The Role of Caregiver Time Preferences, Child Behavioral Problems and Community Risks on Parenting Style

joint with Ahmad Shabir Faizi


This paper investigates the socioeconomic determinants of parenting style in the context of a developing country using early childhood panel data from rural Thailand. Our key findings are that more patient caregivers tend to be more authoritative than authoritarian, caregivers are more likely to be authoritative than authoritarian when they observed more behavioral problems from their children, and caregivers exhibit more authoritarian than authoritative parenting if they perceived the community to be more dangerous. We also find that families with less resources, proxied by wealth, marital status and parental absence, are more likely to be authoritarian.

Keyword: parenting style; time preferences; child behavioral problems; community risk factors; developing country

Working paper version as of May 9, 2022

Intergenerational Transmission of Time Preferences: An Evidence from Rural Thailand

joint with Suparee Boonmanunt, Sartja Duangchaiyoosook, Wasinee Jantorn and Varunee Khruapradit


This study investigates the association between child and caregiver time preferences in rural Thailand. We find that caregiver discount factor is positively correlated to a child’s ability to delay gratification, indicating that patient caregivers are more likely to have patient children. This correlation exists regardless of whether the caregiver is a biological parent or not. However, some evidence suggests genetic contribution in intergenerational transmission of time preferences: this correlation is stronger when both biological parents live at home than when none is present, and mother's time preferences are stronger correlated with child time preferences than grandmother's.

Keyword: time preferences; field experiment; intergenerational transmission; skill formation, genetics

Working paper version as of May 6, 2022

Learning Losses from School Closure due to the COVID-19 Pandemic for Thai Kindergartners

joint with Khanista Boonsanong, Sartja Duangchaiyoosook, Wasinee Jantorn and Varunee Khruapradit


This paper presents empirical evidence of learning losses from school closure due to the COVID-19 pandemic for kindergartners using a large-scale school readiness survey in Thailand. Its findings indicate that school closure during the outbreak of COVID-19 causes enormous learning losses in cognitive skills, especially in mathematics and working memory. The negative impact is heterogeneous across several dimensions, including child gender, special needs, wealth, having private tutoring, caregiver's education and parental absence. This paper also estimates daily learning gains, of which significant results confirm that going to school has significantly benefited young children, especially in receptive language, mathematics and working memory.

Keyword: learning losses; school closure; school readiness; daily learning gains; COVID-19; COVID slide; disadvantaged children; working memory; math; literacy; receptive language; non-cognitive

This version is as of March 10, 2022


Long Run Risk Model and Equity Premium Puzzle in Thailand

Sartja Duangchaiyoosook and Weerachart T. Kilenthong

Southeast Asian Journal of Economics

Vol.10, No.1 pp. 133-167.

Working paper version as of March 8, 2022

Data and Matlab Codes

Do Parental Absence and Children’s Gender Affect Early Childhood Investment? Evidence from Rural Thailand

Weerachart T. Kilenthong and NGOC TÚ T. ĐINH

Singapore Economic Review

Vol. 66, No. 05, pp. 1443-1468.

link , Online Appendix

Short-term Impact of an Early Childhood Curriculum Intervention in Rural Thailand

Wisuwat Chujan and Weerachart T. Kilenthong

Journal of Human Capital

Vol. 15, No. 2, 2021: pp. 269-290.

Published version with Online Appendix for more details

A Market-Based Solution for Fire Sales and Other Pecuniary Externalities

Weerachart T. Kilenthong and Robert M. Townsend

Journal of Political Economy

Vol. 129, No. 4, 2021: pp. 981-1010.

Published version with Online Appendix for more details

Working paper version as of 12 August 2020

Entrepreneurship and Family Businesses in Thailand

Weerachart T. Kilenthong and Kittipong Rueanthip,

Asian-Pacific Economic Literature,

Vol. 32, NO.1, 2018; pp.77-93. link


Tee Kilenthong is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Economics at the University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce (UTCC) and Director of Research Institute for Policy Evaluation and Design (RIPED). His research interests include growth and development, macroeconomics, contract theory, financial economics, labor and education economics.

His current research focuses on early childhood and human capital development. His important long-term research project is the RIECE Thailand, which aims to promote high quality early chilhood education, based on the HighScope approach, in Thailand, and to better understand how human capital has been formed since early childhood.

He received a Bachelor Degree in Engineering (First Class Honor with Gold Medal) from Chulalongkorn Univeristy and a Master Degree in Physics from the same university. He received a Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Chicago in 2006, where he studied under Professor Robert M. Townsend. He was working as an assistant professor in the Department of Economics at the University of California at Santa Barbara between 2006 and 2010.