate Injustice (see Climate Justice, Intergenerational Injustice, and Intergenerational Justice).  Unaddressed man-made climate change represents an enormous injustice to the vulnerable of the World, in particular those of the Developing World, about 10 billion of whom will die this century under Business Ass Usual. However there is also an immense intergenerational injustice as future generations in both the North and the South are bequeathed a mounting Carbon Debt of about $10 trillion each year (as outlined above, a Carbon Price of about $150 per tonne CO2-e is required for effective climate change action [17]. World Bank analysts have revised upwards the annual global GHG pollution from 42 Gt CO2-e to 64 Gt CO2-e [27]. One can accordingly estimate the annual cost of climate change inaction (i.e. a Carbon Price of $0 per tonne CO2-e) at $150 per tonne CO2-e x 64 billion tonnes CO2-e per year = $9,600 billion = $9.6 trillion or about 11% of Global GDP of $85 trillion). Dr James Hansen et al.: “We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth’s measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today’s young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ~500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ~1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur “slow” feedbacks and eventual warming of 3–4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth’s energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels” [47]

Climate Justice (see Climate Justice, Intergenerational Injustice, and Intergenerational Justice).  .

Climate Racism. The worsening Climate Genocide will overwhelmingly severely impact the non-European South rather than the European  North and there is thus a climate  racism dimension to the worsening climate genocide. Between 1950 and 2005 global avoidable deaths from deprivation totaled 1.3 billion  Spaceship Earth with the First World in charge of the flight deck and 1.2 billion of these deaths were associated with the non-European World and 0.6 billion with the Muslim World [2]. Today, about 18 million people die avoidably from deprivation ever year in the  Developing World (minus China, a nation for which the annual avoidable mortality is essentially zero) [2]. Unaddressed global warming will worsen this Developing World  avoidable mortality holocaust with a worst case scenario of an annual average 100 million avoidable  deaths [35].     

Climate Scepticism (see Climate Change Denialism,  Climate Change Scepticism, and  Climate Denialism).

Climate Terrorism. Terrorism is the ruthless killing of innocents in support of an ideological or political agenda. The agenda of the capitalist Establishment is maximum profit from a Carbon economy  at the expense of the Biosphere and the bulk of Humanity as a whole that depends upon it - .knowing, remorseless  mass murder arising  from a ruthless economic agenda  i.e. climate terrorism..

Climate War. Climate war is a predictable outcome of  the worsening resource depletion and worsening Climate Genocide. Indeed the violence associated with the Arab Spring can be seen as driven by economic desperation as well as by ideology.

Coal. Coal derives from anaerobic geologic conversion of cellulosic carbohydrates to carbon ((CH2O)n + heat, pressure -> nC + n H2O). Complete burng of coal © generates CO2: C + O2 -> CO2.  

Divestment (see Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions, BDS).  

Divestment From Deforestation. Deforestation in the non-European World and land use in general (including food price-elevating and Carbon Debt-incurring  food for fuel agriculture, the Biofuel Genocide  [48- 50) ] ) are now major contributors  to GHG pollution [27, 51, 52].

Divestment From Fossil Fuels. The Western democracies have become Murdochracies, Lobbyocracies and Corporatocracies in which Big Money buys people, politicians, parties, policies, public perception of reality and political power. This transformation  has crippled effective action against climate change. Some key strategies that should be adopted by decent people and NGOs around the world are (a) to urge and apply Boycotts, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) against all people, politicians, parties, candidates, countries and corporations involved in man-made climate change and (b) to inform everyone they can about the worsening climate emergency and the need for urgent action. Top climate change economist Professor Lord Stern on report about risks to investment in fossil fuels:" Smart investors can see that investing in companies that rely solely or heavily on constantly replenishing reserves of fossil fuels is becoming a very risky decision. The report raises serious questions as to the ability of the financial system to act on industry-wide long term risk, since currently the only measure of risk is performance against industry benchmarks” [53]. According  to Carbon tracker: “ Between 60-80% of cooal, oil and gas reserves of publicly listed compani4s are unburnable if the world is to have a chance of not exceeding global warming of 2oC.  The total coal, oil and gas reserves listed on the world’s stock exchanges equals 762GtCO2 – approximately a quarter of the world’s total reserves [of 3,000 Gt CO2]” [53]. Note that the Terminal Carbon Budget Terminal Carbon Budget   that must not be exceeded if we are to have a 75% chance of avoiding a catastrophic 2C temperature rise is 600 Gt CO2 [20, 21]. It gets worse – thus, the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of CH4 on a 20 year time frame and with aerosol impacts considered is 105 times that of CO2 [55, 56]. The 50 Gt (billion tonnes) CH4 to he released from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf in coming decades [40] is thus equivalent to 50 billion tonnes CH4 x 105 tonnes  CO2-equivalent/tonne CH4 = 5,250 tonnes CO2-e or about NINE (9) times more than the world’s terminal greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution budget. We are doomed unless we can stop this Arctic CH4 release [28]. “Divest from fossil fuels” [54] details towns, cities, countries, colleges, universities, religious organizations, other organizations  and individuals committed to divestment from fossil fuel companies.

Divestment from Greenhouse Gas Pollution (see Divestment From Fossil Fuels, Vegan and Vegetarian). World Bank analysts have re-assessed the contribution of livestock to World annual GHG pollution. Their re-assessment is that annual World GHG pollution is 64 Gt CO2-e , 50% higher than the previous estimate of 42 Gt CO2-e and with methanogenic livestock raising and attendant land use contributing over 51% of the bigger figure [27]. There clearly needs to be Divestment not just from fossil fuel companies but from all other commercial activities generating GHGs.  

Effective Climate Change Denialism (see Effective Climate Change Scepticism). This term is well illustrated by climate criminal Australia where the major political parties, the governing Liberal Party-National Party Coalition and the opposition Labor Party (collectively  also known as  the Lib-Labs or Liberal-Laborals) variously pay lip service to climate change but have a common policy of climate change inaction involving a derisory 5% off 2000 GHG pollution by 20202 coupled with unlimited coal, gas and iron ore exports that will see Australia exceed the whole World’s Terminal Carbon Budget of 600 Gt CO2 by a factor of 3 [25].

Effective Climate Change Scepticism (see Effective Climate Change Denialism ).

Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) (see Cap and Trade). This is basically a fraudulent device to allow particular countries to set a notional cap on greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution and then trade limited and dodgy Carbon Credits and limited and dodgy licences to pollute the one common atmosphere ands one common ocean of all countries. The ETS approach (a) is empirically unsuccessful, (b) is accordingly counterproductive and (c) is fraudulent because it involves the government of a particular country selling its corporations licences to pollute the one common atmosphere and ocean of all countries on earth, Numerous science and economics experts dismiss the ETS approach and demand an effective Carbon Price through a Carbon Tax [57]. Thus  Dr Chris Hope from 90-Nobel-Laureate Cambridge University demands a Carbon Tax of about $150 per tonne CO2-e [17] and Dr James Hansen (former head of NASA’s Goddard Institute  for Space Studies and Adjunct Professor at 101-Nobel-Laureate Columbia University) argues cogently for an upfront, transparent an effective Carbon Tax. with the receipts going to all citizens [19, 58].   

Excess Death (see Excess Mortality, Avoidable Death, Avoidable Mortality). Excess Death (Excess Mortality, Avoidable Death, Avoidable Mortality) is the difference between the ACTUAL mortality in a country and the mortality EXPECTED in a peaceful, decently-run country with the same demographics. By 1950 ALL the World potentially had access to the requisites for very the low excess death obtaining in European countries, namely clean water, sanitation, proper nutrition, literacy (especially female literacy), primary health care, antibiotics and major preventive medicine programs including public health education, prophylactics (such as insecticides, antiseptics, mosquito netting, soap and condoms) and major vaccinations. However such benefits took decades to arrive in many countries and are still variously lacking in African countries. Nevertheless, in most countries outside Africa the annual mortality rate (expressed as deaths per 1,000 people per year) typically declined to a minimum and in the best countries (typically European and East Asian countries) eventually began to rise, with this reflecting aging populations. Using United Nations Population Division demographic data going back to 1950 (the 2002 Revision), it was possible to make base-line estimates of expected mortality for various demographically distinct groups. For many high birth-rate Third World countries the base-line mortality estimates clustered about 4 deaths per 1,000 of population [2].

Excess Mortality (see Excess Death, Avoidable Death, Avoidable Mortality).

Gas (see Natural Gas). Subterranean methane derives from anaerobic reduction of  carbohydrates  by anaerobic bacteria (reduction being addition of electrons (e-), addition of hydrogen atoms (H) or removal of oxygen (O)):   (CH2O)n + 4H (derived from catabolism and reduced coenzymes) -> nCH4 + nH2O [1]. Methane (CH4) (about 85% of natural gas and deriving from anerobic bacterial action on biomass:)  is 105 times worse than CO2 as a greenhouse gas (GHG) on a 20 year time frame and taking aerosol impacts into account. Methane leaks (3.3% in the US based on the latest US EPA data and as high as 7.9% for methane from “fracking” or hydrologically fracturing geological  seams). Using this information one can determine that gas burning for electricity  can be much dirtier than coal burning greenhouse gas-wise (GHG-wise). While gas burning for power generates twice as much electrical energy per tonne of CO2 produced (MWh/tonne CO2) than coal burning and the health-adverse pollution from gas burning is lower than for coal burning, gas leakage in the system actually means that gas burning for powercan be  worse GHG-wise than coal burning. At 2.6% gas leakage, ther global warming effect fronm the leaked gas is that same as that from burning the remaining gas  (see the website :Gas is not clean energy”) [1].

Global Warming Potential (GWP). Relative GWP based on infra-red (IR) absorbance properties and half-life in atmosphere is directly proportional to radiative forcing and inversely proportional to half-life in the atmosphere.GWP relative to same mass of CO2 on a 20 year time frame: CO2 (1.0), CH4 (79; 105 if aerosol impacts are considered [55, 56]), N2O (289), chlorofluorohydrocarbon CFC-12, CCl2F2 (11,000),  hydrochlorofluorohydrocarbon HFC-22, CHClF2 (5,160), hydrofluorohydrocarbon HFC-23, CHF3 (12,000), sulphur hexafluoride SF6 (16,300), nitrogen trifluoride NF3 (12,300).GWP relative to same mass of CO2 (1.0) on a  100 year time frame: CO2 (1.0), CH4 (21), N2O (298), chlorofluorohydrocarbon CFC-12, CCl2F2 (10,900),  hydrochlrofluorohydrocarbon HFC-22, CHClF2 (1,810), hydrofluorohydrocarbon HFC-23, CHF3 (14,800), sulphur hexafluoride SF6 (22,800), nitrogen trifluoride NF3 (17,200) [1].

Greenhouse Gas (GHG). The greenhouse effect (discovered by UK chemist John Tyndall, 1858 ) involves thermal radiation from sun being absorbed by surface and air with  re-emitted and reflected light being absorbed and  re-radiated by air molecules, notably carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), H2O, and man-made greenhouse gases (GHGs). The greenhouse effect keeps planet warm. Note that the term CO2-equivalent (CO2-e) refers to total GHGs including CO2 and other GHGs expressed as CO2-equivalent.

Greenhouse Gas Pollution (GHG Pollution). World Bank analysts have re-assessed the contribution of livestock to World annual GHG pollution. Their re-assessment is that annual World GHG pollution is 64 Gt CO2-e , 50% higher than the previous estimate of 42 Gt CO2-e and with methanogenic livestock raising and attendant land use contributing over 51% of the bigger figure [27]. CO2 is the major contributor to anthropogenic global warming (AGW), deriving from aerobic respiration involving oxidation of carbohydrate  ( (CH2O)n + O2 -> n CO2 + nH2O), lime (CaO) in cement production (CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2), and the combustion of fossil   fuels such as coal ( C + O2 -> CO2) , oil (CH3(CH2)nH + ((3n +4)/2)O2 -> (n+1)CO2 + (n+2)H2O)  and natural gas, mainly methane (CH4 + 2O2 -> CO2 + 2 H2O) [1].

Intergenerational Equity (see Climate Injustice, Climate Justice, Intergenerational Inequity, Intergenerational Injustice, Intergenerational Justice).

Intergenerational Inequity (see Climate Injustice, Climate Justice, Intergenerational Equity, Intergenerational Injustice, Intergenerational Justice). Profiting from pollution and leaving the mess for future generations to clean up is Climate Injustice and Intergenerational Inequity. Dr James Hansen; “Cap and trade with offsets, in contrast, is astoundingly ineffective. Global emissions rose rapidly in response to Kyoto, as expected, because fossil fuels remained the cheapest energy. Cap and trade is an inefficient compromise, paying off numerous special interests. It must be replaced with an honest approach, raising the price of carbon emissions and leaving the dirtiest fossil fuels in the ground. Are we going to stand up and give global politicians a hard slap in the face, to make them face the truth? It will take a lot of us – probably in the streets. Or are we going to let them continue to kid themselves and us and cheat our children and grandchildren? Intergenerational inequity is a moral issue. Just as when Abraham Lincoln faced slavery and when Winston Churchill faced Nazism, the time for compromises and half-measures is over. Can we find a leader who understands the core issue and will lead?”[58].

Intergenerational Injustice (see Climate Injustice, Climate Justice, Intergenerational Equity, Intergenerational Inequity, Intergenerational Justice). The present generations are drastically diminishing the resources of the planet – notably the forests, fisheries, atmosphere and ocean of the Earth – to the detriment of future generations. Climate change inaction means that in the absence of a carbon price (circa $150 per tonne CO2-e) we are generating a Carbon Debt of future generations of $9.6 trillion each year. Indeed the Carbon Debt inherent in the extra CO2 in the atmosphere is $192 trillion or about 2.3 times the World’s GDP [1].  It can be estimated that for every $1 received for coal by the Australian coal industry our children, grandchildren and further generations will have to spend $2 to $3 at present prices converting the consequent CO2 back to biochar to save the Planet. One can accordingly similarly determine (for Australia) that the biochar production-related debt for future generations for every $1 received by the gas-based electricity industry will be about $0.6-$1.0 at present prices (these estimates must be multiplied by 4 for the cost of biochar production in the UK) -  Intergenerational Injustice indeed. [29].

Intergenerational Justice (see Climate Injustice, Climate Justice, Intergenerational Equity, Intergenerational Inequity, Intergenerational Injustice).

Natural Gas (see Gas).

Ocean Acidification. Dissolving CO2 in the ocean results in acidification, The ocean pH has already dropped by 0.1 pH unit, this threatening all ocean organisms with calcareous exoskeletons. About one-third of the carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere as a result of human activity has been absorbed by the oceans, where it partitions into the constituent ions of carbonic acid,  this leading to ocean acidification, one of the major threats to marine ecosystems and particularly to calcifying organisms such as corals (animals with photosynthetic symbionts) , foraminifera (single-celled eukaryote amoeboid protists with a calcareous external shell ), coccolithophores (photosynthetic algae that generate calcareous plates) and  lobster, crab, shrimp and krill  crustaceans with food chain implications) [1]. .

Ocean Warming. While average surface temperature has increased by +0.8C relative to 1900, 90% of the extra heat has gone into the ocean. At the current  400 ppm CO2 in the atmosphere  most coral  is facing irreversible decline from ocean warming and acidification [1].

Oil Oil derives from decarboxylation of biological fatty acids (FAs) over geological time spans. Subterranean oil derives from anaerobic decarboxylation of biologically-derived fatty acids thus:  (CH3(CH2)n-COOH + heat, pressure ->  CH3(CH2)nH + CO2  [1].

Per Capita Greenhouse Gas Pollution. Collective, national responsibility for the worsening Climate Holocaust and Climate Genocide is in direct proportion to per capita national pollution of the atmosphere with greenhouse gases (GHGs). Indeed, fundamental to any international agreement on national rights to pollute our common atmosphere and oceans should be the belief that “all men are created equal”. However neoliberal-imposed reality is otherwise: “annual per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution” in units of “tonnes CO2-equivalent per person per year” (2005-2008 data) is 0.9 (Bangladesh), 0.9 (Pakistan), 2.2 (India), less than 3 (many African and Island countries), 3.2 (the Developing World), 5.5 (China), 6.7 (the World), 11 (Europe), 16 (the Developed World), 27 (the US) and 25 (Australia; or 74 in 2010 if Australia’s huge Exported CO2 pollution is included) [1, 35, 59]..

Preventable Deaths. Avoidable Mortality (Avoidable Mortality, Excess Death, Excess Mortality) is the difference between the ACTUAL mortality in a country and the mortality EXPECTED in a peaceful, decently-run country with the same demographics. However it is useful to use the term “Preventable Deaths” for intra-national avoidable deaths in prosperous, First World  countries such as Australia and the US that have effectively zero avoidable mortality  on the  international scale of comparison as defined above but in which annual; preventable deaths total about 60,000 [60, 61] and 1.3 million  [62, 63], respectively. Thus eminently preventable carbon burning-related deaths in Australia and the US annually total 10,000 [9, 60] and 70,000 [62], respectively. .

Radiative Forcing. Radiative forcing measures warming (positive) effects of e.g. GHGs and carbon particles and cooling (negative ) effects of e.g. sulphate aerosols and reflectivity (albedo) of ice, snow and clouds [1].

Renewable Energy. 100% Renewable Energy (including geothermal energy) is crucial for effectively dealing with the climate emergency and returning atmospheric CO2 from the current dangerous 400 ppm CO2 to a safe and sustainable  300 ppm CO2 that involves the following the following]: (1) Change of societal philosophy to one of scientific risk management and biological sustainability with complete cessation of species extinctions and zero tolerance for lying; .(2) Urgent reduction of atmospheric CO2 to a safe level of about 300 ppm as recommended by leading climate and biological scientists ; and (3) a  rapid switch to the best non-carbon and renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, wave, tide and hydro options that are currently roughly the same market price as coal burning-based power) and to energy efficiency, public transport, needs-based production, re-afforestation and return of carbon as biochar to soils coupled with correspondingly rapid cessation of fossil fuel burning, deforestation, methanogenic livestock production and population growth [1, 28]. “The goal of “100% renewable energy by 2020” and the related goal of “Cut carbon emissions 80% by 2020” have already been embraced by various Island nations, states, cities and corporations [64, 65].

Sanctions (see Boycott,  Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions  (BDS), Divestment, Divestment From Deforestation, Divestment From Fossil Fuels). Peace is the only way but inaction is complicity. Sanctions and indeed Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions  (BDS) are required to stop the climate criminal destroying the planet [54].

Terminal Carbon Budget (see Terminal Carbon Pollution Budget). The World is rapidly running out of time to deal with man-made climate change. Thus according to the German WBGU and Australian  Climate Commission (sacked by the effective climate change denialist Coalition Federal Government and now surviving unfunded as the Australian Climate Council), relative to 2014 we have only 15 years left before we exceed the Terminal Carbon Budget  of 600 Gt CO2 that must not be exceeded if we are to have a 75% chance of avoiding a catastrophic 2C temperature rise [20, 21].

Terminal Carbon Pollution Budget (see Terminal Carbon Budget).  

Tipping Points. The World is rapidly approaching crucial tipping points for irreversible damage to key ecosystems [19, 66]. Thus Professor Peter Wadhams of 90-Nobel-Laureate Cambridge University  says that the Arctic summer sea ice may be gone by 2015 [39]; Whiteman and colleagues at 90-Nobel-Laureate Cambridge University  say that 50 Gt  methane will be released from the East Siberian Arctic sea bed in coming decades, this trtnalsting to a catastrophic 5,250 Gt CO2-e, 9 times greatee tna the Whole World’s Terminal Carbon Budget [40]; the World may have only 4-15 years left before it exceeds the Terminal Carbon Budget  of 600 Gt CO2 that must not be exceeded if we are to have a 75% chance of avoiding a catastrophic 2C temperature rise [20, 21, 22]; the atmospheric CO2 has reached 400 ppm and is oceans at about 2.5 ppm per year i.e. it within 20 years it will reach 450 ppm CO2 at which point most coral and coral  reefs are doomed – indeed top coral  experts of the UK Royal Society Coral Working Group  say that at about 400 ppm CO2 most coral  is facing irreversible decline from ocean warming and acidification [67]; the species extinction rate is already 100-1,000 times greater than normal [33].  

Total Economic Value of Wild Nature. The Total Economic Value (TEV) of Wild Nature may be about 50% of World GDP and Andrew  Balmford and colleagues have estimated that : “Loss and degradation of remaining natural habitats has continued largely unabated. However, evidence has been accumulating that such systems generate marked economic benefits, which the available data suggest exceed those obtained from continued habitat conversion. We estimate that the overall benefit:cost ratio of an effective global program for the conservation of remaining wild nature is at least 100:1” [68].

Unknown (see X).

Value Of a Statistical Life (VOSL, VSL). Climate change and carbon burning already kill about 5 million people annually. Assuming that “all men are created equal” we can use the US EPA’s estimate of  a Value Of a Statistical Life (VOSL, VSL) of $7.4 million to estimate a risk avoidance based cost of $37 trillion each year, nearly half the World’s annual GDP.

Vegan (see Divestment from Greenhouse Gas Pollution, Vegetarian).  World Bank analysts have re-assessed the contribution of livestock to World annual GHG pollution. Their re-assessment is that annual World GHG pollution is 64 Gt CO2-e , 50% higher than the previous estimate of 42 Gt CO2-e and with methanogenic livestock raising and attendant land use contributing over 51% of the bigger figure [27]. The conversion efficiency (kg grain to produce 1 kg gain in live weight) is:  herbivorous farmed fish (e.g. carp, tilapia, catfish; less than 2), chicken (2), pork (4), and beef (7). In 2003, 37 percent of the world grain harvest, or nearly 700 million tons, used to produce animal protein. Meat is contraindicated because of GHG pollution and inefficient diversion of scarce food resources in addition to the “food for fuel” Biofuel Genocide obscenity that drives up grain price[1, 69, 70].

Vegetarian (see Divestment from Greenhouse Gas Pollution, Vegan).

World’s Worst for GHG Pollution. “Annual per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution” in units of “tonnes CO2-equivalent per person per year” (2005-2008 data) is 0.9 (Bangladesh), 0.9 (Pakistan), 2.2 (India), less than 3 (many African and Island countries), 3.2 (the Developing World), 5.5 (China), 6.7 (the World), 11 (Europe), 16 (the Developed World), 27 (the US) and 25 (Australia; or 74 in 2010 if Australia’s huge Exported CO2 pollution is included) [1, 35, 59]. An estimate of “years left to zero emissions” has been determined for all countries relative to mid-2011 – the worst polluting  countries that must cease GHG pollution within 10 years relative to mid-2011 are  Belize (1.3 years), Qatar (2.3), Guyana (2.4), Malaysia (3.4), United Arab Emirates (3.4), Kuwait (4.1),  Papua New Guinea (4.3), Brunei (4.8), Australia (4.8),  Antigua & Barbuda (4.9), Zambia (5.1), Canada (5.1), Bahrain (5.2), United States (5.5), Trinidad & Tobago (6.4), Luxembourg (5.9), Panama (6.3), New Zealand (6.5),  Estonia (6.9),  Botswana (7.0), Ireland (7.4),  Saudi Arabia (7.6),  Venezuela (7.9),  Indonesia (8.4),  Equatorial Guinea (8.6), Belgium (8.7), Turkmenistan (8.8), Singapore (8.9),  Czech Republic (9.0), Liberia (9.0), Netherlands (9.3), Russia (9.3),  Nicaragua (9.3), Finland (9.5),  Oman (9.7), Palau (9.8), Brazil (9.8),  Uruguay (9.8), Denmark (10.0). If one considers Australia’s Domestic plus Exported GHG pollution, Australia used up its “fair share” of the World’s Terminal Carbon Budget in 2011 (3 years ago) [26].

World’s Worst for Climate Inaction. The Climate Change Performance Index – Results 2014 [71] shows that of 61 countries examined the following were the worst : Australia (57), Canada (58), Iran (59), Kazakhstan (60), and Saudi Arabia (61). Australia and Canda were the worst OECD countries.

X  (see Unknown). .X stands for an unknown. The danger of being so close to various tipping points is that some unpredictable but not unexpected disaster (e.g. a huge volcanic eruptions, catastrophic forest fires, changes in ocean currents or atmosphere jet stream patterns) might suddenly inject a lot more GHGs into the atmosphere and bring the world past particular tipping points. Thus, for example, the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of CH4 on a 20 year time frame and with aerosol impacts considered is 105 times that of CO2 [55, 56]. The 50 Gt (billion tonnes) CH4 to he released from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf in coming decades [40] is thus equivalent to 50 billion tonnes CH4 x 105 tonnes  CO2-equivalent/tonne CH4 = 5,250 tonnes CO2-e or about NINE (9) times more than the world’s terminal greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution budget. We are doomed unless we can stop this Arctic CH4 release [28].

Years Left To Zero Emissions. Recent estimates of years left before the World reaches  zero emission by exceedeing the Terminal Carbon Pollution Budget  range from 4-15 years [20-23]. An estimate of “years left to zero emissions” has been determined for all countries relative to mid-2011 – the worst polluting  countries that must cease GHG pollution within 10 years relative to mid-2011 are  Belize (1.3 years), Qatar (2.3), Guyana (2.4), Malaysia (3.4), United Arab Emirates (3.4), Kuwait (4.1),  Papua New Guinea (4.3), Brunei (4.8), Australia (4.8),  Antigua & Barbuda (4.9), Zambia (5.1), Canada (5.1), Bahrain (5.2), United States (5.5), Trinidad & Tobago (6.4), Luxembourg (5.9), Panama (6.3), New Zealand (6.5),  Estonia (6.9),  Botswana (7.0), Ireland (7.4),  Saudi Arabia (7.6),  Venezuela (7.9),  Indonesia (8.4),  Equatorial Guinea (8.6), Belgium (8.7), Turkmenistan (8.8), Singapore (8.9),  Czech Republic (9.0), Liberia (9.0), Netherlands (9.3), Russia (9.3),  Nicaragua (9.3), Finland (9.5),  Oman (9.7), Palau (9.8), Brazil (9.8),  Uruguay (9.8), Denmark (10.0). If one considers Australia’s Domestic plus Exported GHG pollution, Australia used up its “fair share” of the World’s Terminal Carbon Budget in 2011 (3 years ago) [26].

Zero Emissions (see Years Left To Zero Emissions). The world must finally reach zero emissions in about 2050 but many highly polluting countries will have already exceeded their “fair share” of the Worlds’ Terminal Carbon Budget or will be morally obliged to cease emissions in the next few years [26]. If one considers Australia’s Domestic plus Exported GHG pollution, Australia used up its “fair share” of the World’s Terminal Carbon Budget in 2011 (3 years ago) [1] and is now stealing the entitlement of all other countries  on Earth – climate criminality and climate injustice.

References.

[1]. Gideon Polya, “2011 Climate Change Course”: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/2011-climate-change-course .

[2]. Gideon Polya, “Body Count. Global avoidable mortality since 1950”, that includes an avoidable mortality-related history of every country since Neolithic times and is now available for free perusal on the web: http://globalbodycount.blogspot.com.au/ .

[3]. Gideon Polya, “Forest biomass-derived Biochar can profitably reduce global warming and bushfire risk”, Yarra Valley Climate Action Group: http://sites.google.com/site/yarravalleyclimateactiongroup/forest-biomass-derived-biochar-can-profitably-reduce-global-warming-and-bushfire-risk .

[4]. 300.org: . https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/300-org .

[5]. “300.org – return atmosphere CO2 to 300 ppm”: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/300-org---return-atmosphere-co2-to-300-ppm .

[6]. 350.org: http://350.org/ .

[7]. “Boycott Murdoch Media”:  https://sites.google.com/site/boycottmurdochmedia/ .

[8]. “Boycott Apartheid Israel”:  https://sites.google.com/site/boycottapartheidisrael/ .

[9]. Gideon Polya, “Australian carbon burning-related deaths and carbon burning subsidies => minimum Carbon Price of A$555 per tonne carbon (C) or A$150 per tonne CO2-e ”, Yarra Valley Climate Action Group: http://sites.google.com/site/yarravalleyclimateactiongroup/2011-carbon-burning.

[10]. DARA, “Climate Vulnerability Monitor. A guide to the cold calculus of a hot planet”, 2012, Executive Summary pp2-3: http://daraint.org/climate-vulnerability-monitor/climate-vulnerability-monitor-2012/ .

[11]. DARA report quoted by Reuters, ”100 mln to die by 2030 if world fails to act on climate”, 28 September 2012: http://in.reuters.com/article/2012/09/26/climate-inaction-idINDEE88P05P20120926 .

[12]. Gideon Polya, “Expert Witness Testimony To Stop Gas-Fired Power Plant Installation”, Countercurrents,  14 June, 2013: http://www.countercurrents.org/polya140613.htm .

[13]. Natural gas.org, “Natural gas and the environment”: http://www.naturalgas.org/environment/naturalgas.asp .

[14]. WHO, “Air quality and health”: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs313/en/ .

[15]. “Carbon Debt Carbon Credit”: https://sites.google.com/site/carbondebtcarboncredit/ .

[16]. James Hansen,  “Letter to PM Kevin Rudd by Dr James Hansen”, 2008: http://www.aussmc.org.au/documents/Hansen2008LetterToKevinRudd_000.pdf .

[17]. Dr Chris Hope, “How high should climate change taxes be?”, Working Paper Series, Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, 9.2011: http://www.jbs.cam.ac.uk/media/assets/wp1109.pdf.

[18]. Gideon Polya, “Australian Coalition Government Sacrifices Key Industries While Committing  Hundreds Of Billions Of Dollars To Carbon Pollution & War”, Countercurrents, 10 February 2014: http://www.countercurrents.org/polya100214.htm .

[19]. James Hansen, “Global warming twenty years later: tipping points near”, Address to the US Congress, 2008: http://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/2008/TwentyYearsLater_20080623.pdf  .

[20]. 2009 Report of the German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU, Wissenshaftlicher Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränderungen) was entitled “Solving the climate dilemma: the budget approach”: http://www.wbgu.de/fileadmin/templates/dateien/veroeffentlichungen/sondergutachten/sn2009/wbgu_sn2009_en.pdf .

[21]. Australian Climate Commission, “The critical decade 2013: a summary of climate change science, risks and responses”, 2013, p7: http://climatecommission.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/The-Critical-Decade-2013-Summary_lowres.pdf .

[22]. Gideon Polya,  " Doha climate change inaction. Only 5 years left to act", MWC News, 9 December 2012: http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/23373-gideonpolya-climate-change.html .

[23]. “Cut carbon emissions 80% by 2020”: https://sites.google.com/site/cutcarbonemissions80by2020/ ..

[24]. Bill McKibben, “Global warming’s terrifying new math”, Rolling Stone, 19 July 2012: http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/global-warmings-terrifying-new-math-20120719 .

[25]. Gideon Polya, “Australia 's Huge Coal, Gas & Iron Ore Exports Threaten Planet”, Countercurrents, 15 May 2012: http://www.countercurrents.org/polya150512.htm .

[26]. Gideon Polya, “Country By Country Analysis Of Years Left Until Science-demanded Zero Greenhouse Gas Emissions”, Countercurrents, 11 June 2011: http://www.countercurrents.org/polya110611.htm .

[27]. Robert Goodland and Jeff Anfang. “Livestock and climate change. What if the key actors in climate change are … cows, pigs and chickens?”, World Watch, November/December 2009: http://www.worldwatch.org/files/pdf/Livestock%20and%20Climate%20Change.pdf .

[28]. “Are we doomed? Too late to save earth?", 300.org: https://sites.google.com/site/300orgsite/are-we-doomed

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