Although called a 'vocabulary,' this might qualify as a small dictionary since there are more than 20,000 entries. For comparison, the Zhang Yisun (et al.) dictionary has about 30,000, but a numeric comparison would not be a fair one, since what you have before you is not strictly speaking a dictionary as it does not attempt full coverage, sometimes ignoring the better known words with well-known meanings... and includes compound words and an occasional phrase, even. It does contain materials that would be useful in making a future dictionary, this being the main reason for making it available in its current sorry state. I started it in April 1987, and will continue for as long as I can.

This is meant to be a word-index (or what I would like to call a trouble-shooting word list) more than a dictionary. What this means is that technical, idiosyncratic, and obsolete usages and meanings are given priority over more common ones readily found in the available dictionaries. Even when it doesn't have definitions to offer, it tries to accumulate materials, and especially instances of usage, that may lead to eventual understanding. To some degree, the content reflects my own research focus on 11th- and especially 12th-century texts. There is a certain emphasis on medicine and materia medica, and on things, material objects, substances, mineralogy, zoology, botany, architecture and cultural institutions. At the same time there are a fair number of specialized meditation terms, Bon vocabulary, Buddhalogical concepts, foreign loanwords, etc. There is some but not much coverage of philosophical terms (i.e., technical jargon used in siddhānta and logical works: grub-mtha', tshad-ma etc.). There should be no proper names (even if there are a few in fact, mainly single-syllable clan names that can be a source of confusion) or book titles, but there are many official titles, with a few names & epithets of deities, etc. There are some strange etymologies proposed herein, which I hope will be thought stimulating even when given without much conviction or not entirely convincing. This work supplements, and does not have any idea of standing in place of, the existing dictionaries. This is an important point that I cannot emphasize enough.

One of the main motives of making this vocabulary list was to better understand 12th-century Tibetan works (which means that a special effort was made to locate and record terms of obscure or unknown meaning; many of these are quoted in their original context, at times without suggesting any definition at all). Meanwhile, a very valuable dictionary of unusual words (based on a considerable range of previous glossaries, but not dictionaries) has been published: Btsan-lha Ngag-dbang-tshul-khrims, Brda-dkrol Gser-gyi Me-long, Mi-rigs Dpe-skrun-khang, 1997 (herein abbreviated as Btsan-lha). The main-entry content of Btsan-lha has been completely entered here, although the complete contents of the entries have not been (in effect, this work includes a word-index to Btsan-lha's main entries). It will be necessary to have the Btsan-lha as well as all the standard dictionaries (Yisun and Das in particular) in order to make full use of the lexicon in front of you.

A NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION AND FONTS: Wylie transliteration is used (dashes mostly omitted). 'OrientalTimes' was the only font used. Now it has been entirely changed into "Gentium," a standard unicode font (which may require recent software capable of displaying unicode fonts).

A few technical points on alphabetic order: Subscript wa (wa-zur) and subscript 'a ('a-chung) are ignored for the purpose of alphabetization (i.e., a syllable or word spelled with wa-zur should occur immediately after the same syllable or word without it). Genitive endings, in all their forms, may be ignored for the sake of alphabetization (this is not done with complete consistently, however, and for this I apologize). So, too, are vowel combinations that use the so-called 'a-chung (ga'u is alphabetized as if it were simply ga, unless it is written in two syllables, as in the hypothetical form *ga 'u).

Bibliographical references: Note that underlining (even especially beneath numbers) is used here with no other purpose than to indicate reference sources (but if preceded by a not-underlined author's name, divided from the underlined part by a comma, you must rather look under that). In bibliographical statements using the preposition 'in,' such as for example, "Shastri in TS9." one will find nothing under "Shastri," but must look under "TS9." Several different modes of abbreviation have been used (numbers, acronyms, abbreviated words, single syllables, short titles, complete references), but in general, economy of space has been a large consideration, as has mnemonics. Details of volume (Roman numerals) and page number (Arabic) immediately follow the underlined portion, with no intervening punctuation marks (divided only by single spaces). Page number definitely means the Arabic page number of the published text, and not folio number, unless there is an 'r' or 'v' attached to the number. For example, "193 VI 320r.2" means line 2 of the recto side of folio no. 320, in volume six of the publication represented by "193" in the attached bibliographic key.

Beware: When an entry says, "See [such-and-such-a-word]" it may mean to see it in the Das or the Yisun dictionary, and not necessarily in the vocabulary that follows. Note that here there is not much information on the different forms of the verbal tenses. For this I most recommend Nathan Hill's verb lexicon listed below (under Hill, Lexicon).

Those who easily find themselves comforted (or lulled into complacency) by the 'authoritative tone' used in most dictionaries might be troubled by the informality of this one (despite my conscious attempts to be exact). If you happen to find yourself in this category, take a minute to relax, check your medication levels, take a long deep breath, and admit to yourself that *meaning* is a human process — one that can work on a number of levels, some of them not even verbal, in a number of contextual environments, changing through time — and not a fiat wafting down to us from some weapon-wielding father figure standing up above us all.

This vocabulary should be considered a tool of last or semi-final resort, to be consulted after looking into the standard Tibetan lexicons and comning up empty or dissatisfied. Of course, you may still come up empty, but please don't blame your dissatisfaction on me. Bless it when it helps you, ignore it when it doesn't, and all of us will be happier people for that.

Dan Martin


(non-bibliographical)

symbols & abbreviations:

> — deriv. from, is derived from

= — is equivalent to (synonymous or nearly synonymous with)

[~xxx] — should be read as, or understood to mean (often used to indicate the more standard spelling)

::: — replaces the entry-heading word or phrase when it is used in a quote or statement (optional & in fact not much used here)

abbr. = abbreviation

acc. [to] = according [to]

Ch. = Chinese

coll. = colloquial

def. = definition

fut. = future

hon. = honorific

impv. = imperative

intrans. = intransitive

lit. = literally, literal meaning

med. = medical

mod. = modern

Mong. = Mongolian

obs. = obsolete

OT = Old Tibetan (both Dunhuang and brda'-rnying [early Phyi-dar] vocabulary, nota bene)

pf. = perfect tense

q.v. = quod vide (which one should have a look at)

Skt. = Sanskrit

tdp. = tha dad pa (differentiated subject and object)

tmdp. = tha mi dad pa (undifferentiated subject and object)

trans. = transitive

ZZ = Zhang-zhung language [ZZ with underlining means Zhang-zhung Snyan-brgyudnota bene].


*KA*

•KA [1] Stein. Has meaning of 'desire' ('dod pa), 'root' (rtsa ba) and 'ab-original' (gdod ma). Btsan-lha. [2] As a suffixed syllable (-ka / -kha / -ga) it may have several meanings, but when used with numbers it indicates a sum. For examples, gsum ka means 'all three,' lnga ka means 'all five.'

•KWA [1] OT = kye. Dbus-pa no. 001. Blaṅ 285.1. Lcang-skya. Btsan-lha. Bellezza spells this ka, and says that it has the same meaning as kye, but with less honorific overtones. kwa ni thog bar mtha' sbyar 'bod sgra'o. Khyung-sprul 13. [2] crow. See ka ka. "Where the crow has to take care of cleanliness." Hahn, TSD 38.

•KA KA kā ka'i zur chag gam bya rog. Chödag. Skt. kāka (crow).

•KĀ KA khwa ta'am bya rog chen po'i ming. CSKG.

•KWA KWA srin bu kwa kwa. Some kind of maggot. Nathan W. Hill, Tibetan Vwa 'Fox' and the Sound Change Tibeto-Burman *wa > Tibet O, Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, vol. 28, no. 2 (Oct. 2006), pp. 79-94, at p. 87, where it is interpreted as 'excrement worm.'

•KA KA KA KA ? Samdo A V 265v.5.

•KA KA CHEN PO gze ma ra mgo'i ming. CSKG.

•KA KA NI monetary unit. 383 275. pa ṇa'i ming dang 'gron bu nyi shu'i rin gyi ming dang ka ka ni bzhi la ma shag gcig go. Chödag. An old Indian measurement unit for gold and silver weights. See Dung-dkar. Skt. kākani (a small coin). A small sum of money in ancient India, Skt. kākiṇī. Bhattacharya, LW 353, no. 1. DCD 1. Pelliot, Notes on Marco Polo I 561, says it is worth 20 cowries.

•KA KA NI SGO BZHI A walk-through chorten at Lhasa. See Stearns, King 193.

•KA KA NĪ LA dbang sngon rin po che'i ming dang rdo sman zhig la'ang. CSKG. DG 81.1. Skt. kakanīla, equiv. to kākajambū (the plant Ardisia humilis).

•KA KA RU sdig srin. See sdig pa. ka ka ru sdig srin. Khyung-sprul 11. BLSR.

•KA KĀ SYA See a ka ru. BLSR.

•KA KU BHA ka ku bha ni dug mo nyung gi shing du bsgyur chog ste / snyan ngag me long las / kad mra ni rnam par rgyas / ku ṭa jong gam rab gsal / kundha lya ni rab tu byed / ka ku bha yang [56r2] gyis par gyur / ces don bskor gyi rgyun gyi dper brjod du phyung ba la 7 gong sa lnga pa'i dka' 'grel dbyangs can dgyes glur / bzhi po tshig mi gcig kyang don dug mo nyung gi shing yin pas shing gcig pu de bskor ba ste shing de rnam par rgyas / [56r3] rab tu gsal / rab tu byed / gyes par gyur / ces gsungs so. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•KA KU BHĀ shing sdong. CSKG. Skt. kākubha (a species of pragātha).

•KA KU BHA YA shing sdong zhig / dug mo nyung gi shing nor. Chödag. shing dug mo nyung ngam dpa' bo'i shing zer ba de yin. Utpal 11.3. ka ku bha ya [phyogs khyab] dug mo nyung gi ming. Khyung-sprul 11.

•KA KO'I SKAD bya rog gi ming. CSKG.

•KA KO TRI KA See ha shig. BLSR.

•KA KO LA 1. a tantric word for the 'lotus' or female organs. 2. an herb (sman). Amomum subulatum. Wangchuk, Bioactive 24. BLSR. 3. a type of poison (dug rigs bye brag gcig). Blaṅ 526 (see Yisun, where it means either a large crow or btsan dug). kā ko la ste dug gcig gam sman zhig gam zla ba'i bye ma'ang zer. bya rog chen po dang zla ba la'ang. Kakko la: mo mtshan la'ang. Chödag. kā ko la: bya rog gi yan lag 'dra ba'i dug. Chödag. See under bo la (where it has the meaning of mo mtshan; note that kola is Skt. for 'lap'). ka ko la ni sman de'o. Utpal 12.3. dug gi bye brag gi ming. CSKG. = rtsa ldum 'bras bu, ko la. JD 74. a tree. SS 417.6. = e la. YTTM 291.15. cardamom. TM I 50. TM IV 61. DG 151.5. cubeb, greater cardamom [actually, these two spices could never be confused! It is the greater cardamom that has the suggestive shape, not the cubeb]. Clifford, chart. Skt. kākola. A tantra passage that relates kakkolaka to padma, see Bagchi, ST 30. Upadhyaya in Mishra, ABS 348. See under e la phra mo. Bhattacharya, LW 353, no. 2.

•KA KO LA'I SRIN BU See Dung-dkar.

•KA KO LI = ra mnye. BLSR.

•KA KHA n. for the Tibetan alphabet with its 30 letters. BR.

•KĀ GA bya rog chen po.

•KA GĀ NĪ LA indra nī la'i bye brag. Chödag.

•KA GRU'I BU klu'i ming. CSKG.

•KA GHAṂ GI a kind of turquoise. DG 80.2.

•KA MGO head of the pillar, capital. Generally considered a synonym of ka gzhu, q.v.

•KA RGYUG ras gur gyi ka rgyug zer. Chödag. The 'pillar' poles used to pitch tents. BR.

•KA SGROGS kā ka zhes sgrog pas bya rog. Chödag.

•KA NGU RI = gla rtsi. BLSR.

•KA CA wealth, possessions. OT = dkor q.v. Blaṅ 302.1. = nor. 367 I 237. nor dngos po spyi'i ming / ka cha. Chödag. = nor gyi spyi ming. Lcang-skya. nor spyi'i ming. Utpal 13.2. CSKG. Gold.Ms. I 4r.3. BR. ka ca dang sog run ma rem par. 601 40r.3. 'dod pa zad pa dang ka ca 'du ba dus mnyam. Zhi-byed Coll. II 345.3. Perhaps a Tibetanization of Skt. kāñcana (money, wealth, property). Also spelled ka cha. Rnam.

•KA CI ras ka ci zer. Chödag.

•KA CI SGONG SHUN MA Indian cloth, described in Dung-dkar.

•KA CU RA See dkar tshur.

•KA CIG LCAM GANG MA =Ka cig ma. A way of describing the size of a Tibetan house. See Dung-dkar.

•KA CHA ca lag. Gces 584.2. general word for 'wealth' (nor). BBNP 478. Btsan-lha. DCD 2. See ka ca.

•KA CHUG like that (de ltar). Btsan-lha. Rnam.

•KA JI (dbus) = ka ci, Benares linen or a kind of coarse white cotton cloth largely imported into Tibet from Nepal and India. Deriv. from Kāśi, n. of Benares. MTTP. nor dngos po spyi'i ming / ka ca. Chödag.

•KA 'JI a substance used for testing gold (apparently a stone on which the gold can be rubbed). ngo bo mthong bas shes pa gser ka 'ji la bdar ba lta bu. Zhi-byed Coll. II 473.2. mtshang shes pa la bdud kyis myi tshugs pa gser ka 'dzi la bdar ba lta bu. Ibid. II 481.1 (also, 484.2). Ibid. I 434.2. rang gis bsags pa'i gser la ka 'jis brdar myi dgos. Ibid. I 310.3. Seems to be the dka' 'ji in Zhi-byed Coll. IV 244.3 (dka' 'ji'i khu ba dkar dmar dang bsres la). ka 'ji'i dkyil 'khor du tshig dbang rin po che zhus. Zhi-byed Coll. V 86.6.

•KANYTSA shing kanytsa. SS 413.6.

•KANYTSA THA See shing tsha.

•KĀNYTSA NAM gser gyi ming. CSKG.

•KA GNYIS PA bya rog la'ang. Chödag. CSKG.

•KA TĀKṢAH zur mig gi ming. CSKG. Skt. kaṭākṣa (a glance or side look, leer).

•KWA TA JD 225.

•KA TA NA KA TI'I BU ka ta na ka ti'i bu 'phags ming. Name of a saint. Khyung-sprul 11.

•KA TA PUR katpur te sman ga bur / katbur. Chödag.

•KA TA'I BU kātya na'i bu ste nyan thos shig / kātya na'i bu. Chödag.

•KA TA'I BU MO kātya na'i bu mo ste lha mo u māh / kātya na'i bu mo. Chödag.

•KA TA RI ka ta ri las thar nas dond du zhugs pa'i mi de shin tu blun. Zhi-byed Coll. I 222.6. It's here defined by the word rngos, 'trap.' Obviously an Indic word.

•KA TA LĪ ri dwags ku rangga'i ming. CSKG.

•KA TĀNGGA shing dmar ram ba bsher shing gi ming. CSKG.

•KA TAN [1] a kind of white cloth from India. ras dkar po zhig la'ang. Chödag. Btsan-lha. rgya gar gyi ras zhig gi ming. Utpal 11.1. Apparently, this is simply the word 'cotton.' rgya gar dang mon phyogs nas yod pa'i ras kyi bye brag zhig la ka tan zhes zer zhing / dag yig 'gar ka dan zhes kyang 'byung. Dalai Lama VII, Yig. [2] However, note its use in the description of Indra's palace in the Lokaprajñapti (Derge version, p. 58) where it appears to be an architectural element.

•KA TAM BHA RA snum ldan ka tam bha ra. KP3 344.7. KP4 573.3.

•KA TAR ka li ka ta zhes pa'i grong khyer la. Chödag.

•KA TI See Achard, L'Essence 130-131.

•KA TI RA Zhi-byed Coll. I 431.4. Skt. kātīra?

•KA TI SHEL GYI SBU GU CAN Germano, Poetic Thought 898. See Daniel Scheiddeger, Different Sets of Channels in the Instruction Series of Rdzogs chen, Revue d'Etudes Tibétaines 12 (2007) 25.

•KA TI SA RA dri chen nam phyi sa dor ba. BBNP 469.

•KA TI GSER GYI RTSA See Achard, L'Essence 130-131.

•KA TU rtsa zhig. Chödag.

•KA TO RA ka ṭo ra ste zangs snod gzhong pa. Chödag. washbasin. Das, JTL&CT 99. An example illus. in Precious Deposits V 116.

•KA TOR OT deriv. from Skt. ka ṭor. = snod. Blaṅ 309.1-.2. Skt. kaṭora (a type of cup or vessel).

•KĀ TYA'I BU MO lha dbang phyug chen po'i chung ma lha mo u mā'i ming. CSKG.

•KA TRA ? Rnying Rgyud 1982 II 566.2.

•KA GTAN ras dkar po zhig gi ming. Rnam. See ka tan.

•KA GTUGS PA thabs zad pa. Chödag.

•KA RTAGS alphabetic system (alphabetic order). Vitali, Tho.ling 73.

•KA RTEN DANG KA STEGS ka ba 'debs byed gdan lta bu / ka gdan. Chödag.

•KA BSTOD ka phreng du bkod pa'i bstod pa. Chödag.

•KA THAM snod spyad cig. Chödag.

•KA THO ka kha rim bzhin bkod pa'i tho yig. Chödag. Explanation in Dung-dkar 4. DCD 3.

•KA THO RA mkhregs pa'i ming. CSKG.

•KA THOG GDUNG BZHAG Dpa'-ris.

•KA DAG [= ka nas dag pa] Pure from the letter 'A'. Abbr. of ka nas dag pa, pure from [the letter] 'ka'. 'Ka' is the first letter of the Tibetan alphabet, so the right English translation would include the first letter of the English alphabet. This is a term from the Old Translations, and we no longer know the Sanskrit equivalent. Acc. to 208 I 309.4, the Skt. is khaśuddha (sky-like pure??). Stein. Often translated 'primordial purity.' Germano, Poetic Thought 914. rtsa ba nas dag pa'am chos kyi dbyings stong pa nyid kyi don du gsungs. Chödag. Btsan-lha. Rnam. Discussion by Klein in Karmay, New Horizons 220 n. 100. NZT. Note also discussion in BR. DCD 3.

•KA DAM PA a kind of bird or a kind of tree (a borrowing from Skt.). chu skyar bya'i ming dang lnga pas mthing ril gyi ming du gsungs kyang tshogs can zhes pa'i shing sdong ming. Chödag. Btsan-lha. ka dam ni chu bya nya za mkhan gyi ming. Utpal 11.4. CSKG. Skt. kadamba (with a number of meanings) or kādamba. ka dampa [mchu bya mthing ril] ni chu skyar dang shing zhig. Khyung-sprul 11. The night-flowering Kadam tree is Amnthocephalus cadamba, of the Rubiaceae family. See BR. BLSR.

•KA DAM PA SKYES chang la'ang. Chödag. CSKG.

•KA DAM PA CAN sprin gyi ming la'ang. Chödag.

•KA DAM PA'I ME TOG spra ba'i me tog. Chödag.

•KA DAM PE pad tshal gyi ming. CSKG. Name of [a?] pot vegetable.

•KA DAM BU GA'I ME TOG rma lo khri mo'i me tog gi ming. Btsan-lha.

•KA DAMS mthing ril / sprin dang dug mo nyung gi ming la yang 'jug. BR.

•KA DI DA See Dung-dkar. = kha di da.

•KA DIR shing zhig. Chödag.

•KA DU RI Skt. kastūrī. See gla rtsi.

•KA DRU'I BU klu'i ming. Chödag. CSKG. Son of Kadru. Skt. Kādraveya (n. of certain nāgas).

•KA GDAN ka ba 'debs byed gdan lta bu / ka stegs. Chödag. The pedestal of the pillar in Tibetan architecture. See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs, fig. 3. foundations of pillars. ZZFC 242.

•KA GDAN RNAM LNGA See NZT.

•KA GDUNG = ka ba & gdung ma, the pillar[s] and beam[s].

•KA GDUNG BRTSEGS MA BCU GSUM See Dung-dkar.

•KA MDA' = a shwa gandha. BLSR.

•KA RDO A part of a house construction. The stone at the base of a [probably wooden] pillar. The plinth. See Dag-yig 67. Should not be confounded with the cardo of Roman street planning.

•KA SDE ka kha ga nga bzhi la ka sde zer. Chödag.

•KA SDE BCU NZT.

•KA NA KA gser. Chödag. CSKG. BLSR. Skt. kanaka. See gser.

•KA NA YA See Dung-dkar. It is a kind of harpoon-like weapon held by Vajrabhairava.

•KA NAS DAG rtsa ba nas dag pa'am chos kyi dbyings stong pa nyid kyi don du gsungs. Chödag. See ka dag.

•KA'U NI A unit in Indian monetary system equivalent to 16 karsha pa ṇa (karṣāpaṇa). Dung-dkar 44-45.

•KA NI KA yul gyi cha nas rgyal po ka ni ka. Chödag. See se ba'i me tog. Kaniṣṭha. DCD 3-5.

•KA PA TA khur tshos kyi ming. CSKG.

•KA PA LA mgo rus thod pa'am bde skyong. Chödag. Skt. kapāla.

•KA PA LI thod pa. NZT.

•KA PAD Btsan-lha. a tree. KP4 576.4.

•KA PAD SKYUR RTSI shing ka bitba'i ming. CSKG.

•KA PĀL ka ba li ste dpe cha 'jog snod kyi ming. CSKG. Evid. Indic. See ka ba li.

•KA PI TA 'byar byed spyin lta ba. Chödag.

•KA PI TĀ NA See a ka ru. BLSR.

•KA PI LA See a ka ru. BLSR.

•KA PI LA NA ka bi la na. Rnam.

•KA PID rtsa ba myu gu skyu ru bil ba ka pid gsol. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) V 299.5.

•KA PU RA = spur len. BLSR.

•KA PED bi wa. Khyung-sprul 11. BLSR.

•KA PO TA phug ron tshwa zhig dang mkhur tshos. Chödag. rgya tswa'i ming ngam khur tshos kyi ming la'ang. CSKG. Skt. kapota.

•KA DPE ka kha sogs ka mad sum cu tham pa. Chödag.

•KA SPUNGS An old word for what is now called sgo 'phyor. Explained in Dung-dkar 8.

•KA PHIBS See Dung-dkar.

•KA PHOR = ga phor. See Dung-dkar.

•KA PHRENG ka kha rim bzhin bsgrigs pa'o. Chödag.

•KA 'PHAN Pillar hanging (with kīrtimukha at top). Illus. in Yisun. ka ba'i rgyan gos chen ka 'phan. Chödag. See Dung-dkar.

•KA BA [1] pillar. khang pa'i gdung ma 'degs byed shing. Chödag. For the architecture of the pillar, see Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs, fig. 3. For something on pillars in the Jo khang temple named Ka ba Shing lo can and Ka ba Seng mgo can, see Das, JTL&CT 163. [2] a clan name. Btsan-lha.

•KA BA RGYUD GCOD See brag spos. BLSR.

•KA BA RI A kind of weapon held by demons (but otherwise unidentified). See 192-vol. Bon Kanjur CL 47r.3.

•KA BA LI dpe cha 'jog pa'i zhog ka li. BBNP 465. sho ka li'am dpe cha 'jog snod. Chödag. Las-chen, Chos-'byung I 382.3. See Dung-dkar 12 (under ka wa li). Trungram, Gampopa 241, where spelling variants are: kab li, ka pa li, ka pā li. It might be kept on a person's back, as can be seen in HS V 406.7. Said to be Skt. dpe snyod [~snod] sho ka li'i ming. BY 7.

•KA BAD ku ba bil ba'i ming. ka bed. Chödag. ka bad dang ku ba gnyis ka rdo thog shing skyes kyi ming. Utpal 12.1.

•KA BAR 'JAG MA'I LHAN PA Dpa'-ris. to put a grass extention on a pillar. Goldstein.

•KA BED Btsan-lha. Rnam. Karmay, Arrow 348, where it is said to mean 'squash' (i.e., gourd). = ku ba chen. JD 182. ka ped. SS 477.6. = kha ḍa ka, ras mi ci, khru gcod gtso bo, chag chang ku ba. DG 213.1. Luffa aegyptiaca. Wangchuk, Bioactive 26. gourd. CTEV 28 (here spelled ka ped).

•KA BED CHUNG BA See bil ba.

•KA BYED Rnam.

•KA BHE TA BLSR.

•KA DBRAG spaces between pillars. ka ba'i bar mtshams. Chödag.

•KA SBU KA numbered as part of a set of red substances. Simioli, AG 63.

•KA SBUG Kalimpong, the town. ka ling sbug ces pa'i grong khyer. Chödag.

•KA MA TA n. of a region or a town. yul zhig gam grong khyer zhig. Chödag.

•KĀ MA TĀ NA a n. for the cuckoo. bya khu byug gi ming. CSKG. Skt. kāmatāla (cuckoo).

•KA MA NĀ mgo skar ma dang ldan pa'i zla ba'i ming. CSKG.

•KA MA RU rdo ka ma ru'am rdo par. Chödag.

•KA MA LA chu'i rgyan me tog padma. Chödag. ka ma la ni padma spyi'i ming. Utpal 11.4. me tog sngon po 'dabs ma brgyad pa can zhig. NZT. 'di dag yig ngag sgron mar / ka sha ka sha ka ma la / zhes pa'i ka ma la dang / yang de nyid du ka ma da dang ko'u shi ka / zhes [57r2] byung ba'i ka ma ta zhes pa gnyis ka la dang ta'i rkyen gyi khyad par ma gtogs don padma yin la / ka ma la don mang po la yang 'jug ste sgra'i snye mar / ka ma la zhes nam mkha' ste / padma'ang ka ma la ru dran / ka ma la ni rlung tshogs pa / shing [57r3] rtag (ka?) ma la ru brjod / dbang po gsal la ka ma la / ka ma la ni bya ngang pa / ri dwags la yang mtshungs par bshad / ka ma la ni bzhon pa rta / snang byed gnyis la'ang ka ma la / ka ma la ni ljon shing rtse / ru rgyas ka ma la ru bshad / thub pa [57r4] rab mchog ka ma la / mi mo'i glu la'ang ka ma la / ka ma la ni sbrang chang ste / gser gyi mdog la'ang ka ma la / 'dir ni bden smra la yang ngo / glang po'i myos bum ka ma la / nor bu dang ni rin po che / bar mtshams yul phran ka ma la / [57r5] ri dang ri phran la yang ste / ma he dang ni ba glang dang / de bzhin khyu mchog ka ma la / ka ma la ni gos la sems / de bzhin chu bo ka ma la / zhes gsungs. Dalai Lama VII, Yig. Rnam. Kamala, a powder extracted from the tropical plant Rottler tinctoria Roxb., is a well known materia medica and dye substance in Arabic, Indian and western cultures, closely related to "true wurus (wars)." Levey, Aromatic 408.

•KA MA LA CAN khyab 'jug chung ma. Chödag. CSKG.

•KA MA LI ral gri. Namdak. ka ma li zhes ral gri la 'dod pa dang / yul skad 'gar 'jor la yin zer ba yang thos pas gang ma de bden nam snyam pas brtag go. From Namdak, Bzo-rig 119. Example of Bon usage in Gzi-brjid XI 184.

•KA MA SA gzhu yi khyim la'ang. Chödag.

•KA MANG ka kha sogs ka mang sum cu tham pa / ka dpe. Chödag. I think this ought to be read as ka mad, meaning the series of 30 letters that begin with "ka." Used a number of times in BYNP 300.

•KA MI YAM mcher ba. Chödag. BLSR.

•KA MIKDZA LA BLSR.

•KA MED ma shes ka med. Khyung-sprul 11. thabs med pa. no way to... Rnam. BR.

•KA MED PA thabs med pa la'ang. Chödag.

•KA MO KO ME Btsan-lha.

•KA MO NYA See thar nu. BLSR.

•KA TSA ka tsa ni reg 'jam. Utpal 16.4.

•KA TSA RA See discussion of this word, which is in fact sometimes used to refer to to mixed Nepali-Tibetan people (and so has a derogatory ethnic meaning in Nepal), by Amy Heller in Orientations 33 no. 10 (Dec 2002) 61. When in Nepal, I heard it interpreted as meaning 'mule' (neither donkey nor horse...).

•KA TSA LIN DA ka tsa lin da zhes pa'i yul nas byung ba'i gos chen la'ang. Chödag. Rnam. Skt. kācilindi?

•KA 'DZIN kha 'dzin. Rnam.

•KA ZHIB short for ka kha'i zhib 'go. A kind of alphabet monitor, helping students to do writing exercises. Travers, BPPI 123 (other writing exercise 'monitors' named here: tshugs ring zhib 'go, tshugs zhib, and spyi gral).

•KA ZHU LNGA NZT.

•KA GZHU (wooden) pillar capital. ka ba dang gdung ma'i bar gyi shing. Chödag. ka zhu rnams la chu srin pa tra zhes pa. Namdak, Bzo-rig 78. The correct English word is 'entablature.' See Dung-dkar.

•KA BZHI MA A Tibetan way of expressing the size of a house having 4 pillars. See Dung-dkar.

•KA ZO See under dges pa. Gces 586.6.

•KA YA See dkar ya. Schmied 127.

•KA YANG NA thabs yang na. Gces 586.3. Btsan-lha.

•KA YANG RTSE rtse mo'am mchog. Chödag.

•KA YUR Evid. n. for irrigation channels. Samdo A V 24r.2.

•KA YE kwa ye zhes bod pa'i sgra. Chödag. For calling someone of equal or lesser status than oneself.

•KA RA shel ka ra dang bye ma ka ra lta bu. Chödag. za ba'i rnam grangs kyi ming. CSKG. JD 129. LW 455. See dam bu ka ra. BLSR.

•KĀ RĀ btson khang gi ming. CSKG. Skt. kārā (confinement), kārāgāra (prisonhouse).

•KWA RA tent stick. Naga in TJ 24 no. 3 (1999) 70. Bellezza, Divine Dyads 34.

•KA RA NA [1] concentrated gaze (lta stangs). This is perhaps a specialized meaning in Zhijé contexts only? In modern yogic practice gazing is usually called trāṭaka. Aldous Huxley, author of Eyeless in Gaza (!) was a candle gazing enthusiast. mtshan bcas ni ka ra na yul la g.yo ba bcings pas / rtog pa'i 'gyu ba 'chad pa yin / mtshan myed ni ka ra na rten myed du bcings pas / rtog pa rang mal du tshud pa yin. Zhi-byed Coll. II 323.2. ka ra na yul la bcings pas bying rgod kyis glags myi rnyed. Ibid. II 328.6. bor len len la gdan sa ma spos na / ka ra na yul la bcings kyang. Ibid. II 467.3. ka ra na ni rgya skad de / don la blta bstangs bya ba yin te. Ibid. II 12.5. ka ra na rten can du bcings pas. Zhi-byed Coll. I 241.7. [2] In Skt. contexts: kāraṇa (instrument, tool, means of action, that which is efficacious; this term is frequently used in grammatical contexts). It can be used for ritual procedures, meaning sequences of ritual actions. Or, Skt. karaṇa. [3] karaṇa is translated by Tib. skabs (normally meaning 'moment, opportunity,' although I'm thinking 'episode' may work for skabs) in Mvy. no. 5395. [4] drama contexts... The term karaṇa, as used by Abhayākaragupta, is discussed in D.C. Bhattacharyya, Dramatic Content of Tantric Buddhist Art and Rituals, in Devendra Handa, ed., Indological Studies (Delhi 1987), p. 98, where it means a 'stance' of the body in dance, drama and ritual. For what ought to be considered the classic source, see Bharata's Nāṭyaśāstra, chap. 4, v. 29 ff., where 108 of them are enumerated. These 108 'dance phrases' may be found illustrated on the internet— http://site.voila.fr/bharatanatyam/natya_karanas.html. See the entries in Brunner, TAK. Afterthoughts: Since this is one meaning of the Skt. word, I am thinking that the English word "effect" in its show business meaning may closely enough match it, perhaps 'theatrical effect.' In Kāma Sūtra types of contexts it may be appropriate to translate it as 'acts.'

•KĀ RA BĪ shing rma bya'i gtsug phud kyi ming. CSKG. Skt. kārabī (n. of various plants).

•KA RA BI RA oleander. LW 468. A paper-making plant. See Dung-dkar.

•KA RA WA TI 24 I 82.3.

•KA RA WI RA shing sdong zhig ste de'i lo ma me tog dang me tog brgyar gyes pa'ang zer. Chödag. oleander. Aris, Discourse 31. ka ra wī ra ni me tog dmar po'i ming. Utpal 11.5. ka ra wī ra re lcag me tog dmar. Khyung-sprul 11. Rnam. NZT.

•KA RAG 'a white earth color' Jackson [see mo dkar] sa dkar zhig. Chödag. White from mineral, chalk or lime. Anyetsang in TSB 15 (1980) 6.

•KA RANYDZA sman zhig. Chödag. ka ran dza / shing sman gyi rigs shig. Gser Sbram 308. sman 'jam 'bras kyi ming. CSKG. = lag pa'i thal mo. JD 87. = sgrul skong 'dra. YTTM 292.1. a tree. SS 427.1. = lag skyes. DG 192.6. For a medicinal preparation called ka ran dza drug pa, see RR 77. Skt. karañja (the tree Pongamia glabra). Simioli, AG 55, 64. BLSR.

•KĀ RAṆḌA 'dab chags bye brag gi ming. CSKG. Skt. kāraṇḍa (a sort of duck).

•KA RĪ BLSR.

•KA RI KA Btsan-lha. See Dung-dkar.

•KA RU dkar po'i ming du gsungs. Chödag. Evid., = dkar po. Samdo A II 212v.2. ka ru ni rdo dkar po. Utpal 13.2. mu stegs ka ru in Zhi-byed Coll. IV 162.5. Rnam.

•KA RU KHA SBYOR a medicinal preparation. BP 142.4.

•KA RU MA a mysterious word, apparently a Sanskritism, in Zhi-byed Coll., where it refers to something (probably barley) used in consecration rites. In later times it is used to refer to an image of Pha dam pa kept at Ding-ri Glang-'khor.

•KA RE KO RE [>kor, 'to circle'] = kar kor. 'zig-zag' Soundings 23. Dagyab. gya gyu pa'i don. Chödag.

•KA LA KU TRA ka la ku tra myin yin te / nam mkha' mthong bas ji ltar rig. Zhi-byed Coll. I 308.1.

•KĀ LA KŪ ṬA dug gi ming. CSKG. Skt. kālakūṭa (a poison from a tuber, the poison swallowed by Shiva that caused his neck to turn blue).

•KA LA LJANG a metal alloy, also called sbyong. BLKC I 340.

•KA LA DRU MA BLSR.

•KA LA DHAU TA BLSR.

•KA LA PA kalpa ste dus kyi bskal pa. Chödag.

•KA LĀ PA sham bha la'i grong khyer. Chödag.

•KA LA PING KA bya zhig gi ming. Chödag. ka la ping ka'i gshog ru sgo ngar rgyas. Zhi-byed Coll. I 276.5. Ibid. I 427.4. BR. ka la pingka'i ni rgya gar 'phags yul gyi bya nag khra skad snyan pa mi skad go ba kyur kyur skad ni bya de'i skad. An Indian bird with black markings, sweet bird song, understanding human language, with the kyur kyur language as its speech. Utpal 15.1. The Skt. kalaviṅka has various meanings: sparrow, Indian cuckoo, white cāmara, spot, n. of a plant. BLSR. Roberts, King.

•KA LA DBANG PO See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 44n.

•KĀ LA MI ṢI See so ma ra dza.

•KA LA SHA yul gyi ming ste mdo las 'dzambu gling nas ka shi ka dang ka la sha dang ma gha dha'o zhes gsungs / bum pa'i ming ngo. Chödag. Btsan-lha.

•KA LA HAMSA chu skyar gyi ming. CSKG.

•KA LAN TA bya zhig ste khang pa'i byi'u'ang zer. Chödag. JD 223.

•KA LAN TA KA yul de dang bya de'i ming. Utpal 14.5. mchil ba'am khang pa'i bye'u ming. CSKG. See Dung-dkar 13. Skt. kalantaka, kalandaka (squirrel, or a kind of bird?). It is placed in the class of birds with beautiful songs. It is said to resemble a magpie and live among the bamboo trees. Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, vol. 3, p. 125, but elsewhere (vol. 8, p. 521, 522) it is translated as squirrel. BLSR.

•KA LAN TA PA mchil ba'i ming. CSKG.

•KA LAN DA KA Rnam.

•KA LI mo'i mgo rus. Chödag. ka li'i ni thod pa. Example of usage in HS XXII 71.3. BLSR.

•KĀ LI See a ka ru.

•KA LI KA ka li kā. rgya gar na yul zhig gam grong zhig. Chödag. tsam pa ka dang de'i 'bras bu la'ang. CSKG. ka li ka ni me tog tsam pa ka. Khyung-sprul 11. NZT. BLSR.

•KĀ LI KĀ gze ma ra mgo'i ming. CSKG.

•KA LI TA labels a part of the eye, evidently the iris, in an iconographical illus. in Christoph Cüppers, et al., Handbook of Tibetan Iconometry: A Guide to the Arts of the 17th Century, Brill (Leiden 2012) 36.

•KĀ LĪ YA tsan dan ser po'am dus su skyes pa zhes bya ba'i shing gi ming. CSKG. Skt. kālīya (a dark kind of sandalwood), kāleya (a yellow fragrant wood).

•KĀ LIN DA'I BU MO chu bo ya mu na dang pakshu la'ang. Chödag. pakshu'i ming dang chu bo ya mu na'i ming. CSKG.

•KĀ LE YA Skt. kāleya. See a ka ru.

•KA LO A way of referring to both the bre and the bre khebs above a pillar. See Dung-dkar.

•KA SHA rtsi shing dang rtswa dang sa skyes zer ba dang ser sha dang cha 'dra ba zhig. Chödag. ka sha ni rtsa ka sha ku sha'ang rtsa'i ming. Utpal 11.4. ka sha — slob dpon smra ba chen pos / ku ni sa shal yang dag bshad pa ste / de bzhin ngan pa'i tshigs la'ang brjod par bya / zhes gsungs pa ltar gyi ku bzhag / de la tsandra byā ka ra ṇa'i skabs bzhi pa'i rkang pa gnyes par / lo man la sogs pa dang / pā man la sogs pa rnams las [56v2] sha dang na dag gos sha rkyen du byin / īk gi ā tra eng ngo zhes pas ku ko la song / eng gi ā ta yang ngos / ko ka la btang bas ka sha zhes grub pa bsgyur nas skyes can sogs la 'jug pas don 'gyur gyis rtswa zhes par bsgyur chog. Dalai Lama VII, Yig. See Dung-dkar. Rnam. Skt. kāśa (a species of grass used for mats, roofs, etc.).

•KA SHWA KAM BHA See a shwa gandha.

•KA SHI yul gyi ming ste mdo las 'dzambu gling na ka shi ka dang ka la sha dang ma gha dha'o zhes gsungs pa'o. Chödag. gsal ldan. Dung-dkar. Rnam.

•KA SHI KA NZT. Simioli, AG 56.

•KA SHI KA'I RAS grong khyer gsal ldan nam ba ra nā si nas byung ba'i ras yin gsungs. Chödag. Rnam. BR. Benares muslin. Aris, Discourse 37. ka shi ka ni ras dkar po mchog cig go. Utpal 11.1. Mvy. 9176. Silk, Dissert. 378 (an improper cloth for monastic robes). Śākyamuni's princely robes were made of this. See Strong, BR 66-67. Jonathan A. Silk, Dressed for Success: The Monk Kāśyapa and Strategies of Legitimation in Earlier Mahāyāna Buddhist Scriptures, Journal Asiatique, vol. 291, nos. 1-2 (2003) 173-219, at p. 191.

•KA SHU KA rgya skyegs shing gi ming. CSKG.

•KA SHO ? something that is used for assaying gold. Samdo A V 16v.5. Ka shu ka is the spelling in Yisun. = ba sgrub. YTTM 292.9. Dasgupta, ORC 159. This clearly derives from the Skt. root kaṣ, which means to rub or scrape (as on a touchstone in gold assaying). Skt. kaṣas (hence the ka sho) may mean the touchstone itself. It would seem that generally in Skt. śāṇa, or śāṇaphalaka [touchstone slab], is the stone used in gold assaying.

•KA SHO KA DHA KP1 99.4. KP3 275. KP4 437.5.

•KA BSHAD ka phreng du bkod pa'i li (?) la'ang. Chödag.

•KA SU RA spos shel. Chödag.

•KA SED KP3 346.3. KP4 576.4.

•KA'U SUGS SU Btsan-lha.

•KA'U SUS SU Btsan-lha.

•KA LHA See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 64-5.

•KAG lo zla sogs kyi kag. Utpal 15.2. glo bur / kag gis langs pa lta bu. Rnam.

•KAG GIS glo bur gyis dang myur bas so. Chödag. Rnam. suddenly. C&LT 167.

•KAG TA PA a position in a scriptorium, although the job description is unclear (acc. to Kurtis Schaeffer, forthcoming work on Bu-ston). Perhaps deriv. from Skt. kāyastha?

•KAG STE hob ste / glo bur gyi yong ba. Rnam.

•KAG LANGS (obs.) = kag gis langs pa. Arising suddenly or incidentally. Samdo A IV 214r.5.

•KANG gang. Rnam.

•KANG KA kangka ste dur bya zhig. Chödag. rkang ka mkha la lding ba bzhin. Zhi-byed Coll. I 324.6. kang ka ni dur bya kang ka khwa ta yin zer 'di ko ni 'di ni klag cor che ni ca co'i sgra chen po. Utpal 17.1. kaṃ ka / dur bya ka ka'i ming. As meaning both 'heron' and 'false brahmin,' see Guenther, Ecstatic 159 n. 4. Skt. kaṅka (heron, kind of mango, false Brahmin, etc.). ngag sgron mchan bur / bya rog tu bsgyur / smra rgyan du dur bya la [57r6] bsgyur yod / mgo bkad / spyir bkad ces pa gral lam rim pa lta bu'i ming yin pas mgo bkad ces pa'ang mgo spu'i rim pa'am gral la 'jug pa yin. Dalai Lama VII, Yig. Bellezza, D&B 47 (kang ka, gang ka).

skam pa KANG KA MCHU lit, heron-beak.' Surgical pinchers pictured in JD 274 (item 2).

•KANGKA NI Short form (and name) of the dhāraṇī of Akṣobhya. See Cuevas, Hidden History 37-38.

•KANG KANG dur bya kang kang. 115 65.2.

•KANG SKRA CAN dur bya kang ka'i ming. CSKG.

•KANG CEN Transcription of Chinese gangjian, for 'annals', corresponding to Tib. deb ther. Thuken 334.

•KANG PA khang pa / gzim khang ngam mi'i sdod khang. Rnam.

•KANG RA cucumber (Lonely Planet Phrasebook).

•KAṆ ṬA KĀ RI See TR XIV no. 4, p. 16. sman zhig. Chödag. Skt. kaṇṭakārī.

•KAṆ ṬA SHAM KA dung tsher ma can. Chödag.

•KAT PŪ RAṂ See shel ga bur.

•KATPUR rtsi sman ga bur gyi ming. CSKG.

•KAT PUR 'DZAG zla ba'i ming. Chödag. CSKG.

•KAD KAD Samdo A V 219v.4; VI 11v.5.

•KAD KYIS KHENGS chu kad kyis gang ba. Chödag. chus kad kyis khengs pa ni kha da chad du gang ba'am chu snod kyi kha dang mnyam mnyam du gang ba'o. Dpe-chos 513.

•KAN gung mdzub ces lag pa'i dkyil mdzub kyi ming. Rnam. A volume-numbering mark (perhaps based on Chinese words for the fingers of the hand?). BKC 55.

•KAN CI GA PUR Kuijp, Rivers 312.

•KAN CHANG a med. term borrowed from Chinese; see Gerke, PT 9.

•KAṆṬA See shrī kaṇṭa.

•KAN TA'O (Chin.) Name of a type of large sword. See Dung-dkar 22.

•KAṆṬA KA RI See Emmerick in BSOAS 58 no. 2 (1995) 406. Wild eggplant.

•KAṆṬA KA RI SMUG PO See ga bra. See stag tsher. DG 235.6.

•KAṆṬA NI LA See a byag tsher sngon.

•KAṆṬA RI = tsher ma byed pa, bya kri, seng tsher. SS 441.4. JD 116. See under bya kri in Clifford, list. KP1 166. = bri ha ti. YTTM 291.18. KP4 487.2. = su phu ti ka, 'dre tsher, mkhas ma, spri shī, reg byed ma, byā ghri, stag ldan, stag tsher. DG 234.6.

•KANTI DA YA KAṂ See a ka ru.

•KANDA KA RI kaṇḍa ka ri ni sman de yin. Utpal 12.2.

•KAṆḌA KA RI DKAR PO Rubus. TDD 167.

•KAṆḌA KA RI SMUG PO Blackberry. Rubus foliolosus. TDD 166.

•KAṆḌA BHŪ ṢHA mgul rgyan gyi ming.

•KANDA RA LA a shwattha dang mtshungs pa'i shing gi ming. CSKG.

•KAṆḌA SHAṂ KA shing tsher ma can gyi ming. CSKG.

•KAṆḌI KA RA See dong ga.

•KAN BA See mkhar ba.

•KAN TSHA GA BUR Kuijp, Rivers 312.

•KAN TSHAL zas kyi bye brag. Chödag.

•KAN 'OG kha nang gi kan gyi 'og rtsa. Utpal 15.5.

•KAN SI TAM See under bi tsi.

•KAB khab. Rnam.

•KAB KOB PA bskams nas ko ba gyong pa lta bu. Chödag. kab kob ni go 'bur gyi ming. Utpal 17.3.

•KAB KHA Rnam.

•KAB TSHE PA bskal pa tha ma'i tshe zas rnyed pa tsam bkab ste bsris pa'i mu ge'i dus. Chödag.

•KAM ZZ = sog pa. 'shoulder [blade].' Bru II 291.2. a clan name. Btsan-lha.

•KAṂ KA = tsha tsha? 4X I 119.4. Perhaps derives from the Kang ka ni (sp?) mantra used for tsha tsha making. dur bya'i ming. CSKG.

•KAM KAM Gold.Ms. I 3r.4. See also kams kams?

•KAM KAM TSIG TSIG Samdo A V 120r.6.

•KAM KU SRI Simioli, AG 56.

•KAM KUS TRA Simioli, AG 56.

•KAM GYI Btsan-lha.

•KAM GYIS BTANG BBNP 484.

•KAM CU kan cu'am kan tshwa la zer. Rnam.

•KAM ME KOM ME lus kyi dbyibs rnam 'gyur. Chödag. skam me skum me zer ba lta bu. Dpe-chos 516. Spelled kam me kam me. Rnam.

•KAṂ SYA KAS STHI 'khar ba'i ming. CSKG. Skt. kaṃsīya (bell metal).

•KAM RAG cambric (type of cloth). Borrowing from English. Francke, Antiquities II 146.

•KAMS KAMS na so rgas nas gzhan la 'gram chu ldang ba'i jo bo de / kyag pa la kams kams zos pa yin. Zhi-byed Coll. V 322.3.

•KAR kar be'u 'bras la brjod. Khyung-sprul 11. gting dang shugs drag gi tshul. Rnam.

•KARKA TA sdig srin. Chödag. Kar ka ta khyim: chu stod zla ba la'ang. Chödag. CSKG. kar ka ṭa; see sdig pa. Skt. karkaṭa (crab, type of plant, the zodiac constellation cancer etc.).

•KAR KA ṬA NA = puṣpa ra ka. = (Nepalese) ki ri ki ri. JD 36.

•KAR KA TĪ gze ma ra mgo'i ming. CSKG.

•KAR KAR Btsan-lha. kar kar thugs langs ni na tsha'i zug gzer langs pa. Utpal 15.4. ka kar gzer zug. Khyung-sprul 11. gzer mig ste zug rngu'i gnad. Rnam. BR.

•KAR KAR BA Samdo A V 124v.5.

•KARKI KA zangs kyi dong tse'i ming. CSKG.

•KARKU RA khyi'i ming. CSKG.

•KAR KOR See ka re ko re.

•KAR GYIS mi bde kar gyis 'gro ni mi bde lhan gyis 'gro. Dpe-chos 505. Btsan-lha. shugs drag gi tshul. Rnam.

•KAR GYIS PHRUG na ba'i bye brag ste kar rtsen kar 'ong. Chödag.

•KAR GYIS ZUG shugs drag gi na ba. Rnam.

•KAR CHAG dkar chag ming du snang. Chödag.

•KARTI KA Rnam. gdong drug dang smin drug la'ang. Chödag. dbang phyug bu chung ba gzhon nu gdong drug gi ming. CSKG. CSKG. Skt. kārttika (n. of Skanda, month when the full moon is near the Pleiades). BR 1.

•KAR DRUG See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 152.

•KARṆA KA spos dkar shing gi ming. CSKG. Skt. karṇaka.

•KARṆṆA rna ba'i ming. CSKG.

•KARṆṆA KĀ rna rgyan gyi ming. CSKG.

•KAR BA An unusual old spelling for dkar po, 'white.' Zhi-byed Coll. V 403.6 etc.

•KARBU RI ba bla'i ming. CSKG. Skt. karbūra (many meanings, among them yellow orpiment).

•KAR BE'U Btsan-lha.

•KAR BHA rnge'u'i ming. CSKG.

•KARMA RABS BRGYAD karma dus gsum mkhyen pa / karma pakshi / karma rang byung rdo rje / karma rol pa'i rdo rje / karma de bzhin gshegs pa / karma mthong ba don ldan / karma chos grags rgya mtsho / karma mi bskyod rdo rje rnams so. 600 110.

•KAR RTSEN kar gyis zug dang 'dra'o. Rnam.

•KAR RDZI perhaps an official who had charge of herds belonging to a clan ruler in E.Bhutan. Sources.

•KAR 'ONG kar gyis zug dang 'dra'o. Rnam.

•KAR SHA PA steng du kar sha pa ni bu can cig bzhag la... kar sha pa ni lce 'og du bcug la. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 30.5.

•KAR SHA PA NI a type of coin, but more anciently and originally the cowrie shell used as currency. 383 275. Karsha pa na: 'gron bu'o. Chödag. karsha pa na'i zur chag ste dngul zho'i dong tse dang la las 'gron bu'i ming dang mtsho tik tu dngul zho phyed las byas pa'i dong rtse'i rnam pa 'dra ba dang / rnam 'byed las / ma sha ka lnga ni karsha pa na'i bzhi cha'i dpe yin par gsungs pa dang / yang na de la dngos dang ming du btags pa tsam gnyis / dang po ni dngul gyi dong tse dang / gnyis pa de'i rin gyis 'gron bu'o. Chödag. karsha pa ṇa ni gser sogs kyi dong rtse. Utpal 16.5. dkar sha pa ni'i khog par brdzangs te. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 244.3. See mgron bu, 'cowrie.' See discussion by Schopen in IIJ 44 (2001) 107. Mvy. no. 9377 says this is a silver coin worth 1,600 cowries. Dung-dkar 42 argues against it's meaning being cowries, saying that it means money of all kinds. Skt. kārṣāpaṇa. Banerjee, Sarvāstivāda Literature 170, also dismisses the 'cowrie' meaning, saying it means a coin (or rather a weight) in gold and silver. kārṣa pa ṇa 'di rin po che'i dong tse bye brag pa'i ming legs sbyar yin te / kārṣa pa ṇa / zhes pa bye brag rtogs byed du kārṣa pa ṇa 'gron bu stong drug brgya'i rin tshad du bsgyur zhing / 'chi med mdzod du / kārṣa [64r6] pa na dong tse yin / rkang pa dang ni bzhi cha'o / zhes gsungs / tsandra byā ka ra ṇar / kārṣa pa ṇa sa ha sra su wa rṇa sha ta ma na las yang na'o zhes pa'i dper brjod du dwi kārṣa pa ṇaḥ gser zho gnyis la bsgyur yod pas / des na kārṣa pa ṇa gser zho zhes [64v1] par 'gyur ba'i skabs kyang yod. Dalai Lama VII, Yig. DCD 9. For the karsha as a known monetary unit among Aramaic speakers in Egypt in 6th century BCE, see Thomas in JRAS (April 1916) 366.

•KARSHA'I 'BRAS ba ru ra'i shing gi ming. CSKG.

•KARSHĀ PAṆ dong tse'i ming. CSKG.

•KAL Btsan-lha. OT for khal. Dung-dkar 45. Rnam.

•KALPA as a type of tantric text, see 166 492. See under rtog pa.

•KASHMĪ chu lha'i shing gi ming. CSKG.

•KASHMĀ RA gur gum gyi ming.

•KASHMIR DZA KURKUM kha che'i gur gum gyi ming. CSKG.

•KASTU RĪ gla rtsi'i ming. CSKG. Skt. kastūrī, kastūrikā (musk). Upadhyaya in Mishra, ABS 351. In Darma language, the female musk deer — kasturī in Nepali — is called laju/ladzu. See GSB 99. According to Anya King's dissertation (I.U. 2007), p. 28, the Skt. is a loan from Greek word for 'beaver.'

•KASPU dung dkar gyi ming. CSKG.

•KAS PU RI (sp?) See gla rtsi. Seems to be a misreading for kastu rī.

•KAS BYA See se rgod.

•KAS MA HRAL a type of garment explained in ZZFC 239.

•KI As an exclamation of warrior-like rage, see Dung-dkar 45.

•KI KANG sa bdag ki kang. Chödag. gza' 'a mas bdag. Utpal 15.2. Rnam.

•KI KI RA nus ldan chen po'i ming. CSKG. Skt. kikirā (tear to pieces, shred).

•KI KIR = kyir ya. = Skt. kriya. P. tib. 849.

•KI SGRA Hi-Hi Laut (onomat.). Kaschewsky2. ki sgra ki btab. Khyung-sprul 11.

•KĪ SGROGS bya ne tso'i ming. CSKG.

•KI TA KA srog chags grog ma'i ming du snang. Chödag. Skt. kūlaka (anthill)? The 'bug' (srin bu) ki ta ka occurs in metaphors in the Vinayavāstu.

•KI BTAB PA ku sgra sgrogs pa'am ki rgyab pa / ri bo'i rtse nas ki btab pa lta bu. NZT.

•KI MI bya gag gi ming. CSKG.

•KI'U ri sgog. Utpal 15.2.

•KI RA a type of bird described in Yongdan, TCW 105.

•KI RI KI RI See karka ṭa na.

•KI'U LANG ka pi la ste / ser skya'am a ga ru'i ming / ka'u lang ngam ke'u lang la'ang bri snang. Rnam.

•KI LI Stein.

•KĪ SHA'I 'DAB shing ā bam rga'i ming. CSKG.

•KI ṢHA KA See pri yang ku.

•KI SHAR Geheul (onomat.). Kaschewsky2.

•KI SWO HO GSUM Dung-dkar 45.

•KINGKA RA OT Skt. = ci bgyi, q.v. Blaṅ 307.4. pho nya 'am g.yog po. Chödag. Skt. for 'robber' (and still other meanings). Dung-dkar 45. king ka ra pho nya. Khyung-sprul 11. Rnam. BR.

•KING NGE ? Samdo A V 78r.2.

•KING SHU KA rgya skyegs shing ngo. Chödag. kingshu ka ni rgya skyegs kyi ming. Utpal 11.5. Skt. kiṃśuka (Butea frondosa)? It has red flowers (so that jackals could mistake them for meat). Jamspal, Treasury 139. kingshu ka ni shug pa rgya skyegs sogs. Khyung-sprul 11. Its fruit, while abundant, is useless for eating [for parrots?]. Hahn, VG 407 (much discussion on p. 408).

•KĪM KA RA srog chags gcig. BD of T & TB I 910. Templeman, SIL 86.

•KIM KHAB brocade. LW 477. This is originally Urdu kinkhwab, or kinkhab. It was generally lacking in Buddhist symbols and Chinese motifs, and was used more for robes of noble families rather than religious purposes.

•KIM PA kim pa dug [mo] nyung [dug shing zhig kyang bshad]. Khyung-sprul 11. NZT. kim pa / dpal mgon klu sgrub kyis / 'dod pa rnams na phung krol bskyed pa ste / rgyal ba'i dbang pos kim pa'i 'bras 'drar gsungs / zhes pa'i 'grel par de [56v5] ltar na 'dod pa rnams ni bde ba ltar snang yang phyis 'phung ba skyed par byed pa kim pa'i 'bras bu dang 'dra bar rgyal ba'i dbang pos dran pa nye bar bzhag pa'i mdo las gsungs te / 'bras bu de ni phyi bzang la nang ngan pa zhig yod ces grag go [56v6] zhes pa dang / chang gi nyes pa gsungs skabs / ji skad du / 'thung pa'i tshe na chang zhim ste / rnam smin tshe na mchog tu tsha / kim pa ka nang kim pa ka / chang zhes mkhas pa rnams kyis bshad / ces dang por zhim pa ltar snang yang phyis [57r1] sdug bsngal bskyed pa zhig la gsungs. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•KIM PA'I 'BRAS BU dug shing gi 'bras bu. Chödag. a fruit good on the outside, but bad inside. Seems tasty at first, but makes you sick later. Btsan-lha. shing ser po tsher ma can zhig yin. Utpal 12.2. See Dung-dkar. Rnam. BR, with quite a long discussion. DCD 9. It seems to resemble the Nepal words for 'mulberry,' which are kimu (in Nepali) and kimbū (in Newar). Monier-Williams has an entry for kimpāka that may well be relevant: "m. a Cucurbitaceous plant (of a very bad taste, Trichosanthes palmata); Strychnos nux vomica L., ({am}) n. the fruit of Trichosanthes palmata." I saw a blog on this subject by William Tuladhar-Douglas. The simile of the kim pa, or kim pa ka, is used in canonical works, including Vinaya.

•KIRTI RI sreg pa'i ming. CSKG.

•KIR BA bskor ba'am 'khyil ba'i don. Chödag. Btsan-lha.

•KIR BA NA DG 90.2.

•KIR YA OT spelling for kriya (as in Kriya-tantra). Hackin, Formulaire 3.

•KU a cry of the sgra bla. TS6 130.

•KU KU SGROG khyim bya de pho'o. Chödag. bya gag gam khyim bya de pho'i ming. CSKG.

•KU KU TA khyim bya de pho'o. Chödag.

•KU KU PHYANG MO YUG Btsan-lha.

•KU KU RA TSA See khyi.

•KU DKAR See kyi lce dkar po (khyi lce dkar po?).

•KUKKĀṬAḤ khyim bya'i ming ngam bya de pho'i ming la'ang. CSKG.

•KUKKU SGRA SGROGS khyim bya'am bya de pho'i ming. CSKG.

•KUKKU ṬA bya ku lā la'i ming. CSKG.

•KUKKU BHA bya kutpa la'i ming. CSKG. Mention of this jungle fowl, kukkubha, is a characteristic of the Bāṇa (or Kanauj) group of poets.

•KUKKU RAḤ khyi yi ming. CSKG.

•KU SGRA don med chu'i sgra lta bu. Chödag. ZZFC 259.

•KU CO ca co'i bur sgra. Utpal 14.3. ku co cho nge 'debs sam skad che ba. Khyung-sprul 12. Rnam. khyi rgan ku co 'don pa la // rgyu mtshan med par gzhan dag rgyug. "If the old dogs bark, the others run without reason." Thuken 344.

•KU CO SGROG PA See Dung-dkar.

•KU CO CHE don med chu'i sgra lta bu / ku sgra ku co 'don pa. Chödag.

•KU CO DI RI RI brnyas thabs kyi rgod gtam lta bu / ku dir bzhad sgra / ku re kyal ka / ku ri tshig. Chödag.

•KU CHO Btsan-lha. 'Gos, Stong-thun 21.6. DCD 9.

•KU ṬA DZO KU MA dug mo nyung. BR.

•KU TA RA NA DG 274.4. A type of dur byid.

•KU TRA ku tra spos su mi rung bas. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 398.4.

•KU THUG (M.T. for C.T. 'u thug) to be in despair. NNV.

•KU THE RA rlung gi bye brag ming. CSKG.

•KU DAN NA TA See rgya phrom.

•KU DIR BZHAD SGRA brnyas thabs kyi rgod gtam lta bu / ku co di ri ri / ku ri kyal ka / ku ri tshig. Chödag.

•KU DOG gu dog gam dam dog pa. Rnam.

•KU NA LA n. of a bird. Toh. no. 217 (Śrīgupta Sūtra), p. 544.1.

•KU ṆI dga' byed shing gi ming. CSKG.

•KU PA LA utpal spyi'i ming. CSKG.

•KU PI SU MA See li shi.

•KU BA bil ba'i shing sdong dang 'bras bu. Chödag. Said to be the squash in Karmay, Arrow 348. 64 I 30.2. ku ba [bi wa mo rigs snod byed pa] 'bru. Khyung-sprul 11. NZT.

•KU BA KHO MA Also, kha kub. bitter gourd. CTEV 27.

•KU BA CHUNG See bil ba.

•KU BA CHUNG BA shing tog bil ba. Rnam. bil ba'i ming. BR.

•KU BA CHEN See ka bed.

•KU BA LA utpal spyi'i ming. Chödag.

•KU BYI MANG SKYES ku byi mang skyes zhes pa ku byi ni rdzu 'phrul dang / mang skyes ni dpag med de rdzu 'phrul dpag med ces pa'o. 506A 337.

•KU MA NA PA rnga mong. Chödag.

•KU MA NĀ BA rnga mong gi ming. CSKG.

•KU MIR Derived from Skt. kumbhīra, 'crocodile' (?). Aris, Discourse 61.

•KU MU TA in Tibetan, sa mos; n. of white utpal lotus. BBNP 476. Chödag.

•KU MU DA ku mu da ni bsgyur nas dga' 'am sa mos zhes pa yin te / utpa la dkar po'i ming yin. Eimer, Dbyangs 56. utpal dkar po'i ming. CSKG.

•KU MU DA'I GNYEN zla ba'i ming. Chödag. CSKG.

•KU MU DĪ zla ba'i 'od zer gyi ming. CSKG.

•KU MU LO MA dpag bsam shing dang shing yongs 'du sa brtol. Chödag.

•KU MUD Skt. kumuda. white water-lily (said to bloom at night under the rays of the moon). Could be translated 'night-lotus'. Stein. utpal dkar po'i ming. Chödag. CSKG. kun mud ni utpal dkar po. Utpal 11.5. zla ba shar na ku mu da // kha 'byed 'gyur gyi padma zum. When the moon rises kumuds will open, while lotuses close. Jamspal, Treasury 69.

•KU MUD DGA' tsa ko ra ka / ku mud bcud 'thungs / ku mud zas can. Chödag. CSKG.

•KU MUD DGRA nyi ma'i ming. Chödag. CSKG. Note: Since the kumuda blooms at night, the sun is said to be the 'enemy of the kumuda'.

•KU MUD CAN ku mu da'i tshul lam ku mud ldan. Chödag. CSKG.

•KU MUD BCUD 'THUNGS tsa ko ra ka / ku mud zas can / ku mud dga'. Chödag. CSKG.

•KU MUD GNYEN CSKG.

•KU MUD GNYEN BYED MKHAS zla ba'i ming. CSKG.

•KU MUD LDAN CSKG.

•KU MUD PHAN zla ba'i 'od zer. Chödag. CSKG.

•KU MUD TSHAL utpa la'i tshal. Chödag.

•KU MUD TSHOGS utpa la'i tshal. Chödag. CSKG.

•KU MUD BZHAD DUS mtshan mo'i dus. CSKG.

•KU MUD ZAS CAN tsa ko ra ka / ku mud dga' / ku mud bcud 'thungs. Chödag. tsa ko ra kaḥ zhes bya zhig yin pa dang gong mo la'ang zer. CSKG.

•KU MUD YI NAGS TSHAL CSKG.

•KU MUD LO MA CSKG.

•KU MUN rkun ma. Btsan-lha.

•KU TSAN DAN tsan dan ngan pa. Chödag. CSKG. See tsan dan dmar po.

•KU TSAM cung tsam. Btsan-lha. DCD 9.

•KU TSU Indian grammarian's way of referring to the letters ka through nya. Dge-'dun-chos-'phel-gyi Gsung-rtsom (1990) I 285.

•KU RTSI PHRA MO a [particular] tiny underground bug. sa 'og 'bu phra mo zhes pa'i don. Dung-dkar 55.

•KU'I Of the 9 'souls' six that were obtained from one's mother sink into the earth after death and become a gui, 'ghost.' Three rise into the sky and become Shīn. Thuken 341.

•KU YA the 'clouds' that form in urine (in urinalysis). gcin pa la sprin chags pa de'o. Chödag. ku ya ni nad pa'i chu brtag la chags pa'i ku ya. Utpal 15.5. sediment, or rather scum. SRZT 47. ku ya dri chu'i nang yod. Khyung-sprul 11. Rnam. I was thinking this ought to be Indic in origins, but failed in my efforts to find a Sanskritic word of related meaning.

•KU YANG bag yang ste / sems gu dog ma yin pa'i don. Rnam.

•KU YANGS bag yangs. Chödag. BR.

•KU YANGS DOG gu yangs dog gu yangs pa dang gu dog pa. Rnam.

•KU YIG zhang skad de / bka' zhes pa yin. 506A 335.

•KU RA See gu gul.

•KU RA RI 'di bod skad du bsgyur na sgra sgrogs zhes pa ste / bya ku ra ri zhes pa zhig yod pa de yin pa mngon brjod kyi gzhung mang por bshad. Dung-dkar 55.

•KU RAN HA nyid dga' zhes bya ste lcam pa'i me tog. Rtse-le VIII.

•KU RAṆḌA KA A plant; see discussion in Silk, Dissert. 310.

•KU RU ku byug. cuckoo. NZT.

•KU RU KHA 'x'. "xxx 'di ku ru kha gsum." Chödag. Also spelled ko ru kha, sku ru kha; the ku ru is interpreted as 'paddlewheel.' It indicates an elipsis in the text. See Beyer CT Lang 54.

•KU RU PIN DA rdo zhig. Chödag. CSKG.

•KU RU BEN NU zhe nye dang rdo zhig gi ming. Rnam.

•KU RU RA ngang pa. Chödag.

•KU RE phas smra. Gces 585.4. bzhad gad dam dgod bro slong ba'i rtsed mo'i ming. CSKG. Sport. Deriv. from Skt. krīḍā. Bhattacharya, LW 353, no. 3. Rnam. BR.

•KU RE KYAL KA brnyas thabs kyi rgod gtams / ku co di ri / ku dir bzhad sgra / ku ri tshig rnams don gcig. Chödag. CSKG. Note the expression ku di ri co di ri found in Bka'-chems Ka-khol-ma (1989), p. 233, which is instead so di ri in the parallel passage in Lde'u 284.

•KU RES rtsed mo byas pa. Utpal 14.2.

•KU LĀ LA bya zhig / ku ṇa la. Chödag.

•KU LEGS THA See rgya sran.

•KU SHA rtswa ku sha'am rtsa mchog. Chödag. = ngan sel. JD 169. Rnam. Tiger grass, kusha grass. Thysanolaena maxima. TDD 191.

•KU SHA CAN ko shi ga. Chödag.

•KU SHA BHANDHA DG 99.2.

•KU SHA LI ku sā li dang 'dra'o. Rnam.

•KU SHU apple. shing sdong dang shing thog ku shu. Chödag. JD 92. Dhongthog 20. DG 205.1. It would seem to be a rather rare and precious fruit, to judge from 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 525.3, where it appears in a list of offerings.

•KU SHU'I KHAMS mthing gi ming. Chödag. CSKG.

•KU SHUN KP1 173.5.

•KU SA LI ku sā li ni bod skad du bsgyur na / dge ba can zhes bya yang / ding sang phal skad du ku su lu zhes bya btang la zer ro. Rtse-le VIII 429. dge ba can dang mkhas pa la'ang. Chödag. ku sa li ni ri sul dge byed ming. Khyung-sprul 11-12. Rnam. BR.

•KU SU MA me tog spyi la'ang. Chödag. CSKG.

•KU SU LI ras. Rtse-le VIII 429. 1. sprang po. 2. ri sul la gnas pa'i dge byed pa. NZT.

•KU SU LU See under ku sa li. Btsan-lha. bcos min. Chödag. BR. rgyun dum bur bsil ba dang / dum bu rgyun du sgreng ba'i sku su lu pa mang kyang. Zhi-byed Coll. V 227.7. See Dung-dkar 59. DCD 10.

•KU SU LU PA Zhi-byed Coll. II 267.5.

•KU SUMBHA Simioli, AG 63. See gur gum.

•KU BSRO Btsan-lha.

•KU HU Btsan-lha. ku hu'i mgrin ni khu byug gi mgrin pa'o Utpal 17.3. ku hu 'don / bya khu byug. Chödag. ku hu'i mgrin can / dpyid kyi pho nya'am khu byug / ku hu'i sgra ldan. Chödag. ku hu khu byug. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KU HU'I MGRIN LDAN CSKG.

•KU HU'I MGRIN CAN khu byug. CSKG.

•KU HU'I SGRA LDAN khu byug. CSKG.

•KU HU 'DON CSKG.

•KU HRANG = rkyang. 'wild ass.' Karmay, Treasury. Btsan-lha. BR.

•KUKKU SGRA SGROGS khyim bya de pho. Chödag.

•KUG tshur bkug zin pa'i don du snang. Chödag. 'gugs pa ste / tshur bkug zin pa'i don. Rnam.

•KUGS PA khugs pa ste / tshur bkug zin pa'am bsdus par go. Rnam.

•KUNG KU kungku gur gum. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KUNG KU MAṂ See gur gum.

•KUNG KUNG kong kong. Rnam.

•KUNG GSUM Dung-dkar 59.

•KUNG GSUM CHIN DGU Dung-dkar 59.

•KUD An OT term, not adequately explained, but taken from context to mean 'rule.' Kazushi Iwao, An Analysis of the Term rkya in the Context of the Social System of the Old Tibetan Empire, Memoirs of the Toyo Bunko 67 (2009) 89-108, at p. 103, n. 27.

•KUN [1] all (*both substantive and adjective). See discussion in. Hill, Aspirated 481-482. [2] ZZ = rog po. 'black [animal]' Bru II 291.3.

•KUN KA 491 179.5. Have noticed this also several times in one of the Bon histories called Sgrags pa gling grags (as contained in SFHB, for example, at 65.4, where it evidently means 'everyone included').

•KUN KI As ex. of an irreg. Old Tantra spelling, corresponding to kun gzhi, see the work of Dge-rtse in Rnying Rgyud 1973 XXXVI 455.

•KUN DKRIS See under kun nas dkris pa. kun dkris ni nyon mongs pa'i spyi ming. Utpal 18.4. mdzod las / ngo tsha med dang khrel med dang / phrag dog ser sna rgod pa dang / 'gyod dang rmugs dang gnyid dang ni / kun nas dris pa rnam pa brgyad / khro dang 'chab po zhes gsungs pas nyon mongs brgyad dam bcu tham pa'o // 'dod chags sogs ni kun dkris ma yin no. Chödag. nyon mongs. CSKG. Rnam. BR, spelled kun dkri. Mvy. 2139 gives Skt. for kun nas dkris pa as either paryupasthāna or paryavasthāna. DCD 10.

•KUN DKRIS BRGYAD A subgroup formed by 8 of the 20 nye-nyon. See Dung-dkar 59.

•KUN SKYED BYED snying la'ang. Chödag. snying. CSKG.

•KUN BRKOS rdzing bu dang khron pa la'ang. Chödag. CSKG.

•KUN KHYAB 1. nam mkha'. 2. phyogs. Blaṅ 526. nam mkha' dang phyogs la'ang / 'phrog byed. Chödag. CSKG.

•KUN KHYAB DPAL MO nam mkha'. CSKG.

•KUN MKHYEN sangs rgyas dang dbang phyug chen po'ang / kun gzigs. Chödag. CSKG. Dung-dkar 59.

•KUN MKHYEN NYI MA'I GNYEN CSKG.

•KUN 'KHEBS nam mkha'i ming dang mun pa la'ang. Chödag. CSKG.

•KUN GYI MA lha mo u māḥ la'ang / kun tu shis ma. Chödag.

•KUN GYIS BKUR BA RNAM PA GSUM DCD 10-11.

•KUN GRUB ston dus. CSKG.

•KUN GRUB ZLA BA srang gi khyim la'ang / zla ba dag pa / ston zla tha chung. Chödag.

•KUN DGA' shing pho stag lo dang thams cad dga'. Chödag. shing stag lo'i ming dang dga' ba'i ming la'ang. CSKG.

•KUN DGA' MNYAM SPRO Dpa'-ris.

•KUN DGA' LDAN PA Skt. Manoramā (?). N. of a metre. Hahn, JV 37.

•KUN DGA' RA BA Skt. ārāma. Generally speaking, in origin, a walled garden. It is defined as 'a place where bhikṣus stay' (dge 'dun bzhugs pa'i gnas) in 171 440.2. DCD 17 identifies it as meaning temple with the three supports for worship.

•KUN DGA' RWA BA dkon mchog gi kun dga' rwa ba dang me tog gi ldum rwa la'ang / gling dga' / kun rwa. Chödag. CSKG. Discussion in Dung-dkar 76-77.

•KUN DGA' RA BA PA ārāmika. Monastic servant. Schopen in JIABS 17 (1994) 163, 165. Silk, Dissert. 219. Dung-dkar 77. Rnam.

•KUN DGA'I GOS gos mchog. Chödag. CSKG.

•KUN 'GENGS PA khyab 'jug la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN 'GEBS kun 'khebs te nam mkha'. Chödag.

•KUN 'GYED tshangs pa la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN 'GYED GZHON NU lha'i sman pa spun gyi ming. CSKG.

•KUN 'GRO what goes everywhere or pervades (the sky, space). nam mkha' dang dbang phyug chen po la'ang / nyon mongs kun 'gro / kun 'gro'i bshul dang slob. Chödag. nam mkha' dang lha dbang phyug chen po dang 'dreg mkhan dang dur byi dkar po dang sbrul gyi ming. CSKG. kun 'gro lnga / tshor ba 'du shes sems pa reg pa yid byed lnga ste / sems kun gyi 'khor du 'gro ba'am 'byung ba'i phyir ro. Chödag.

•KUN 'GRO'I RGYU Tshad Rig.

•KUN 'GRO LNGA Dung-dkar 77.

•KUN 'GRO'I SHUL lam bzang la'ang / kun 'gro. Chödag.

•KUN 'GRO'I BSHUL thams cad 'gro sa'i lam gyi ming. CSKG.

•KUN 'GRO'I SROL lam bzang / kun 'gro. Chödag.

•KUN SGROGS sgra'i ming. CSKG.

•KUN BSGAD (??) A new name given on completion of Sanskrit grammar course. Dungkar in TJ 8 no 4 (Wint 1993) 43.

•KUN CHUB tshig don khongs su chud pa'i ming. CSKG.

•KUN CHUB PA thams cad rtogs pa'i shes rab ming. Chödag. CSKG.

•KUN 'JOMS brgya byin dang chu srin la'ang. Chödag. CSKG.

•KUN RJES 'BYUNG dur byed (i.e. dur byid). Chödag. CSKG.

•KUN NYON GZUNG RTOG Dung-dkar 77.

•KUN NYON GSUM Dung-dkar 77-78.

•KUN TA from where. Skt. kutaḥ. Bhattacharya, LW 353, no. 4.

•KUNTA LA skra yi ming. CSKG.

•KUN TU [1] rgyun mi 'chad pa'i ming. CSKG. always. [2] yongs su tshang ba'i ming la'ang. CSKG. [3] everywhere. C&LT 167.

•KUN TU SKEM BYED me dang me lha la'ang. Chödag. CSKG.

•KUN TU SKYO BA Skt. saṃvega, 'aesthetic shock'. See Schopen (1986) note 8.

•KUN TU 'KHRUGS PA g.yo zhing 'gul ba'i ming. CSKG.

•KUN TU GAS spang rgyan me tog la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN TU 'GRO chu yi ming dang ne tso la'ang / kun tu rgyu ba. Chödag.

•KUN TU RGYU [1] epithet of the wind, the wind god, the sage (rishi), marmots, srin po, and sinful demon. rlung dang rlung lha dang drang srong dang phyi ba dang srin po dang bdud sdig can la'ang / kun tu 'gro. Chödag. [2] See spos dkar. Dung-dkar 78. [3] wandering ascetic (non-Buddhist). Skt. parivrājaka. Mvy. 3522. Pāli paribbājaka. EoB VII 317-320. I see that the Abhiniṣkramaṇa uses instead kun tu 'tsho, although this might be a distinct type of ascetic. DCD 17.

•KUN TU RGYUG PA Skt. ādhāvamān (?) 'laundered, clean.'

•KUN TU RTOG PA sems kyi rnam par rtog pa ste / sems la phyin ci log gi rtog pa sna tshogs 'char ba dang / sems zhi bar mi gnas pa dang / yul mngon sum du mthong ba min par rtogs pas sgro btags sna tshogs byed pa'o. Gser Sbram 357.

•KUN TU SBYOR BA fetters, bonds. Skt. saṃyojana. Mvy. 2134. EoB VII 683-684. Dipen Barua, Developments of the Concept 'Fetter' (Samyojana) in the Pâli Canon, thesis, Univ. of Hong Kong (2017). PDF.

•KUN TU SBYOR BA GSUM Dung-dkar 78.

•KUN TU MIG LDAN "the fabulous Tibetan tree on which gemstones grow." P.G. Maxwell-Stuart, Homer's Earrings, The American Journal of Philology, vol. 108, no. 3 (Aut 1987) 411-415.

•KUN TU 'TSHE BA srin po la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN TU BZANG PO [1] Total Good. Skt. Samantabhadra. 'Good every which way.' sangs rgyas dang byang sems shig la'ang. Chödag. [2] There is an herb by this name, generally called rtswa kun tu bzang po. See See Ian Baker, Heart of the World 193.

•KUN TU BZANG PO'I SPYOD PA Rhoton, CD 110.

•KUN TU RIG shes rab ming. Chödag.

•KUN TU SHIS MA lha mo u māḥ kun gyi ma / kun la bkra shis ma. Chödag.

•KUN TE A type of water vessel. See DCD 17.

•KUN BTAGS = kun brtags. Skt. parikalpita. Thurman. Tshad Rig. rtog pa'i yul du btags pa tsam mam gzhan dbang dang yongs grub gang rung ma yin pa'i rtog pas brtags pa la zer / kun brtags. Chödag. Dung-dkar 79.

•KUN BTAGS GNYIS Tshad Rig. Dung-dkar 79.

•KUN RTOG sems pa'i rnam par rtog pa. Chödag. This word seems exactly identical to rnam rtog (although I'm not completely sure if this is always the case).

•KUN RTOG SKYE GNAS 'dod lha'i ming la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN RTOGS BRGYAD CU Dung-dkar 79-80.

•KUN BRTAGS =kun btags. imagined [nature/marks]. conceptual contrivance. I translated it as 'fanciful ascriptions' as it occurs in Lde'u 174 (here used for the intellectual ideas of the Tīrthikas). rtog pa'i yul du btags pa tsam mam gzhan dbang dang yongs grub gang rung ma yin pa'i rtog pas brtags pa la zer / kun btags. Chödag. Sometimes it seems to mean [customary] 'convention.' dam pa'i zhal nas / de la ngo tsha rgyu myed / ngo tsha 'jig rten pa'i kun brtags yin / bu chung la ngo tsha myed te kho kun btags la ma goms pa yin / kun btags brtan du song gi ngo tsha dran pa yin te. Zhi-byed Coll. II 312.4.

•KUN BRTAGS BRGYAD Dung-dkar 80.

•KUN BRTAGS DANG 'BREL BA'I RNAM G.YENG GI RNAM RTOG BCU Dung-dkar 80.

•KUN MTHONG me long la'ang. Chödag.

•KUNDA ku mu da. Gces 581.6. Stein. kun dā ni me tog dkar po zhig. Utpal 11.4. kunda ste me tog dkar po zhig / kun da. Chödag. thabs kyi zla ba kun dha dang / shes rab kyi nyi ma sin dhu ra gnyis. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 243.7. LW 470. Dung-dkar 91. kun da [me tog dkar po] ba su la. Khyung-sprul 11.

•KUNDA'I GNYEN zla ba'am zla ba'i 'od. Chödag.

•KUṆDĪ ril ba spyi blugs kyi ming. CSKG. See ril ba spyi blugs.

•KUN DU RU LW 468. Skt. kunduru. Mvy. no. 6260. Upadhyaya in Mishra, ABS 350. See pog spos.

•KUN DONG OT = btsong ('onion'). Blaṅ 301.4. Btsan-lha. btsong. Utpal 15.2. BR. btsong sgog pa'i bye brag. Chödag. kun dong sgog btson. Khyung-sprul 11. = sgog pa. = btsong. Lcang-skya. Rnam. DCD 17-18. scallion. CTEV 24.

•KUN 'DAR MA all-encompassing channel. Germano, Poetic Thought 822, 828. Achard, L'Essence 134.

•KUN 'DUL RTA rlung dang rlung lha. Chödag.

•KUN 'DUS 'all-inclusive' (adj. modifying Bodhicitta). Klong-chen-pa 4.1.

•KUN 'DUS NOR BU'I LUGS A style of visualizing the lama alone as representing all the deities. Dung-dkar 82.

•KUN 'DED PO gshin rje. Chödag.

•KUN LDAN lcags pho byi lo la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN NAS kun nas ni dus rnams pa thams cad. kun tu ni dus rtag tu'am yongs su. Utpal 17.2.

•KUN NAS DKRIS PA Skt. paryavasthāna. Mvy. no. 862. entrapment. Wayman, BI 193. active defilements (as distinguished from anuśaya).

•KUN NAS KHRU BZHI Dung-dkar 83.

•KUN NAS 'KHOR YUG kho ra khor yug. Chödag.

•KUN NAS DGOD bzhad gad. Chödag.

•KUN NAS 'GEBS btsun mo'i pho brang la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN NAS NYON MONGS PA'I RTEN 'BREL DRUG Dung-dkar 83.

•KUN NAS LDANG BA outburst. Skt. paryutthāna. Mvy. 2137. See EoB VII 329 (pariyuṭṭhāna).

•KUN NAS MNAR SEMS PA'I RGYU DGU Dung-dkar 83. Perhaps same as the kun gyis rang ba'i rgyu dgu (Jinpa, Mind Training 385).

•KUN NAS 'BAB char pa la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN NAS BZANG rgyal po'i pho brang la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN NAS SLONG with a motive [of] (but preceded by genitive). C&LT 167.

•KUN NAS BSLANGS was incited.

•KUN SNANG DANG PA CAN lha min mtsho la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN SNANG 'BAR BA nyi 'od 'bar ba la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN SPANGS Dung-dkar 83.

•KUN SPYOD thams cad kyi spyod pa. Chödag. DCD 18. I have seen it as translation of Skt. sañcāra, meaning 'wandering, going together, course, passage.' Course of life might be an OK translation.

•KUN PHAN zla ba'am zla ba'i 'od la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN PHAN NYIN BYED Dung-dkar 84. The sun.

•KUN PHAN BDE BYED a medicinal preparation. See se 'bru kun phan bde byed.

•KUN PHAN NOR BU Dpa'-ris.

•KUN PHUG Btsan-lha.

•KUN BYANG = kun nas nyon rmongs pa dang rnam par byang ba.

•KUN BYANG PHYOGS GNYIS kun nas nyon mongs phyogs dang rnam byang phyogs gnyis. Chödag. Dung-dkar 84.

•KUN BYED tshangs pa la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN BYED RGYAL PO See spang rtsi. a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 54. Lag-len 35.4. See Nianggajia, "White Pill," p. 233 for discussion.

•KUN 'BAB grong khyer chen po. Chödag.

•KUN 'BYUNG sdug bsngal gyi rgyu la zer te sdug bsngal kun 'byung ba'i phyir ro. Chödag.

•KUN 'BYUNG GNYIS 'khor bar 'phen pa'i las kyi kun 'byung dang / de kun nas slong byed kyi nyon mongs dug gsum gnyis ni sdug bsngal kun 'byung ba'i gzhi rtsa lta bu yin pas kun 'byung zhes brjod srol yod. Dung-dkar 85.

•KUN SBYOR nyon mongs kun sbyor la'ang / 'khrig spyod la'ang. Chödag. kun tu sbyor ba. Skt. saṃyojana. A particular state, or synonym, of the kleśas. Mvy. no. 2134.

•KUN SBYOR DGU rjes su chags pa'i kun sbyor / kong khro ba'i kun sbyor / nga rgyal gyi kun sbyor / ma rig pa'i kun sbyor / lta ba'i kun sbyor / mchog tu 'dzin pa'i kun sbyor / the tshom gyi kun sbyor / phrag dog gi kun sbyor / ser sna'i kun sbyor rnams so. 600 119. Dung-dkar 85.

•KUN SBYOR CAN 'dod lha la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN MO mthong snang dgra' ru red pa kun mo'i 'gros. Zhi-byed Coll. I 291.5. kun mo'i snying sha zos nas kyang. Zhi-byed Coll. I 302.6. rgyal po'i kun mo gang yin de ni tsad bcad nas // gyad kyi nor bu 'di ni thabs kyis brtsal bar bya. Zhi-byed Coll. I 312.2. dran pa'i mel rtse srung mkhas pas // 'khrul pa'i kun mos klags mas rnyed. Zhi-byed Coll. I 320.6.

•KUN TSHI CAN shing kun tshi can. See nim pa.

•KUN 'DZIN sa pho byi la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN RDZOB Dung-dkar 85.

•KUN RDZOB RGYU 'BRAS Dung-dkar 85.

•KUN RDZOB 'JIG RTEN PA'I DBANG BZHI Dung-dkar 86.

•KUN RDZOB GNYIS yang dag pa'i kun rdzob dang / log pa'i kun rdzob bo. 600 3. Dung-dkar 86.

•KUN RDZOB BDEN PA Dung-dkar 86-87.

•KUN RDZOB BYANG CHUB KYI SEMS Dung-dkar 87.

•KUN RDZOB PA don dam pa sgrib par byed pas na'o. Chödag.

•KUN RDZOB GSUM Dung-dkar 87.

•KUN GZHI 'all basis.' Vijñānavāda idea used, but not accepted as ultimate in, Rdzogs-chen thought. See 91 I 582.6 ff.; 367 II 133.1. kun gyi gzhi dang kun gzhi rnam shes. Chödag. Dung-dkar 87

1. ye don gyi kun gzhi.

2. sbyor ba don gyi kun gzhi.

3. bag chags sna tshogs pa'i kun gzhi.

4. bag chags lus kyi kun gzhi. Thondup BM 211-2.

•KUN GZHI'I RNAM SHES Tshad Rig. Dung-dkar 87-88

•KUN ZAS me dang me lha la'ang. Chödag.

•KUN GZIGS sangs rgyas dang dbang phyug chen po la'ang Chödag.

•KUN BZANG TSHOGS MA BSAGS SGRIB PA MA SBYANGS PAR SANGS RGYAS PA Dung-dkar 89.

•KUN RIG PA mkhas pa dang kun shes. Chödag.

•KUN RIG SEMS Rnying Rgyud 1982 I 675.5.

•KUN LA BKRA SHIS MA lha mo u māh kun tu shis ma. Chödag.

•KUN LA RGYUG PA [something of] general application, all-purpose. Lde'u 262.

•KUN LA LTA khyab 'jug la'ang / kun shes. Chödag.

•KUN LAS BTUS PA Skt. samuccaya. DCD 18.

•KUN SHAR sha khu. meat broth. Dbus-pa no. 571.

•KUN SHES mkhas pa / kun rig pa. Chödag.

•KUN SHES GCIG RDUGS Dpa'-ris.

•KUN SHES PA khyab 'jug la. Chödag.

•KUN SHES SHO GAM PA Btsan-lha. kun shes pa'i sho gam pa. DCD 18.

•KUN BSHAD skyabs su 'gro ba'i bshad pa. Chödag. Dung-dkar 90.

•KUN SLONG 'attitude' = sems bskyed. Stein. motivation. DCD 18.

•KUN SLONG GNYIS rgyu'i kun slong dang / dus kyi kun slong ngo. 600 4. Dung-dkar 90-91.

•KUN GSAL 1. nam mkha'. 2. nyi ma. Blaṅ 526. nam mkha'i ming. Chödag.

•KUN GSOD srin po'i ming. Chödag.

•KUN BSAL sel ba pos bsal zin pa. Chödag.

•KUN SLONG sems kun nas slong bar byed pa ste rgyud kyi kun slong dang dus kyi kun slong gnyis so // sems bskyed. Chödag. kun slong gshis bzang ngan. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KUB DKAR white gourd. CTEV 27.

•KUB MNGAR musk melon. CTEV 28.

•KUM PA lci ba'am bsad pa'i ming. Btsan-lha. Rnam. 'chi ba'am bsad pa'i don te... BR. DCD 18.

•KUM POR adv. kum um byed nas. in a crouching position. C&LT 167.

•KUM BHA See thar nu.

•KUM BHA NA See gu gul.

•KUMBHI RA chu srin chen po'i ming. CSKG.

•KUR BYIN DA Tib. version of Skt. kuruvinda, ruby. Hahn in Facets of Indian Culture 463-464.

•KURMA sa ga zla ba'i ming. CSKG.

•KŪRMA rus sbal. CSKG.

•KULMA ṢHA OT Skt. = zur chag pa (corrupted?). = (in med.) a kind of soup. See Blaṅ 307.2-.3.

•KUṢṬA See ru rta.

•KE a clan name. Btsan-lha.

•KE'U [1] a type of garlic. Btsan-lha. sgog pa'i bye brag. Chödag. = ri sgog. Lcang-skya. Rnam. BR. DCD 18. chive. CTEV 24. [2] Mysterious usage, perhaps for part of a tumulus, in Sba 3. [3] a family line residing in Sha-cu. sha cu'i yul na gnas pa'i rigs rgyud kyi ming. Rnam.

•KE KE magpie (?). Bellezza, L&T 41. Bellezza, D&B 47. In Sanskrit, it ought to mean rather the peacock (keka).

•KE KE'I SGRA CAN rma bya'i ming. Chödag.

•KE KE BYAS PA ma dgug par dbye dbye byas pa la'ang. Chödag.

•KE KE RU [1] Skt. karketana (Pāli karkatna). Mvy. 5949. chrysoberl. LW 466. Almogi, Materiality 255. See 56 55. HP,PE 15. A stone, also used as a mark of very high ranking persons. ke ke ru ni nor bu rin po che. Utpal 16.5. rdo ba'i rang bzhin gyi nor bu zhig ste / sman la'ang 'jug par grags. Gser Sbram 298. ZZFC 240-241 n. 114. "Karketana is a gem devoid of all flaws, having perfect shine, weight and density, slightly yellow in colour. If the gem is wrapped in gold filament and kept in fire, it will look very bright. Even after cooling, its brightness will not diminish. This is a very valuable gem." Radha Krishnamurthy, Gemmology in Ancient India, Indian Journal of History of Science, vol. 27, no. 3 (1992), pp. 251-260, at p. 256. See Berthold Laufer's article, Sanskrit Karketana, Mémoires de la Société de Linguistique, vol. 22 (1920) 43-46. Dotson, OTA glossary. TMXT 374, note 10. [2] bya ke ke ru is a bird that lives on one of the stages of Meru who feeds its chicks nothing but a single diamond and this completely satisfies them. Zhi-byed Coll. I 422.5. [3] Also the name of the wife of King Gsal-rgyal. Dotson, Note 80 (where we read: "bestowal of the otherwise unattested ke-ke-ru insignia"). [4] See Jinpa, Mind Training 63, where a kind of [sea]monster (chu srin) called Kekeru is mentioned without further specification. [5] Note that one word for 'scorpion,' ka ka ru, is quite similar, and perhaps that's why BR defines it as sdig srin.

•KE KE RE 367 I 235. Btsan-lha. phyir bgyid pa'i don. Chödag.

•KE KṢU See rgya skyags.

•KE'U 'GAN TSHE ho then yul gyi dgon pa zhig gi ming. Rnam.

•KE TA KA Skt. kataka. This is sometimes understood as a jewel and sometimes a fruit, but in either case it can clarify water when placed in it. nor bu chu dwangs. Utpal 11.5. Chödag. Rnam. BR. The metaphor of the kataka (called Jala-kataka-reṇu-nyāya) is used in Indian philosophy, for example by Sureśvara in his commentary. It says that the dust of the kataka fruit makes muddy water clear and is then lost in it itself (it clears the water not only of the mud particles, but of the kataka's own particles, making the water completely and utterly pure). This means that true knowledge negates false knowledge, but then having served its purpose, disappears. ke ta ka / me long ma'i srid pa can gyi rgyan gyi skabs su / bgrungs par ma byas dwangs pa'i chu / zhes pa'i 'grel par chu dwangs byed kyi rgyu nor bu ke ta ka yis dwangs par ma byas zhes sogs 'byung ba ltar chu dwangs par byed rus [~nus] pa'i nor bu zhig gi ming [56v4] yin te bod skad la grung byed dwangs byang du bsgyur chog pa yin. Dalai Lama VII, Yig. The metaphorical usage in Nāgārjuna's Prajñādaṇḍa, verse 138 is quite different; here the bees go there on their own accord after they whiff the scent of the ketaka (ketakī); but see especially verse 168. Michael Hahn identifies it with the tree Strychnos potatorum, with its fruits called "cleaning nuts." See also Hahn, VG, p. 381 (verse 7); p. 438 (verse 92). It's said to clear up muddy water making it potable. Samia Al Azharia Jahn, From Clarifying Pearls and Gems to Water Coagulation with Alum: History, Surviving Practices & Technical Assessment, Anthropos 94 (1999) 419-430. "Strychnos Potarorum or the clearing nut plant (its seeds rubbed upon the insides of water-jars precipitate the earthly particles in the water)." M-W.

•KE TU bsgyur na rgyal mtshan dang mjug ring la / du ba mjug ring [q.v.]. Chödag.

•KE'U TSE gos kyi bye brag. Chödag.

•KE RTSE See rke rtse.

•KE'U TSHANG brag phug gam sgrub phug sogs kyi ming. Utpal 12.5. Rnam. BR. brag skyibs lta bu. Chödag. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KE'U 'DZIN sgog pa ke'u 'dzin. KP1 194.4. sgog pa kol 'dzi. KP3 315.7. sgog pa kel dza. KP4 515.4.

•KE YA Btsan-lha.

•KE RU Btsan-lha. [1] a bunch [of flowers, etc.]. chun po. Dbus-pa no. 324. [2] white. ka ru dang 'dra'o / kha dog dkar po. Rnam. [3] helmet (?) worn by kings. The zhun dkar ke ru is some kind of white iron helmet. The zhog zhun ke ru, also used by kings, is another kind of helmet. See ZZFC 240-241. See H. Stoddard's article in E&W 59 (2009) 256. [4] wedge. For the story of the monkey who took out the wedge (ke ru 'byin pa'i spre'u bzhin) placed in the tree by the lumberjack and got his scrotum caught in the crack... Hahn, TSD 48.

•KE RE See ker ba.

•KE LA See skyes sdong.

•KE LA KA See (sman) sga.

•KE'U LA DKAR KP1 182.4. ke lang ka. KP4 500.1.

•KE'U LANG ka pi la ste / ser skya'am a ga ru'i ming. Rnam.

•KE LAN See the entry in Jäschke. It seems to be somehow invented on the basis of a word transcribed by Huc, "Kelan."

•KE LI ZHO RE MA An ancient name for a type of legal code? Dung-dkar 91.

•KE'U LE Btsan-lha.

•KAI SHA yi ge ai ao lta bu. Utpal 15.3. See ke sha.

•KE SHA ke sa ste skra'i ming. Chödag. ke sha 'greng bu sna ru gnyis rtseg can. doubled letter 'e' or 'o'. Khyung-sprul 12. ke sha 'di skal bsgyur chog. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•KE'U SHA ho then yul gyi mchod rten cig gi ming. Rnam.

•KE SA RA 1. mgo'i skra. 2. padma'i ge sar. Blaṅ 526. KP4 379.4n. Acc. to Roberts, King, this is Skt. keśara, keśarā, meaning Ceylon ironwood (Mesua ferrea), Indian rose chestnut.

•KE SAR Skt. kesara. rgya gar skad yin pas ge sar zhes zur chag bsgyur na skra'i ma'i (?) dang me tog gi skra lta bu'am me tog gi ze'u 'bru zer ba dang snye ma'am dog pa. Chödag. ke sar ze'u 'bru mtshungs. Khyung-sprul 12. Rnam.

•KEG lo keg rtsis. Chödag. A keg year is a bad year, generally considered to be every 13th year of a person's life. See Sørensen in Lungta 16 (2003) 124. rus chen keg. Khyung-sprul 12. Rnam. BR.

•KEG RTSIS work in 212 XI.

•KEG RTSUB lo zla'i ['og gnyis kyang] keg rtsub dang. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KENG PA Lay ritual actors who participate in agricultural and hunting rituals in East Bhutan & Arunachal. Their activities are described by Toni Huber in “Naked, Mute & Well Hung: A Brief Comparison of Kengpa and Related Ritual Performers in the Eastern Himalayas and Beyond,” contained in: O. Czaja & G. Hazod, eds., The Illuminating Mirror (Wiesbaden 2015) 219-242, 592-595. Their name would seem to connect then with skeletons, but may actually refer to their nakedness.

•KENG TSE Btsan-lha. keng tse phywa sras. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KENG RUS lus kyi sha med pa'i ru pa song ba. Utpal 17.1. sha med rus khog stong pa. Chödag. rus sgrom zhes sha med rus khog stong par go. Rnam. DCD 18-19, with explanation as one of the foulness meditations. I have an odd idea that the keng element may be directly borrowed from the Skt. kaṅkāla (Negi).

•KENG SHI Btsan-lha.

•KENG SHU occurs in title in 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) VI 296.3. keng shu'i 'dab ltar snying ni shin tu rab tu g.yos. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) V 297.1.

•KENG SHU'I 'BRAS BU kem shu ka'i 'bras bu ste / rgya skyegs kyi tshigs ma zhes deng sang yongs grags su la cha zhes pa de yin cing... Dung-dkar 91. MTLSC 100.

•KENG SHU KA ki shu ka zur chag ste rgya skyegs shing. Chödag. keng shug / bye brag rtogs byed chen mor / me tog sna tshogs kyi ming gi sder / keng shu ka legs sbyar sor bzhag las bod skad du bsgyur ba med kyang / mkhas pa'i rna rgyan du [56r4] keng shu ka'am rgya skyegs shing gi ming dgu gsungs par / rgya skyegs shing dang keng shuk / 'dab gsum pa dang tshangs pa'i shing / gser shing me tog dkar po can / rlung 'joms 'dab ldan pa, la sha'o / zhes pa'i kang shu ka la mchan du [56r5] lo ma ljang gu yid shin tu 'phrog pa'i mdog can te / mkhas pa'i rgyan gyi dris lan las / ci 'di 'dab chags ne tso gzhon nu tshogs par gyur pa'am / yang na ni dpyid ka gsar pa'i me tog rgyas phyir keng shu ka yi me tog nyid do / zhes [56r6] 'byung bas rgya skyegs me tog tu bsgyur rigs. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•KEM yang deng sang dpal 'byor gyi lus kem tsam thob pa'i dus 'dir. Lo-ras-pa, Gsung-'bum IV 530.5.

•KEM KEM quivering, trembling, hovering. Yisun. Compare kam me kem me, skam skem.

•KEM SHU KA'I ME TOG kem shu ka ni bsgyur na ne tso'am ci yin te / kem shu ka dang pā la sha sogs rgya skyegs kyi shing gi ming yin la de ni lo ma ni ljang khu dang 'bras bu me tog rnams dmar po yin par mngon brjod dag las byung ngo. Eimer, Dbyangs 57. Butea frondosa.

•KER do ker ni skra'i thor cog bcing ba. Utpal 14.2.

•KER GYIS ZUG na ba'i bye brag. Chödag.

•KER BA to point upward NNV. gyen du langs pa'am 'greng bar zer. rise up, stand erect. Rnam. BR, giving ke re as a synonym.

•KER MO gcig pu. Chödag.

•KER LANGS PA myur du langs pa'i don. Chödag. ker langs bsgreng. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KER LEB SGUR GSUM ker ker mi dang / leb leb sa / sgur sgur phyugs te sngar bod sa gnas srid gzhung skabs khral 'ul 'gel sa'i yul gsum. In old Tibet, the three things that could be taxed, the upright, the flat, and the bent over (humans, land & livestock). Dung-dkar 93.

•KO See da ko AND 'di ko. kun rdzob las zin ko mtha' yas med ni dbus par du kun rdzob las zin ko 'thas med ces 'byung ste kun rdzob tu las gang zin tshad mthas med pa ste sra 'thas rtag brtan du med pas bsgyur nus zhes pa'i don no. Dpe-chos 517. According to Btsan-lha, this is an OT equivalent of the particle ni. ni zhes pa'i sgra ste 'di ko 'di ni lta bu. Chödag. BR. skyob pa med pa de rnams skyob pa byed na ko // rang nyid de yi dbang du song na ji ltar skyabs su 'gyur. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 177.1. spang bya gnyen po thams cad la // rang bzhin rtag pa yod na ko. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) I 59.4. Example of usage in a rock inscription, Bellezza, D&B 134.

•KO KA chu skyar. Chödag. Skt. koka (numerous meanings).

•KO KA NA DA padma dmar po. Chödag. Skt. kokanada (n. of the flower of the red water-lily, among other meanings).

•KO KI rtswa dur ba. Chödag.

•KO KI LA khu dbyug gam ku byug. Chödag. yid 'dzin nam khu byug ces bsgyur. Dung-dkar 94 (here spelled ko gi la). Rnam (here spelled ko gi la). Skt. kokila. Neils Hammer, “Etymology of Sanskrit Kokilah (Eudynamys scolopacea): A Birds-Eye View,” ZDMG 167 no 1 (2017).

•KO KE 1. dragon ('brug). 2. cuckoo (khu byug). Btsan-lha. ko ke 'brug dang khu byug la'ang brjod. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KO KO kos ko dang 'dra'o. Rnam. ma ne'i ming / kos ko dang kos sko bris pa'ang mthong. BR.

•KO KOG G.YA' See sa 'bru nag pa.

•KO KRAD lham gyi ming. Utpal 13.1. lham gyi rdog pa'i ko krad / lham gyi a krad. Chödag. ko krad [lham krad kyang] ko gyong 'dra. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KO KROD ko gyong. Btsan-lha. ko gyong gi ming. Dung-dkar 93.

•KO SKO ko sko 'degs ni lkog ma ste ma 'gram yar btegs pa. Utpal 14.3. lkog ma'am ma ne'i ming ko sko 'degs lta bu kos ko zhes snang. Chödag. gullet, oesophagus, windpipe, larynx? See also ko sko and ol sko. Skt. kṛka (throat, larynx). Discussion in Hill, Aspirated 488 (translated as 'chin'). BR.

•KO GYONG See ko krod.

•KO GYONG LAG MNYES Dpa'-ris.

•KO GRU ko bas bzos pa'i gru. Chödag. See Hummel in TJ 25 no. 3 (Autumn 2000). For information on how coracle boats were built, see Dung-dkar 94 (& their history sketched on p. 95).

•KO GRU GAR GTONG MNYAN PA'I LAG Dpa'-ris.

•KO SGRO ko ba'i khug ma chen po. Nomads 231.

•KO CI ltag bcas de te ste gsum 'jug tshul dang 'dra ba'i phrad cig. Rnam.

•KO LCAG See under ko shag.

•KO CHU sa brkos pa'i chu'am khron chu lta bu. Chödag.

•KO CHES PA go ches pa ste gal ches pa dang / go ba thal drags pa'i don. Rnam.

•KO JO Rnam.

•KO NYE BA = dkar po chig thub. KP3 343.2. KP4 569.4.

•KO ṬA PA Skt. kodrava. Type of plant seed used in a metaphor. Mathes in ZAS 45 (2016) 312.

•KO ṬA BA In the end times, when lifespans are only 10 years, people will consider this to be the best food. Lokaprajñapti (Derge version, p. 93).

•KO TA MA bla ma'i rigs te ka'u ta ma. Chödag.

•KO TA MA'I RAS koṭṭamba zhes zur chag ste / kattamba zhes pa'i yul las byung ba'i ras sam kam pa la'ang la ba ko dam pa'i ras. Chödag. BR, spelled ko tam pa'i ras.

•KO TU BA nor bu ko tu ba. = ko thu ba. KB 25.2, 32.4.

•KO TRA PA a kind of grain. Deriv. from Skt. kodrava. Bhattacharya, LW 353, no. 5. Same as ko ṭa ba, q.v.

•KO THA a kind of leprosy. Deriv. of Skt. kuṣṭha, Prakrit kuṭṭha.

•KO ṬHA rtswa dres ma'i me tog. Chödag. BP 272.1.

•KO ṬHA O PA DG 270.6.

•KO THAG ko bas bzos pa'i thag pa. Chödag.

•KO MTHIL mistakenly spelled kom thil, in BA 931. leather sole.

•KO 'THAS Btsan-lha.

•KO GDAN lpags gdan. Chödag.

•KO LDING ko bas g.yogs pa'i sgam thab sgrom (?). BBNP 472. Btsan-lha.

•KO PA gru mkhan dang ko lpags mkhan. Chödag. Driver of a coracle boat. Dung-dkar 94. gcan gzan 'phar ba'i ming. Rnam.

•KO LPAGS yul mtha' 'khob yin yang ko lpags ni nged kyang mi gon. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 189.4.

•KO LPAGS MKHAN lham mkhan. Chödag.

•KO LPAGS KYI GZHI Skin and hide seats and rugs forbidden to monks in Vinaya. Dung-dkar 94. DCD 19.

•KO BA leather, but also coracle boat. (dbus) = ko gru, a hide boat, coracle. MTTP. Illus. in Yisun. Photographs in Pietro Mele, Tibet 65-68. g.yag gi pags pa lta bu / gru yi ming la'ang rgyu ko ba las grub pas na rgyu'i ming 'bras bu la btags pa yin no. Chödag. Coracle boats are depicted bringing stones for building the Potala in Precious Deposits V 98. ko bo dud 'gro'i lpags. Khyung-sprul 12. This Tibetan word has a number of relatives in other languages, including Chinese and Tocharian (and some have suggested ancient Mayan).

•KO BA GCIG NAS DRAS PA'I RGYUN BU Dpa'-ris.

•KO BA TĀ RA lha'i ljon shing. Chödag.

•KO BI DA RA ko bi dā ra. N. of a tree. In Tib., sa rdol. Dung-dkar 95-96. Skt. kovidāra (one of the trees of paradise, Bauhinia variegata, Gobh.). Roberts, King, translates as 'orchid.'

•KO BUGS GCIG ko ba cha tshang gcig bugs dang bubs. Chödag.

•KO BYI LNGA THANG a medicinal preparation. BP 116.6.

•KO BYI BCU GSUM a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 3. Lag-len 8.3. TMC 8 (4). BP 115.3.

•KO BYI LA See ldum stag.

•KO BYIL ko byil sman [ldum stag]. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KO 'BOG ko'i sgam snod do khom 'bog kyang. Chödag.

•KO MA LE ko ma le'i gshongs. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KO MO pool, puddle. Karmay, Great Perfection 96 n. 61.

•KWO MO kwo mo'i nang gi chu dang 'dra ste. Zhi-byed Coll. II 466.6. kwo mo nang gi sha bal myi 'grangs pa'i zas la dgos pa myed gsung. Ibid. II 159.5. Spelled ko mog in Yisun.

•KO DMAR KHRAG BRDZIS Nomads 37.

•KO WAGS See Laufer, Bird Div., 35.

•KO BZO leatherworking. Discussed in Dung-dkar 94-95.

•KO YO special Bon trumpet with curved eave-shaped 'bell.' (S. T.) See Nine Ways 289.

•KO YOS (dbus) name of a small patch which contains medicine for headaches. MTTP. Similar patches against headaches were known to early Graeco-Islamic medicine (known by a mutilated Syriac name that includes kawkebā, the word for 'star'). Yisun spells it ko yol, and explains it as being of Chinese origins, meaning a medicinalized cloth applied to the place where the disease is located.

•KO RANYDZA carnet (i.e., garnet).

•KO RAR LDIGS skor skor sdigs. Gces 582.4. Btsan-lha.

•KO RU KA See ku ru ka.

•KO RU KHA X X X ku ru kha gsum. Chödag.

•KO RUL RGYUN BU MI NYAN Dpa'-ris.

•KO RO mgar ba'i lugs kong. Chödag.

•KO RO RO dus rgyun chad med par ko ro ro. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 342.4.

•KO RON Btsan-lha. But this seems to be a proper name, not a lexical item. Or perhaps it is equiv. to brag phug. BR. DCD 19.

•KO LA See ka ko la.

•KO LA BCU DGU a medicinal preparation. TMC 42 (92). BP 221.5.

•KO LA BCU GCIG a medicinal preparation. BP 221.3.

•KO LA BCO LNGA a medicinal preparation. BP 221.5.

•KO'U LI Korea. kho re ya / da lta'i khra'o zhan la zer. Rnam.

•KO LUG Dung-dkar 94.

•KO LE [1] obs. = tshang ma. Yisun. tshang ma'am thams cad kyi don. Rnam. [2] n. of a disease. Chödag. [3] 'kneecap.' Norbu. Text (#41).

•KO LE NA na ba'i bye brag. Chödag. See le na.

•KO LER Btsan-lha.

•KO LO dug ko lo. See thang phrom nag po. See also brag rgyan ko lo.

•KO LONG [1] blame. [2] ill temper, irritability, being anger-prone. [3] deprication. bka' bkyon. Gces 581.6. BR. See Nine Ways. nyan thos la sogs pa la zhe sa dang ko long gi tshig gi rim pa ni. 17 II 335.2. 4 77B.3. Samdo A IV 115r.5; V 81r.1. gzugs brnyan lta bur ko long med. Samdo A V 97r.4. snga phyir ko long ma mdzad. Samdo A IV 245r.1. Samdo A V 81r.1, 97r.4. 'thab rtsod kyi yan lag tu ko long gdams pa / mi 'thabs pa'i yan lag tu ko long mi bsdams pa. Gling-ras-pa, Bka'-'bum II 542.3. ko long sdug yus / rkyen chung ngu tsam la khong khro ba dang byas yus la smod pa'i sems. Gser Sbram 92. sdo long ba'am phrag dog dang ko long gi tshig lta bu. Chödag. Dung-dkar 96. Rnam. [Mis-] spelled rko long. Eimer, Testimonia 49. It seems to contrast with (or express the opposite of) the words zhe sa. Hence it means something like depreciation or deprecation. See under sko long.

•KO SHAG ko lcag. Btsan-lha. Misspelled ko sha in Dung-dkar 96, where it is explained. In Sa-skya times it replaced the horsewhip (rta lcag). It could be used, as a punishment, on either cheek or buttock.

•KO SHAMBHI mdzod ldan zhes rgya gar gyi yul. Chödag. kau shāmbī mdzod ldan [dang] rtswa ku sha. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KO SHI KA Indra, owl, scholar. kau shi ka ste lha'i dbang po brgya sbyin dang 'ug pa dang mkhas pa la'ang. Chödag. Rnam.. Skt. Kauśika (having paws, owl, ichneumon, forming a receptacle, lexicographer, etc.). See kau shi ka.

•KA'U SHI KA ko shi ka der ltos. Chödag. See ko shi ka. See gu gul. Spelled ko'u shi ka in Gser Sbram 363, where is explained as a name of Indra. ka'u shi ka [dbang che ba] brgya byin ming. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KAU SHI KA 1. sman gu gul. 2. mdzod ldan. 3. brgya byin. 4. mkhas pa rnams. Blaṅ 526. See ko shi ka.

•KO SHUN (kog shun?) KP3 308.3. KP4 493.3.

•KO SA LA kau sa la zhes pa la mdzod 'dzin nam yul dge ba can zer. Chödag. mdzod 'dzin / rigs rgyud shig la 'jug. Rnam.

•KO SO LO See tig ta.

•KOG [1] bkog pa'i don du snang. Chödag. [2] rough outer bark, peeling, outer empty shell.

•KOG KOG slong mi thub. Gces 585.3.

•KOG KOG LDANG Btsan-lha.

•KOG GI KER LANGS NAS glo bur du langs pa. Utpal 14.2.

•KOG GIS myur bas dang had kyis la snang. Chödag. Rnam.

•KOG GIS LANG Btsan-lha. Rnam.

•KOG GIS LANGS PA shad kyis langs pa / myur ba dang had kyis langs pa'i don. BR.

•KOG CHE = snying thag. Lcang-skya.

•KOG NYO YOG an Old Turkic expression preserved in an Old Tibetan text (http://otdo.aa.tufs.ac.jp/archives.cgi?p=Pt_1283). Kara has written an article about it. It has something to do with turtles, or rather with frogs living in horse-hoof [puddles]. However, from the context (not an entirely clear context, however), it ought to be a Turkic word for 'porcupine.'

•KOG MAN zas kyi bye brag rgya nag zur chag. Chödag.

•KOG RTSE trap, or perhaps rather snare. OT = rgya. = rnyod do. Blaṅ 306.3. BR. = rgya. = rnyi. Btsan-lha, where it is also spelled kog tse & kog tshe. kog tsi dang kog tshe / rgya'am rnyi'i ming. Chödag. Dung-dkar 97. snying thag. Dbus-pa no. 543. = rgya. = rnyi rnyong. Lcang-skya. rgya dang rnyi'i spyi ming. Rnam. Dotson, Princess 66 n. 12. See khog tse. There is a photo of a trap (and mention of a 1,000-year-old excavated example) in Toni Huber, "The Changing Role of Hunting and Wildlife in Pastoral Communities of Northern Tibet," contained in H. Kreutmann, ed., Pastoral Practices in High Asia (PDF from internet).

•KOGS skogs zhes ngag sgron gsungs / yig skogs dang shan pa'i ming. Chödag.

•KONG Rnam. See tshon kong.

•KONG KONG sa cha kong kong lta bu. Chödag. kong kong dbyibs. a shape. Khyung-sprul 12.

rus pa KONG KONG DD 423 (mur gong gshongs).

•KONG KONG DU lus kyi dbyibs. Utpal 13.5.

•KONG 'KHRU Dung-dkar 97. A kind of cloth.

•KONG CAN kha zas shig. Chödag.

•KONG CO btsun mo zhes pa'i / btsun mo / sras mo. Chödag.

•KONG JO sras mo ste / gong ma'am rgyal po'i sras mo. Rnam.

•KONG RNA rna rgyan rna kor. Chödag.

•KONG PO yul kung po / mchod kong che chung / kong bu. Chödag.

•KONG SPREL See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 43n.

•KONG BU Also, rkong bu. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KONG TSE kong tse 'phrul rgyal. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KONG TSE GANG painter's pallette or paint box. Dung-dkar 101.

•KONG 'DZIN 'UL MI Dung-dkar 102.

•KONG LI a superior type of ga dur. The identification of this plant is discussed in a forthcoming paper by Olaf Czaja. Bergenia. Bergenia ligulata Wall. TDD 25.

•KOD Btsan-lha.

•KOD KHA gong kha'i ming du snang. Chödag.

•KAUṆṬA NA kauṇṭa na thab gdan ma'i bu ste. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KWON THUG Also, Kwon. See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 152n.

•KON TO RE a type of bird with red breast. Bellezza, D&B 63.

•KON PA = kong khro ba, khro ba.

•KON PA GAB SKYE = sog le kha, khrog chen, sngon khrag gcod. JD 170. SS 521.5.

•KOM STAN skin of a tiger or black antelope used as a carpet by ascetics. BA 561.

•KOM RTSE Btsan-lha.

•KOR stod kor ni stod du gyon rgyu'i gos rdor gong lta bu. klad kor ni steng gi thig le gor gor. Utpal 15.3.

•KOR KOR 'khor re. Gces 585.3. Btsan-lha. 'khor 'khor ram skor skor. Chödag. Dung-dkar 104.

•KOR KOR POR 'khor bar ram 'khor 'khor por. Rnam.

•KOR KOR 'ONG BR.

•KOR TSE rang don kor tse. Khyung-sprul 12. Rnam.

•KOR TSE KOR TSE Kapstein, Dialectic 273, with alternative spelling bskor tse bskor tse ("repeatedly turning").

•KOR TSHE = nyi tshe. = phyogs res. BBNP 483. trifling, trifle, partial? Btsan-lha.

•KOR TSHE BA nyi tshe ba. Chödag. Nine Ways.

•KOR RE gral kor re ni gral la skor re zhes pa'o. Dpe-chos 512.

•KOR LING Lhasa A III 166v.7, etc.; V 12v.2 ff. = skor ling?

•KOR LE See phyi sbun kor le. 'sgom chen kor ler bam pa mang po yi.' Samdo A III 107r.4, 107v.2, 108v.1, 194r.2, 194r.6, 195r.2, 303r.3; V 14r.4; 206r.3. dus thung skad cig ma. Btsan-lha.

•KOL Or, kol te. khol po bkol. Chödag. Rnam. =khol (?). servant. Hill, Aspirated 476.

•KOL MA OT Skt. = gzan dron. Blaṅ 307.2. Btsan-lha. bskol ma'i ming du snang. Chödag. kol ma zan dron ming. Khyung-sprul 12. Rnam.

•KOL 'DZI See ke'u 'dzin.

•KOS KO go sko zhes ngag sgron gsungs / ma le 'degs sam ol sko 'degs. Chödag. Rnam. See ko sko.

•KOSKO GRE BA gre ba ni 'og mdud kyi mgor gnas pa'i sgra'i skye gnas. Rnam.

•KOS KO'I RUS PA See 'OL GONG. DD illus. 9.

•KOS SNYUNG ma le phra mo smyung smyung kos smyung zhes snang. Chödag.

•KOS THAG OT = nyam thag. Blaṅ 296.1. Lcang-skya. Btsan-lha. Rnam. BR, where it may also be spelled dkos thag. (See also kha dag, which may be a result of scribal corruption of khos thag).

•KOS THAG PA nyam thag pa. Chödag. BR. DCD 23.

•KOS PHA MYED gos pa med pa. Rnam.

•KOS MED ma le chung ba'am med pa lta bu. Chödag. DCD 23.

•KOS SMYUNG ma le'i rtsa phra ba. DCD 23.

•KOS LA kos la [kasko yang]. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KYA KA skya ka'i ming du snang. Chödag.

•KYA KRA a bird. kya kra zhes bya ba skyar mo yin. Zhi-byed Coll. I 459. Same as skya khra?

•KYA'O = gyad. = stobs po che. BBNP 472. Btsan-lha. gyad de stobs che ba'i ming. Rnam.

•KYA HRAGS In about 1300, when teachers visited Gung thang, the dpon chen would go to meet them with kya hrags. 'Jog-ri, Gung-thang dkar-chag, fol. 34v.6.

•KYAG the 'cup' part of a covered tea dish. Schmied 205. yar 'gyogs pa'i kyag ste. Chödag.

•KYAG KYAG (coll.) one enjoys doing something repeatedly. MTTP. 'khyog po'am khang pa la'ang. Chödag.

•KYAG KYOG 'khyog po'am khang pa la'ang. Chödag.

•KYAG KYON nyan nyog. Gces 589.6.

•KYAG GE KYOG GE 'obliquely' = kyag kyog. Soundings 27.

•KYAG GONG shit ball. Zhi-byed Coll. II 266.6 (other examples follow). Probably should be spelled skyag gong.

•KYAG ZOS shiteating[/er]? gdams ngag snod du bzhag nas rang rgyud tha mal du sdod pa kyag zos yin. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 46.7. chos bya bsams med pa'i mi de 'bras bu mdo don gtor ba yin te kyag pa zos pa'i khyi yin gsung. That person, who has no thought of doing religious practices, is losing the meaningful opportunity for results. He is a shiteating dog. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 48.3.

•KYANG yod kyang mdzes kyang lta bu. Chödag.

•KYANG KYONG kong kong la'ang. Chödag.

•KYAB khyab. Rnam.

•KYAM KYAM rabs rabs. 367 I 240.4.

•KYAM KYAM PA lhabs se lhabs lta bu'am kyi li li / kyam me ba. Chödag. phar tshur 'cham 'cham du 'gro ba. Rnam.

•KYAMS khyams / khang pa'i khyams la zer. Rnam.

•KYAMS PA lhag 'phros. Rnam.

•KYAR KYOR CAN 'khyar re 'khor re can. Chödag.

•KYAR MO a spelling for skyar mo (the bird).

•KYAR MONG kyar mong 'ding sar chu yod ngoms par slar myi 'thung. Zhi-byed Coll. I 290.5.

•KYAL Rnam. may be mistake for rkyal.

•KYAL KA ku re'i ngag 'khyal lta bu. Utpal 14.3. ku re'i tshig kam rgod gtam. Chödag. = ku re'i tshig. Lcang-skya. BR. See kyal kha, kyal ga.

•KYAL KYAL rtsa 'phar ba. Utpal 15.5. ngag tshig gis kyal kyal ba. Chödag. kyal kyal stong myur sgra. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KYAL KYIL Samdo A III 129v.4.

•KYAL KYIL RE = bra bre re. = cung zad re. BBNP 480. Btsan-lha.

•KYAL KYEL RE cung zad re'am bra bre re. Rnam.

•KYAL KHA byis pa zla bo dang kyal kha mdzad pa'i tshe yang... Lo-ras-pa, Gsung-'bum I 32.1.

•KYAL GA OT = ku re'i tshig. Blaṅ 301.6.

•KYAL TA shing zhig. Chödag.

•KYI = khyi. 'dog.' Kuijp (1986) 35.

•KYI GU Zhi-byed Coll. IV 162.1, where it is obviously meaning 'puppy,' khyi phrug. Appears in Zhi-byed Coll. IV 159.6 with the spelling kyi khu. rgyan zhig (an ornament). Chödag.

•KYI GUD sdug bsngal lam mya ngam byed pa. Btsan-lha. Dung-dkar 105. Looks like, and means like, kye hud, q.v.

•KYI LCE dog tongue. rtsa zhig. Chödag. = sha lang ba, she thang. JD 177. SS 450.3. YTTM 291.27.

•KYI LCE DKAR PO white dog tongue. Mdo 33. = ku dkar. YTTM 293.17. YTTM 293.17. Swertia kingii. Wangchuk, Bioactive 27. See byi shang dkar mo.

•KYI LCE NAG PO black dog tongue. Mdo 36.

•KYI SNYA pha ba dgo dgo lta bu zhig. Chödag.

•KYI BUN skyi bun der ltos. Chödag. See skyi bun.

•KYI RI 'khor lo (wheel). Btsan-lha. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KYI LI LI 'od zer bkra bas. Chödag.

•KYI LING See gyi ling.

•KYI LE schillernd, beweglich, drehend. Kaschewsky2.

•KYI BSER bsil rlung dang grang ngar che ba'i lhags pa. Rnam.

•KYI HUD smre ngag 'don pa'i 'bod pa'i sgra. Chödag. mya ngan sgra. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KYING BSER rlung bser bu. Chödag. mgyogs par rgyu ba'i bser bu'o. Rnam.

•KYIB KYIB PO OT gshong bu. Dung-dkar 106.

•KYIR YA See ki kir.

•KYIL LE NYON legs par nyon. Chödag. Rnam.

•KYIS [1] One of the forms of the instrumental ending. [2] Beyer, CT Lang. 353-354, says that when affixed to final verbs, this is a 'promise particle.' Another use with final verbs, it implies a disjuncture between the preceding and following verbal statements. When used with certain verbs, like dgos & yod, it may imply a reason, so might be translated 'unless' — or, begin next clause with 'otherwise.'

•KYU THUNG lcags kyi ring thung lta bu. Chödag.

•KYU RU a bha la kyu ru. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KYU RU RA sman skyu ru ra la'ang. Chödag.

•KYU RU RU skad kyis kyu ru ru.

•KYUG 'khyug gnam nas kyug kyug byed. Chödag.

•KYUNG BU skyung bu'i ming du snang. Chödag. skyung bu'am tho ba'i ming. Rnam.

•KYUR srog chags sre mong. Btsan-lha. I think this is what others read as gyur (as in OZZ 117 etc.).

•KYUR KYUR skad kyi gdangs kyur kyur. Chödag. kyur kyur skad sgrog. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KYUS lcags kyus btab pa. Chödag.

•KYUS TE bkrus te. Dbus-pa no. 349.

•KYUS RE ngar. Gces 586.1.

•KYE kye grogs po zer ba de la 'bod pa'i sgra zer bod sgra'ang. Chödag.

•KYE'U OT for sgye'u. Btsan-lha. Dung-dkar 109.

•KYE KA (= skye ka, ske ka) yul skad de skya ka'i ming. Dpe-chos 506. skye ka'i ming. Rnam.

•KYE KYE glu sogs la 'os pa dpal byed kyi sgra. Utpal 13.4. he bho 'bod brda'o. Chödag.

•KYE TU See under cis te.

•KYE NANG PO kye khang pa'i bdag po. Chödag.

•KYE MA 'o dod 'bod pa lta bu. Chödag. snying rje'i sgra. Khyung-sprul 12. BR.

•KYE MA KYI HUD smre sngags kyi tshig. Utpal 13.4.

•KYE MA KYE HUD Rnam.

•KYE MA'O Btsan-lha. kye grogs po zer ba de la 'bod pa'i sgra zer bod sgra'ang. Chödag. DCD 23.

•KYE MA HO ngo mtshar rmad du byung bas 'bod pa. Chödag.

•KYE RE Btsan-lha.

•KYE HUD 'Oh, weh.' Kaschewsky 82. See kyi gud, which seems to have like meaning.

•KYE HO ngo mtshar ba'i skad. Utpal 13,4. ngo mtshar rmad du byung bas 'bod pa / kye ma ho. Chödag. kye ho ngo mtshar. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KYED bskyed ces dgos so bkyed kyang / bkyed. Chödag.

•KYEM PA Btsan-lha. dngos 'brel lam ngo ma'i don. BR.

•KYO lcags kyu. Btsan-lha. Rnam.

•KYO BTANG Btsan-lha.

•KYO BA Btsan-lha. lcags kyu la'ang. Chödag. Rnam. BR.

•KYO BA TANG Btsan-lha. Rnam (here spelled kyo pa tang). BR.

•KYO BA BTANG hook. DCD 23.

•KYO TSHOGS Btsan-lha. DCD 23.

•KYO RANG = kyo. Rnam.

•KYO RAD lcags kyu. Btsan-lha.

•KYOG Stein. T&BS I 345. See 'khyog. 'khyog po'an yon pa'i ming / kyog kyog. Chödag.

•KYOG KYOG mgo kyog kyog ni lus kyi mgo kyog g.yas g.yon du byas pa. Utpal 14.1. kyog kyog drang po med. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KYOG BSHAD log bshad lta bu. Chödag.

•KYONG kong kong / kyong kyong. Chödag. kyang ste / yod kyang mdzes kyang lta bu. Rnam. quarrel (?). Hill, Aspirated 476.

•KYONG KYONG sa sogs go 'bul. Utpal 13.5. kyong kyong dbyibs. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KYONG KHA 'BUR GSOS Dpa'-ris.

•KYONG BU lag cha zhig / kyong mo. Chödag.

•KYONG MA Btsan-lha.

•KYON PA bkyon pa'am bskyon pa'i ming du snang / bkyon pa / bskyon pa. Chödag.

•KYOS MA Btsan-lha. BR.

•KRA KA khams na sgun 'brum (rgun 'brum) skems pa la kra ka srung dgos pas / de la dang po kra ka gcig bsad de gsob phyar bas des thub skad. They say that in Khams, when they dry raisins, they have to protect them from the kra-ka. So first they kill a kra-ka and fly it as a scarecrow (?), and that does the job. Zhi-byed Coll. I 417.5. Here it seems to be a strange spelling for ka ka, or, kā ka ('crow') or ka kra, although it may intend another bird.

•KRA TA KRO TA Samdo A IV 46v.4. See tra ta tro ta.

•KRA PHU SE A word for 'rat.' See the article by Anandamayee Ghosh in Bulletin of Tibetology, issue for the year 1997.

•KRA MU KA See zhu mkhan. Perhaps Skt. kramaka (one who knows the order of things).

•KRANG Btsan-lha. rus krang ni lus skem pa sogs. Utpal 16.1.

•KRANG NGE krang nge bsdad pa sogs. Utpal 16.1. ke re ba'i don nam drang por sdod tshul. Chödag. krang nge tsog bu. Khyung-sprul 12. drang mo'i sdod tshul lo. Rnam. BR. adv. [stand up] straight. C&LT 167.

•KRANG NGE KRUNG NGE [deriv. from krong po, 'straight'] = krong krong. 'toweringly.' Soundings 27.

•KRANG TĀ RING A name for the cosmos flower. TDD 56. See under puṇḍa ri ka.

•KRAD lham gyi rdog krad dang gzhu'i krad. Chödag.

•KRAD KOR gzhu 'then krad kor. Chödag.

•KRAD KRAD Stein.

•KRAD SKOR Here translated 'pieces of bread.' Cüppers in Prats, Pandita & Siddha 15. It may derive from obsolete word for bread, "ko re," with the krad perhaps standing for some kind of wheat.

•KRAD RGYUN Stein.

•KRAD PA Stein. krad pa krad rul rnying pa sogs kyi sgra. Khyung-sprul 12. rlung sgom gyi snod nas krad pa zhig byung. 24 I 432.6. Hill, Aspirated 487, has discussion, saying it means 'sole of a boot' and is likely a loanword. BR.

•KRAD RUL lham gyi krad rul. SS 532.6.

•KRAB See rkang krab.

•KRAB KRAB 'dabs chags kyi gshogs pa krab pa lta bu. Utpal 13.5. lham sgra lta bu / 'khrab pa. Chödag. BR. krab krab rkang pas 'khrab. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KRABS PA ? Zhi-byed Coll. II 281.1.

•KRAM cabbage. LW 476.

•KRAL dpya khral. Rnam.

•KRI KRI'I RMI LTAS BCU Ten dream signs of King Kri-kri. rgyal po kri kri'i rmi ltas bcu ni / glang po che'i lus skar khung nas thon kyang mjug ma de la thogs pa rmis pa ni dang po'o // glang po che phal bas spos kyi glang po che skrod pa ni gnyis pa'o // mi gtsang bas gos pa'i spre'us spre'u gzhan la mi gtsang ba skud [~skur] pa ni gsum pa'o // spre'u gcig gis spre'u'i tshogs la dbang bskur ba ni bzhi pa'o // tsan dan sbrul gyi snying po dang shing phal ba mgo snyom pa ni lnga pa'o // phye bre gang dang mu tig bre gang brje ba ni drug pa'o // gtsug lag khang gi nye 'khor na yod pa'i me tog dang 'bras bu rkun pos khyer ba ni bdun pa'o // gtsang zhing yid du 'ong ba'i khron pas skom pa'i mi'i rjes su bsnyegs kyang mi 'thung ba ni brgyad pa'o // skye bo mang po sde ris su bcad nas rtsod pa ni dgu pa'o // ras yug gcig mi bco brgyad kyis bgos pas thams cad la tshang ma re thob cing / rtsa ba'i ras yug ma nyams pa ni bcu pa'o. (See 600 129-133 for interpretation of these dream signs, predicting the future of Buddhism.)

•KRI SNYAN SA LE Btsan-lha.

•KRI NA See pi pi ling.

•KRI NA SA RA See gnyan.

•KRI DBEN LO NYI SHU RTSA GSUM PA Dung-dkar 109.

•KRI MA DZA See a ka ru.

•KRI MI DZA See rgya skyags.

•KRIṢHṆA PHA LA See so ma ra dza.

•KRI SNA SA RA Aris, Discourse 33. Dung-dkar 111.

•KRIG KRIG nan tan dang don med sgra la. Chödag. krig krig nan nan. Khyung-sprul 12. Rnam. BR.

•KRIG GI Stein.

•KRIG CAD nges pa'am gtan 'khel ba / 'dod chags can. Rnam.

•KRIG CAR chags can. Chödag.

•KRING (M.T.) borrowing from Chinese zhing, meaning [canning] tin. TS9 II 458.

•KRID PA bar chad. Dbus-pa no. 182.

•KRU KRU TRES OT = tsi tra ka. Blaṅ 301.4-.5. tsi tra ka ste / sle tres kyi ming. Rnam.

•KRU RDA Skt. krodha? It appears in a poem of praise to Mao by the Dalai Lama XIV. See MTLSC, p. 17 and note no. 79.

•KRU RING (M.T.) deriv. from Ch. zhuren. The appointed foreman or leader of a committee. Barnett, Resistance. In Goldstein, this seems to be spelled kru'u ren or kru'u rin, 'chairman, leader, director, head, chief.'

•KRUG khrug / 'thab 'khrugs kyi don. Rnam.

•KRUGS 'khrug pa'am dkrug spyad la go. Rnam.

•KRUNG KRUNG Aris, Discourse 65 n. 10. bya khrung khrung la'ang. Chödag. krung krung khrung khrung ming. Khyung-sprul 12.

•KRUNG KRUM fake fangs. See Stearns, SR 133.

•KRUNG THANG Ch. zhongtang. Secretariat officials. Sperling, Awe 329.

•KRUMS sha'i ming du gsungs deng sang dkrum zhes bris snang / gsol krums. Chödag. Rnam.

•KRE NAG khog ma'i dreg pa lta bu. Chödag.

•KREB PA Stein.

•KREMS PA chu khrims su bcug pa bkram pa lta bu. Chödag.

•KRES See under: o pa. (BBNP 468)

•KRO TA OT Tibskrit for krodha. 66 II 127.6.

•KROG KROG mi krog krog, see ko trog can. A sound made by the shoes, not allowed by vinaya. rna bas nyan lugs. Utpal 13.5. lham sgra lta bu. Chödag. krog krog mgo rna ba. Khyung-sprul 12. 'drogs langs nas rgyugs pa'i nyams. Rnam. BR.

•KROG GIS SONG Btsan-lha.

•KROG MED srog med. Chödag.

•KROG 'UR lham sgra lta bu. Chödag.

•KROGS PA gsung rab 'o ma krogs pa'i bcud. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 215.2. See dkrogs pa.

•KRONG yar slongs shig. Chödag. Rnam.

•KRONG KRONG lus kyi ske yar sangs sangs byas pa. Utpal 14.1. yar langs pa lta bu rna ba krong krong. Chödag. krong krong mig bltas.

•KRONG NGE phag rgod bzhin du krong nge nyan yang. Zhi-byed Coll. II 244.1. krang nge dang 'dra'o. Rnam.

•KRONGS rna ba krongs te ni rna ba byo ste nyan zhes pa'o. Dpe-chos 517. gsod dgos na sod cig. Chödag.

•KRON PA'I RUS PA DD illus 15.

•KROB MDA' =krom mda'. N. of a type of pistol mentioned by the Dalai Lama XIII. Venturi in Sperling Festschrift, p. 501.

•KLA KLA See tig ta.

•KLA KLO'I SPOS See sgog.

•KLA MA lwa ba 'thug po. Dung-dkar 114. Rnam.

•KLAG [1] klag [glags kyang] lta 'gran tshad pa. Khyung-sprul 13. [2] bal gyis btags pa'i snam bu. Rnam. [3] obs. OT future form of klog, to read. Hill, Aspirated 474.

•KLAG COR OT = ca co. Blaṅ 297.5. phan tshun ltad mo dang / klag cor dang / tha na bya byi'i rgyu 'grul lta bus kyang yengs nas 'gro ba yin. Lo-ras-pa, Gsung-'bum IV 522.2. klag cor ca co mang. Khyung-sprul 13. Rnam. BR.

•KLAG COR CAN Rnam.

•KLAG PA Btsan-lha. chu 'dzin nang du me shel nus pa klag. Zhi-byed Coll. I 266.5. JD 241. klag pa ldag pa. Khyung-sprul 13. klag pa lwa ba. Khyung-sprul 13.

•KLAGS PA khebs pa. Dbus-pa no. 438. gzhan las lhag pa'am / phul du byung ba'i don. Rnam.

•KLAD OT = gong. = steng. Blaṅ 304.5, 517.1. See rdo klad. sdod gnas (bud med kyi sdod gnas la zer/) gong ngam stod dang dbu la'ang 'jug. Rnam. BR. See glad.

•KLAD KOR Anusvāra (used for writing Sanskrit, or transcribing it into Tibetan). See under kor. klad kor stod [steng du ma gor] gos te. Khyung-sprul 13. nga ro / rjes su nga ro. Rnam.

•KLAD SKOR n. for anusvāra. Man LXI, no. 102 (p. 84B).

•KLAD SKYOGS Btsan-lha.

•KLAD KHUNG gnam khung. Nomads 231.

•KLAD 'GEMS lit.: to destroy the brain. to surprise. Sources.

•KLAD SNYING cerebellum. DD illus. 25, 26.

•KLAD PA 'GEMS Eimer, Testimonia 47.

•KLAD PA TSHA KAM KAM Btsan-lha.

•KLAD MA thog ma'am gong ma. Rnam.

•KLAD MED MGO 'KHOR Dpa'-ris.

•KLAD MED PHUGS CHUNG Dpa'-ris.

•KLAD GZER SRZT 56.

•KLAD RU Btsan-lha.

•KLAD RUL SS 536.4.

•KLAN KA Ma 10.4. Bsam-gtan Mig-sgron 3.4. Btsan-lha. klun ka'ang klan ka snyad 'dogs. Khyung-sprul 13. snyad ka'am rtsod gzhi. Rnam. BR. DCD 24.

•KLAN KA'I RGYU skyon nam dgag pa 'byung ba'i rgyu. Utpal 14.4.

•KLAN KA CAN rtsod pa yod pa'am rtsod gzhi slong mkhan. Dung-dkar 114.

•KLAN KA MI TSHOL BA Skt. anupālambhaprekṣiṇa. Mvy. 2427. I interpret it to mean 'free of fear from reproach.' Lde'u 83.

•KLAN KA BTSAL BA Rnam.

•KLAN PA Btsan-lha. Rnam. DCD 24.

•KLAB = kla ma. Rnam.

•KLAB PA. OT = lab. Blaṅ 293.3. Btsan-lha, q.v. Lcang-skya. klab pa / lab / (brda rnying) 'di snam rigs spu dang rtsi ma bton pa'i thags tshar tsam de la 'jug cing / yang skabs kyis phying pa la'ang 'jug. Dalai Lama VII, Yig. kla ma dang 'dra'o. Rnam. BR.

•KLAM Btsan-lha. Rnam. lwa ba mthug po zer yang skud ris mkhan gyis bzo ba'i gos zhig go. BR. DCD 24.

•KLAM GYIS KHYER Btsan-lha.

•KLAM PA thick blanket. Deriv. from Skt. kambala. Bhattacharya, LW 353, no. 7. kla ma dang 'dra'o. Rnam.

•KLAL BA Btsan-lha. = glal ba. klal ba [glal ba] kha gdangs ba. Khyung-sprul 13. DCD 25.

•KLAS rgyal po'i 'khor bud med rnams kyi sdod sa (compare klad) . Rnam.

•KLAS PA Btsan-lha. byams klas pa dang mtha' klas pa ni mtha' thug pa med pa rgya che ba'i don. Utpal 16.1. Khyung-sprul 13. Rnam. BR. a verb whose meaning seems to be 'beyond, further than.' Hill, Aspirated 476. DCD 25.

•KLI CI DON See shing mngar.

•KLING Btsan-lha.

•KLU [1] as n. of a very large (100,000) district, see TPS 14. [2] For ambiguity in the classification of klu as either animal or preta, or asura, see Mimaki in Karmay, New Horizons 99-101. Note that Tibetan translators sometimes used the translation klu for Skt. nāga, when used with the meaning 'elephant', thus creating confusion with the spirit-nāga, which is snake-like. For candidates for monastic ordinations being called nāgas, and for nāgas' role in conserving and protecting relics, as representing indigenous chthonic and aquatic spirits, and as elephants, see Swearer, RB 168-169, 183.

•KLU DKAR white nāga, a name for the metal tin. Simioli, AG 55.

•KLU'I SKAD Chinese language. Btsan-lha.

•KLU'I GE SAR See ge sar.

•KLU DGE a clan name. Btsan-lha.

•KLU CHEN BRGYAD mtha' yas / 'jog po / stobs rgyu / rigs ldan / nor rgyas / dung skyong / padma / wa ru ṇa rnams so. 600 106-107.

•KLU GTER Nāga vases described in Dung-dkar 121.

•KLU RTA Nagano in Karmay, New Horizons 580.

•KLU STOBS Simioli, AG 61.

•KLU DAG KUN DAR See 'bu skyogs.

•KLU DIL klu yi de'u, ri'i ming. Nomads 231.

•KLU DUG See gu gul.

•KLU YI GDON Text 42.

•KLU BDUD BCO BRGYAD a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 46. Lag-len 32.1. TMC 56 (125). BT 54v.6. BP 242.5.

•KLU BDUD RDO RJE JD 201. = brda sman. Mdo 39. Ian Baker, Heart of the World 245. Codonopsis bhutanica. Wangchuk, Bioactive 24 (in the thesis itself this herb's properties were supposed to be analysed, but the sample extract was damaged en route to Australia).

•KLU BDUD NAG PO See (klu bdud nag po) dar ya kan.

•KLU NAG Simioli, AG 51. See zha nye.

•KLU DBANG klu'i rgyal po dga' bo dang / nye dga' dang / 'jog po sogs dang. Eimer, Dbyangs 54.

•KLU 'BUM KHAM TSHAN Explanation for the name in Sgo mang Dge bshes Ngag dbang nyi ma, Works, vol. 6, p. 592.

•KLU'I ME TOG See ge sar. Perhaps this is the nāgapuṣpa, the tree under which Maitreya will be enlightened.

•KLU SMAN a medicinal preparation. Lag-len 108.5.

•KLU ZOG n. for liberated animal. Holler in TS9 II 208.

•KLU RIGS BZHI rgyal rigs / rje rigs / bram ze'i rigs / gdol ba'i rigs dang bzhi'o. 600 31.

•KLU'I SHA See sbrul.

•KLU SHING kind of tree pictured in Waddell, Tibetan Buddhism 339. cactus. Dhongthog. cactus (Lonely Planet Phrasebook).

•KLU GSHED GSUM Btsan-lha.

•KLU SE ZZ = khyo ga. Bru II 290.3.

•KLUNG nags kyi klung dang chu klung. Khyung-sprul 13. Rnam. BR. See Berounsky's article "Wind-horse Galloping," p. 195 for a discussion.

•KLUNG LCANG DG 241.2.

•KLUNG RTA See Berounsky's article "Wind-horse Galloping," p. 195 for a discussion of this spelling, that tends to be preferred in 'byung rtsis contexts. However, Dotson, Horse 271, has argued for the ultimate meaning of 'stage horse,' that carried messengers from one station to the next (but this finds the original spelling to be slungs rta).

•KLUNG PO (coll.) = chu bo, the river. MTTP.

•KLUNG TSE (dbus) = bye'u'i sgam, the cage. MTTP.

•KLUNG SHO JD 151. SS 485.1.

•KLUNG SE youth, young man. klung se gzhon nu. Khyung-sprul 13.

•KLUNGS Stein. As ex. of an irreg. Old Tantra term, corresponding to gzhung, see the work of Dge-rtse in Rnying Rgyud 1973 XXXVI 455.

•KLUD glud / lus tshab. Rnam.

•KLUBS PA OT = phub pa. = gyon pa. attired, dressed, clad. Blaṅ 290.1. Rnam. BR. brgyan pa. adorned. Rtse-le VIII 423. Btsan-lha. dar gyi gos lindis klubs ni lha'i gos gyon pa'am phub pa. Utpal 16.5. gos sogs klubs. Khyung-sprul 13. phub pa. Dbus-pa no. 223. = phub pa. = gyon pa. Lcang-skya. Hill, Aspirated 474.

•KLUS BTEG PA Btsan-lha.

•KLE BO a vessel made with willow, bamboo and the like. Btsan-lha.

•KLE BO MA BYED Btsan-lha.

•KLOG KYANG KLAG klog kyang klag ni yi ge dang gsung rab klag pa. Utpal 16.2.

•KLOG GRWA Dung-dkar 124.

•KLOG PA'I SLOB DPON DCD 31.

•KLOG SBYONG Dung-dkar 124.

•KLOGS MA dpon mo. Rnam.

•KLONG [= klongs]. receptive centre. Skt. āvarta, 'spiral inward' [Mvy.], 'turning-place, whirlpool.' Nisarga, 'array, nature.' Vipula, 'large, extensive, vast.' Stein. 75 2. See Germano, Poetic Thought 937, for the cowardly translation 'space.' This seems quite close to Sino-Tibetan words for 'middle' (related to Tib. gzhung); Coblin, Sinologist's 53. nags klong ni nags tshal chen po'i khrod. chu klung ni chu chen po. dba' klong ni rba rlabs. Utpal 11.2. Achard, L'Essence 88 n. 41. For a possible Lithuanian cognate (!?) of both klung[s] and klong, see Harold H. Bender, "Lithuanian Klonas, Kluonas, A Place Where Something is Spread Out," JAOS 40 (1920) 353-355. As a dynamic space full of potentials, it resembles Greek/Platonic chôra; see the article by Nicoletta Isar, "Chorography (chôra, chorós): A Performative Paradigm of Creation of Sacred Space in Byzantium." klong dkyil [klong means 'center']. mkha' yi klong dang chu yi rba klong. Khyung-sprul 13.

•KLONG 'KHYIL 'od kor dang / mtsho 'khor gyi ming. Rnam.

•KLONG GYUR shorter form of klong du gyur pa. dbang du gyur pa'i don. Rnam.

•KLONG GRUM badger. Norbu, Drung 106.

•KLONG DGU 1. lta ba. 2. spyod pa. 3. dkyil 'khor. 4. dbang. 5. dam tshig. 6. sgrub pa. 7. phrin las. 8. sa lam. 9. 'bras bu. Divisions of klong sde. Mkhyen-rab-rgya-mtsho[1557] 291.3. Dung-dkar 125. Anspal, Space 122 ff., 176.

•KLONG 'GYUR totally realized state. Thondup, BM 282.

•KLONG DU GYUR BA OT = dbang du gyur pa. Skt. avabodha. Blaṅ 295.3-.4. Dbus-pa no. 430. 'be perfected.' Thondup, BM 126. I prefer the translation, 'perfectly internalized.' khong du chud pa. dbang du gyur pa, brtan pa thob pa. Btsan-lha. klong du gyur ni khong du chud cing rang byan tshud pa'i don. Utpal 11.3. Dung-dkar 126. = dbang du gyur pa. Lcang-skya. DCD 31. Having gained command [of a subject].

•KLONG RDOL bursting forth from the depths. Thondup, BM 363. burst. Thondup, BM 78. Dung-dkar 126.

•KLONG SDE abhyantaravarga. Thondup, BM 49.

•KLONG YANGS ka dag klong yangs ni ye nas dag pa'i don chos kyi dbyings lta bu klong yangs pa. Utpal 11.2.

•KSHA NA AR DZA LI n. of a disease. 4 156A.1.

•KSHA YA NAG PO Text 6.

•KṢHA RA See ya bakṣha ra.

•KSHA RA KA: me tog kha 'bus kyi ming. CSKG.

•KṢHA RA KA KO LI See nye shing.

•KṢHI RA = sha ni gan dha. YTTM 292.12. See shrī khaṇḍa.

•KṢHI RA KA KO LI See lug mnye.

•KṢHIS KHAR See 'bra go.

•KSHŪ DHA ske tshe'i ming. CSKG.

•KSHUNG KA rgya skyegs. BR 4.

•DKAN GZAR PO dkan gzar po ni ri gzar po. Utpal 19.4. ri yi dkan gzar. Khyung-sprul 13.

•DKA' MGO OT rka 'go / chu 'go sa'i yur bu'i mgo. Dung-dkar 127.

•DKA' 'GREL DCD 31-32.

•DKA' RGYUG lag g.yog dang las rogs. Rnam.

•DKA' 'JI See under ka 'ji.

•DKA' THUB Types of asceticisms listed in Samdo A IV 229v.6. dka' thub ni zas gos ngan ngos la brten te sdug rus byed pa dka' spyad kyang de yin. Utpal 18.1.

•DKA' THUB CAN 1. spang spos. 2. lha chen dbang phyug. Blaṅ 526. Translated, together with the Sanskrit tapasvī, as 'ascetic/poor/wretched/miserable' in Péter-Dániel Szántó, The Case of the Vajra-Wielding Monk, Acta Orientalia Hungarica, vol. 63, no. 3 (2010), pp. 289-299, at p. 293.

•DKA' THUB CHEN PO DCD 32-33.

•DKA' THUB SPYOD PA Dung-dkar 130.

•DKA' MDO chu rka'i mdo la go. Rnam.

•DKA' SPYAD SDUG GTAGS Dpa'-ris.

•DKA' BA SPYAD dka' sdug spyad pa. Rnam.

•DKA' BA LO DRUG SPYAD Refers to the Buddha's 6 years of asceticism. Dung-dkar 130.

•DKA' BLAS ches mtho'i dbang 'dzin las khungs sam srid gzhung gi ming. Rnam.

•DKA' MO Stein. A relatively infrequent (perhaps outdated) alternative to dka' ba. difficulty.

•DKA' TSHIG dka' tshig mchu yi rkan [gzar]. Khyung-sprul 13.

•DKA' RU dkar ru / dkar po'i don. Rnam.

•DKA' RUG Btsan-lha. lag g.yor ram las rogs. Dung-dkar 130. dka' rgyug dang 'dra'o. Rnam.

•DKA' LAS KHAG PO Dpa'-ris.

•DKA' SE BA difficulty, problems. Example of usage in 24 I 407.5: sgom skye ba dka' se byung bas. Because he [Gling ras pa] had some difficulties getting started with his meditation, the brethren said, "It's because..."

•DKAR white [stuff]. gro'i ming ngam / zho dang 'o ma / mar. A name for flour, or yogurt, milk & butter. Rnam.

•DKAR KHRA MEN JD 33. SS 504.4. DG 89.3.

•DKAR KHRI NAG STONG Dpa'-ris.

•DKAR GONG quartz. JD 54. Huber, Pure Crystal 242 n. 41. See mkhar gong. SS 533.2. DG 136.5. = a dkar, thun rdo, rdo'i phyag rdor, gdug pa tshar gcod. See Rin 130-131.

•DKAR RGYAN 'white ornaments', or dabs of butter. Sihlé in TS9 II 196. butter sculpture.

•DKAR CAG OT for dkar chag, thog yig. Rnam.

•DKAR BCAD white outlining. Jackson

•DKAR BCOS B in L 49.

•DKAR CHAG dkar chags ni tho yig. Utpal 17.4. BR. Achard, L'Essence 59. An explanation for the word is offered, along with a listing of 5 different types, in Dung-dkar 130-131. Scherrer-Schaub in JIABS 25 (2002) 308 has a discussion. Dotson, OTA glossary. For an comparable genre, Greek temple registers, see the article by Josephine Shaya, "Greek Temple Treasures & the Invention of Collecting." See also the article of Beatrice Caseau, "Objects in Churches: The Testimony of Inventories."

•DKAR THAB See under dmar thab. Dung-dkar 133.

•DKAR THIG "Then they did the dkar thig which consisted in pressing with the thumb a pinch of rtsam pa on the surface of the fire place." Karmay, New Horizons 388.

•DKAR THOG Btsan-lha.

•DKAR DUG SRZT 135.

•DKAR DRUS OT dkar 'jal. Dung-dkar 133.

•DKAR DRO lit.: white meal. a bloodless, vegetarian meal. Sources. Dung-dkar 133 spells this dkar rdor.

•DKAR LDI a form that butter comes in. Dung-dkar 133.

•DKAR NA ZHO / DMAR NA KHRAG Proverb: If it's good, its definitely good, if bad, it's definitely bad. 367 II 131.3. [literally, If it's white, its yoghurt, if red, it's blood]. Jinpa, Mind Training 384.

•DKAR NAG KHRA BSDUS Dpa'-ris.

•DKAR NAG GI RTSIS rtsis dkar dang rtsis nag. Nomads 231.

•DKAR NAG KHRA GSUM Dung-dkar 133.

•DKAR NAG GO LDOG Dpa'-ris.

•DKAR NAG MTSHAMS See brang gzhung dkar nag mtshams.

•DKAR NAG ZANGS THAL Mkhyen-rab-rgya-mtsho 1557 571.2 ff. Sa paṇ makes reference to this. See Rhoton, CD 61. Evidently it means that virtues and nonvirtues are 'unstopable' and ripen even for Enlightened beings.

•DKAR NAG GO LDOG Dpa'-ris.

•DKAR NAG NAD LAS GROL BA a medicinal preparation. BT 9v.4.

•DKAR NAG SHAN 'BYED Dpa'-ris. Dung-dkar 133.

•DKAR NAG SER GSUM Dung-dkar 133.

•DKAR PO GYEN 'DED Dpa'-ris.

•DKAR PO GCIG THUB in a pill recipe, identified in a footnote as a lizard used for medicinal purposes (da byid). Gdams-ngag Mdzod I 397.4. Achard, L'Essence 14 n. 17. Dung-dkar 133.

•DKAR PO CHIG THUB [1] name of a vegetable substance, perhaps a type of datura. See thang phrom dkar po. See ko nye ba. JD 146. SS 467.1. TM IV 64. DG 271.5. dkar po chig thub gangs skyes thang phrom zer. Khyung-sprul 13. Fritillaria delavayi. Wangchuk, Bioactive 25. [2] name of a mineral substance, sometimes called rdo chig thub. Humite. The mineral dkar po chig thub is also called dkar po mthung rtse, mdung rtse dkar po, rdo mdung rtse, rdo chig thub. Darker versions of it are called smug po chig thub, q.v. Rin 86.

•DKAR PO'I CHOS BZHI Dung-dkar 134.

•DKAR PO DRUG GI SBYOR BA a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 64. Lag-len 44.1. TMC 16 (28). BP 142.4, 154.5.

•DKAR PO RNAM GSUM sa skya pa dkar po rnam gsum ni / kun dga' snying po / bsod nams rtse mo / grags pa rgyal mtshan no. 600 26.

•DKAR PO'I PHYOGS DAR Dung-dkar 134.

•DKAR PO SBAL RGYAB Rin 85. As might be expected it is a white form of the mineral smug po sbal rgyab, q.v.

•DKAR PO YAR 'DREN glo sman dkar po yar 'dren. a medicinal preparation. BP 216.2.

•DKAR PO'I LAS LAM BCU ten paths of good karma, i.e., the ten virtues. Paṇ-chen I, Gsung-'bum II 337.5.

•DKAR POR 'BOD PA'I BGRANG BYA Dung-dkar 134. Here dkar po means the year Earth Snake.

•DKAR SPRO A feast for offering foods including fruits and sugars. Dung-dkar 134. I've seen it translated as 'ceremonial food.'

•DKAR SPRO SPOM 'BUL Dung-dkar 134.

•DKAR PHIG Btsan-lha. Dung-dkar 134.

•DKAR PHUD a kind of religious tithe of 10 percent of the butter, donated by nomads to the central government. Tsarong in TJ 23 no. 3 (1998) 28.

•DKAR PHYOGS LA DGA' BA'I 'BYUNG PO Dung-dkar 134.

•DKAR PHYOGS LA MNGON PAR DGA' BA'I LHA KLU MTHU BO CHE Dung-dkar 134.

•DKAR BA Stein. Skt. śyenī. N. of a metre. Hahn, JV 38.

•DKAR 'BRIS BYU A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 299.

•DKAR MAR dkar dmar / khrims dkar dmar ni nyes pa che ba la khrims dmar po ste nan po thob pa dang / nyes pa chung ba khrims dkar po ste yang po thob. Dung-dkar 134.

•DKAR MI [1] an oath taker, a person under oath. [2] a close friend or relative. [3] a trustworthy person (blo nye ba'i mi). Example of usage in Lde'u 267 (probably also the "dkar ma" on p. 262, must be read dkar mi). Dotson, Dissert., p. 217 translates it as 'juror' (also, gtsang dkar). See Cüppers in TEHN 81.

•DKAR MI RGYUS DKAR GCIG Dung-dkar 135. Cüppers in TEHN 81.

•DKAR ME dkar gsal mar me'am mchod me zhes pa'i bsdus ming. Dung-dkar 135.

•DKAR MO NYA See thar nu.

•DKAR MO RTSE RGYAL n. of a white hat worn by Bonpos in Amdo. Tsering Thar, Bonpo Tantrics in Kokonor Area, Revue d’Etudes Tibétaines, vol. 15 (November 2008) [Tibetan Studies in Honor of Samten Karmay], pp. 533-552, at p. 546.

•DKAR MOG sngo yi rtsa ba sman zhig. Nomads 231.

•DKAR DMAR a kind of root vegetable? Aris, Discourse 31.

•DKAR RTSI whitewash. Jackson. JD 62. SS 532.2. DG 142.3.

•DKAR RTSER BA Btsan-lha.

•DKAR TSHAN A water mixed with milk and medicinal herbs, for ritual purposes. Karmay in JA (1995) 176.

•DKAR TSHUR = ka cu ra, da tsur. JD 68.

•DKAR TSHE lit. white life, it is translated as "good relations" [between countries] in Cüppers' contribution to JNRC 12 (2001) 42.

•DKAR TSHO LEGS LAM Dpa'-ris.

•DKAR YA See ka ya. Schmied 127.

•DKAR YOL dkar yol ni yol go zhes pa snod yin pas snod dkar po'i ming. Utpal 19.2. Long discussion in Dung-dkar 139.

•DKAR YOL RGYU See mkhar gong.

•DKAR YOL YU RING Illus. in Yisun. A cup with a stand.

•DKAR G.YENG Btsan-lha. bzang ngam dbye 'byed. Rnam.

•DKAR RU ('village dialect') = dkar po. BBNP 466.

•DKAR LAS zho dang mar gyi las ka. Nomads 231.

•DKAR LENG bal stan dkar po. Nomads 232.

•DKAR SHA (gtsang) = sha mo dkar po, white mushroom. (Amdo, Khams) = dkar mdangs, whiteness. MTTP. Means 'meat of the white [animal]' and therefore mutton. Dung-dkar 140.

•DKAR SHA KHOG Dung-dkar 140.

•DKAR SHUBS [Note: the syllable dkar is as in dkar yol] a covered carrying 'dish' for food. Schmied 185 ff.

•DKAR BSHAL diarrhea. Dhongthog.

•DKAR SA NAG 'DED Dpa'-ris.

•DKAR GSAL bzhu mar. Dung-dkar 140.

•DKAR GSUM phyi'i dkar gsum ni / 'o ma / zho / mar ro. 600 13. Dung-dkar 140.

•DKAR SEMS NAG BSGRIBS Dpa'-ris.

•DKAR LHAB NAG 'TSHUB Dpa'-ris.

•DKA RU = dkar po. 'white'. Kuijp (1986) 34.

•DKU OT Denwood in TH&L 129. [1] tip of the hip bone. dpyi mgo. [2] stomach. pho ba, gsus pa. [3] unpleasant odor. dri mi zhim pa. [4] shedding tears. mchi ma 'dzad pa. [5] womb (or a variously identified organ in medicine, the bsam se'u). bsam se, bu snod. Btsan-lha. Dung-dkar 140. dri ma dku ni dri zhim byug pa. Utpal 18.3. sta zur dpyi la dku dang dri nga dku // mchi ma dku zhes ngo bro ba yi ming. Khyung-sprul 13. = lus kyi sta zur. = dri mi zhim pa. Lcang-skya. Rnam. BR. Joanna Bialek, Side, Stench, Remnant, Plot, Oath & Craftiness: The Semantic 'Capacity' of the OT dku, RET 35 (2016) 115-167.ainous expanse

•DKU' g.yo sgyu'am lkog g.yo'i don. Rnam.

•DKU SKABS lus kyi sta zur. Utpal 18.5. dku skabs phyin zhes mtshams phyes pa. Khyung-sprul 13.

•DKU SKABS PHYED PA Btsan-lha.

•DKU KHYIM sked pa nas dpyi 'go'i bar zer. Dung-dkar 140.

•DKU' GANG g.yo sgyu khram gsum gyi don. Rnam.

•DKU' GANG PHUB Rnam.

•DKU 'GEL Btsan-lha.

•DKU RGYAL Denwood in TH&L 133. Btsan-lha. A way of referring to the ministerial aristocracy. Dotson, D&L 9. ZZFC 243 n. 119. Translated as 'ennoblement.' Schaik, Prayer 200. Dotson, OTA glossary. Dotson, Dissert. 255-256, spelled bku rgyal. This is so close to the legal term sku rgyal that there simply must be some connection, but sku rgyal, q.v., apparently means 'court fees' (this must be the meaning in Lde'u 269).

•DKU SGYU Btsan-lha. g.yo sgyu zhes pa ste gna' rabs kyi brda rnying. Dung-dkar 140.

•DKU' CHED PO Rnam.

•DKU MNYE 1. me. 2. stan. Btsan-lha. Rnam.

•DKU LTO gsus lto / lto ba'am gsus pa. Rnam.

•DKU STE OT = lhag ste. Blaṅ 298.1. Btsan-lha. dku ba dang 'dra'o. Rnam.

•DKU' PO Also, dku' pho. Rnam.

•DKU 'PHEL Rnam.

•DKU BA See dri dku ba. Blaṅ 304.1. lhag pa dang lus pa. Rnam.

•DKU BA RNAM PA LNGA A group of 5 smelly food substances known from the Vinaya. After eating, one shouldn't visit a temple for 7 days. Dung-dkar 141. DCD 34.

•DKU BEL BA Btsan-lha. g.yo sgyu yis gnod pa dang gzhan nyes gong zhu. Rnam.

•DKU MA RNYONGS rked pa mi reng pa (?). Utpal 18.5. dku ma [sked pa ring thung 'tshams pa] snyongs shes dri ma byug pa la. Khyung-sprul 13.

•DKU ZLUM round belly. sked pa zlum po'i don. Utpal 18.5. dku zlum [grod pa ril ril]. Khyung-sprul 13.

•DKU LA THOGS PA Btsan-lha.

•DKUG STE lhag ste. Dbus-pa no. 545.

•DKOG NYUL Btsan-lha. so lta byed mkhan. Rnam.

•DKOD DU Btsan-lha. OT 'jal ba'i phyir du. Dung-dkar 141.

•DKON COG OT = dkon mchog. Blaṅ 283.3. Btsan-lha. Rnam. Lde'u 239. DCD 34.

•DKON COG PHO BRANG Rnam.

•DKON COG GSUM GYI RKYEN BCAD PA Dung-dkar 141. DCD 34.

•DKON COG GSUM GZHIG RE SPANG RE gzhig ri spang ri. An OT oath. Dung-dkar 141.

•DKON MCHOG dkon mchog dkon ni 'jig rten na rnyed dka' zhing mchog yin pa. Utpal 18.2. Dung-dkar 141. dkon mchog dkon cog shin tu dkon pa'i brda. Khyung-sprul 13.

•DKON MCHOG GI SKOR LEN PA Dung-dkar 141.

•DKON MCHOG GI BRGYAD CU 'JAL An OT penalty for stealing temple property. It must be returned 80-fold. Dung-dkar 141.

•DKON MCHOG GI DRUNG DU RANG RTAGS RANG GIS BLANG self-ordination. Dung-dkar 141. DCD 34.

•DKON MCHOG DGU PHRUG 9-fold refuge (outer, inner, secret). Dung-dkar 141.

•DKON MCHOG RJES DRAN DCD 34.

•DKON MCHOG RNAM GNYIS Dung-dkar 142.

•DKON MCHOG 'BYUNG GNAS (here spelled dkon mcog 'byung gnas) snying rje dang stong nyid. Rnam.

•DKON MCHOG GSUM sangs rgyas / chos / dge 'dun no. 600 26. Dung-dkar 143.

•DKON MCHOG GSUM GYI RTEN Dung-dkar 144.

•DKON GNYER Sometimes spelled dkor gnyer. Dung-dkar 144.

•DKON GNYER DPON Dung-dkar 144-145.

•DKON THAG PA Btsan-lha.

•DKON PA [1] rare, difficult to find. similar to dkon po. [2] angry. [3] shining. Btsan-lha. khro ba. Dbus-pa no. 112. = snang ba. Lcang-skya. snang ba ste / nyi ma'i 'od zer gyi snang ba lta bu. Rnam.

•DKON PA BZHI Dung-dkar 145.

•DKON PO rare, difficult to find.

•DKON BU Sometimes it means 'phreng ba, garland. Btsan-lha. mnga' thang can gyi dkon bu de la na so rgyas myi khom khyim byed. Zhi-byed Coll. V 466.3. Check also spellings bkon bu, rkon bu & skon bu.

•DKON MO MCHOG GYUR Dpa'-ris.

•DKOR OT = nor gyi spyi ming. Also, ka ca. Blaṅ 302.1. hon. form of nor. BBNP 475. Dung-dkar 145. = nor gyi zhe sa. Lcang-skya. Rnam. BR.

•DKOR KHANG [1] storeroom. [2] As a mistake for skor khang, meaning circumambulatory, see Lde'u 350, where this mistake (?!) occurs twice.

•DKOR GYI BLA Btsan-lha.

•DKOR SGROM Btsan-lha.

•DKOR SGROM 'PHRIN YIG Dung-dkar 145.

•DKOR LCI BA Der klösterliche Besitz ist [sündig] belastet (lit. der klösterliche Besitz ist schwer). Kretsch.

•DKOR CHA Btsan-lha. Rnam. Also spelled dkor ca.

•DKOR GNYAN PO RIL BLUG Dung-dkar 145.

•DKOR NOR bu mag par btang ba'am bu mo mna' mar gtong skabs pha mas nor skal du sprad pa'i dngos po. Dung-dkar 145.

•DKOR PHROGS PA DCD 34-35.

•DKOR BLUGS PA'I PHO NYAR BTANG BA Dung-dkar 145.

•DKOR 'BYIN Btsan-lha. kun nas bslangs pa. Rnam.

•DKOR SBYONG Dung-dkar 145.

•DKOR MYI dkor mi'am dkon gnyer ba. Rnam.

•DKOR RTSE BA de ma yin pa'i bskyed rdzogs thams cad kyang dkor rtse ba dang / sud por 'gro ba yin gsungs. Lo-ras-pa, Gsung-'bum IV 525.2. See Yisun under kor tshe, where it is defined as (1) nyi tshe, (2) phyogs ris.

•DKOR MDZOD dkor mdzod ni dkor dang ka cha nor spyi ming yin pas nor mang po yod pa'i mdzod. Utpal 17.4. Dung-dkar 146.

•DKOR MDZOD DU BLUGS PA Dung-dkar 146.

•DKOR ZAS Dung-dkar 146. DCD 35.

•DKOR SA DGE KHONGS Dung-dkar 146.

•DKOS THAG PA Btsan-lha. dkos thag ni nyams thag pa. Utpal 18.4. dkos thag nyam thag 'gro ba'o. Khyung-sprul 13. nyams thag. Dbus-pa no. 446. Rnam. See kos thag pa

•DKYAR 4 14B.3. Acc. to Jaeschke, this is a Zangskar & Ladakhi term for a kind of snowshoe. Rockhill says the word and the object it stands for is unknown in other parts of Tibet; see Das, JTL&CT 26. Yisun doesn't have it, but in Dag-yig, it is said to be a kind of boot known in regional dialects as 'gyur rta.

•DKYIGS Btsan-lha. Rnam.

•DKYIL 'KHOR etymology in 166 499. dkyil 'khor ni lha'i bzhugs gnas. Utpal 17.5. Dung-dkar 147.

•DKYIL 'KHOR GNYIS Dung-dkar 148.

•DKYIL 'KHOR RNAM GSUM Dung-dkar 148.

•DKYIL 'KHOR BRI BA Dung-dkar 148.

•DKYIL 'KHOR BLOS BSLANG Dung-dkar 149-150.

•DKYIL 'KHOR LA 'DZEGS Dung-dkar 150.

•DKYIL 'KHOR GSUM Listed in Klong-chen-pa 12.8, comm. dkyil 'khor gsum ni lus ngag yid gsum rim pa ltar bsgom pa dang bzlas brjod dang tha mal gyi snang ba dang bral ba la byed. Dpe-chos 511. Dung-dkar 150 tells 4 different ways of enumerating them.

•DKYIL SGAR central camp. Sources.

•DKYIL CHE dkyil che ni khong yangs pa. Utpal 18.3.

•DKYIL LE 'carefully, attentively' (?) 4 301A.1.

•DKYU dkyu ni rta rgyugs pa. Khyung-sprul 13-14.

•DKYU BO cas cus sam 'chus po'i ming. Rnam.

•DKYU SA rta dkyu sa'am rta rgyug sa. Rnam.

•DKYU SAR DKYUS Btsan-lha. rta sogs thang bde mor lta bu la rgyugs pa. Utpal 19.2.

•DKYUD PA Btsan-lha. BR.

•DKYUS mgyogs pa'am rgyug pa'i don. Rnam. BR.

•DKYUS THAG dkyus thag thag gcod pa. Khyung-sprul 13.

•DKYUS PA = bros pa. "to have escaped." Kuijp (1986) 34. Btsan-lha. spyan dkyus ring ni dbyibs ring. Utpal 18.3. gzhung gi dkyus dang dkyus ring sna ring ba. Khyung-sprul 13. Rnam.

•DKYUS MA dkyus ma'i dkor zas ni drang po'i dkor zas. Utpal 18.3. dkyus ma gzhan ma. Khyung-sprul 13.

•DKYUS MA'I DON gzhung gi don. Rnam.

•DKYUS MA'I MI Btsan-lha.

•DKYUS MO OT = mgyogs pa. = rgyug pa. Blaṅ 293.2-.3. Btsan-lha. dkyus mo mgyogs rgyugs. Khyung-sprul 13. mgyogs pa. Dbus-pa no. 325. = mgyogs pa. Lcang-skya. Rnam. BR.

•DKYUS MO BYED PA rgyug cing 'gro ba. Dung-dkar 151. Rnam.

•DKYUS RING Btsan-lha. Khyung-sprul 13.

•DKYUS SAR DKYUS mgyogs pa dang rgyug sar rgyug pa'i don. BR.

•DKYER BA Btsan-lha. sbyin pa. Dbus-pa no. 546. Lcang-skya. gtong ba dang sbyin pa. Rnam. BR.

•DKYEL [1] capacity, extent. [2] deep. Skt. gāmbhīrya. D.R. Shackleton Bailey, The Śatapañcāśatka of Mātṛceṭa, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge 1951), p. 59. Rnam.

•DKYEL CHE BA vast capacity. OT = khong yangs pa. Blaṅ 302.1. Lcang-skya. Btsan-lha. dkyel che zhes pa khong yangs che la bya. Khyung-sprul 14. Rnam. BR. Hahn, EI 11. See sgam dkyel.

•DKYEL PO CHE blo gros can zhes pa'i don. Dung-dkar 151.

•DKYOR 'BYIN Btsan-lha. dkyor 'byin pa ste g.yo sgyu'i kun slong la. Khyung-sprul 14. g.yo sgyu'am gya gyu can. Rnam.

•DKRI snal ma dkri. Khyung-sprul 14.

•DKRI LCAGS a regional word for '[door] lock.' Dung-dkar 151.

•DKRI BA [1] take along, guide. 'khrid pa. Rtse-le VIII 428. dkri bar bya zhes 'khrid pa'i ming zla yin. Khyung-sprul 15. BR. Lde'u 163. DCD 51. This appears to be the meaning in older times. [2] wrap, wind around [something]. [3] get entangled.

•DKRIG grangs kyi bye brag ste khrag dkrig zer ba bzhin. Rnam. BR.

•DKRIG BCAR Btsan-lha.

•DKRIGS Btsan-lha. sprin dkrigs ni sprin 'khrigs pa. Utpal 18.5. dkrigs ni grangs kyi gnas. Utpal 19.3. dkrigs 'khrigs dkrigs phrag grangs ming. Khyung-sprul 14. gtams pa'am grangs gnas gzhan. Rnam. BR.

•DKRIL LE lus dang dkril le i lus dang 'khyil le ste sbrel ba ltar mi bral ba'i don no. Dpe-chos 508.

•DKRIS See sbub dkris. See kun dkris. gos kyis dkris ni gos kyis lus dkris pa. Utpal 18.4. kun na dkris. Khyung-sprul 14. gos sogs dkris. Khyung-sprul 14.

•DKRIS PA Stein.

•DKRUGS phun tshun dkrugs ni gong 'og go rim sogs dkrugs pa. Utpal 19.4. bstan pa dkrugs dang gong 'og thugs sogs dkrugs. Khyung-sprul 14. zho sogs dkrugs pa'o. Khyung-sprul 14.

•DKRUGS YIG transpositional code. A simple encryptation code in which one substitutes the following (or the 3rd or 4th etc. following) letter of the alphabet.

•DKRUN chag dkrum ni snod sogs chag pa. Utpal 19.2.

•DKRUM chag gam dkrum. Khyung-sprul 14. BR.

•DKRUM DKRUM 'di gnyis kyi rkang lag 'dam bu dkrum dkrum byas na snyam pa'i rtog pa byung ba yin par gda'. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) V 490.2.

•DKRUM PA phye mar byas pa'am dum bur byas pa. Rnam.

•DKRE clitoris or glans penis (one or the other or both). OT = mo mtshan gyi tog. Blaṅ 306.3. pho mtshan gyi tog. Btsan-lha. = pho mtshan gyi tog. Lcang-skya. Rnam. BR. the tip of the penis. Also called myos byed, tog, 'dod pa'i rgyal mtshan. DD illus. 21. Skt. liṅgaketu. dkre ni pho mtshan rtse yi tog la zer. Khyung-sprul 14.

•DKROG GIS SONG BA Rnam.

•DKROGS blo ma dkrogs ni blo ma dkrugs. Dpe-chos 513. zho dkrogs ni zho dang 'o ma bsrub pa. Utpal 19.1. gzhan [bya sogs] dkrogs nor rdzas dkrogs [mchod sbyin byed pa'ang] te slog pa dang. Khyung-sprul 14. zho sogs dkrogs par bya. Khyung-sprul 14. BR.

•DKRONG BSKYED dkrong bskyed ni lha dkrong nger bskyed pa skad cig dran rdzogs lta bu. Utpal 17.5. Khyung-sprul 14. BR. Rhoton, CD 115, 247. instant generation [of the divine form]. The dkrong part interpreted to mean either 'rising straight up' or 'immediate.'

•DKRONGS Btsan-lha.

•DKROL to play [a musical instrument]. rol mo dkrol ni rol mo'i bye brag 'bud brdungs dkrol ba. Utpal 19.1 gshang dkrol. Khyung-sprul 14.

•BKAG GLU a special song one must sing in order to persuade the beer servers to stop giving one beer. Khenrap in TJ 25 no. 4 (2000) 60.

•BKAG BSDAM BYED bkag 'gog byed pa. Dung-dkar 151.

•BKAG PA (dbus) = sgo srung, sentinel. MTTP. gnang bkag ni blang bya gnang ba spang bya dgag pa lta bu. Utpal 21.1. lam bkag ni lam du 'gro ba dgag pa. Utpal 23.1.

•BKAG RI rngon bkag pa'i ri. Nomads 232.

•BKANG thugs dam bkang ni chos skyongs sogs thugs mnyes par byas pa'i don. Utpal 21.2. zhu bkang ni mda' gzhu brgyangs [brkyangs] pa. Utpal 21.3.

•BKAD Btsan-lha. mgo bkad ni las kyi mgo 'dzugs pa. Utpal 23.4. thags kyi bkad ni de'i mgo 'dzugs pa. Utpal 23.4. thags kyi bkad dang mgo bkad skra la zer. Khyung-sprul 14. Rnam.

•BKAD KYIS Btsan-lha.

•BKAD SA OT = 'dug sa. = mdun khang. Blaṅ 299.1. Btsan-lha. Rnam. bkad sar ni g.yos khang ste za ma skyo khang. Utpal 21.2. BR. bkad sa ni zas kyi g.yos khang ngam zas za ba'i khang ba zhes dbyangs can dga' blos gsungs pa ste sbyin pa'i bkad sa zhes pa lta bu. Gser Sbram 223. Dung-dkar 151. bkad sa'i thang. Khyung-sprul 14. 'dug sa. Dbus-pa no. 594. = g.yos khang. 'dug sa. Lcang-skya. Negi gives three Skt. equivs.: bhaktaśālā, satrāgāra and maṇḍapa. I believe these mean a dining hall, a cook's house (house for homa sacrifice?), or a public lodging place (? building with roof but no walls, usually temporary). DCD 35-36.

•BKAD SA'I THANG Btsan-lha.

•BKAN lus bkan ni lus gyen la bkan pa. lag bkan ni lag pa gyen du bkan pa. Utpal 23.2. lag pa bkan. Khyung-sprul 14.

•BKAN PA DCD 36. Rnam.

•BKAB gos bkab ni gos kyis g.yogs pa. Utpal 21.2. gos sogs bkab. Khyung-sprul 14.

•BKAB CING BKUR srung ba dang skyong ba'i don. Rnam.

•BKAM PA Btsan-lha.

•BKA' Dung-dkar 151.

•BKA' BSKOS bka' bcol ba. Rnam.

•BKA' KHON hostilities, conflict. Btsan-lha. BR.

•BKA' KHON GYI GCUGS Dung-dkar 151.

•BKA' KHOL Btsan-lha. BR. Ka khol ma? DCD 36.

•BKA' KHYAB Verordnung, Erlass. Kaschewsky2.

•BKA' KHRA Dung-dkar 151. Also explains the phrases bka' khra'i rgyab la chod yig gis 'doms dgos, and, bka' khra'i bags smyug bzhi zur rim 'gros.

•BKA' KHRIMS = bka'i khrims yig. legal decree, decree of a legal code. Sources. OT law (hon.). Dotson, D&L 59. official law. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•BKA' 'KHOR LO RIM PA GSUM Dung-dkar 152.

•BKA' GYOD accusation, charge. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•BKA' GYOD MI RMA BA Btsan-lha. Dung-dkar 152. bka' bgyon mi 'bebs pa'am gyod mi byed pa. Rnam.

•BKA' GYOD LA CHAGS PA Btsan-lha.

•BKA' GRIMS Dotson, OTA glossary. Rnam.

•BKA' GROS CHEN PO DRUG Dung-dkar 152.

•BKA' GROS PHYIR MCHED Dung-dkar 152.

•BKA'I DGUNG BLON GNYIS Dung-dkar 182.

•BKA' MGRON = bka' shag mgron gnyer. Intermediate official entrusted with forwarding petitions from lower officials, transmitting the reply or orders, etc.; 6th rank; three laymen. Petech. Dung-dkar 153, explains it as a contraction of bka' shag and mgron gnyer.

•BKA' 'GAG = bka' shag 'gag pa. Ushers of the Kashag; 7th rank; 3 laymen. Each served one of the bka' blon. Petech.

•BKA' 'GYANGS (zhe sa) dus thog tu sgrub dgos pa'i don chen po zhig gnas skabs dus tshod nges can zhig gi ring phyir 'gyangs byed pa. Dung-dkar 153.

•BKA' 'GYUR There is an interesting early reference to the Kanjur and Tanjur in 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) I 54.5 (bka' dang bstan bcos thams cad kyis...). DCD 37-38.

•BKA' 'GYUR GYI LUNG Dung-dkar 154-156. DCD 38-40.

•BKA' RGYA GNANG RTEN Dung-dkar 157.

•BKA' RGYA MA dpar skrun byed mi chog pa'i gsang sngags kyi chos dpe'i rigs rtsom pa pos dam bsgrags yod pa. Dung-dkar 157.

•BKA' BRGYAD Nomads 255-7.

•BKA' BSGO BYED TSHUL Dung-dkar 160.

•BKA' BSGOS bla dpon sogs kyis bka' stsal ba. Utpal 20.1.

•BKA' CAD bka' chad de / nyes chad kyi don. Rnam.

•BKA' BCAD hon. for bcad mtshams.

•BKA' MCID bka' mchid de / phyag bris sam gleng mo'i ming. Rnam.

•BKA' CHAD disfavor, punishment. Karmay, Treasury.

•BKA'I CHU BO CHEN PO BZHI 'DUS PA Dung-dkar 182.

•BKA' CHEMS last will and testament. See Benjamin Wood, The Scrupulous Use of Gifts for the Saṅgha: Self-Ennoblement through the Ledger in Tibetan Autobiography, Revue d'Etudes Tibétaines, no. 26 (April 2013), pp. 35-55, at p. 42: "... final testaments (bka' chems, zhal chems) often contain a distillation of a lifetime of experience, which both constitutes a master's choicest advice to his followers and captures the essential qualities that make a biographical subject exemplary."

•BKA' CHOS KYI SBYIN BDAG Dung-dkar 160.

•BKA' MCHID OT = yang dag pa'i gtam. OR 'bel gtam. Blaṅ 291.3. gleng mo. yi ge, springs yig. Btsan-lha. = gleng mo. Lcang-skya. BR. Rnam. See Schaik, Prayer 209. DCD 36-37.

•BKA' MCHID RNAM PAR GTAN LA DBAB PA bgro gleng ngam rtsod pa byed pa la go. Dung-dkar 160.

•BKA' MCHID 'TSHAL BA gsung gleng bgyid pa'am bka' mol gsung ba / zhu ba gsol ba dang / bka' dang lan zhu ba dang / gsung grogs la'ang zer. Rnam.

•BKA' JI LTAR BSGO BA KHUR DU BZOD PAR BYAS bka' gang phebs pa rnams sgrub pa'i 'gan khur ba'am bka' bzhin sgrub pa. Dung-dkar 160.

•BKA' 'CHID bka' mchid dang 'dra'o. Rnam.

•BKA' NYES YAN POR MA SONG BA Dung-dkar 160.

•BKA' GTAN gong rim srid gzhung gis sprad pa'i bka' shog dang gtan tshigs yig rigs. Dung-dkar 160.

•BKA' BTAGS bka' khrims bsgrags pa. Btsan-lha. rgyal khrims sogs kyi bka' shog lta bu. Utpal 21.4. Dung-dkar 161.

•BKA' RTAGS ZZFC 239.

•BKA' RTAGS KYI PHYAG RGYA Dung-dkar 161.

•BKA' BRTAN CHUG Btsan-lha. BR.

•BKA' THANG document, testament. =bka' tang. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•BKA' THUB dka' spyad snying rus. Dung-dkar 163.

•BKA' DANG PO Buddha's first teachings. Dung-dkar 163.

•BKA' DOG yongs grags ma byas par gsang ba dam po yod pa'am mi nyung shas la ma gtogs gnang mi chog pa'i dbang dang khrid kyi rigs. Dung-dkar 163.

•BKA' DRANG GSUNG DAG Dpa'-ris.

•BKA' DRIN Mistaken Tibetan tr. for Skt. "pra tya ya," which should rather be gzhan gyis 'dren pa, OR rkyen. Blaṅ 311.6. bka' drin ni bla dpon sogs kyi phan btags pa. Utpal 21.3. Name of a reign period (see under skyid rtags).

•BKA' DRIN BSKYANG LEN Dank für eine Gnade [Zurückerstattung einer erwiesenen Gnade]. Kretsch. Dung-dkar 163.

•BKA' DRIN GYIS DGAB PA bka' drin gyis yongs su khebs pa'am yongs su khyab pa zhes pa'i don. Dung-dkar 163.

•BKA' DRIN GSUM LDAN bka' drin gsum ldan zhes pa'i bka' drin gsum ni / dbang bskur ba / rgyud bshad pa / man ngag gnang ba'i bka' drin no. 600 22. Dung-dkar 163 gives both sûtric & tantric lists.

•BKA' DRIN GSOL 'DEBS Dung-dkar 163.

•BKA' DRIN BSAM SHES bka' drin ma brjed par sems la 'jog pa dang / shes rtogs byed pa / bka' drin ha go ba. Dung-dkar 163.

•BKA' DRIS SNGON POR ZHU LAN LJANG GU Dpa'-ris.

•BKA' DRUNG = bka' shag drung yig. Head of secretariat office of the Kashag. Divided into 1) che ba; 6th rank; 2 laymen. 2) chung ba; 7th rank; 3 laymen. Petech. Dung-dkar 163.

•BKA' GDAMS BSTAN PA'I SPYI BABS DCD 40-42, with listing of the main texts of the Kadampa school.

•BKA' GDAMS KYI LHA CHOS BDUN See under lha chos bdun.

•BKA' GDAMS LHA BZHI See under lha bzhi.

•BKA' BSDU BA Dung-dkar 169-170. DCD 43-47, sketches the history of the three councils.

•BKA' NAN Dotson, OTA glossary.

•BKA' NAN PHEBS GZHI CHED BZOS BYUNG 'DUG NA gong rim nas skyon brjod nan po byed dgos pa'i gnad don ched mngags bzos pa. Dung-dkar 172.

•BKA' RNAM PA GSUM sangs rgyas kyi bka' rnam pa gsum ni / zhal nas gsungs pa'i bka' / byin gyis brlab pa'i bka' / rjes su gnang ba'i bka'o. 600 20.

•BKA'I SNA BO bka' blon gyi ming gzhan / bka' don ltar gyi las ka sgrub mkhan sne khrid pa'am 'go khrid mkhan yin pa'i don. Dung-dkar 182.

•BKA'I PHYAG RGYA DRUG Six things that signified the power of the Emperor: power of his orders—casket (sgrom bu) where his edicts were stored, power of his marketplace (khrom)—flag (ru dar), power of his territory—fort (sku mkhar), power of his religion—temple (lha khang), power of his heroism—tiger skin cape (stag pags kyi slog pa), power of his cleverness—secretariat (yig tshang). Dung-dkar 182. His unnamed source is Lde'u 270: phyag rgya drug la / bka' rtags kyi phyag rgya sgrom bu / khrims rtags kyi phyag rgya ru mtshon / yul rtags kyi phyag rgya sku mkhar / chos rtags kyi phyag rgya lha khang / dpa' rtags kyi phyag rgya stag gzig / mdzangs rtags kyi phyag rgya yig tshang dang drug go.

•BKA'I 'PHRIN BLON btsan po'i bka' brgyud bsgrags byed mkhan gyi blon po'i go gnas kyi ming. Dung-dkar 183.

•BKA' BO bka' ni, bka' de ni. Nomads 232.

•BKA' BLO Btsan-lha.

•BKA' BLO BDE BA Btsan-lha. gdams ngag sogs nyan pa'i don no. Utpal 21.4.

•BKA' BLO MI BDE BA Btsan-lha. nyes pa gleng du mi 'jug pa'am gleng mi bde ba. Dung-dkar 175. DCD 48.

•BKA' BLON = bka'i gung blon. Minister, ordinary member of the Kashag; 3rd rank; 4 laymen (1728-1751, 1804-1878) OR 3 lay + one monk (1751-1804, 1878-1959). Petech. Gung blon seems to be an OT title that lies behind Bka' blon. Dung-dkar 175-176.

•BKA' BLON LDING BCU DPON bka' blon / lding dpon / bcu dpon gsum mo. Dung-dkar 176.

•BKA' BLON NANG MA = nang blon. household official. Sources. Interior minister.

•BKA' BLON BZHI The four minister's government was set up in 1721. Dung-dkar 176.

•BKA' BLON LAS 'PHAR 'Joint Kalon' = distinguished senior officials promoted to 3rd rank & taking part in Kashag meetings as a supernumerary member. Petech

•BKA' BLON SRAM A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 293.

•BKA' 'BUM Explained as an earlier way of saying what is now called gsung 'bum. Dung-dkar 178.

•BKA' RMED PA Btsan-lha. BR.

•BKA' GTSIGS edict. Dung-dkar 178-179.

•BKA' BTSAN KHRIMS LOG Dpa'-ris.

•BKA' BRTSAN Btsan-lha.

•BKA' TSHAB = bka' blon las tshab. Deputy Kalon, officiating during absence of a Kalon. Petech.

•BKA' BZHI Foreign policy of Srong-btsan-sgam-po. Dung-dkar 180.

•BKA' BZANG SPYI SMIN chog mchan thob pa'i bka' yig bzang po spyi bo'i steng du smin pa zhes pa'i sdud tshig. Dung-dkar 180.

•BKA' YO GAL 'CHOS PA Btsan-lha. Dung-dkar 175.

•BKA' LA SGRA JI BZHIN PAS KHYAB Dung-dkar 181.

•BKA' LA GTOGS PA Dotson, OTA glossary.

•BKA' LA BTAGS Dung-dkar 181.

•BKA' LA THOGS Dung-dkar 181.

•BKA' LA DON NI DGU YIS BSTAN Dung-dkar 181.

•BKA' LUNG rim pa gong ma nas sprad pa'i yig cha dang bka' shog sogs / sangs rgyas kyi gsung gi lung bstan la yang bka' lung zer. Dung-dkar 181.

•BKA' SHAG = bka' blon shag lhan rgyas. Council of ministers, the office rooms pertaining to it. Petech. Dung-dkar 176-178, 181.

•BKA' SHO dice edict. Dotson, D&L 69. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•BKA' SHOG official decree, edict. rim pa gong mas gsham 'og la btang ba'i bka' yig. Dung-dkar 182.

•BKA' SHOD = bka' shag shod drung. Member of a subordinate secretarial section of the Kashag concerned mainly with ecclesiastical affairs. 2 laymen responsible for documents such as travelling passes (lam yig). One was allotted to the monk Kalon as private secretary. Headed by bka' shod dge rgan, an office abolished by Dalai Lama XIII. Petech.

•BKA' SHOD 'GAG Dung-dkar 181.

•BKA' GSUM See bka' rnam pa gsum. Dung-dkar 182.

•BKA' BSRUNGS Dung-dkar 182.

•BKAR RGYA'I LAS 'DZIN PA de snga'i bod sa gnas srid gzhung gis lo re'i ston kha sa gnas so sor khral 'bab bsdu mkhan btang ste / de nas bsdus pa'i 'bru khag gcig sa gnas so so'i rdzong gi 'bru khang nang bkar 'jug byed kyi yod cing / las don de byed mkhan gyi ming la bkar 'bru 'ded pa dang / bkar 'bru 'go pa / bkar rgya yong sdud pa / yong sdud pa / yong bzhes pa zhes zer. Dung-dkar 183.

•BKAR 'JUG PA official government storehouse keeper. Cüppers in Prats, Pandita & Siddha 12.

•BKAR BTAGS OT = khrims bsgrags pa. Blaṅ 289.3.

•BKAR NAS bkar nas ni logs su bkar ba. Utpal 20.5.

•BKA' YO GAL 'CHOS PA Btsan-lha.

•BKA'S RMAS bka' gnang ba'am gros bsdur gyi gzhi 'don pa gnang ba gnyis kar go chog. Dung-dkar 182.

•BKAR BTAGS = khrims bsgrags pa. Lcang-skya. BR.

•BKAR BTAGS BZHI Or, bka' btags kyi phyag rgya bzhi. Dung-dkar 183.

•BKAR BA logs su bkar ba. Khyung-sprul 14. separated, isolated, with gaps between. Past form of dgar ba.

•BKAR RTSIS gong gsal bkar rgya yong sdud pa'i khral 'bab byung ba dang chad pa'i rtsis bsher byas pa. Dung-dkar 183.

•BKAR RGYA NYIS GSHOR BA Dung-dkar 183.

•BKAR YONG gzhung gi 'bru mdzod du 'jug rgyu'i 'bru khral bsdu mkhan dang lo re'i khral 'bab bsdu mkhan. Dung-dkar 183.

•BKAR YONG RDZONG GSUM GYI DEB 'DON Dung-dkar 183.

•BKAL khral khal srad bu bkal ni dpon pos khral bkal ba dos bkal ba srad bu sgrim pa. Utpal 20.1. khal sogs bkal dang srad bu khral sogs bkal. Khyung-sprul 14.

•BKAS BCAD This term discussed by van der Kuijp in JAOS 123 (2003) 230.

•BKAS PA dum bur bkas pa. Khyung-sprul 14.

•BKAS RMA BA Btsan-lha. DCD 48.

•BKAS RMA BAR CI GNANG bka' dris gnang. Dung-dkar 184.

•BKAS SHING shing bshag pa. Utpal 21.1.

•BKU dri ma bku zhes dri ma tsha'am ngan. Khyung-sprul 14.

•BKU MNYE Khyung-sprul 14.

•BKU BA mchi ma bku ba ni mchi ma bro ba. Rtse-le VIII 430. Btsan-lha. sman bku ni sman gyi khu ba 'byin pa. Utpal 21.2. byug pa bku ni dri dang snum sogs lus la byug pa. Utpal 33.2. sman sogs bku. Khyung-sprul 14.

•BKUM PA Also, gum pa. OT = bsad pa. = shi ba. Blaṅ 299.6. Btsan-lha. BR. srog bkums ni srog bcad pa. Utpal 21.1. bcad pa. Dbus-pa no. 519. = bcad pa. = bsad pa. Lcang-skya. DCD 49.

•BKUR STI CHEN PO DCD 49-50.

•BKUR BSTI Dung-dkar 184.

•BKUR BA Btsan-lha. BR. bsnyen bkur ni bstod bkur sogs mchod pa'i rnam grangs bkur stis gong du bkur ni mchod cing bsnyen te gong ste bla ru bkur ba. Utpal 21.3. DCD 49.

•BKUS TE Khyung-sprul 14.

•BKUS TE BOR BA OT = khu ba bton pa'i snyigs lta bu. Blaṅ 304.6. Btsan-lha. BR. bkus te bor ni sman khu ba phyung zin pa logs su bor ba. Utpal 21.2. DCD 50.

•BKOG rtsa ba bkog ni shing sogs rtsa ba nas bton pa. Utpal 21.3. rtsa ba bkog. Khyung-sprul 14.

•BKOGS KYIS nga rgyal bkogs kyis bcag ni nga rgyal lings kyis bcag pa. Dpe-chos 512.

•BKONG spa bkong ni zil gyis gnon pa. Utpal 23.2. spa bkong [bcom pa]. Khyung-sprul 14.

•BKOD KHYAB Rundherum verziert, 'decorated all around.' Kretsch.

•BKOD RGYA an interdepartmental memo. French, Yoke 267. Dung-dkar 185.

•BKOD 'DOM RIM PA SONG BA Dung-dkar 185.

•BKOD PA bkod pa mdzes dang bder bkod gral sogs bkod. Khyung-sprul 14. 'dun pa. Dbus-pa no. 736. form, formation, shape, pattern, order, arrangement, configuration.

•BKOD PA'I PADMA Dung-dkar 185.

•BKOD PA RDZOGS Dung-dkar 185.

•BKOD MA'I CHU overflowing spring of water. Btsan-lha. BR, suggesting it may be an archaic expression for envy or anger. dper na ri rtse'i bkod ma ni // chu bsil gang zhing khyab pa ltar. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 34.2. Nagy gives the Skt. as prasravaṇodaka. Perhaps wellspring or gushing spring are good ways to translate it. I was thinking it may mean a geyser.

•BKOD LUNG 'GRO MIN RIGS Dung-dkar 185.

•BKOD LEGS bkod legs ni mchod pa sogs bsham lugs sam bzhag lugs legs so byas pa. Utpal 21.4.

•BKON gon bkon ni lus la gos gyon bcug pa. Utpal 34.1.

•BKON PA OT = khro ba. Blaṅ 287.3. Lcang-skya. Btsan-lha. BR. 'khon du bkon ni 'khon zhe la bzung ste khro ba. Utpal 23.1. 'khon du bkon. Khyung-sprul 14. DCD 50.

•BKOR MGO mang du byed ni grabs gshom mang du byed pa. 367 II 127.5. Btsan-lha.

•BKOL g.yog tu bkol ni g.yog byed du bcug pa. Utpal 21.1. zur du bkol dang bran bkol bkol spyod. Khyung-sprul 14. BR.

•BKOL MKHAS 'JOG SHES Dpa'-ris.

•BKOL SPYOD [1] mistreatment (of animals by humans). Lde'u 411. [2] subservience [in both human and animal].

•BKOL BA brkos pa. Dbus-pa no. = bkar ba. = las bkol. = bskos pa. Lcang-skya. BR. DCD 50.

•BKOL BZOD PA Btsan-lha. DCD 50.

•BKOS CHEN PO Btsan-lha.

•BKYAL BA bkyal ba'i ngag ni 'brel med kyi gtam. Utpal 23.5. ngag bkyal don med 'du 'dzi'i gtam. Khyung-sprul 15.

•BKYI BA Btsan-lha.

•BKYIG PA mi bkyig pa = mi brgyang ba, = myur ba. Blaṅ 305.5. bkyigs te ni thag pa sogs kyis bkyigs pa. Utpal 20.5. bkyig thag bsdom. Khyung-sprul 15.

•BKYIN PO bkyin po ni nor bskyis pa'i lam sprad pa lta bu. Utpal 33.5.

•BKYIL bkyil ni phar ram tshur gyi gnas su bskyal ba. Utpal 33.5.

•BKYIS bkyis ni 'das tshig nor brkyis zin pa'i don. Utpal 33.5.

•BKYE BA Btsan-lha. pho nya ston mo 'od sprul bkye zhes pa ni de rnams 'gyed pa'o. Utpal 20.2. pho nya mngags pa'am ston mo bsham pa dang / 'od zer dang sprul pa 'gyed pa sogs la 'jug go. Dung-dkar 185. sprul pa 'od sbyin bkye. Khyung-sprul 15. spros pa ste 'od zer bkye zer ba lta bu. BR.

•BKYE'I PHYAG RGYA PHOG PA Btsan-lha.

•BKYED PA Btsan-lha. rgya bskyed pa'am 'gyed pa'i 'das par 'jug go. Dung-dkar 185. Jamspal, Treasury 90. BR.

•BKYON scolding [from a superior], blame. bka' bkyon ni bla dpon sogs kyis smad de. Utpal 21.5.

•BKYON PA bkyon pa 'bebs sam bka' bkyon gnang ba'o. Khyung-sprul 15.

•BKYON PHAB PA Btsan-lha. Dung-dkar 185. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•BKRA bkra shis bkra mdangs rnam par bkra // bkra gsal. Khyung-sprul 15. Used with evident sense of wood-slips or labels (like khram shing?) in Lde'u 255. Obscure usage, contrasted to bkre'u (two of the four doors to the grave): see Matthew Kapstein, "The Commentaries of the Four Clever Men," East and West, vol. 59, nos. 1-4 (2009), pp. 107-130, at p. 117.

•BKRA BKRAM tshon bkra bkram ni tshon sna tshogs bkra ba. Utpal 19.5.

•BKRA DGU Dung-dkar 185-6.

•BKRA BA'I TSHIG Skt. citrapadā. N. of a metre. Hahn, JV 37.

•BKRA SHIS Skt. maṅgala. EoB VI 600-604. Besides meaning anything auspicious, it may mean more particularly an auspicious occasion (like a ceremony marking a rite of passage).

•BKRA SHIS KHRA RING gos chen tshos gzhi sna lnga re'u mig ltar spel nas khra bsgrigs byas pa'i lda ldi la zer. Dung-dkar 187.

•BKRA SHIS SGO MANG lit., auspicious many-doored. 1. a type of stupa with many apertures, each occupied by a buddha- or bodhisattva-image. 2. a temple shaped externally like such a stupa. MTTP. For an example from Bhutan that belonged to Charles Bell, see Liverpool Museum (no. 54.85.40).

•BKRA SHIS RTAGS BRGYAD Germano, Poetic Thought 869. Dpa'-ris. EoB VI 604-607.

•BKRA SHIS THEM PA YAR SKYOD Dpa'-ris.

•BKRA SHIS BDE LEGS Dpa'-ris.

•BKRA SHIS SNA NAG MA Dung-dkar 195.

•BKRA SHIS PAD SKOR gus zhabs zhu ba'i lag 'khyer gyi 'khrab stangs shig. Dung-dkar 195.

•BKRA SHIS PHUN TSHOGS Dpa'-ris.

•BKRA SHIS BUM RDZAS a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 125. Lag-len 111.2.

•BKRA SHIS BRTSEGS PA Dpa'-ris.

•BKRA SHIS RDZAS BRGYAD me long / gi wam / zho / dur ba / bil ba / dung dkar / li khri / yungs kar rnams so. 600 105. See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 58n. Dung-dkar 196.

•BKRA SHIS ZHAL GRO See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs, 150.

•BKRA SHIS GSO SBYONG Dung-dkar 197. DCD 50-51.

•BKRAG shining, lustrous, lustre.

•BKRAG MDANGS kha dogs mdangs gsal ba. Utpal 19.5. bkrag dang mdangs, terms used in Pha-dam-pa dang Ma-cig (PRC 1992) 431.

•BKRAG RTSIS See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 149.

•BKRAGS Btsan-lha.

•BKRAB SLANG Dung-dkar 199.

•BKRABS PA to be selected [by a superior?], to be sponsored [by a superior?]. OT = mang po'i nang nas 'dams pa. Blaṅ 302.2. BR. der so chung pas bkrabs pas / khrom thams cad 'ur langs te bkrabs. Zhi-byed Coll. II 312.2. rgyal pos bkrabs ni mang po'i nang nas rgyal pos gdam ste thugs kyis zin pa. Utpal 23.2. mang po'i nang nas bdams pa'i mchog dang gtso bo'i don no. Dung-dkar 199. rgyal pos bkrabs ['dems pa]. Khyung-sprul 15. to be singled out as the best or most important. DCD 50.

•BKRAM me tog bkram. Khyung-sprul 15. pf. of 'grem. spread out, laid out, [evenly] distributed, put on display (ex. items for sale in a shop).

•BKRAMS PA 'dam. BR.

•BKRAL [1] to be released [from fetters, confinement, ropes]. [2] exempted [from taxes or laws]. dgongs pa khral bkral ni rgyal ba'i bka'i dgongs pa bkral ba lta bu dang khral yang byas te. bkral ba dgongs bcings bkrol ni bla dpon sogs kyi dgongs pa khrel ba bshags pa phul te bkrol ba dang thag pa sogs kyis bcings pa bkrol ba. Utpal 20.2. slob dpon ye shes snying po la sogs kyis dbu ma rang rgyud du bkral / zla ba grags pa la sogs kyis thal 'gyur du bkral. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) X 108.3. dgongs pa dkral dang khral dang khrims sogs bkral // 'grel ba bkral dang mtshams dang mdud sogs bkral. Khyung-sprul 15.

•BKRAL BTAGS ri mo 'gro sa'i gzhi dang ri mo kha phral nas thags su btags pa'i gos chen zhig ste / ming gzhan mkha' 'gro bkral btags kyang zer. Dung-dkar 199.

•BKRAS BTAGS bkra shis rtags brgyad kyi ri mo yod pa'i kha btags a she'i bsdus ming. Dung-dkar 199.

•BKRI BKRI Btsan-lha. Dung-dkar 199.

•BKRI BA [1] to draw, to guide. OT = drang ba. = 'khrid pa. Blaṅ 286.1. BR. bkros nas bkri ni bzang ngan gdam nas gzhan du drangs pa'am 'khrid pa. Utpal 23.3. drang ba dang / khrid pa dang 'gug pa la'ang 'jug. Dung-dkar 199. drang ba. Dbus-pa no. 051. [2] shake (something done to dice in the hand before throwing). Lde'u 229.

•BKRI BA'I DON A rare equivalent of drang ba'i don, noted by Ruegg in BSOAS 58 (1995) 574. See also Verhagen, SIBH4 591.

•BKRI RU BTUB Btsan-lha.

•BKRID DRANG Btsan-lha.

•BKRID PA a ma mthong ba'i bus pa gzhan gyis bkrid du myed. Zhi-byed Coll. I 310.7.

•BKRIS SHIG Btsan-lha. Dung-dkar 199. khrid shog. DCD 52.

•BKRU dri ma bkru ni snod sogs kyi dri 'khru ba bkrus ni 'khru tshar ba. Utpal 20.5. chu yis bkru bya bkrus shes 'das pa'i tshig. Khyung-sprul 15.

•BKRU DAG GI YO GAL BYED kha mchu rgyag mkhan phyogs gnyis phan tshun nag nyes skyon 'dzugs byed res kyi don tshan gnad che ba rnams khungs skyel ra sprod byed du bcug te mgo bkrus nas gdong dag pa lta bu drang po'i yo bsrang bya dgos pa'i don. Dung-dkar 199.

•BKRU SMAN laxative. bshal sman. Dung-dkar 199.

•BKRU SHING In a list of small creatures in Pha-dam-pa dang Ma-cig (PRC 1992) 441.

•BKRUM PA brdungs pa. DCD 52.

•BKRUMS PA Btsan-lha. BR.

•BKRUS PA bag tsam bkrus pa gcig ni bkrud pa zhes kyang 'byung ste cung zad dred pa cig ces pa ste jog pa dred pa lta bu stabs ma legs pa zhig gis zhes pa yin. Dpe-chos 509.

•BKREN bkren la brtse dang ma rungs rnams la brtse // rku 'phrog la brtse bag med pa la brtse. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) VI 56.3. dbul ba'i bkren. Khyung-sprul 15. bkren la dman par lta ba dang. Hahn, IE 20.

•BKREN CING bkren cing ni nor med pa'i dbul po. Utpal 20.5.

•BKREN PA may mean either poor or avaricious. Gser Sbram 360. BR. bkren pa'i byi ba'i ji bzhin du // nor rnams sdug bsngal kho nar zad. Like for the pack rat, possessions bring nothing but suffering. Hahn, TSD 71.

•BKRES bkres ni ltogs pa. Utpal 20.5. ltogs pa'i bkres pa. Khyung-sprul 15.

•BKRES RNGAB Btsan-lha.

•BKRES PA rang gi rgyu rlung khams shas che ba'i dbang gis pho ba'i nang gi zas rnams zad de pho ba kha 'byar ba'i reg bya zhig. Dung-dkar 199.

•BKRONGS bkrongs ni de yang bsad pa. Utpal 21.1. bsad pa'i bkrongs. Khyung-sprul 15.

•BKROL mdud dgongs bcings pa bkrol. Khyung-sprul 15.

•BKROL BYANG treatise, note. Karmay, Treasury.

•BKROS NAS gdams pa'i don. BR.

•BKROS PA Btsan-lha. phan pa'i tshig gis gdams pa. BR.

•BKLAGS mdo bklags ni mdo sde 'don pa. Utpal 23.4.

•BKLAGS BRGYAS MI NGOMS Dpa'-ris.

•RKA ZZ = mkhal ma. kidneys. Bru II 291.5. 1. irrigation channel. chu 'gro'i yur ba. 2. dog sar 'gyel te 'khor ba'i don te. Btsan-lha. chu rka. Khyung-sprul 15. BR.

•RKA MGO rka mgo'i ni yur chu'i mgo. Utpal 24.5.

•RKA PA = rkang pa. 'foot, leg.' Kuijp (1986) 37.

•RKANG A basic unit of land measurement made for assessing taxes. There are various types: phyi rkang. dmag rkang. nang rkang. Goldstein, Taxation 7. Dargyay, TVC 59, 64. Sources.

•RKANG KHRAG RDO Dpa'-ris.

•RKANG KRAB A part of a loom. See Dag-yig 325. Illus in Yisun.

•RKANG RKUNG rkang rkung gi lung pa bkang ni gyag gyog thams cad bkang bar byas nas zer ba e yin dbus par la gi zhes byed tshig mi 'dug. Dpe-chos 513. skung ba'am sbed pa'i don te. Btsan-lha.

•RKANG 'KHYAR rkang 'dren, zhabs 'dren. to fool or disgrace a person in public. See LZ 11.

•RKANG GRANGS list. Karmay, Treasury.

•RKANG GLA a fee paid to a messenger or the like. Yisun. Literally means 'foot fee' (or even maybe 'foot rent'). I think it can also mean a 'fare' (for travel by whatever means). It occurs in couplet no. 20 of the Ding ri brgya rtsa, although some editions replace it with "gang la."

•RKANG BAM elephantiasis (elephantitis?). Yangga's dissert., p. 107.

•RKANG MGO the front part of the foot. Bellezza, D&B 123 (rkang 'go).

•RKANG MGO'I RUS PA DD illus 7, 14.

•RKANG 'GRO General term for corvée service, both human transport ('u lag) and riding animal transport (rta'u) as well as pack animal transport (khal ma). Goldstein, Taxation, 10. Perhaps 'portage' is an okay translation? I notice this term occurs once or twice in the canonical Vinaya texts, but here it might just mean 'going by foot.' Helga Uebach, Donation of Cattle for a Buddhist Monastery? Notes on Tibetan rkang-’gro/’gros, contained in: Jean-Luc Achard, ed., Études tibétaines en l'honneur d'Anne Chayet (Geneva 2010). Lde'u 398.

•RKANG 'GRO LAG 'DON Dpa'-ris.

•RKANG NGE rang gis chos mi yong bar mi spyod par / rkang nge rkang nge ba yang yong bar gda' gsung. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 55.5.

•RKANG CAN the possessor of a tax estate. Sources.

•RKANG CIG RKANG CHAGS See lo btsan 'thong po.

•RKANG LCAGS leg irons, leg shackles (used as legal punishment, since prisons were inadequate to hold more than a few prisoners).

•RKANG RJEN barefoot.

•RKANG RJES LAG BSUBS Dpa'-ris.

•RKANG TON Btsan-lha. to select, conscript or levy. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•RKANG RTEN a portable stool used to aid in dismounting. step-stool. Smith, Philology 41. steng 'jegs them. Dbus-pa no. 719. = steng 'dzeg them. Lcang-skya. BR.

•RKANG THANG those traveling on foot (as for instance infantry soldiers, distinguished from horseback riders or cavalry - rta zhon).

•RKANG THUNG ljon shing. Rtse-le VIII 432.

•RKANG MTHIL Flick, Carrying Enemies 63-4. The sole [of the snake??].

•RKANG MTHIL RUS PA DD illus. 14.

•RKANG 'THUNG for Skt. pādapa, 'drinking [through its] feet,' hence 'tree.' rkang 'thung [shing]. Khyung-sprul 15.

•RKANG 'THENG LAG GYOL Dpa'-ris.

•RKANG 'DRIL combination. Karmay, Treasury.

•RKANG 'DREN Stein.

•RKANG RDUM PA long tshigs man gyi rkang mgo chad pa'i mi. DCD 52.

•RKANG NAD LA MGO SMAN Dpa'-ris.

•RKANG RNAM See rkang snam in Yisun: dor ma'am gos thung. a tsa ra la gos myed / rdo rje phag mo la rkang rnam myed. Zhi-byed Coll. II 312.6.

•RKANG SNE RDO THOGS Dpa'-ris.

•RKANG PA 'Leg,' a measure equivalent to 1/4 of a cha chung OR sor. Jackson. T&BS I 343. BR.

•RKANG PA RGOD PA = rkang pa mgyogs pa. It means gar yang phyin pa. BBNP 482.

•RKANG PA GNYIS 'DZUGS Dpa'-ris.

•RKANG PA 'THENG 'GROS Dpa'-ris.

•RKANG PA PHAR BRKYANGS Dpa'-ris.

•RKANG PA'I BOL RMA Btsan-lha. DCD 52.

•RKANG PA LA GZAN PA rkang pa la gnod po'am rtsub po. BR.

•RKANG PAS LUS MI 'KHYOG Dpa'-ris.

•RKANG PAS SA MA REG PA SPYI BOS GNAM RTOL Dpa'-ris.

•RKANG PRAN Evid. for rkang phran. Here taken to mean serf, on the basis of understanding pran to be bran. OZZ 112.

•RKANG BU Used to mean a 'link' in a chain. See Stearns, King 479.

•RKANG 'BAM SRZT 108. Text 43. See P.V. Bapat, Ślīpada (Elephantiasis) and a Remedy Found in a Pāli Commentary, Bhāratīya Vidyā 20-21 (1960-61) 196-200.

•RKANG SBUBS DD illus. 15.

•RKANG MAR 'marrow.' DD illus. 15. The word is rather mysterious, since it would appear to mean 'foot butter.' I wonder if it might be explained otherwise as a borrowing.

•RKANG TSHUGS PA established. Karmay, Treasury.

•RKANG MDZED ?? iron spikes attached to boots (for mountain climbing). RY.

•RKANG MDZES Aśoka tree. Yisun.

•RKANG RDZA = mchil lham. 'shoe, boot.' Kuijp (1986) 37.

•RKANG BZHI dud 'gro'i ming. Utpal 24.1.

•RKANG GZAR ri sogs kyi ngos sam sne zur thur du gzhol ches pa. BR.

•RKANG 'OG GI RDE'U DBRAL BAR 'PHAR BA Dpa'-ris.

•RKANG YE = rkang pa(?). 'foot, leg.' Kuijp (1986) 37.

•RKANG LA CHU LO See chu rtsa.

•RKANG LAG lus kyi yan lag. Utpal 24.1.

•RKANG LAG 'GYUS PA mngal gyi gnas skabs lnga'i lnga pa. DCD 52.

•RKANG SHING stilts. Nagano in Karmay, New Horizons 583.

•RKANG SHED = rkyang zhig. = rkyang shod. BBNP 475.

•RKANG GSUM See under lha mo'i bzhon pa dre'u rta rkang gsum. BR.

•RKAN rkan ni kha nang gi rkan. Utpal 24.1. [ya] rkan. Khyung-sprul 15.

•RKAN MAR palate butter (given to newborn babies). Discussed in Karmay, Arrow 262, with refs. See under mar.

•RKAN TSA = skas. 'flight of stairs, ladder.' Kuijp (1986) 37.

•RKAM PA See skam pa. having desire or lust [for something] NNV.

•RKU LTO Btsan-lha.

•RKU STO Also spelled sku rdo, rku rdo. rdab dkrugs sam dbyen sbyor phra ma'i ming ste... BR.

•RKU THABS SU Btsan-lha. DCD 52.

•RKU THABS SU GNAS PA Dpa'-ris. Banerjee, Sarvāstivāda Literature 182 et passim. One who lives in the monastery, pretending to be a monk without taking vows, under false pretenses.

•RKU PHAM DCD 52-53.

•RKU BA to steal.

•RKU BAS LONGS SPYOD PHONGS Dpa'-ris.

•RKU MA DANG LAM DU 'GRO BA'I LTUNG BYED DCD 53.

•RKU SHAS rku shas ni rkus pa'i rdzas kyi cha shas la zer. DCD 53.

•RKU BSHAMS Btsan-lha.

•RKU SEMS DCD 52.

•RKUD See thig rkud. Provisionally translated as 'penalty, fine.' Dotson, D&L 15, 69.

•RKUD PA brjed pa. BR.

•RKUD PHOB SHIG Btsan-lha.

•RKUN DONG robber's pit (place where stolen goods are hidden). Yisun.

•RKUN BU dge ba'i chos la mi dge ba'i dri ma'am / rkun bu byung nyen yod pas. Lo-ras-pa, Gsung-'bum IV 389.2 (also, 390.3, 390.5). See skun bu? Pickpocket, a liver disease, rat. Yisun.

•RKUN MA thief (one who steals things surreptitiously, as distinguished from a robber [jag pa] who takes things by force).

•RKUN MA'I SKRA LAS COD PAN See discussion in English, Vajrayoginī 497-498. This seems to be based in a misinterpretation of the Sanskrit of a Hevajra Tantra passage. See Benjamin Bogin, The Dreadlocks Treatise: On Tantric Hairstyles in Tibetan Buddhism, History of Religions, vol. 48, no. 2 (2008), pp. 85-109, at p. 100, note 39.

•RKUN MA NANG LA SGO LCAGS PHYI Dpa'-ris.

•RKUN MA LA DPA' DAR Dpa'-ris.

•RKUN MA'I RGYAB RTSA KHRAM PAS 'TSHOS Dpa'-ris.

•RKUB Stein. See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 45n. rkub ni lus kyi 'og sgo. Utpal 24.1.

•RKUB CHUB PO Zhi-byed Coll. II 232.2. Seems to be corrected to rkub chum po.

•RKUB CHUM Halt's Maul! (shut yer butt up!). Kretsch.

•RKUB 'JUM das Maul halten (lit. den Hintern zukneifen). Kretsch.

•RKE BA desiccation of bodily flesh or skin. Btsan-lha. BR. DCD 53-54.

•RKE BO SKYONG SKYONG Dpa'-ris.

•RKE RTSE KP1 150.2. KP3 297.7. = ske tshe?

•RKENG RUS GZHOB PA rus pa zos pa. Gces 586.3.

•RKED Text 34.

•RKED GCOG GI GZU conciliatory judgement, compromise judgment. Cüppers in TEHN 82.

•RKED PA PHRA LDAN Skt. Tanumadhyā. N. of a metre. Hahn, JV 37.

•RKO ZZ = gzugs. Bru II 292.1.

•RKO BA sa rko ni sa tog rtse lta bus rko ba. rkos ni sa lta bu rkos zhes skul tshig yin. Utpal 24.3. rko rko bar byed pa. Khyung-sprul 15.

•RKO MA n. of a bird called ko ma. Das.

•RKO MA MCHU medical implement in the class of 'spoons' (thur ma). = Rko ma'i mchu. JD 278 (item 6).

•RKONG GRANGS Karmay, Treasury.

•RKONG BA rkong ba ni thor ba lta bu pags pa za 'phrug langs pa'i nad cig gi ming. Utpal 24.2. nad rkong pa. Khyung-sprul 15.

•RKONG BU mar me'i rkong bu [kong bu]. Khyung-sprul 15. ZZFC 240. Compare kong bu.

•RKON See bya rkon. Blaṅ 296.5.

•RKON PA bird snare. rkon pa bya rgya. Khyung-sprul 15. BR, also rkon bu. Can be spelled skon pa.

•RKON PA 'DZUGS ri dwags 'dzin byed rgya'am snyi 'dzugs pa. Utpal 24.4.

•RKOM 'dod rkom. Khyung-sprul 15.

•RKYA [1] Coblin in TH&L 78. crop fields. Dotson, D&L 56, 69. A taxable unit of land. Bellezza, L&T 50. arable or cultivated land (subject to taxation). For an article devoted to this OT word, see Kazushi Iwao, An Analysis of the Term rkya in the Context of the Social System of the Old Tibetan Empire, Memoirs of the Toyo Bunko, vol. 67 (2009), pp. 89-108, which concludes there were two kinds of rkya, "rkya as a tax unit based on households (levying corvée duties and in kind) and as a tax unit based on the size of arable land (levying grains and precious materials)." "basic taxable land unit that could be divided into sub-units (dor)." Dotson, OTA glossary. [2] OT horseman. I would like to see more examples of this usage. Bellezza, L&T 50. Actually, there are more usages, including dialect usage, that Bellezza will discuss further. See also the note by Dotson in JIABR 1 (2013) 212.

•RKYA GCIG PO Btsan-lha. DCD 54.

•RKYA BROS to escape on horseback. Bellezza, L&T 50.

•RKYA ZHING Btsan-lha. See under rkya. It evidently was used in OT to refer to arable land in terms of taxable units (other types of land are called shug zhing, 'juniper land,' and phong zhing, 'poor land'). Iwao, Preliminary 178.

•RKYA LA GTOGS This phrase discussed in the article by Iwao cited in the entry for rkya, at p. 97 ff.

•RKYAG GTAD MED PA Samdo A IV 255v.3.

•RKYAG PA For skyag pa, shit. Btsan-lha.

•RKYANG wild ass. The English word is chigetai, or dziggetai. A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 299. See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 112. Equus hemionus. TS6 135 n. 29. rked rky[o]ng ni rke dang rkang ba rkyang pa. Utpal 24.4. ri dwags rkyang ni byang gi ri dwags rkyang. Utpal 24.5. = ri dwags dmar po. JD 233. SS 539.6. ri dwags rkyang dang ldem rkyang ngos lkog ming. Khyung-sprul 15. Bellezza, D&B 30.

•RKYANG KHUG Yisun has the rather glib definition: ya dang cha. This seems to refer to the impossibility that these two letters receive any prefixed (or rather superfixed) letters in the writing system. In the Rgya Bod Yig-tshang (PRC ed.) 6, it seems to be part of a name of a historical source: rgyal rabs rkyang khug blon po'i zhal gdams dang // rba bzhed yar lungs jo bo 'tshal pa dang. Dagyab reads: rkyang pa dang khug pa. BA 179 has it in the name of a teaching: Pha rol tu phyin pa'i lam rkyang khug, interpreted to mean the 'straight' and 'circuit' paths of the Pāramitās. stretched out (rkyang) and bent in (khug).

•RKYANG BCAD Btsan-lha. ska rags. Khyung-sprul 15.

•RKYANG NUL zhal ba. Btsan-lha. DCD 54. See skyang nul, etc.

•RKYANG PA prose. Skt. gadya. Mvy. 1461. Hahn, Striving 136.

•RKYANG PHUL This term describes a Tibetan-language syllable which has a 'simple' root letter (without super- or sub-script consonants) in combination with prefix- and suffix-letters.

•RKYANG MA [1] single one, just one, solitary. [2] solitary channel. Germano in JIABS 17 no. 2 (1994) 318. Achard, L'Essence 130, 134. Skt. lalanā (Hindu iḍā). The left side vein. EoB VI 277.

•RKYANG TSHAN Lde'u 392.

•RKYANG TSHAB Also called grus log, name for a 'bri that calves every year (most calve every 2 years). Topgyal in TJ 23 no. 3 (1998)

•RKYANG ZHON RKYANG GLU Dpa'-ris.

•RKYANG YU a straight stitch. Other kinds of stitches are callled grib tshug, tshug log and mdud grub (the latter being a knotted stitch). Essen Catalog 401.

•RKYANG SHING (canvas?) stretcher. Jackson

•RKYANG SHOG PA KP3 256.4. KP4 392.4.

•RKYAN As in: zangs rkyan OR dngul rkyan. Illus. in Yisun. See chu ldir, dngul rkyan. rkyan ni snod spyad kyi ming. Utpal 24.1. chang rkyan snod. Khyung-sprul 15.

•RKYAL phye rkyal ni phye'i snod sgro ba. Utpal 24.2. chu la rkyal. Khyung-sprul 15.

•RKYAL GOG MTHIL BRDOL Dpa'-ris.

•RKYAL PA See dbyal, phyal, etc. coracle (?) 4 19A.1. a kind of storage bag made of skin. Spelled skyal pa in Zhi-byed Coll. II 281.7. rlid bu'i [zhes pa'ang sbug shun] rkyal pa. Khyung-sprul 15.

•RKYAL 'BUD 'inflating the bag.' A type of ritual. Todd Gibson's dissertation (1991), p. 171.

•RKYAL RTSED chu nang du rkyal zhing rtse ba. Utpal 24.5. playing in the water, swimming. For illus. of a swimming competition after the completion of the Red Palace, see Po-ta-la (1996) 140. See the entry in Dungkar Rinpoche's dictionary, p. 818 (under chu rkyal).

•RKYED PA Btsan-lha.

•RKYEN [1] secondary or incidental cause or condition, accident. 'peculiarity.' 28 88. Tshad Rig. rgyu rkyen ni rgyu sa bon dang rkyen chu lud lta bu. Utpal 25.1. Skt. pratyaya (Pāli paccaya; EoB VII 238). Sometimes this is a shorthand way of referring to the incidents and accidents of everyday life. [2] OT, with alternative spelling skyen, it seems to mean someone who takes charge of maned animals. Examples in Lde'u 234, 247. I think this is a reduced version of rkyen bu, q.v. In other Old Tibetan contexts, like Lde'u 234, it is clear from context that it means a caretaker (for animals, particularly horses). For this last meaning, see rkyen bu. [3] translated as 'qualities' in context of the OT administration, in Dotson, Dissert. 42. [4] although uncertain in its meaning (in O.T. context), rkyen is used to mean some kind of boon or 'prod' bestowed on people for their good or bad qualities. Perhaps an incentive? For the moment, I translate as entitlement (or prerogative). Lde'u 267, 275. Compare rkyen ris, below. I notice in the Toling Manuscript, it seems to refer to royal luxury goods (the nine 'phrul cha, brought down from the sky with the first king).

•RKYEN KHAB Benares brocade. LW 478.

•RKYEN NGAN accidents.

•RKYEN NGAN GROGS SHAR Dpa'-ris.

•RKYEN NGAN GROGS SU 'GUGS Dpa'-ris.

•RKYEN NGAN BAR CHAD Dpa'-ris.

•RKYEN NGAN RU 'JIB Dpa'-ris.

•RKYEN THEG CC, List 82, 83, 85, where it seems to be translated as "strong" (?).

•RKYEN SNANG Apparent accidents, apparent conditionings, *everyday appearances/occurrences, common occurences in the phenomenal world (Klong-chen-pa, chapter 11). rkyen snang sna tshogs sgyu ma lta bu'i nyams yod pas 'khruld pa la long spyod kyi 'dug kyang / sngon zhen gyi 'khris myed pas chog. Zhi-byed Coll. V 399.6.

•RKYEN BU person in charge of "maned animals." See rkyen, above. Lde'u 247. Apparently this term occurs in Anne-Marie Blondeau's dissertation, as I learned through an internet search. It also occurs twice, once with the meaning of a 'mahout' (which of course does not have to do with a maned animal) in the 11th-century translation of the Bodhisattvayogācāra Catuḥśatakaṭīkā of Candrakīrti.

•RKYEN BRAL GSUM Achard, L'Essence 192 n. 146.

•RKYEN RTSI OT = rkyen sman. Blaṅ 283.1.

•RKYEN BZHI [1] four contributing causes. In religious / philosophical contexts. Thondup, BM 55. Germano, Poetic Thought 887. Tshad Rig. Zhi-byed Coll. I 91.1. Achard, L'Essence 108 n. 30, 159 n. 11, 193 n. 154. Compare A.K. Coomaraswamy, The 'Four Causes' in the Bhagavad Gītā,' JAOS 57 no. 4 (Dec. 1937) 415-6, where the four causes are named as adhiṣṭhāna, kartā, karaṇa & ceṣṭā, which the author claims correspond to the four Aristotelian causes: material, formal, final and efficient causes (these were also basic to the philosophy of the Brethren of Purity in Basra, and quite a few other early Islamic thinkers). The Mdzod phug knows of 'four primary causes' (rgyu bzhi), with 'secondary cause[s]' (rkyen) being the fifth. For the Four Causes in Islam, see for example Abbas Hamdani, Time According to the Brethren of Purity, Alif: J. of Comparative Poetics, no. 9 (1989), pp. 98-104, at pp. 99, 102: material, formal, efficient and complete (or 'final') cause. Mohan Matthen, "The Four Causes in Aristotle's Embryology." They also feature in Liana Saif's article "The Universe and the Womb." See also Wayman & Lessing, The Buddhist Tantras, p. 21; Takakusu, Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy, p. 71. [2] in medical contexts. For the four causes of disease in medicine (season, diet, behaviour and harmful spirits), see Millard in Schrempf, ed., Soundings 270.

•RKYEN RIS reserved provision. Karmay, Great Perfection 7. Btsan-lha. DCD 54. entitlement granted by royalty. Gibson in TJ 23 no. 4 (1998) 73, n. 9. Tucci, Minor Buddhist Texts 366, discussion on p. 369.

•RKYEN RIS BCAD DCD 54.

•RKYEND OT. estates. Dotson, D&L 46.

•RKYONG NGE 367 II 130.6.

•LKAG DKAR A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 293.

•LKUG Btsan-lha.

•LKUGS PA ngag lkugs pa ni gtam smra mi shes pa'o. Utpal 25.4.

•LKO CHU dron mo ltar 'jam nyog ge ba. Explained in 367 II 131.2.

•LKO BA Btsan-lha. The lko syllable is translated in OZZ 114 (there is an alternative reading sko).

•LKOG DKAR See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 98n.

•LKOG LKOG SUD SUD Dpa'-ris.

•LKOG GYUR Tshad Rig. rang la mngon sum du mi gyur ba. Utpal 25.1.

•LKOG RNGAN bribe (given without public knowledge).

•LKOG GDONG DKAR A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 295.

•LKOG NA MO In philosophy, covert as distinguished from mdun na mo, meaning overt. See the blog Philologia Tibetica, entry for August 20, 2012.

•LKOG MA 'og ma. Utpal 25.2. gullet, windpipe, the front part of the throat.

•LKOG GI RI SNA Btsan-lha.

•LKOG SHAL lce gting lkog shal ni ba lang gi lkog ma'i pags pa lhab lhab 'phyang ba de. Utpal 25.2. =rgog shal. Skt. sāsnā. The dewlap of an ox. Jamspal, Treasury 41.

•LKOG SHAL CAN See mdzo rgod.

•LKOGS PA Btsan-lha. Khyung-sprul 16.

•LKYE ZZ = lce. Bru 291.2.

•SKA Btsan-lha.

•SKA CIG skad du ska cig skabs su gnas skabs. Khyung-sprul 16.

•SKA BA Btsan-lha.

•SKA MA I believe this ought to be read skam. See Schaik in JIABR 1 (2013) 234.

•SKA RAGS gos kyi ske rags. Utpal 26.2. Used in context of architectural description of the maṇḍala in Paṇ-chen I, Gsung-'bum II 371.5.

•SKAG [1] lac. Btsan-lha. skags kyi me long de chu la skur. Throw that lacquer mirror in the water. Zhi-byed Coll. II 446.5. [2] Skt. āśleṣā. Mvy. 3193. skar ma skag ni rgyu skar nyer brgyad kyi nang tshan gyi skar ma de'i ming. Utpal 25.4.

•SKAG SKEN Unsinnig (nonsensical, absurd). Kretsch. Here skag should probably be read skyag!

•SKAGS GROGS See zhu mkhan.

•SKANG NUL Btsan-lha. skang nul zhes zhal ba. Khyung-sprul 16. See skyang nul.

•SKANG PARD Nishida, TTDD 145.

•SKAD KYI GDANGS 'DAR Dpa'-ris.

•SKAD 'GAG SRZT 88. hoarseness. Yangga's dissert., p. 211.

•SKAD 'GAGS SHED RDZOGS Dpa'-ris.

•SKAD 'GYUR Kvaerne 221. Generally it would seem to refer to 'translation,' but in some cases must mean something like 'vocal modulation' (Edou, Machig 129).

•SKAD NGAN RJES BZHAG Dpa'-ris.

•SKAD NGAN RLUNG 'KHYER Dpa'-ris.

•SKAD CIG In Abhidharma, a specific time measurement. "A finger snap is supposed to take sixty moments, a thought ninety moments, there are 4,500 moments in a minute, and 3,240,000 in a day. One moment therefore lasts about thirteen milliseconds." Westerhoff, Twelve 119.

•SKAD CIG CHA MED Tshad Rig.

•SKAD CIG MA 'JIG PA GRUB PA Tshad Rig.

•SKAD CIG BZHI Dasgupta, ORC 93.

•SKAD CIG SHES PA "Instantaneous awareness." Norbu, Cycle.

•SKAD GCIG 'OD CAN See phug ron.

•SKAD COR loud noise.

•SKAD GNYIS PA See me tso.

•SKAD GNYIS SMRA BA translator, if literally a bilingual person. DCD 57-60.

•SKAD KYI GTANG RAG Btsan-lha. DCD 57.

•SKAD GTONG BA caller, summoner.

•SKAD PAR voice print, recording.

•SKAD RIGS BZHI legs par sbyar ba lha'i skad / pra kri ta rang bzhin pa'i skad / a ba bhram sha zur chag gi skad / bi sha tsi sha za'i skad rnams so. 600 37.

•SKAD GSANG (poet.) = skad gdangs, tone. MTTP. Roberts, King translates it as 'loud, clear voice.'

•SKAD GSAR BCAD This term discussed by van der Kuijp in JAOS 123 (2003) 230. DCD 60-62.

•SKABS 'state.' Thondup, BM 223. occasion. context.

•SKABS RTOG = gnas skabs. zur Zeit, bei der Gelegenh. Kaschewsky2.

•SKABS DAG Stein.

•SKABS NAS 'BYUNG BA'I BSLAB BYA DCD 62.

•SKABS SU GTOGS PA'I BSLAB BYA DCD 62.

•SKABS GSUM PA deities. See Yisun. Skabs gsum is Tridaśa in Skt., name of a heaven of Indra and so on.

•SKABS GSUM SGO NGA egg of the three times (?) or rather egg of the Tridaśa heaven. A name used in the Sampuṭa Tantra for the 'nave' (lte ba) of the Vajra (the round part at the center). It is identified with Vajrasattva. Paṇ-chen I, Gsung-'bum II 306.1.

•SKAM a clan name. Btsan-lha.

•SKAM SKEM must mean same as kam me kem me, q.v. mun rum gyi glog dang 'dra ste skam skem tsam yin gsungs. Lo-ras-pa, Gsung-'bum IV 535.5.

•SKAM KHRAL lit.: dry tax. levied in cash, as opposed to rlon khral, levied in kind. Sources.

•SKAM BCAD Stein.

•SKAM THAG CHOD PA thoroughly dessicated. Yisun.

•SKAM THIG Line laid down with dry chalk line. Jackson.

•SKAM PA Pliars, pinchers, tongs. See types in Schmied. 145. Stein. mgar ba'i lag cha skam pa. Utpal 27.5. byi la 'bar ba nag po ltar // dal gyis skam pa'i mchus bzung nas // tho bas drag tu brdung snyam nas. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum IV 469.1. Jamspal, Treasury 102.

•SKAM PA A class of medical implements — 'pinchers, pliers, tongs.' Goldstein. Various kinds pictured in JD 274-275.

•SKAM PHOGS Bu-ston, Works XI 158.1: phyis lo chen gyi gsol thang skam phogs su blang gsungs. See Yisun, where it seems to mean a kind of taxation or government requisition of dry foodstuffs (primarily grain).

•SKAM TSHAG dryness of eyes. Text 27.

•SKAM RE RAN me dang nyi mas skam ran zhes pa lta bu. Utpal 30.5.

•SKAM RLON dry (cash) or wet (food). Sources.

•SKAM SHA 'TSHAL Btsan-lha.

•SKAM SOB (Dbus, Gtsang) lit., dry and spongy. gritty. MTTP.

•SKABS GSUM GRONG sum cu rtsa gsum. Rtse-le VIII 429.

•SKABS GSUM DBANG PO'I PHO BRANG skabs gsum pa ni lha spyi'i ming dang / skabs gsum dbang po ni lha'i dbang po brgya byin no // de'i pho brang ni rnam par rgyal ba'i khang bzang nyid do. Gser sbram 388.

•SKAR KHUNG window. Also spelled dkar khung. Modern Tibetan ge'u chung. In origin it must have been a 'star hole' through which the stars were seen, and therefore a star light. See discussion in Rolf Stein, The World in Miniature, p. 155.

•SKAR MKHAN Simile of the astrologer who is able to calculate the paths of the stars but unable to sense his wife is having an affair. Hahn, TSD 49. Hahn, VG 428.

•SKAR CHU SS 526.3. I saw an explanation of this "star water" on a blog page of Malcolm Smith: http://bhaisajya.blogspot.com, dated January 29, 2008. It does in fact occur in a Tsan Ba shi la ha text, which is interesting.

•SKAR MDA' Sternschruppe. Kaschewsky2. Shooting star. Jinpa, Mind Training 201. a disease of pigs. Bellezza, L&T 60.

•SKAR MDA'I GDONG Skt. ulkāmukha. Mvy. 6900. For the ulkāmukha service for providing food to hungry ghosts, see EoB VIII 396-398.

•SKAR MA KUN DA lit., star jasmine, it is the purest grade of silver. Simioli, AG 55.

•SKAR MA'I BDAG PO lord of the cosmos, in the Kha che Pha lu evidently a term for Allah. See RET XXXIX 70. al Quran 53 [the Star Sūrah]: 49, does call Allah the Lord of [the star] Sirius, with Sirius being the brightest star in the sky. Some neo-fundamentalists are audacious enough to think they can use this to argue that Allah is identifiable with Lucifer (but wait one minute, Sirius may be the brightest star but not the morning star as Venus often is).

•SKAR MA PHAR BSKYAL / NYI MA TSHUR BSU Dpa'-ris.

•SKAR MA ZHWA BYED / BA MO LHAM BYED Dpa'-ris.

•SKAR RTSIS astrology. See TR XIV no. 10 (Oct. 1979) 18a.

•SKAR TSHOD THIG knowing the exact number of stars. MTTP.

•SKAL rang skal ni dbang thang sogs rang gi skal ba thob pa. Utpal 31.2. gnas kyi skal, 'rent on a plot of land (?).' Hahn, TSD 13.

•SKAL CHE skal che dbang thang che. Khyung-sprul 16.

•SKAL MNYAM GYI RGYU Tshad Rig.

•SKAL TO Anteil. Kaschewsky 82.

•SKAL THOB dowry. Topgyal in TJ 23 no. 3 (1998) 46.

•SKAL LDAN dam pa'i chos kyi skal ba'ang yod pa lta bu. Utpal 25.3.

•SKAL BA DRUG dbang phyug phun sum tshogs pa / gzugs phun sum tshogs pa / dpal phun sum tshogs pa / grags pa phun sum tshogs pa / ye shes phun sum tshogs pa / brtson 'grus phun sum tshogs pa'o. 600 80.

•SKAL BZANG See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 43n, 50.

•SKAL BZANG ME TOG (coll.) the marigold. MTTP.

•SKAS RING "Treppe, Leiter." Kaschewsky 82.

•SKI YA SHI Evid. a Chinese word, a rosary made of this substance was given to the 9th Dalai Lama. L.A. Waddell, Chinese Imperial Edict of 1808 A.D. on the Origin and Transmigrations of the Grand Lamas of Tibet, Separatum from the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, January 1910, pp. 69-86, at p. 85.

•SKIGS BU a hiccup, hiccough. skyigs bu. ig ka rgyag pa. Btsan-lha.

•SKU CHOS SKU: The basic factors behind illusory appearances as if in-corpor-ated. LONGS SPYOD RDZOGS SKU: The common pool of possibilities for social discourse in-corpor-ated. SPRUL PA'I SKU: The protean in-corpor-ation, within the realm of the illusory, of the factors behind those same illusory appearances projected purposefully through the lens of social discourse in order to access those basic factors and thereby transform the dangerously reified classifications of the human mind, thereby aiding in the release of those who would otherwise remain entrapped. See also sku gsum. See discussion by Todd Gibson in his dissertation (Bloomington 1991) 77 ff.

•SKU RKUB A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 292.

•SKU RKYANG PA Achard, L'Essence 128, 175 n. 69.

•SKU SKA lde'u. khed. Btsan-lha. See Mvy. no. 7351. For Dorji Wangchuk's blog on this word see the one dated

•SKU SKEM Btsan-lha.

•SKU SKYE = sprul sku. Stein.

•SKU MKHAR [imperial] fort. Sørensen in Lungta 16 (2003) 87.

•SKU GAS SU BTSUGS PA OT = rgyal btsugs pa. Blaṅ 306.1-.2.

•SKU 'GAG RGYAN DRUG MA DCD 63-64.

•SKU RGYAL = khrims 'degs. court costs, at least in the later law codes. See for example, see the legal codes in the series Gangs can rig mdzod vol. no. 7, p. 117 (& 119) last line and some other appearances of the word in this volume, such as p. 78: khrims 'degs sam sku rgyal. This entry thanks to Christoph Cüppers. Lde'u 256. Notice the similar word dku rgyal, q.v. JS: It isn't a cost, it's surely a kind of person. Khrims 'degs is the one making the legal decision (the highest person responsible, likely meaning the king himself), and he is also called sku rgyal. See under khrims 'degs.

•SKU NGO TSHAB NGO Dpa'-ris.

•SKU DNGOS Head of a noble family. Petech.

•SKU LNGA ngo bo nyid sku / chos sku / ye shes chos sku / longs sku / sprul sku dang lnga'o. 600 69. Germano, Poetic Thought 837. Achard, L'Essence 179 n. 91.

•SKU 'CHAG (hon.) stroll, walk taken for exercise. Lde'u 149.

•SKU GNYIS gzugs kyi sku dang / chos kyi sku'o. 600 8. Achard, L'Essence 157 n. 1.

•SKU DON "(persönliches) Ziel." Kaschewsky 82.

•SKU DRUNG = dge brkos. monastic prefect. Sources.

•SKU GDUNG CHA BRGYAD DCD 63, 64.

•SKU GDUNG NYAMS PA MED PAR BYIN GYIS RLABS DCD 64.

•SKU GDUNG ZHUGS 'BUL cremation. DCD 64-65.

•SKU GDUNG RIGS LNGA sha ri ram / chu ri ram / ba ri ram / nya ri ram / panydza ri ram rnams so. 600 69.

•SKU BDE RIGS A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 298. A borrowing from Mongol kuderi, meaning 'musk' (gla ba is the usual Tibetan word). Beyer, CT Lang. 139. = gla ba. LW 496.

•SKU 'DONG Btsan-lha. DCD 65.

•SKU 'DOD sgog pa. Dbus-pa no. 703.

•SKU PANG hon., the lap or the bend between legs and abdomen. MTTP.

•SKU PHYED MA Achard, L'Essence 125.

•SKU BER a ceremonial cape, illus. in Reynolds article in Orientations (Mar 1981) 17.

•SKU BYAD Gestalt. Kretsch.

•SKU BLA Coblin in JAOS 111, p. 320. Stein, Tibetica Antiqua I 164, 200-1. Btsan-lha. Discussed by Todd Gibson in his dissertation (Bloomington 1991) 35 note 21. Discussion on whether they are gods or men in Nathan Hill's review of Mike Walter's book, where Hill concludes in favor of them being gods. See also Nathan W. Hill, “The sku bla Rite in Imperial Tibetan Religion,” Cahiers d'Extrême-Asie, vol. 24 (2015), pp. 49-58.

•SKU MYI NGAS Btsan-lha.

•SKU RTSED Spass. Kretsch.

•SKU TSHAB government representative, particularly the drung pa, an official appointed to the control of groups of villages. Sources. Achard, L'Essence 47 n. 104.

•SKU TSHAB TSHO GNYIS MA second class government representatives. Sources.

•SKU MYI NGAS sku khams bzang ba. Btsan-lha.

•SKU MTSHAL [1] sku gdung ngam sku pur. Btsan-lha. [2] This honorific 'body vermillion' generally refers to blood. For Chinese practice of writing holy scriptures using one's own blood in the ink, something also known in Tibet, see Kieschnick, Impact 174 ff. (Also, a blog by Sam van Schaik, and an article by Kieschnick.)

•SKU ZHANG Uray, Narrative 19-20.

•SKU BZHI sprul sku / longs sku / ngo bo nyid sku / ye shes chos sku'o. 600 51.

•SKU YI ZIL BSKYED Dpa'-ris.

•SKU YON TS7 II 737.

•SKU RAGS MKHAN a position in a scriptorium. They made the book straps (acc. to Kurtis Schaeffer, forthcoming work on Bu-ston).

•SKU RU KHA See ku ru kha.

•SKU LONG CHE BA ZAS VII 474.

•SKU GSHEN priests in ancient imperial times who were responsible for the health and wellbeing of the emperor. A tabulation of various lists of these priests was done by Namkhai Norbu (see the ref. in ZZFC 229 n. 72). For an example of an Old Tibetan woodslip text bearing the name of someone who was both zhal ta pa and sku gshen, see IOL Tib N 873.

•SKU SRI Stein, Tibetica Antiqua I 200.

•SKU SRUNG Dotson, OTA glossary.

•SKU GSUNG THUGS [Buddha] Body, Speech & Mind. The background for this type of formulation is probably Vedic and Old Iranian; see Witze's essay on Philology, where we find "'thought - speech - action' (manas - vāc - karman), a collocation that is found not only in the Veda but also in the closely related Old Iranian texts (manah - vacas - šiiaoϑna, Yasna 34.1-2)."

•SKU GSUM Masson-Oursel, Les trois corps du Bouddha: JA (1913) 581 ff.

•SKU LHA An OT concept (otherwise well known only in Ge sar epic) perhaps better left untranslated. I think it refers to the godling that protects the body of the Emperor, and formed a ritual focus for the "old religion" (without its help the welfare of the empire would be threatened). Todd Gibson, dissertation (Bloomington 1991) 150 ff. Nathan W. Hill, “The sku bla Rite in Imperial Tibetan Religion,” Cahiers d'Extrême-Asie, vol. 24 (2015), pp. 49-58, has argued that sku bla and the later sku lha are quite distinct ideas that should not be confounded (I'm not entirely sure of this).

•SKUGS rgyal gyi skugs ni shwa sogs su rgyal blta ste skugs bzhag pa. Utpal 29.4. skugs rgyal bzhag. Khyung-sprul 16. Seems to occur as a misspelling for lkogs: skugs myed par lta nyul ma mang, "To one who doesn't conceal secrets, the spies are few." Zhi-byed Coll. II 214.1.

•SKUGS KHONGS SU TSHUD PA sha kho na gnyer ba'am srog lan len pa'i phyir sgug pa'i dgra'i khongs su tshud pa'am dkyil du chud pa'o. Dpe-chos 504. Btsan-lha.

•SKUGS PA Btsan-lha. 'khruld pa gting nas sel ma shes na / bag la nyal gyis skugs myi chor ba yin no. Zhi-byed Coll. III 9.1.

•SKUD smearing [oil for massage]. snum skud [misspelled for bsku?] ni lus la snum byugs pa lta bu. Utpal 25.5.

•SKUD SNE KHAB KHRID The needle leading the thread-end. Dpa'-ris.

•SKUD PA bram ze skud pa mkhal la ltos. Zhi-byed Coll. I 304. For the Brahmin thread metaphor, see Rhoton, CD 248. mdo. Dbus-pa no. 264.

•SKUD PA SKYOGS srad bu 'khol ba ste dmad pa'i don. Utpal 25.5.

•SKUD PO = kyo (wife's brother?) Blaṅ 516.5. chung ma'i ming po. Utpal 28.1. Chandra gives the Skt. as jāmātṛ, devara, śyāla, śvaśura. These Skt. words involve some ambivalence, since some may also mean 'husband,' not just 'brother-in-law.' skud po khyo // chung ma'i spun no. Khyung-sprul 16.

•SKUN NGU [BU?] OT = gzhong bu. Blaṅ 298.6.

•SKUN BU = gzhong bu. Lcang-skya. skong bu'am gzhong ba. Utpal 27.4. skun bu kong bu dang ni slo ma la. Khyung-sprul 16.

•SKUB BSKYOD PA See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 45n.

•SKUR Used in such OT ritual contexts in such terms as lho skur, mon skur and rgya skur. See Bellezza, L&T 58, where he says they appear to be ritual vessels or baskets.

•SKUR 'DEBS belittling, slandering. In certain contexts may be translated 'cynicism' (with the meaning as in the more general English usage, not the Greek philosophers).

•SKUR 'DEBS KYI LHAG MA DCD 65.

•SKUR 'DEBS GNYIS PA DCD 65-66.

•SKUR PA SGROGS Btsan-lha. DCD 66.

•SKUR PA ZAN Btsan-lha. slander. Dotson, D&L 11.

•SKUR BU a type of container. Bellezza, D&B 141.

•SKUL BA to urge on, incite, encourage, admonish, remind. Claus Vogel, Pāli Lexical Studies (Continued), Indo-Iranian Journal XIV (1972) 204-209.

•SKUL BYED skul byed las ni 'di lta bu gyis zhes mngag pa. Utpal 26.5.

•SKUL SHING prod, or lit. 'urging stick.'

•SKE lus kyi ske. Utpal 28.4.

•SKE = mgrin. 'throat, neck.' Treatments for neck wounds said to originate from Khotan, acc. to Yangga's dissert., p. 234.

cham rims SKE SKRANGS SRZT 58.

•SKE'I GA'U A jewellery item illus. in Yisun.

•SKE STONG CHA RA KHUNG DD illus.1.

•SKE PHRENG A jewellery item illus. in Yisun.

•SKE TSHE JD 216. SS 518.5. KP4 474.2. = rke rtse? black mustard. LW 502. See Emmerick in BSOAS 58 no. 2 (1995) 405 (in Siddhasāra translation, used for Skt. bhūstṛṇa, meaning 'geranium grass'). See Mvy. no. 5664, which says that zhe che'i 'bras bu, or, ske tshe 'bru, is equiv. to Skt. rājikā, in the class of grains. Monier-Williams says rājikā is Sinapis ramosa, but it can also mean 'stripe, streak.' ske tshe 'bru rigs. Khyung-sprul 16. Simioli, AG 60.

•SKE YI RMEN BU DD illus. 31.

•SKE LANG Stein.

•SKEG RTSIS TR XIV no. 10 (Oct. 1979) 19B.

•SKED gser sked = sked rags gser khebs. Gold brocade sash. Velm I 140-141.

•SKED KHRA 'striped middle.' A type of woodslip for communicating a judicial decision that the complainant's case is false and his wealth ought to be confiscated. Dotson, D&L 35.

•SKED SMAD below the sash. = sta zur. hips. Skt. śroṇī. skyed smad is a slightly mistaken spelling. Aśvaghoṣa, Buddhacarita, chap. 3, verse 16 (here women's broad hips are compared to chariots).

•SKEM sku lus la sha med pa'i rid pa'i ming. Utpal 25.4. skem byed gdon dang rid pa'i skem // skem po sul mang a ru'i rigs dag go. Khyung-sprul 16. to become thin NNV.

•SKEM PO SS 434.1.

•SKEM BYED gdon skem byed. Utpal 26.5.

•SKO BA 'dun pa. Dbus-pa no. 525.

•SKO 'BRAG sko 'brag gi nang du rgyang dmyig ltos. Zhi-byed Coll. II 228.6.

•SKO LONG Btsan-lha. Scherrer-Schaub in JIABS 25 (2002) 286. DCD 66.

•SKOG RNOGS prob. for lkog rnog, private & concealed. mkhan slob kyis ma tshor bas chog pa tsug tu sdig pa la skog rnogs byed. Zhi-byed Coll. II 279.1.

•SKOGS mar skogs lta bu shun pa'i ming. Utpal 29.5. skogs shun. Khyung-sprul 17. Sbal skogs means turtle shell.

•SKONG thugs dam skong ni thugs mnyes par byed pa. Utpal 31.3.

•SKONG BU It may mean 'paint pot.' lha bzo ba 'gro ba la tshon rtsi'i skong bus dgos pa myed. Zhi-byed Coll. II 230.1. shel gyi skong bu'i mar me 'di la grib ma myed. Ibid. I 310.1. The modern spelling is kong bu or skon bu, but see also skun bu.

•SKONG TSHE skong tshe'i gzeb. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKOD ZZ = so. Bru II 291.1.

•SKON gos skon ni lus la gos gyon bcug pa. Utpal 26.4. bya skon ni bya 'dzin byed kyi bya rgya yin. Utpal 31.3. bya skon bya snyi. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKON BU lcug ma sogs las byas pa'i 'jog snod. Btsan-lha. skon bu zhes pa gzhong pa'i ming. Khyung-sprul 16. gzhong bu. Dbus-pa no. 580. DCD 66.

•SKOBS SU Btsan-lha. skobs su chud ni bya dka'i las byed dgos byung ba lta bu. Utpal 31.2. skobs chud bya [bya dkar tshud kyang 'dug] dka' zin. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKOBS SU CHUD PA Dpa'-ris.

•SKOM = ga tha ya, rtol. JD 243.

•SKOM 'THUNG Btsan-lha.

•SKOM DAD CHE BA SRZT 89.

•SKOM PA CHU 'DOD Dpa'-ris.

•SKOM PA'I PHYI NAS KHRON PA BSNYEGS Dpa'-ris.

•SKOM PO skom po gyon. Gold.Ms. I 3v.3. As n. of an animal, see under rtol.

•SKOM TSHUGS Btsan-lha.

•SKOM ZONG Btsan-lha.

•SKOM SIL See skyu ru ra.

•SKOR 'GO rtsis byed stangs kyi sde tshan. Nomads 232.

•SKOR 'CHAG perhaps more correctly, mkhur lcag, a 'cheek whip' used for lighter legal punishment. French, Yoke 321. For the use on cheeks of a flat bamboo stick as punishment in schools, see Toni Huber's article, "Violence in Tibetan Buddhist Societies." See under ko shag, snyug lcab. This should actually be spelled ko lcag, or ko shag, q.v.

•SKOR 'CHAG PA patrol policemen in old Lhasa. French, Yoke 260 (see also Yisun). See Veronika Ronge, The Corpse Cutters of Sera, Tibet Journal 29 no. 2 (2004), pp. 9-10, which says that at end of 19th century there were 30 regular police officers in Lhasa, helped by 30 assistants. I think 'khur lcag pa is probably the correct spelling ('cheek-whip guys'). For a photo, see Norbu in TTT 248.

•SKOR THIG 'compass' (the tool). Jackson. Schmied 147.

•SKOR DON an on-site report of a crime scene. French, Yoke 259.

•SKOR PA circumambulater, someone who makes rounds.

•SKOR PANG compass board. Jackson.

•SKOR PHOR Name for tsha tsha mold. Samdo A III 183v.2; IV 111r.6; V 115v.5, 141r.2 (but in this last instance spelled skol phor, which I believe to be the more 'official' spelling, since it occurs at least 9 times in the canon, while the other forms are not found there at all when performing a search of the digital version). skor phor la ri mo myed na 'byi 'byi tsha tshar myi 'gyur. Zhi-byed Coll. II 270.3. Yisun knows the spelling brkos phor, which makes more sense to me (carved or engraved cup). The modern term would seem to be tsha par.

•SKOR TSHER Btsan-lha. khol ma'am ba glang gi mig lta bu. Utpal 29.5.

•SKOR BZHI of Man-ngag Sde. Thondup, BM 64.

•SKOR BZHU lantern patrol, a nightly rounds made at the Potala. Tsarong in TJ 23 no. 3 (1998) 25.

•SKOR G.YENG ZHIB 'JUG Dpa'-ris.

•SKOR LE Samdo A V 124v.5. See kor le.

•SKOL GYI ours. Btsan-lha. DCD 66. It seems like a truncated form of 'o skol.

•SKOL CAG GNYIS we two. nged rang gnyis. Btsan-lha.

•SKOL BA BYED las la dbang med du skol ba byed pa. Utpal 27.1.

•SKOL PHOR See skor phor.

•SKOS CHEN PO Means something along the lines of a royal edict. Lha Lama Bio. 1.

•SKOS THAG CAN weak, worn out. Btsan-lha.

•SKOS MAL Btsan-lha. DCD 66.

•SKYA [1] skya rgyal (skya means 'king'). Khyung-sprul 17 (he doesn't say so, but it probably should be understood as Zhang-zhung). [2] O.T. a problematic word that anyway must mean horse, steed, mount or the like. Often spelled rkya, q.v. [3] as used in the name Lcang-skya and A-kya, and in Amdo monastery names, it is a borrowing of a Chinese word jia for 'family.' As such it is most often spelled kya, but also rgya, ca and skya. Gray Tuttle, An Unknown Tradition of Han Chinese Conversions to Tibetan Buddhism, J. of Tibetology 9 (2014) 274-298, at p. 291.

•SKYA KA See skya ga. magpie. Jamspal, Treasury 85.

•SKYA BKRA skya bkra'i so skos ma bzhag bar la. Zhi-byed Coll. II 161.3.

•SKYA KHRA = skya ka. = skya ga. "Vogelart." Kaschewsky 82. See under kye ka & kya kra.

•SKYA KHRA HOR PA SUM 'GROL a medicinal preparation. BP 278.6. The expression skya khra hor pa occurs in one of the 6th Dalai Lama's lovesongs (no. 62 in Sørensen's enumeration), and it may be same as the rgya khra hor pa of HS V 328.

•SKYA MKHAN the oarsman or the one who steers the boat. Lde'u 332.

•SKYA GA skya ga chu skyar ni chu bya nya gsod mkhan. Utpal 27.4. = mgron bsu, bya khra. JD 227. SS 537.4.

•SKYA GA'I SKAD bya des skad rgyab pa. Utpal 27.4.

•SKYA GA THIGS TSHAGS an annual roof repair done at the beginning of the rains when earth is packed on the roof to prevent leaks. Yisun.

•SKYA 'GAM skya 'gam ni gri'i rtse mo prig sha'i lo ma 'dra. From Namdak, Bzo-rig 112. skya 'gam gri yi ming. Khyung-sprul 17. ZZFC 242.

•SKYA SGOM [to do] meditation as a layman. Karmay, Treasury.

•SKYA CHOS used for books made on light colored paper, distinguished from sngo chos. Vitali, Tho.ling 75. See Essen Catalog 57. H. Uebach, From Red Tally to Yellow Paper, RET (Oct. 2008) 63, n. 18.

•SKYA THAL Aufschäumen, gischen (foam, froth, fizz, lather) Kretsch.

•SKYA THIG SGAR 'GRO n. for a hunt after smaller types of animals, a nomadic term.

•SKYA SNAR =pa ta la. Bignonia suaveolens, the Indian species of bigonia. Roberts, King.

•SKYA POD Btsan-lha.

•SKYA 'PHYING Btsan-lha.

•SKYA 'PHYINGS skya 'phyings / kha dog dkar po la skya zhes zer ba yod de / me tog chun por / ja sogs skol dang kha dog skya / zhes pa lta bu / yang skud pa'i rkang la skya zhes zer ba yod pa las 'dir ni phyi ma de yin la de yang 'byings [60r4] zhes pa skud pa de 'jings pa'i don yin zhes pa lta bu. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•SKYA BA oar/sail of a boat (?). Rudder (?). BBNP 467. Oar. Samdo A V 161v.3, 180v.6. Btsan-lha, q.v. skya ba ni gru bas chu dkrugs. Utpal 27.5. Tibetan oars may be forked sticks with leather sewn around the forked part; see Hummel in TJ 25 no. 3 (Autumn 2000) 17 n. 16. skya ba gru dbyug. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYA BAR from 'foot' (rkang) to 'foot' of a thread on a skein (?). BBNP 479. Btsan-lha.

•SKYA BAR NAS THON PA sgra dang tshad ma'i skya bar nas thon pa. I attempt to translate this: something that came out from between the paddles of grammar and logic. Lde'u 135.

•SKYA BO whitish, pale. Jackson.

•SKYA BO RENG Btsan-lha.

•SKYA RBAB swelling of body due to diseases of the don lnga. "mi'i glo snying sogs don lnga la nad byung ba'i rkyen gyis lus skrangs pa'i nad kyi thog ma'i skabs la bod kyi sman gzhung du skya rbab zer. "Tibetan medical texts use this word to describe the initial stages of diseases of the lung and heart (and also liver, spleen and kidneys). Dag-yig. Text 16, 65. Most generally it occurs in connection with lung diseases. Lag-len 276.4. Etiology: The basic causes are the three humours and lymph (chu ser). The contributing factors are: 1) Eating inappropriate foods following a case of diarrhea. 2) Phlebotomy (gtar) or cooling compounds (bsil sbyor) following a fever. 3) Drinking too much water when exhausted. 4) Sleeping in a moist place, etc., where physical heat is weakened. 5) Undigested chyme stagnating in the liver rather than transforming into other physical constituents. 6) Bad blood diffused in the flesh and skin so that they expand. 7) Pus (chu ser) is scattered by air so that it pervades the body. If skya rbab becomes chronic, it turns to 'or nad. Chronic 'or nad turns to dmu chu. Symptoms: The three general symptoms are 1) General swelling of the body. 2) Shortness of breath. 3) Infrequency of urination. In addition to these, 1) Puffiness of the eyes and face. 2) The side of the body facing downward during sleep. These symptoms are easily recognized by all, yet I have only seen a few who were able to treat it. SRZT 35 ff. This is classified as a phlegm (bad kan) disorder. Note: The literal meaning of skya rbab is 'whitish' (skya) 'wave' (rbab, = rba rlab). See also AHT 104. dropsy. Yangga's dissert., p. 190.

bad kan SKYA RBAB SRZT 35. Text 36.

•SKYA SBAB nad bad kan. Utpal 27.3.

•SKYA MIN SER MIN Dpa'-ris.

•SKYA MO ZZFC 234. OZZ 111. Lde'u 244, 269, 367. Perhaps it means 'pale light'? it somehow describes an uninhabited land, as in the phrases thang stong skya mo and byang thang skya notice also its use in a name of the Milky Way: dgu tshigs skya mo). Stearns, SR 29 ('pale').

•SKYA TSHON paints applied in thin washes, giving a pale result. Jackson.

•SKYA RDZAS Tshad Rig.

•SKYA ZAD SNGO RDUGS Dpa'-ris.

•SKYA RING Morgendämmerung. Kaschewsky2.

•SKYA RIS sketch. Jackson.

•SKYA RE SKYO RE (deriv. from skyor, 'to support') = skyar skyor. "supportingly." Soundings 25.

•SKYA RENGS dawn. nyi ma'i kha lo ba nam langs pa. Utpal 32.1. skya [btang dang] rengs. Khyung-sprul 17. Sanskrit aruṇa.

•SKYA RENGS THA MA Skt. tamrāruṇa. Mvy. 9299.

•SKYA RENGS SHAR BA DCD 66.

•SKYA RENGS DANG PO'I SNANG BA DCD 67.

rgyu rims SKYA BSHAL SRZT 53.

•SKYA BSER Btsan-lha.

•SKYAG sku skyag = sku mchings. "Binde, Schärpe, Gürtel." Kaschewsky 82.

•SKYAG SKYAG BYED PA 'shoot the shit,' make fun (of someone).

•SKYAG SKYAG RANG BYED PA ridicule, insult (someone). Kretsch.

•SKYAG BTAD Zoten, Schlüpfrigkeiten (obscenities, dirty joke, lubricity, indelicacy, obscenity). = skyag pa'i gtad so: "schmutzige Absicht" (obscene intent). Kretsch.

•SKYAG THEG Zoten, Schlüpfrigkeiten. = skyag btad.

•SKYAG PA Stein.

•SKYAG PA'I STENG LA 'PHONGS BRDAB Dpa'-ris.

•SKYAGS GTAD MED PA Btsan-lha.

•SKYAGS PA skyags [sa med kyang] pa phyi sa'o. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYANG NUL to plaster. Blaṅ 298.3. zhal ba. Btsan-lha. gyang sogs la zhal ba byugs pa lta bu. Utpal 30.4. Skt. lepa. Mvy. 6671 (where there are a number of Tibetan equivalents for lepa). phyags brdar dang bskyang nul legs par byas te. Zhi-byed Coll. I 115.4. zhal zhal. Dbus-pa no. 561. Lcang-skya. See rkyang nul, etc. See rnyeng.

•SKYANG NUL GRUGS PA Btsan-lha.

•SKYANG PA des dge' sbyor la gnod ma nus na lam skyang pa bya ba yin pas. Zhi-byed Coll. II 334.6.

•SKYAN yang ja 'dren pa dang rang gi skyan cog pa yang go nas 'ong ste. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) X 109.3.

•SKYABS 'GRO taking Refuge. Nomads 2257-8. For a sceptical view of how early the expression was used in Buddhist history, see Balázs Gaál, King Íibi in the East and the West: Following the Flight of a Suppliant Dove (PDF from internet), p. 15.

•SKYABS 'GRO'I BSLAB BYA DCD 67.

•SKYABS MED BSHES BRAL Dpa'-ris.

•SKYABS ZHU BA Jemanden um Schutz anflehen. Kretsch.

•SKYABS SU 'GRO BA GSUM BRJOD PA DCD 68.

•SKYABS GSUM 'DZIN PA'I DGE BSNYEN DCD 68.

•SKYAR SKYOR See skya re skyo re. phyogs phyogs nas rtsig pa sogs skya re skyo re tsam byed pa. Dpe-chos 507.

•SKYAR MO [s]kyar mo nya myed bya gzhan gyis myi [']tshe. The skyar mo with no fish is not injured by the other birds. Zhi-byed Coll. I 267.6 (also, 459.1, 459.7). = nya khra. = (?) ti tig gu ling. JD 259. SS 538.4. I've noticed the English translation of the Gdams pa brgyad cu pa by Zur chung translates it as 'pelican' (I think this is probably incorrect).

•SKYAL gang gha rgal ba la skyal sbyong dgos par gda' gsung. Zhi-byed Coll. II 170.7 (prob. equiv. to rkyal, 'swimming'). skyal snum zhal ba. Khyung-sprul 17. See rkyal, which is perhaps the preferable alternative spelling.

•SKYAL SKYIL Samdo A V 219r.2.

•SKYAS See Nine Ways.

•SKYAS CHEN PO 'DEGS PA gzhis rdzogs byas te 'gro ba. BBNP 475-6. gzhi rdzogs byas nas 'gro ba'i don te / slar ldog rgyu med par 'dug sa 'phos nas 'gro ba'i don no. Dpe-chos 507. skyas 'degs. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYAS PA gnas spo ba'i don te 'dir sa rdo skyel ba'i don no. Gser Sbram 45.

•SKYI a clan name. Btsan-lha.

•SKYI DKAR lug lpags kyi skyi mo dkar po. Utpal 31.4. skyi dkar ko ba. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYI GRI = spu gri 367 II 130.4.

•SKYI DNGUL A monastic fund lent to people for interest. TS7 II 983.

•SKYI 'JIGS skyi 'jigs mi mjed. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYI SNYE See snyi nag mo.

•SKYI THOG with common property.

•SKYI 'DANG chu bo. Btsan-lha. Discussion by D. Snellgrove in BSOAS 14 (1952) 397. See skyin 'dang. skyi 'dang chu bo. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYI BA SS 486.5. nor skyi ba, 'borrowing wealth or money.' Schopen in IIJ 44 (2001) 107. skyi ba tsher (?). Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYI BA'I 'BRAS BU = tsher skya, ngang pa gser sgong, ngang pa chig rgyug, ngang pa chig thub, skyi 'brum, gtso 'brum, gcog sla, gtse du. JD 102. DG 209.1.

•SKYI BA PO debtor. Jampel Kaldhen, Interest Rates in Tibet, TJ 1 no. 1 (1975) 109.

•SKYI BUNG bag tsha ba. 'jigs pa. Btsan-lha. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) X 114.3.

•SKYI 'BRUM See skyi ba'i 'bras bu.

•SKYI G.YA' Skyi g.ya' bya skyibs brag.

•SKYI G.YA'I SKYON 'jigs shing skrag pa de yon tan min pa nyes skyon du gyur pa. Utpal 28.5.

•SKYI SHUS g.yar ba. Gces 584.5. Btsan-lha.

•SKYI BSER wind, breeze. rten myed kyi skye bser gar dgar yan. The non dependent wind freely rambles where it will. Zhi-byed Coll. II 289.6. [s]kyi bser rlung gis bar snang dangs. Ibid. I 304.1.

•SKYIGS BU dbugs mi bde ba ris rtsi ba. Utpal 27.3.

•SKYIGS BU hiccup, hiccough. SRZT 89. Skt. hikkā. Mvy. 4059.

•SKYID KYIS SDUG NYOS / MAR GYIS TSHIL NYOS Dpa'-ris.

•SKYID KHYAG SDUG THEG Dpa'-ris.

•SKYID NGAL BAS 'DREN Dpa'-ris.

•SKYID RTAG A chronological term. The 821-2 Sino-Tibetan treaty pillar mentions the 7th, 8th and 9th skyid rtag. It probably refers to the regnal period of Khri gtsug lde brtsan. Uray, Earliest Evidence 348. Evidently Bka' drin refers to the reign of his predecessor Khri lde srong btsan. Brandon Dotson, "Emperor" Mu rug btsan and the 'Phang thang ma Catalogue, Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 3 (December 2007), pp. 1-25, at p. 10.

•SKYID DAR Stein.

•SKYID 'DOD 'GUL 'TSHER Dpa'-ris.

•SKYID 'DOD SO BSOD Dpa'-ris.

SKYID SDUG Brian C. Shaw, Bhutan: Notes Concerning the Political Role of Kidu, J. of Bhutan Studies 33 (Wint 2015) 1-22.

•SKYID SDUG GAL TA MGO 'BREL Dpa'-ris.

•SKYID SDUG SGANG GSHONG MI SNYOM Dpa'-ris.

•SKYID SDUG MNYAM MYONG Dpa'-ris.

•SKYID SDUG TSHOGS PA "groups [to share] joy and sorrow," voluntary social groups. Dargyay, TVC 49. "skyid mnyam gsog / sdug mnyam 'khur. Nomads 39.

•SKYID SDUG RANG LAG Dpa'-ris.

•SKYID SDUG RES MO / LA THUR MNYAM 'BREL Dpa'-ris.

•SKYID SNA GLUS DRANGS Dpa'-ris.

•SKYID PHRUG title of official interpreter at Lhasa. Tucci, Lhasa 76.

•SKYID YA SDUG GROGS Dpa'-ris.

•SKYIN [1] zhal skyin ni zhal tshab. BBNP 478. skyin tshab. Khyung-sprul 17. Something borrowed that needs to be returned. The word zhal skyin occurs, in context of an image, in Mdo-'dus. [2] A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 297. Bellezza, Divine Dyads 35. Karmay in Lungta, vol. 16 (Spring 2003), p. 9, translates it as ibex. So does Bellezza, D&B 49. Jas. Platt, "Jong," Tibetan Word, Notes & Queries, series 10, no. 1 (June 11, 1904), p. 465: "There are very few Tibetan terms in English, mostly names of animals, such as the kiang, the sakin or skeen (Tibetan skyin), the shapho, the yak, and others." There is a brief entry for Skeen in Hobson-Jobson. See discussion in Btsan po website: www.tsanpo.com/forum/25152.html.

•SKYIN KHRIN punishment of debt. Dotson, D&L 38.

•SKYIN GOR 'glacier frog,' lizard. OT = gangs sbal, = rtsangs pa. Blaṅ 302.3. = rtsangs pa. = gangs sbal. Lcang-skya. Btsan-lha. gangs sbal lam tshangs pa. Utpal 29.2. skyin gor gangs sbal [da byid] rtsangs. Khyung-sprul 17. rtsang pa. Dbus-pa no. 696.

•SKYIN GOR CAN See rtsangs pa.

•SKYIN THANG CHU chu log. Dpe-chos 515.

•SKYIN 'DANG dkyus na skyin 'dang chu la bying ba med. Ma 36.4. Martin, Mandala Cosmogony 41. Stein in McKay, History of Tibet I 558. Translated as torrent in Bellezza, L&T 75 (a number of references are given). See Bellezza, D&B 69, 70 ('turbulent' [water]).

•SKYIN 'DANGS ser ba. Btsan-lha. Is this ser ba meaning 'hail' or 'wind' (bser ba)?

•SKYIN PA bdag gi skyin pa khyed kyis mdzad par zhu. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 12.2.

•SKYIN PA CHU YIN RUNG SLA BAR MA GTONG Dpa'-ris.

•SKYIB MA See nad ma.

•SKYIBS rock alcove (?). bya skyibs kyi brag ldeng ka'am bug yod pa. Gces 588.1. Samosyuk in TS9 VII 71.

•SKYIBS LUG Haarh, Yar-luṅ 370, 376. A sheep that acts as guide to the deceased? Pastry sheep. Tan, Theses 121 n. 41, 140-142. Helga Uebach, From Red Tally to Yellow Paper, RET (Oct. 2008) 58. ZZFC 115. Bellezza, D&B 9 et passim. See Bellezza, D&B 67. See under dbon lob.

•SKYIL KRUNG DCD 68.

•SKYIL PO Btsan-lha. chu skyil byed. Khyung-sprul 17. skyil po khang chung. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYIL BA to hold back [the flood], stem the tide.

•SKYIS PA Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYU a food item, cooked with small pieces of kneaded dough mixed with potatoes, meats, cheese, butter, garlic & spices. Khenrap in TJ 25 no. 4 (2000) 56.

•SKYU GANG 367 I 234. skyu gang ni zas shig yin. Utpal 27.2. skyu gang dang // ju gang zhes pa nye 'brel zas ster ba. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYU RDUM tshod ma. Dbus-pa no. 720.

•SKYU RA [1] a clan name. Btsan-lha. [2] hawthorn fruit. CTEV 30.

•SKYU RU = skyu ru ra. Fundamentals 16.2 (item 17). Singh (p. 36): Emblica officinalis. Dutt (p. 226): Phyllanthus emblica. Sanskrit: āmalakī. The āmalaka fruit symbolism originates in an artistic reinterpretation of the inverted water pot, acc. to Vajracharya in Marg 51 no. 2 (Dec 1999) 53-78, at p. 64. Phytolacca esculanta. Wangchuk, Bioactive 26. For interesting discussion of the early history of the rather common metaphor in which something is clear as an amalaka fruit held in the palm of the hand, see Walter Liebenthal, Notes on the Vajrasamādhi, T'oung Pao, 2nd series vol. 44, nos. 4-5 (1956), pp. 347-386. Baljit Singh Sekon & Balaji M. Potbhare, Phyllantus Emblica: Its Therapeutic Potential & Acceptance in Sports Medicine, an Analysis, Int'l J. of Health, Sports & Physical Education, vol. 2, no 1 (Jul 2013) 34-38.

•SKYU RU NYER LNGA a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 87. Lag-len 62.1. TMC 23 (44). BP 125.2, 133.5, 323.1.

•SKYU RU DRUG PA a medicinal preparation. BT 43r.6.

•SKYU RU RA JD 84. SS 434.3. = ā ma la kī, skom sil, khrag skem. Emblica officinalis. TM I 50. Clifford, list. KP3 341.2. KP4 565.3. DG 189.1. The seeds are used in medicine. DG specifies that the white seeds are better than the red. Emblica officinalis. TDD 71.

•SKYU RU RU BA = yer re ba. BBNP 484.

•SKYU RUM OT = tshod ma. Blaṅ 304.2. Lcang-skya. Btsan-lha. zas kyi ro gsal ba byed pa'i tshod ma'i ming. Utpal 27.1. skyu rum tshod ma. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYUG PA Stein.

•SKYUG BRO BA ekelhaft (repulsive, loathsome, nauseating, i.e.: pukey). Kretsch.

•SKYUGS NAD SRZT 95.

•SKYUGS SU yun du. Dbus-pa no. 247.

•SKYUNG KA the Jackdaw. MTTP. = lcung ka. Dagyab. Beyer, CT Lang. 146. skyung kas skyung ni bya nag mchu dmar can des skyung zhes brjod pa. Utpal 26.1. The bird known as the chough. Bellezza, Divine Dyads 365. Bellezza, L&T 54 (here spelled skyung kha). TPS 718. JD 224. = dpyid 'bod, bdud bya. skyung ka [lcung ka]. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYUNG BA Stein.

•SKYUNG BU See skyong bu. 'awl.' Goldstein.

•SKYUNGS phyung ba'am ngar bcag pa. Gces 581.6. re ba skyungs. Ibid. III 38.2. bcom skyungs ni skad chung ngus smra ba'am nyams chung byed de kha rog 'dug pa lta bu. Utpal 34.2. bcom bskyungs ni 'jigs nas skad chung ngur smre ba'am kha rog 'dug pa zhes li shi'i gur khang du byung. Eimer, Dbyangs 58. bcom bskyungs. speaking in a low voice. Jamspal, Treasury 219.

•SKYUD brjed pa. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYUD BYANG Btsan-lha. DCD 68.

•SKYUR zho sogs ro skyur ba. Utpal 26.3. rdo skyur. DG 137.6.

•SKYUR GTONG BA werfen, schleudern, loslassen (toss, sling, let loose) Kretsch.

•SKYUR 'THUNG = chang. 'beer' Karmay, Treasury.

•SKYUR 'DRA waxberry. CTEV 30.

•SKYUR PO'I RDO Simioli, AG 58.

•SKYUR MO See da trig.

•SKYUR RTSI Skt. nāgaraṅga (the orange tree). Mvy. 5807.

•SKYUR RTSI CHEN PO Skt. jambīra, jambhīra. A large kind of lime or citron (Citrus acida). Mvy. 5808. MW says jambīra is a citron. The pomelo (some say pomela). CTEV 29.

•SKYUS Stein.

•SKYUS MA de la dge sbyor skyus ma [rabs] la ni bsngo ba dang lngar 'ong bas. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) V 450.5.

•SKYE occurs as a spelling for ske, q.v. Yangga's dissert., p. 288.

•SKYE KA'I TSHOGS KYIS 'UG CHUNG BDA' Dpa'-ris.

•SKYE SKA Btsan-lha.

•SKYE DGU 'dod pa'i khams las tshe 'phos te khams gsum du skye ba gsum / gzugs khams las tshe 'phos te khams gsum du skye ba gsum / gzugs med khams las tshe 'phos te khams gsum du skye ba gsum la bya'o // 'ga' zhig 'di'i dgu ni ra mgo can gyi rgu yin pas grangs kyi dgu la mi byed zer ro. 600 124-125. rin chen phreng ba'i dar tīk tu phung po lnga dang 'byung ba bzhi bcas chos dgu la btags pa'i gang zag la skye dgu zhes gsungs pa dang / pan chen blo bzang chos rgyan gyis 'dod khams nas shi 'phos te 'dod khams dang gzugs khams dang gzugs med khams su skye ba gsum dang / gzugs dang gzugs med khams gnyis la'ang de ltar sbyar bas dgu la skye dgu zhes pa yin par gsungs la / 'ga' zhig gis grangs kyi dgu ma yin pas skye rgu zhes ra mgo can yin zer ba sogs bshad tshul mang ngo. Gser Sbram 165.

•SKYE 'GUL As ex. of an irreg. Old Tantra term, corresponding to skye dgu, see the work of Dge-rtse in Rnying Rgyud 1973 XXXVI 455.

•SKYE RGA NA 'CHI Dpa'-ris.

•SKYE RGU See skye dgu.

•SKYE RGYUN GCOD See pa yag. Is this perhaps supposed to be contraceptive?

•SKYE SGO DD illus. 22.

•SKYE NGAN 'DRE PHRUG Dpa'-ris.

•SKYE MCHED Skt. āyatana. sensory media. 445 III 58.3 ff. 9 60. Germano, Poetic Thought 934. Tshad Rig. Based in subject-object dualism, the particular sensory consciousness would seem to project toward the object, produce and enhance it. The internal-to-external medium in which this apparent projection takes place is the skye mched. mig sogs yul yul can bcu gnyis. Utpal 31.3. skye mched seem to exist in a liminal space between the objective realm and the subjective one: de'i stobs kyis rlung lnga nang du chings pas 'byung ba lnga'i skye mched mthong gsal mdangs phyed pas / rig pa cer bu la sang nge sa le la bkrag chags pas / sa'i rlung zind pa'i rang mdangs su 'od du du ba lta bu gsal... Zhi-byed Coll. V 46.6.

•SKYE MCHED BCU GNYIS mig gi skye mched / rna ba'i skye mched / sna'i skye mched / lce'i skye mched / lus kyi skye mched / yid kyi skye mched de yul can drug / gzugs kyi skye mched / sgra'i skye mched / dri'i skye mched / ro'i skye mched / reg bya'i skye mched / chos kyi skye mched de yul gyi skye mched drug go. 600 154-5. Tshad Rig.

•SKYE THANG PA Btsan-lha.

•SKYE MTHAR Btsan-lha.

•SKYE LDAN See rgya skyags.

•SKYE GNAS BZHI mngal skyes / sgong skyes / drod gsher skyes / brdzus skyes so. 600 29. The womb-born are born through the development of the body from a seed inside of the mother's body, the egg-born are born through the development of the body from a seed inside an egg (and outside the body), the warmth-moisture-born develop bodies from seeds outside a body, but without any egg. Miraculously-born are instantaneously born complete without developing from any seed.

•SKYE BA RGYUN GCOD See gser. See brag spos.

•SKYE BA GCOD PA'I LTUNG BYED DCD 69.

•SKYE BA RNAM BZHI four types of birth. DCD 69.

•SKYE MED unborn, unproduced, unarticulated. Skt. anutpada, ajāti. Sometimes used as epithet of Bodhicitta [Klong-chen-pa 6.1]. Germano, Poetic Thought 952.

•SKYE MED 'CHI MED "Without regard for births & deaths," principle used in assessing taxes on livestock herds. Dargyay, TVC 58.

•SKYE DMAN 'low rebirth' (as an epithet that evolved into a normal word for 'woman'). This may have emerged in usage in Tibet in around 1100 in the circle of Padampa. It is not an O.T. word, absent in O.T. documents (OTDO, where I tried various spellings), and it isn't in Mvy. We see it in ca. 1200 in the Rgyud bzhi (see BHBW 300 for relevant passage).

•SKYE TSHA skye tsha'i 'bru ni ske tshe ste yungs gzhi 'dra ba'i ldum rigs shig yin. Utpal 31.4.

•SKYE TSHE skye tshe tsher nag. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYE 'OL rtogs pa'i skye 'ol mos gus kho na che ba yin / yi dam dang mkha' 'gro gnyis kyi byin brlabs dang nyams kyi skye 'ol chung. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 139.7.

•SKYE YAG (Gtsang) lit., beautiful. n. of a tree. MTTP.

•SKYE RAGS = ska rags. "belt, girdle." Kuijp (1986) 37.

•SKYE LO (Gtsang) = lang tsho, beauty. MTTP.

•SKYE SHI Sinitic vocab. for 'khor ba. Stein, Tibetica Antiqua I 163, 174-5. Ch. shengsi. Teiser, RW 3.

•SKYE SRID DCD 69.

•SKYEG Btsan-lha. rtsis kyi skyeg ni brda rnying yin te skeg [keg kyang]. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYEGS PA = sgregs pa. "to belch." Kuijp (1986) 37. re skyegs ri skeg bya ni gong mo dang // mchu skyegs ya mchu'i g.yas g.yon skyes pa'i spu. Khyung-sprul 17

•SKYENGS skyugs pas skyengs ni zas zos pa kha nas yar skyugs pas ngo tsha ba. Utpal 27.2.

•SKYENGS THABS SU Btsan-lha.

•SKYENGS PA to feel embarrassed. NNV.

•SKYED [1] interest payment. Gutschow, Being a Buddhist Nun 110. [2] I've noticed this is in the early Atiśa biographies used instead of skyel (ex. in Eimer, NG 181).

•SKYED GA interest (on a loan). Jampel Kaldhen, Interest Rates in Tibet, TJ 1 no. 1 (1975) 109.

•SKYED THOB See under byin thob.

•SKYED PA [1] = rked pa. "calf of leg." (?) Kuijp (1986) 37. [2] old way of spelling sked pa, 'waist.' Yangga's dissert., p. 336.

•SKYED BYED 1. pha. 2. sa gzhi. Blaṅ 526. Tshad Rig.

•SKYED MA skyed ma a ma. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYED MOS TSHAL park (as in 'garden park' or 'pleasure grove'). The Skt. ought to be upavana or, more likely, udyāna as we find in Mvy. 5614. Often spelled skyed mo'i tshal.

•SKYED TSHAL me tog dang shing sna tshogs skyes pa'i tshal. Utpal 28.3.

•SKYED LA SKYED RGYAG compounded interest (when the loan comes due and isn't paid, the unpaid interest becomes a part of the loan and so is subject to interest). Jampel Kaldhen, Interest Rates in Tibet, TJ 1 no. 1 (1975). Dpa'-ris.

•SKYEN [1] fast and easy (of arrows and speech). mgyogs dang sla ba. Blaṅ 516.4. skyen yang ni mda' dang 'gros sogs 'phang skyen zhes dang 'gros skyen zhes pa lta bu. Utpal 26.4. smra dang mda' skyen. Khyung-sprul 17. [2] See under rkyen.

•SKYEN PAR 'DONG BA Btsan-lha. DCD 69.

•SKYEN PO fast, quick (especially for the velocity of river, wind, arrow and travel). Skt. śīghra.

•SKYEN RTSI bud med. Btsan-lha. skyen rtsi dang // skye dman 'di gnyis bud med skyes bzang ster. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYEMS repeated filling up of a guest's cup. MTTP.

•SKYEMS KYIS SKOM ja chang sogs btung bas skom pa. Thirst that results from drinking, cotton mouth. Utpal 26.3.

•SKYER SKYA kha dog ljang skya. Utpal 26.2.

•SKYER SKYANG skyer skyang ser skya. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYER KHA kha dog skyer kha. Khyung-sprul 17. RJY, evidently following Das, says it means a light yellow color. Yisun says it is the color of the shing skyer pa.

•SKYER KHAṆḌA a medicinal preparation. TMC 33 (69).

•SKYER PA See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs, fig. 7. JD 120. There are white and black varieties. = gser ldum, pa la ta ka, dhi sha ri, dzi byed ta, ha ri ha, dhā tu, ha lang hā, gser shing, tsher rngon, 'bras skyur, lpags ser, gser shun. DG 239.2. Mdo 42. Indian barberry. Clifford, list. skyer pa gser shing. Khyung-sprul 17. Has been identified as Berberis asiatica. (Perhaps the Greek medicine lykion is somehow identifiable with it. The Greeks considered the Indian variety to be superior. It was especially used as a collyrium for eye diseases. See Erik Sjoqvist, Morgantina: Hellenistic Medicine Bottles, American J. of Archaeology 64 no 1 [Jan 1960] 78-83.)

•SKYER PA DKAR PO Berberis aristata. Wangchuk, Bioactive 24. Jaundice berry, Indian barberry, tree turmeric. TDD 23.

•SKYER PA NAG PO Barberry, Maider berry. Berberis vulgaris. TDD 24.

•SKYER PA'I SKAS shing ser po skyer bas gyen du 'dzegs sar rkas btsugs pa. Utpal 28.4.

•SKYER PA'I ME TOG JD 107. DG 219.2. skyer pa'i 'bras bu. JD 100.

•SKYER PAR Nishida, TTDD 145.

•SKYER MA rtsa skyer ma. 367 I 233.

•SKYER SHUN yellow cypress (used to make tumeric-like yellow). Arch. of TB 98. Translated "barberry bark" in Gyurme Dorje's translation of Kong-sprul, p. 264.

•SKYER SHUN BRGYAD PA a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 38. Lag-len 28.2. TMC 46 (101).

•SKYER SHUN LNGA PA a medicinal preparation. BP 230.3.

•SKYEL SKYEL See bskyed bskyed.

•SKYEL 'GRUL dngos zog 'or 'dren byed pa. Nomads 232.

•SKYEL BDAR OT = skyel gla. Blaṅ 304.1. Btsan-lha.

•SKYEL BA durchbringen. nor mdzas mje yis skyel ba — Reichtümer mit dem Penis durchbringen. Kretsch.

SKYEL BYED skyel byed rta. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYEL MA protective escort. dgra myi thub pa'i skyel ma la dgos pa myi gda' 'o gsung ngo. Zhi-byed Coll. II 14.3. skyel ma ni 'jigs skrag las skyob pa'i skyel ma. Utpal 29.5.

•SKYEL RDZONG dowry. Topgyal in TJ 23 no. 3 (1998) 46.

•SKYEL SA BRGYAD List in Klong-chen-pa 12.8.

•SKYEL SO bstan bcos rnams kyi skyel so yang / sde snod rin po che thams cad kyi nang nas nyams su blang rgyu lta sgom spyod pa'o // skyel so skad pa'i mi de mthar thug la btags pa yin te / bka' dang bstan bcos kyi don gtan la 'bebs pa lta ba yin. Zhi-byed Coll. V 40.5.

•SKYES [1] a gift sent along with a letter as a sign of good will. tribute. Yisun. Thuken 367. [2] referring to some kind of wild animal that might nevertheless be used to bear a burden. Blondeau in Karmay, New Horizons 261.

•SKYES KHA MO BSGYUR Dpa'-ris.

•SKYES RGYAL DMAN GYI GO BABS skyes pa dang bud med kyi go gnas kyi rim pa. Btsan-lha.

•SKYES CHEN srid pa'i bar dor skyes chen pos 'ded ces pa lta bu las ngan pa mang po dang 'grogs te. Utpal 30.1.

•SKYES THOB DCD 69.

•SKYES SDONG = skyes la sdong. = ke la. banana, plantain. LW 472. Dhongthog.

•SKYES NAS MA NING DCD 69.

•SKYES NAS MYONG BAR 'GYUR BA a type of karma which will have its results after rebirth. Pabongka, Liberation II 266.

•SKYES PA'I GNAS SKABS LNGA the five stages of a human life: 1. byis pa. 2. gzhon nu. 3. dar la bab pa. 4. dar yol. 5. rgan po. DCD 69.

•SKYES PA'I RABS KYI SDE DCD 69.

•SKYES PA LHAS MA TSHOR / SHI BA 'DRES MA TSHOR Dpa'-ris.

•SKYES PHRAN OT = dar la bab pa. Blaṅ 299.2.

•SKYES BU DCD 69.

•SKYES BU'I KHYAD PAR DGU Nine special features of the puruṣa according to Samkhya thought.

•SKYES BU'I MCHOG 1. bla ma. 2. khyab 'jug. Blaṅ 526.

•SKYES BU MCHOG uttamapuruṣa. Although literal meaning is 'last person' it means 'first person.' Mvy. 4736.

•SKYES BU'I MCHOG 1. bla ma. 2. khyab 'jug. Blaṅ 526.

•SKYES BU DANG PO although this literally means 'first person,' it actually means 'third person.' Skt. prathamapuruṣa. Verhagen, HSGL II 22.

•SKYES BU BAR MA Skt. madhyamapuruṣa. Second person (in grammar).

•SKYES BU BYED PA'I 'BRAS BU Tshad Rig.

•SKYES BU 'AM CI Skt. kiṃpuruṣa. A group of beings in the Himalayas, with lion bodies and human heads. Roberts, King.

•SKYES BU GSUM chung ngu dang / 'bring dang / chen po'o. 600 20.

•SKYES RDZONGS tribute. Lde'u 364.

•SKYES BZANG gzhan gyis yig rten bzang po bskur ba lta bu. Utpal 29.3.

•SKYO skyur bas skyo ni lam du grogs kyis rjes su skyur bas sems skyo ba. Utpal 26.5.

•SKYO SKYEN Namdak.

•SKYO SKYON Namdak.

•SKYO GROGS 367 I 238. Lo-ras Rnam-thar 68. It means a friend in bad times, or just a friend who helps you through hard times (or just 'friend').

•SKYO NGAS Namdak.

•SKYO NGOGS 'khrugs longs kyi ming skyo sngogs zer ba brda rnying yin. Utpal 28.1.

•SKYO SNGOGS 'khrug rtsod. Rtse-le VIII 428. Btsan-lha. Khyung-sprul 18. 'khrugs pa. Dbus-pa no. 608. Also spelled skyo rngogs. = 'khrug long. Lcang-skya. DCD 70.

•SKYO SNGOGS BYED PA'I LTUNG BYED DCD 70.

•SKYO LDOG = skyo ma. "porridge, gruel." Kuijp (1986) 37.

•SKYO SDONGS OT = 'khrug pa Blaṅ 299.4.

•SKYO BO = tshod ma. "(cooked) green vegetables." Kuijp (1986) 37.

•SKYO MA OT = phra ma. = phye ba. Blaṅ 304.2. Lcang-skya. See under nyag spyin po'i skyo ma. (BBNP 472). Btsan-lha. skyo ma'i skyags pa ni tsam pa'i lde gu zos pa'i 'bras bu stug pa'am brun te mi gtsang ba bshang ba'am dri chen. Utpal 26.1. nad thams cad skyo mar song bar bsam mo. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 289.1. dough or thick porridge. Skt. tarpaṇa. Mvy. 5753. Banerjee, Sarvāstivāda Literature 129. skyo ma zan g.yos. Khyung-sprul 17, 18. Mémorial Sylvain Lévi (Delhi 1996), p. 411. skyo ma / srog chags / 'di la li shi'i gur khang du skyo ma ni gra ma ste / mdza' [57v1] ba gnyis mi mthun par 'byed par phra ma zhes pa ltar yin te skyo ma snga btsan zhes mang du 'byung bas / srog chags zhes mchan bkod pa ma dag. Dalai Lama VII, Yig. DCD 70.

•SKYO MA SNGA BTSAN Btsan-lha.

•SKYO MA SNGAN BTSAN dbyen byed nas mdza' ba dbye ba'i ming. Utpal 31.5.

•SKYO TSHAG Btsan-lha.

•SKYO ROGS BLO THUB Dpa'-ris.

•SKYO LA NGAS Namdak.

•SKYO SUN yid skyo skyo sun. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYO BSANG skyo bsang ku re. Khyung-sprul 18. recreation (after work), vacation, holiday. da kyod rang tsho skyo bsang la song zhig gsungs nas. Lde'u 292.

•SKYOG skyog [kyog kyang] ni lus rgur ba. Khyung-sprul 18.

•SKYOGS See nya skyogs, srab skyogs, zho skyogs.

•SKYOGS ladle, dipper. Schmied 201. 1. N. of a clan. 2. thabs tshul. Btsan-lha. skyogs ni chu sogs 'chu byed kyi ming. Utpal 27.5. Khyung-sprul 18. See 'bu skyogs.

•SKYOGS DKAR (coll.) brass ladle. MTTP.

•SKYOGS CHUS SKAMS NUS skyogs chus skams nus ni skyog thum gyis bcus pa'i chus skam nus zhes pa'o. Dpe-chos 514.

•SKYONG NUL Btsan-lha.

•SKYONG BA to lengthen. to carry on [doing something]. Jamspal, Treasury 188. to be gone for a long distance NNV.

•SKYONG BAS MI SUN Dpa'-ris.

•SKYONG BU Also, skyung bu. A sharp, shovel-shaped instrument used for cutting hemmorhoids. JD 273 (item 6).

•SKYONG BRAN faithful servant, supporter.

•SKYOD PA [polite] to go, to come. Snellgrove & Skorupski, Cultural History of Ladakh II 84. sgul skyod ni lus kyi g.yo 'gul byed pa. Utpal 31.5.

•SKYON See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 50n. fault.

•SKYON 'GEBS MDZES 'CHOS Dpa'-ris.

•SKYON BRGYAD bsam gtan gyi skyon brgyad ni / rtog dpyod gnyis / bde sdug gnyis /yid bde mi bde gnyis / dbugs dbyung rngub gnyis rnams so. 600 102-103.

•SKYON SNGAR DOGS PA Dpa'-ris.

•SKYON BCU See snyan ngag gi skyon bcu.

•SKYON BCU GSUM Dungkar in TJ 8 no. 4 (Wint 1993) 19-22.

•SKYON BRJOD PA'I LTUNG BYED DCD 70.

•SKYON DRUG Bsam gtan gyi skyon drug, listed in Bsam-gtan Mig Sgron 428-9; see also 437-8 for the list of 14.

•SKYON PA [1] nyams pa. Dbus-pa no. 599. deteriorated, made faulty. [2] to place astride [a horse, etc.], an impaling stake.

•SKYON MA BYUNG GONG LA ZLOG PA DGOS Dpa'-ris.

•SKYON MED SKYON MED macht nichts (it doesn't matter) Kretsch.

•SKYON MED SKYON 'DZUGS find faults in the faultless, 'fastidious' Soundings 22.

•SKYON MTSHAN Fehler, Sünde. Kretsch.

•SKYON GSUM snod kyi skyon gsum. Three Faults of the Vessel. They are: 1. kha sbub [upside down]. 2. zhabs rdol [leakey]. 3. mi gtsang ba [impure]. Pabongka, Liberation 92 n. 60, says that Haribhadra attributes the simile of the vessel's three defects to Vasubandhu. A rather close parallel is found in the Mishnāh, as cited in J. Duncan M. Derrett, Mishnāh, 'Avôt 5:13 in Early Buddhism, BSOAS 67 (2004) 82: "There are four types among them that sit in the presence of the wise: the sponge, the funnel, the strainer, and the sifter. 'The sponge'—which soaks up everything; 'the funnel—which takes in at this end and lets out at the other; 'the strainer'—which lets out the wine and retains the lees; 'the sifter'—which extracts the coarsely-ground flour and collects the fine flour."

•SKYOB chu skyob ni chu g.yo 'gul byed pa. Utpal 30.2.

•SKYOMS Khyung-sprul 18.

•SKYOR sa skyor logs ni gyang logs. BBNP 466. skyor ni yang nas yang du bskyang skyangs byed pa. Utpal 29.1.

•SKYOR KA skyor ka 'byams par go ba long cig. Zhi-byed Coll. V 130.6.

•SKYOR SKYOR OT = yang yang. Blaṅ 285.1. Dbus-pa no. 004. Lcang-skya.

•SKYOR SKYOR GYI BZI BO THU Dpa'-ris.

•SKYOR KHA Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYOR GONG DD illus. 23.

•SKYOR PA DKAR PO See gser shing ser po.

•SKYOR DPON 'Prefect.' Leader of the class who had to maintain attendance records, selected by classmates. See Dungkar in TJ 8 no. 4 (Wint 1993) 34. See Mengele, dGe-'dun-chos-'phel 140, n. 221, which says, 'a student lead reciter of a monastic class.' See Dreyfus, Sound 251.

•SKYOR BA Btsan-lha.

•SKYOR BYANG Btsan-lha.

•SKYOR 'BYIN Btsan-lha. skyor 'byin g.yo sgyu can nam gya gyu can. Khyung-sprul 18.

•SKYOR SBYANG skyor sbyang yang yang bldab. Khyung-sprul 17.

•SKYOS PA OT = nyams pa. Blaṅ 299.2-.3. Lcang-skya. Btsan-lha. snyan skyos ni rgyal po lta bu'i snyan la skyon yod tshul bshad pa'i ming ngam phra ma yin par bshad. Utpal 28.2. skyos ni skyon de las skyob ces pa. Utpal 28.5. skyos shig gzhan du spo. skyos pa nyam pa. Khyung-sprul 18.

•SKYOS MA 'gro dgos pa'i don skyos ma ni gnas gzhan du song ste sleb pa'i grogs kyis 'bab lta bu. Utpal 30.2. parting token, farewell gift.

•SKRA human head hair as a medicinal, see SS 531.1.

•SKRA DKAR CAN See dbyi mong.

•SKRA MKHAN = skra bzher mkhan. barber. See DeCaroli, Haunting 97-98.

•SKRA SGRA SGRE CAN Btsan-lha. DCD 70.

•SKRA CAN 'TSHONG NA'O DCD 66.

•SKRA STON hair feast, a coming of age ritual done for girls in Amdo. Karma Tso, "Analysis of the Tadon Tradition in Trika," Paper to be given at the 5th International Seminar of Young Tibetologists (St. Petersburg, September 3-7, 2018).

•SKRA SNUM lit., 'hair oil,' but used for the castor plant, source of castor oil.

•SKRA RTSES BLANGS PA'I CHU THIGS Dpa'-ris.

•SKRA TSHAD LAS LHAG PA DCD 70.

•SKRA ZINGS Btsan-lha.

•SKRA BZANG Corydalis. TR XIV #4, p. 16. See wa. See par pa ta. SS 508.4. TDD 55.

•SKRA BZED DCD 70-71.

•SKRA YEGS PA Btsan-lha.

•SKRA RING BLO THUNG Dpa'-ris.

•SKRA LI BA Btsan-lha.

•SKRA LO SKYE BA'I SMAN SBYOR a medicinal preparation. BP 403.6.

•SKRA SHAD 'DZINGS PA Skt. keśoṇḍuka. See Mvy. 2836.

•SKRAG PA 'jigs shing skrag pa. Utpal 28.3. Usualy means 'scarey,' but may mean also 'brilliantly colored.'

•SKRAG MA DGOS SKYI MA SBRID Dpa'-ris.

•SKRANG Also, skrangs. lus la rmas phog pa'am nad byung nas sha 'bur bo byung ba'i don te: lus skrangs/ rma kha skrangs lta bu. Dag-yig. Text 48. to be swollen NNV.

•SKRANG GNAS Btsan-lha.

•SKRANG 'BUR 'tumor. Dhongthog.

•SKRANGS lus po skrangs pa. Utpal 27.3.

•SKRANGS ZHAL BA'I CHU GRI See under chu gri.

•SKRAN nang sha skran gyi ming. Utpal 27.3. SRZT 33. 'cancer.' Dhongthog. Text 7, 12, 15, 36, 53. Lag-len 275.5. See also khrag skran. mi dang srog chags kyi lus po'i zungs ci rigs tshad las 'das par 'phel ba las gong bur 'dril ba'i nad rigs shig gi ming ste, mang che ba ni sgrim che ba'i spyod lam dang zas rtsub 'gyur can, lus la zhugs pa'i skye ldan gzhan bcas kyis bskyed pa yin. Bod kyi sman gzhung du de la rigs bco brgyad yod par bshad. Dag-yig. Translated as 'spleen' in Banerjee, Sarvāstivāda Literature 209. tumors. Yangga's dissert., p. 189.

•SKRAN 'JOMS ZLA BSIL a medicinal preparation. BP 156.6, 330.2.

•SKRAB PA Btsan-lha. bro skrab ni lus kyi rkang pas 'khrab pa. ḍa ru skrog ni da ma ru skrol ba. Utpal 28.1.

•SKRAM PA Cuevas, Travels 60, takes it as a misspelling of bkram pa, displayed.

•SKRAS PA = skas. "stair, ladder." Kuijp (1986) 37.

•SKRI BA Btsan-lha.

•SKRI SHIG OT = thong shig. Blaṅ 306.4. skri shig / thong shig / (bzung ba thong shig lta bu) li shi'i me tog tu zhig yod. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•SKRIS Better spelled as: dkris. wrapping, bandage (rma dkris). sha bur ltas na rmen par ma song bar reg na myi bzod / de srid du rma skris 'di gces par gda' gsung. Zhi-byed Coll. II 169.2.

•SKRU BA Stein. Btsan-lha. DCD 71.

•SKRUD PA Btsan-lha.

•SKRUS PA OT = gcod pa. Blaṅ 302.2. Lcang-skya. shing skrus pa ni shing dum bur gcod pa'i don. Utpal 31.1. skrus pa shing sogs gcod. Khyung-sprul 18.

•SKRE MONG sre mong. Gces 590.1. Btsan-lha.

•SKRONGS PA Btsan-lha.

•SKROD skrod ni 'bab de byin pa lta bu ni lo spar kha'i skeg. Utpal 30.3.

•SKROD PA'I LTUNG BYED DCD 71.

•SKROD BYED DMAR PO Simioli, AG 61.

•BRKA BA OT = gar ba'i ro'i khyad par. Blaṅ 302.3.

•BRKAM CHAGS OT = 'dod chags che ba. Blaṅ 295.4. tshad sor bzhi yod pa yang brkam chags kyis spyad pas de yang nub. 'Gos, Stong-thun 15.2. Jamspal, Treasury 151.

•BRKAM CHAGS CAN the greedy. Jamspal, Treasury 121.

•BRKAM PA OT = 'dod zhen. Blaṅ 295.4; bskam ni 'dod zhen che ba'i ming. Blaṅ 516.5. 'dod la bkram dang brkam chags can gyi mi. Khyung-sprul 16.

•BRKAM SHA 367 I 236. Btsan-lha.

•BRKU THABS SU Btsan-lha.

•BRKUS 'dod la brkams pas brku bya brkus ni 'dod cing chags pas gzhan gyi nor 'jab bus brkus pa. Utpal 32.1.

•BRKYANG lag brkyang ni lag pa brkyang ba. Utpal 32.5. yan lag brkyang dang brkyangs zin sra brkyang zhes // dge 'dun na bza' byin chags pa sogs [gtan pa yang] zer.

•BRKYANGS NA MDA' NYAN / BKUG NA GZHU NYAN Dpa'-ris.

•BRKYANGS SHING This was Jaeschke's preferred translation for the Christian cross, although I believe it refers to a torture implement used for stretching (the rack as a torture implement, and not an execution method...).

•BRKYAR NAS brkyar nas ni thang yang yang bskyar ba.

•BSKA ro bska ni ro drug gi nang nas bska ba a ru ra lta bu. Utpal 35.5.

•BSKA BA a class of medicinals. KB 49.1. This is one of the 'six tastes' (ro drug). to dry or become solid.

•BSKANG RDZAS See Essen & Thingo, Die Götter des Himalaya 248.

•BSKANGS kha bskangs ni ma tshang ba kha gang bcug pa lta bu. thugs dam bskangs sogs bskangs rdzas kyis mnyes par byas pa. Utpal 36.1.

•BSKAR BA Btsan-lha.

•BSKAL bkru. Dbus-pa no. 709.

•BSKAL DON Btsan-lha. bskal don ni bar chod pa'am rgyang ring ba. Utpal 34.5. 'di brda rnying ste tshur mthong gi mig gis brda rnying / gzugs phra ba rdul phra rab mi mthong ba lta bu yul gyis [63r5] bskal pa des mtshon nas dus ring pos bar chod pa dang yul thag ring pos bar chod pa la dus kyis bskal ba dang gnas kyis bskal ba sogs mang. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•BSKAL PA [1] OT derivation from Skt. kalpa. Blaṅ 307.6. See Laufer, LW 450-451, where he says that Tibetans, because of the syllable 'pa' must have taken it for a verb and [therefore?] added the 'bs'. There may be other ways to account for the form this Tibetanization of the Sanskrit takes. I think the Sanskrit word is transcribed this way just because in sound it so much resembles the (previously existing?) Tibetan verb, and they needed to disambiguate. [2] Bon texts frequently use this word in the sense of destruction and negation (Namgyal Nyima). See the next entry.

•BSKAL BA [1] obstructed. OT = bar chod pa. [2] far removed, distant. = rgyang ring ba. Blaṅ 303.5. An example of usage in which it means something like 'distant, absent, removed, cut off [from something]' is found in Lde'u 190. Dorji Wangchuk's blog, entry for Oct. 28, 2012, gives examples from Rong-zom-pa. [3] to cleanse. = bkru. Lcang-skya.

•BSKAL MES MTSHO BSKAMS dus mtha'i mes rgya mtsho sogs bskams pa. Utpal 34.4.

•BSKU SGYU Btsan-lha.

•BSKU MNYE The 'Kumnye' of the Nyingma center in California. Actually means 'massage,' mainly as a form of medical treatment. For a historical foot massage, see BD of T&TB I 269. Zhi-byed Coll. II 344.5.

•BSKU MNYE DRIL PHYI Btsan-lha. DCD 71.

•BSKUNG BA chung ngu. Dbus-pa no. 682.

•BSKUNGS bskungs shing ni mthong thos med pa'i gnas su sbas pa. Utpal 35.1.

•BSKUM lag bskum ni lag pa tshur bskum pa. Utpal 33.2.

•BSKUMS PA Btsan-lha. For the 'crouching' of a lion. Flick, Carrying Enemies 62-3.

•BSKUR BA Btsan-lha. 'phrin 'gan dbang bskur ni gzhan la 'phrin bskur ba dang gzhan la las kyi 'gan bskur ba dang bum chus dbang bskur ba lta bu. Utpal 33.3. lus kyi 'gan bskur dbang dang phrin sogs bskur. Khyung-sprul 18. bskur bar mi byed / khas mi len pa. Dbus-pa no. 080. DCD 71.

•BSKUR BA'I SPANG BA DCD 71-72.

•BSKUL chos la bskul ni gzhan chos lam du bsgyur ba byas pa. Utpal 33.4. Translated as 'beaten' rather than 'urged' in Hahn, TSD 54.

•BSKUS bskus ni byug zin ba'i 'das tshig. Utpal 33.2.

•BSKOR GYIS BSKOR don du bskor gyis bskor na zhes pa / don hril gyis dril na zhes pa'am / don mdor bsdus na. 367 II 129.6.

•BSKOR 'GRUL yul bskor ba'i 'grul bzhud. Nomads 232.

•BSKOR BA For Islamic sinistral circumambulation & discussion of same, see Humanitas Religiosa 36. See discussion in Huber, Pure Crystal 13. EoB VII 252.

•BSKOS As a group of deities, they are the assigned arbiters who distinguish true from false, etc. See Blondeau in Karmay, New Horizons 258.

•BSKOS THOB assignment. Karmay, Treasury.

•BSKOS PA [1] appointed [as king, etc.]. rgyal sar bskos ni rgyal po'i sras khri 'don byas te rgyal sar mnga' gsol ba lta bu. Utpal 35.4. [2] = bskos thang, the orders or influence of former Karma. MTTP.

•BSKYA skyed. Gces 585.5.

•BSKYA BA Btsan-lha.

•BSKYANGS NAS OT = dor nas. 367 II 127.1. bskyangs ni bka' drin dang byams brtses bskyangs pa lta bu. Utpal 35.2.

•BSKYAD DU Namdak. Btsan-lha.

•BSKYAD DU MI TSHUGS PA Btsan-lha. bskyad du mi tshugs bskyad du med gnyis 'dra. Khyung-sprul 18.

•BSKYAD DU MED PA dpag tu med pa. Btsan-lha.

•BSKYAD PA OT = bsad pa'i 'gren pa. Blaṅ 294.6. bsad pa'am 'gran pa Btsan-lha. zad pa. Dbus-pa no. 395. = bsad pa. Lcang-skya.

•BSKYABS 'jigs bskyabs ni 'jigs shing skrag pa'i gnas las bskyabs pa. Utpal 35.1.

•BSKYAMS PA Btsan-lha. DCD 72. bskyams pa ni logs su bskyar ba'am gnas su bskyal ba. Utpal 34.5. ja sogs bskyams grub bskyam. Khyung-sprul 18.

•BSKYAR fut. of skyor. 'rehearsal.' Klong-chen-pa 12.7; Bsam-gtan Mig Sgron 322.4.

•BSKYAR ZHUS PA a type of proofreader. Arch. of TB 126.

•BSKYAR GZHI Achard, L'Essence 148.

•BSKYAS 'PHO Btsan-lha. 'pho bskyas ni gnas gcig tu mi sdod pa yul gzhan du 'pho ba. Utpal 35.2. bskyas 'pho shi dang grong pa las sogs 'gro. Khyung-sprul 18.

•BSKYI nor bskyi ni ja dngul sogs kyi nor gzhan las bkyi ba. Utpal 33.4. nor sogs bskyis zin bskyi bya. Khyung-sprul 19.

•BSKYI GNYA' Btsan-lha. g.yar ba. DCD 72.

•BSKYI G.YA' BA to be terrified.

•BSKYINGS PA Btsan-lha.

•BSKYIN PA bskyin pa 'jal.

•BSKYIMS PA Btsan-lha.

•BSKYIL chu bskyil ni chu 'khyil bcug pa. Utpal 34.5. chu sogs bskyil zin bskyil bya bskyil bar bya. Khyung-sprul 19.

•BSKYIS PA loans. Dotson, D&L 52, 69.

•BSKYUNG BA = chung ngu. Lcang-skya.

•BSKYUNGS See bcom bskyungs. Blaṅ 302.4. bskyungs ni 'jig rten gyi bya ba spang ba'am mi byed pa bsdus pa lta bu. Utpal bskyungs dang bskyungs zin bya ba nyung btang brda'. Khyung-sprul 19. DCD 69.

•BSKYUD PA OT = brjed pa. Blaṅ 288.3. Dbus-pa no. 159. Lcang-skya. brjed pa'i bskyud ni sngar shes pa phyis brjed nas ma dran pa. Utpal 36.2. bskyud pa'i brjed pa las 'phro gtor. Khyung-sprul 19.

•BSKYUD BYANG recollective notes. Karmay, Great Perfection 163.

•BSKYUR rkyang bskyur ni rgyang bsring nas bzhag pa'am thag ring du bskyur ba bya ba. Utpal 35.3. lus bskyur. Khyung-sprul 19.

•BSKYEG PA Btsan-lha.

•BSKYED sems bskyed ni byang chub mchog tu sems bskyed pa lta bu rgya bskyed ni rgya che ba bskyed pa'am bcug pa. Utpal 36.1.

•BSKYED BSKYED mi ro la lud bskyed bskyed ni / mi shi ba'i ro 'di zhing la lud skyel skyel ltar mngon sum du skyel bar byed pa... 367 I 242.3.

•BSKYED DU MED PA As ex. of an irreg. Old Tantra term, corresponding to 'gran zla med pa, see the work of Dge-rtse in Rnying Rgyud 1973 XXXVI 455.

•BSKYED PA Stein.

•BSKYED BYA Tshad Rig.

•BSKYED RDZOGS Nomads 258.

•BSKYED RIM sbyang bya'i gzhi dus kyi skye 'chi bar do gsum po sbyong byed sku gsum gyi lam khyer bsgoms pa'i stobs kyis sgo gsum tha mal gyi snang zhen las ldog pa'i gsang sngags kyi lam zhig. Gser Sbram 109.

•BSKYO BA g.yo ba. Dbus-pa no. 607.

•BSKYOD mi bskyod ni mi g.yo ba sgul bskyod med pa. Utpal 35.4. gnas nas bskyod dang zhabs bskyod. Khyung-sprul 19.

•BSKYON PA [1] (Dbus) = byed pa, to do. MTTP. [2] mount (something or someone on a riding animal). bzhon pa. Gces 587.3. rtar bskyon ni rta'i gong du bzhag pa. Utpal 34.1. rta la bskyon. Khyung-sprul 19.

•BSKYOS PA Btsan-lha. 'thab 'dzings. 'khrug pa slong ba. DCD 72.

•BSKRAD bgegs phyir bskrad pa lta bu. Utpal 34.2.

•BSKRAD PA Skt. pravrājanīya (Pāli pabbājanīya). In Vinaya, a formal act of expelling a member from the saṅgha. Mvy. 8644. Generally translated as 'banishment.' gnas nas bskrad. Khyung-sprul 19.

•BSKRAD GZIR Skorupski, TA.

•BSKRU BA OT = gzhan la thabs kyis 'bred pa. Blaṅ 302.2. bskru ni sprangs pos zas slong ba bskyed cing. Utpal 34.3. Occurs as an odd spelling for dku: mchi ma bskru zhing ba spu ldang. Eimer, Testimonia 53. = gzhan la thabs kyis 'brad pa. Lcang-skya.

•BSKRUN PA OT = bskyed pa. = btsugs pa. Blaṅ 302.2. bskrun ni rgyu las 'bras bu bskyed cing bskrun pa'am gsar du bskyed pa'am btsugs pa'ang bskrun pa yin. Utpal 34.3. [bskru] bksrun bskyed dam // btsugs pa'i don dang zas la bskru ba [slong ba dang] bskrus. Khyung-sprul 19.

*KHA*

•KHA [1] mouth [human and animal]. DD illus. 17. Deriv. from Skt. mukha, acc. to Bhattacharya, LW 353, no. 9. [2] opening of a vessel [bowl, pitcher, vase, wound]. [3] frontward direction. [4] shore. [5] surface, top [of a table]. [6] statement. [7] age of an animal. [8] [cloth] measurement. It means a 'square' of cloth, which of course varies in side depending on the width of the cloth when it comes from the loom. [9] = kha sang kha'i nyi ma. 'der gestrige Tag' Kaschewsky 82. unmittelbar bevor. Kaschewsky2. [10] a 'secret' way of saying 'five,' used by gamblers. Norbu, Drung 229, n. 65. [11] Skt. vaktra (?). N. of a metre. Hahn, JV 37. [12] A type of deer, perhaps the Tibetan red deer. The male, female and fawn are called kha po, kha mo, and khe'u chung respectively. Bellezza, D&B 64.

•KHWA dpya khral. Btsan-lha. fines. Dotson, D&L 50, 51. A type of tax in OT times, its details unknown. Kazushi Iwao, An Analysis of the Term rkya in the Context of the Social System of the Old Tibetan Empire, Memoirs of the Toyo Bunko 67 (2009) 89-108, at p. 94. Tax (generally of rain). Dotson, OTA glossary.

•KHA'U A kind of stone. Btsan-lha 54.

•KHA DKAR lit.: white mouths, unidentified people of Arunachal Pradesh. Sources.

•KHA SKONG kha ma tshang ba bkang ba. Utpal 30.4.

•KHA SKONG 'OS PA'I 'OS CHOS DCD 73.

•KHA SKYENGS PA embarassment, shame. yang chos shig la zin bris mdzad pas / rjes gzigs nas bka' skyon che ba zhig byung nas / shin tu kha skyengs pa zhig byung gsung. [Once Gtsang pa Rgya ras said about that time with his teacher:] Once I made notes on a teachings and the Lord saw it, and gave me a scolding. This was such a great embarassment. 24 I 409.3.

•KHA SKRANGS See dwa ba.

•KHA BSKONG appendix. Kazi.

•KHA KHA BRGYUD PA kha na kha la brgyud pa. Gces 584.2. kha nas kha la. Btsan-lha.

•KHA KHU SIM PO (sp?) quiet.

•KHA KHYER (architectural, and as part of mandala) veranda, balcony (but with still other meanings, such as things that are walled all around). Beyer 265, 268. Skt. vedikā. Mvy. no. 4358.

•KHA KHRA lit.: striped mouths. unidentified people of Arunachal Pradesh. Sources.

•KHA MKHAS smooth talk. Used in Ding-ri Brgya-rtsa. See Yisun & RY.

•KHA MKHRIS TM IV 105.

•KHA 'KHUN dbugs ring po shor ba. Gces 586.5. Btsan-lha.

•KHA GYON 'GO MTSHAL a vermillion-colored, kaftan-like coat with greenish-blue lining worn over the rgyan bzhi robe by the chang rgyab pa. Velm I 132.

•KHA GRANGS Stein.

•KHA RGYAN [1] the 'stopper' for a ritual vase made with peacock feather etc. used for sprinkling. 'sprinkler.' Gyalzur, Spells. Stearns, SR 90.

•KHA SGOR Aris, Discourse 17.

•KHA NGAG Also, kha dngags. Btsan-lha.

•KHA NGAN GTONG jmdn. schmähen, jmdm. üble, Worte an den Kopf werfen. Kretsch.

•KHA DNGAGS = kha ngag. = kha bshad. BBNP 483.

•KHA RNGO BA opportune, favourable (?). Coblin in TH&L 89.

•KHA CIG some [unnamed persons say...]. Evidently a disguised (meaning Tibetanized) borrowing from Skt. kaścid, which has the same meaning. Synonyms: la la, 'ga' zhig.

•KHA BCAMS PA Btsan-lha.

•KHA BCUD See cu gang.

•KHA BCOL 367 I 235.

•KHA 'CHAM PA kha 'thun pa. Gces 583.3.

•KHA CHU [1] the thin surface layer of paint in a pot. Jackson. [2] lug bal gyi dwangs ma. Nomads 232. [3] spittle, saliva. Hill, Aspirated 485.

•KHA CHU CHUS BYUNG Btsan-lha. It literally means spittle that comes with the water. A kind of boot that supplies protection from snake poison that contaminates water, and then goes into plants (this explains its name). DCD 73.

•KHA CHEN Btsan-lha.

•KHA CHOD 'cover' of tea dish. Hon.: zhal chod. Schmied 205.

•KHA CHOS Mouth Dharma. rgyud la nyams myed myed par kha chos su song. Zhi-byed Coll. II 231.5. chos la kha chos / lta ba 'dod kha / nyams myong yid smon. Zhi-byed Coll. II 316.7.

•KHA MCHU lawsuit, litigation; the broader sense of: quarrel, strife, dispute, is not known in Bhutan. Sources. an official legal case, a dispute. French, Yoke 123.

•KHA 'CHAM agreement, accord.

•KHA RJE See under khar rje.

•KHA NYEN Btsan-lha.

•KHA RNYONGS Btsan-lha.

•KHA TA gsung gros. Gces 581.6. Namdak. = kha brda (?). nyan mid kyi kha ta 'tshang re che. 602 13v.5. bcas bcos kha ta byas ma lang. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum IV 515.5. bla ma chos skur ma go na // rang chos skur rtogs pa kha ta yin. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) I 40.5.

•KHWA TA Stein. See kha da. crow. eternal enemy of the owl. Jamspal, Treasury 4, 99. See also Hahn, TSD 64: "Look how a crow has kindled and burnt a cave filled with many owls!" There is an interesting article in which the old Turkic concept of Qut is related to the crow. See N. Bogenbayev, et al., "Symbolic Image of Kut in the Ancient Turkic's Worldview," Life Science Journal 11 no 10 (2014) 615-619, PDF.

•KHA TA'I rbad kham che ba. 367 I 234.

•Bdud bon KHA TA GRENG YUG Bellezza, L&T 52.

•KHA ṬAṂ GA See ha shig.

•KHA TWAM GA Skt. khatvanga (khaṭvāṅga). This word may be the original for the English word 'cot' (see Hobson Jobson entry). A remarkable damascened example illus. in Essen Catalog 519. David Brick, On the Origins of the Khaṭvāṅga Staff, Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol 132, no. 1 (2012), pp. 31-39.

•KHA TI Some kid of fabric that comes in bolts. HS LV 203.1.

•KHA TO MU TO Samdo A V 258v.3.

•KHA TON 'DON PA kha ton klog pa DCD 73.

•KHA TON ZHU BA DCD 73.

•KHA GTAD opponent in a court case. French, Yoke 309.

•KHA GTOGS Btsan-lha.

•KHA BTAGS some types: nang mdzod (of fine silk), a she (of coarse silk), mdzod she (of ordinary cloth). Used for many purposes, including for guiding the souls of the dead; 'way-cloths' used in funerals in many Himalayan communities. Ramble in Mandala & Landscape 220, n. 66. Different types discussed in Precious Deposits V 167 (it places their origin in one that 'Phags-pa brought from his meeting with Khubilai). "sngon rgya gar 'phags pa'i yul du ras kyi kha tshar phul nas sems bskyed pa byung ba mdo sde bskal bzang sogs las gsungs pa / de'i mtshon don nam de'i rgyun da lta'i dus su'ang kha btags zer ba'am mjal dar zer ba zhig dkon mchog la phul ba dang / mi la ster pa'i lugs srol lung pa mang po la yod."

•KHA BTAGS PA to get annihilated, meaning largely or entirely slain. Yisun. Example of usage in Lde'u 69.

•KHA BTAGS LEN n. of a horseback riding feat, in which one picks up a khatag from the ground.

•KHA LTA RKYANG PA 'simply surface view' (prob. = opaque surface view of reality). Phag-mo-gru-pa, Gold Ms. II 276r.6, III 98r.4. See kha lta can. kha lta rkyang pa'i rjes su ma 'brangs par. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 576.1. las rgyu 'bras la nges shes skyes tsam na // chos byar med kyi kha lta yang rdzun por gda' // 'brug char med kyi kha lta rkyang pa la // blo gtad 'dug gam mi 'dug soms. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) V 309.1.

•KHA LTA CAN People who have superficial philosophies (denying karma and its results). Samdo A III 311v.5. See kha lta rkyang pa, nag po kha 'byams.

•KHA STABS Stein.

•KHA STOMS Btsan-lha.

•KHA BSTAMS PA Btsan-lha. DCD 73.

•KHA THAG nyams thag. Dbus-pa no. 687.

•KHA THAM a 'sealing expression' noticed once in Zhi-byed Coll. Oddly enough, this closely resembles an Arabic word for 'seal,' khitām or khatm (it was borrowed into Persian, which would be a more likely source for an Indic usage).

•KHA THAR GYIS BTSUGS PA Btsan-lha.

•KHA THI DING PHON Essen Catalog 61. A kind of brocade evidently. In Cüppers, Remarks, this is understood to be two different types of luxury textiles, ka thi and ding phon.

•KHA THON Btsan-lha. DCD 74.

•KHA MTHUN PA'I RGYUD See under cha mthun pa'i rgyud.

•KHA 'THON herauskommen, auftauchen, sich erheben. Kretsch.

•KHA DA 4 123B.1. = kha ta. 'Rat.' Kaschewsky2.

•KHA ḌA KA See ka bed.

•KHA DAG nyam thag. Lcang-skya.

•KHA DAR = kha btags, silk presentation scarves. MTTP. See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 150.

•KHA DAR BA sich vermehren, sich ausbreiten. Kretsch.

•KHA DIR See sing lding.

•KHA DUM PA OT = 'chams pa. = mthun pa. Blaṅ 306.1. DCD 74.

•KHA DUR srab kyi kha dur ni srab 'thur. Dpe-chos 511.

•KHA DOG 'GRO = khang stod (steng) 'gro. 'I am going upstairs.' Kuijp (1986) 35.

•KHA DONG KHA Also, ga dong kha. An attempt to spell Skt. khatvaṅga. Eleven Deeds 13r.3-4 (spelled kha ṭaṃ at 13r.2).

•KHA DOR Btsan-lha.

•KHA DRAG Stein. 367 I 238. strong mouth, harsh words, haughty [one]. Occurs in Ding ri brgya rtsa with meaning of haughtiness.

•KHA GDANGS GDANGS mit geöffnetem Mund. Kaschewsky 82.

•KHA MDANGS Aris, Discourse 17.

•KHA BDE PO one who is able to persuade in a convincing and clever manner. eloquent, talkative, loquacious.

•KHA MDA' 'PHOG Namdak.

•KHA 'DAM (Gtsang) = gdam ka, choice, election. MTTP.

•KHA 'DA' See khan da. bu ram gyis kha 'da' nyo'am, "Would you buy khanda in place of brown sugar?" Zhi-byed Coll. II 347.1.

•KHA BRDA See kha ta.

•KHA NA MA THO BA Btsan-lha. Interpreted as: kha nas thon mi thub pa. DCD 74. Sins so bad they cannot be spoken about.

•KHA NA MA THO BA GNYIS bcas pa'i kha na ma tho ba dang / rang bzhin gyi kha na ma tho ba'o. 600 5.

•KHA NA MED Stein.

•KHA NA RI YA bye'u, a birdy (but this sure looks like the word 'canary'; the name of the bird derives from the Canary Islands!). Nomads 232.

•KHA NAG lit.: black mouths. the Aka people of Arunachal Pradesh. Sources.

•KHA NAG PA darker (colored). Jackson.

•KHA NAD SRZT 75.

•KHA NE KHO NE (deriv. from khon, to hate). = khan khon. reluctantly, dawdling. Soundings 25.

•KHA PAR telephone. Acc. to Jamyang Norbu, "Newspeak & New Tibet," this word had come into use by the time of the 13th Dalai Lama's visit to India, and telephones had been installed in some offices in Lhasa by the early 1920's.

•KHA PO [1] Stein. thabs lam gyi kha po che ba kun. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) V 483.2. [2] Male of a deer species. Bellezza, D&B 64. [3] See kha pho.

•KHA DPYA Btsan-lha. DCD 74.

•KHA SPU facial hair. Yisun says it is synonym with sma ra.

•KHA SPU CAN Those with facial hair, an epithet for Indians.

•KHA SPUB Btsan-lha.

•KHA SPON Btsan-lha. kha sbon, = kha ton. Lcang-skya.

•KHA SPYA Btsan-lha. DCD 74.

•KHA SPRIS spris ma. Nomads 232.

•KHA SPROD join together two openings in order to close something, as especially a charm box, a treasure casket, but also in one case a copper funerary casket. Lde'u 245, 336.

•KHA PHUNG NGE BA See 'od zer kha phung nge ba.

•KHA PHO boasting. Prahlerei, Geschwältz. Kaschewsky2. kha pho dang sna pho sgrogs shing 'gro. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) III 497.3 (also, 498.5). False boast. An angry expression in which the upper teeth bite into the lower lip. Yisun.

•KHA PHO CAN kha skyag pa. Gces 584.4

•KHA PHO ZLO kha pho zlo ste ni kha shom byed pa'o. Dpe-chos 511.

•KHA PHOR Trinkschale. ZAS VII 474. Stein.

•KHA PHYIN PA OT = gros mthun pa. Blaṅ 305.6.

•KHA PHYIR LTAS external orientation (or superficial view). Dreyfus, Sound 273.

•KHA PHRU the spray (of water from the mouth), a kind of ritual spitting used for blessing objects and persons. Samdo A V 225v.6. The practice is well known in Daoist ritual, but can be observed here and there in Tibet as well.

•KHA 'PHYID to feed oneself NNV.

•KHA BA [1] snow. [2] bitter. [3] coffee. See tig ta. That the meanings of 'snow' and 'bitter' may cause confusion, see Hahn, VG 408.

•KHA BA'I PHYE MA DG 146.3.

•KHA BA SRAM A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 293.

•KHA BAG Btsan-lha.

•KHA BANG See khal bang.

•KHA BABS somewhat old (down in the mouth?). TS7 I 192.

•KHA BON Btsan-lha. = kha spon.

•KHA BYA (obs.) old oral report (used by a historian). See Yisun.

•KHA BYANG guide. Karmay, Treasury. Stein. a ledger or listing (of books and the like). Lde'u 327.

•KHA BYAD facial appearance, facial proportions. Lde'u 294, 295. But note that the parallel in Bka' chems ka khol ma [ed. 1989], p. 299, has cha byad, not kha byad.

•KHA BRID lured by food (fishing term). Jamspal, Treasury 80.

•KHA BROD Btsan-lha.

•KHA BLAN TE kha blan te ni khe 'then te zhes par 'jug. Eimer, Dbyangs 58.

•KHA 'BAR BA See se rgod.

•KHA 'BUB adv. face down [on a pillow]. C&LT 167.

•KHA 'BYAMS dry thinking about the infinity of words. Germano in JIABS 17 no. 2 (1994) 300. See also Yisun. bag of hot air. Ehrhard in TS5 56-58 (he says this phrase is not in the Sba-bzhed). In the phrase: nag po kha 'byams bdud kyi lta ba. Seems to be similar in meaning to kha lta can, etc. rtog pa kha 'byam gyis sgro 'dogs myi chod pa yin te. Zhi-byed Coll. II 238.4. rtogs pa kha 'byams myi rten pa. Ibid. II 390.7. de kho na nyid shes rab go yul du shor ba rtogs pa kha 'byam gyi bar chod. Zhi-byed Coll. V 381.6. stong stong po gcig kho na bsgoms pas gol sa che la rgyu 'bras khyad du gsod la nag po kha 'jam du song nas ngan song du 'gro ba'i nyen yang che la. Lo-ras-pa, Gsung-'bum IV 394.5. I think the etymology suggests "opaque superficiality" or a worldview limited to the opaque surfaces of things without depth perceptions.

•KHA RBAD CHE Btsan-lha.

•KHA RBU kha lbu? mouth froth? bla ma ba dzra kro ta'i kyi khu la sdig 'dzub phyar bas kha rbu lhad la shi. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 159.6. A parallel text reads kha sbub, 'turned upside down.'

•KHA SBON kha ton. Dbus-pa no. 451.

•KHA SBYOR as in: rlung kha sbyar, it means to hold the breath.

•KHA SBYOR joining of two rims or 'mouths,' as for example the two halves of a reliquary box.

•KHA SBYOR YAN LAG BDUN LDAN longs spyod rdzogs sku kha sbyor yan lag bdun ldan ni / longs spyod rdzogs pa'i yan lag / kha sbyor gyi yan lag / bde ba chen po'i yan lag / rang bzhin med pa'i yan lag / snying rjes yongs su gang ba'i yan lag / rgyun mi 'chad pa'i yan lag / 'gog pa med pa'i yan lag rnams so // bdun tshan las brtsams pa'i rab tu byed pa ste drug pa'o. 600 99. Stearns, TRP 264.

•KHA MA BSGYUR BA'I GOS GYON PA'I LTUNG BYED DCD 74.

•KHA MA DAN PA Btsan-lha.

•KHA MA BUD BLO GDENG MI KHEL BA Btsan-lha.

•KHA DMAR [1] 'red mouth.' Sticking skewers through the cheeks. Nagano in Karmay, New Horizons 585. [2] to explain the results of the calculations. rtsis kyi 'bras bshad. Nomads 232. [3] A different explanation, 'prognosis/diagnosis' is offered in Ferdinand Meyer, Théorie et pratique de l'examen des pouls dans un chapitre du rGyud-bzhi, contained in: T. Skorupski, ed., Indo‑Tibetan Studies, The Institute of Buddhist Studies (Tring 1990), pp. 209-256, p. 211. Yoeli-Tlalim, TMA 235. 'definitive pronouncement' [of a doctor], in BHBW 385. prognosis. Yangga's dissert., p. 375. [4] 'red notch.' A type of woodslip for communicating a judicial decision (one that is not a simple yes-no decision, but has special discussions attached to it). Dotson, D&L 35.

•KHA TSAR =kha tshar. (cloth) fringing. Btsan-lha. DCD 74-75.

•KHWA TSI This has something to do with making oil from mustard seed. Samdo A V 23r.4.

•KHA RTSE trident. Bellezza in RET 29 (2014) 227.

•KHA TSHA BA See dwa ba.

•KHA TSHANG name of a stage in yak's life (7th year). Topgyal in TJ 23 no. 3 (1998) 38.

•KHA TSHAR [1] = rim bzhin gdags pa. additional. Karmay, Treasury. [2] fringe [on a cloth]. 'fringe.' Goldstein. The ras kyi kha tshar frequently occurs in sūtras as a [relatively low-price, but not insignificant] offering item. [3] 'minor ingredients in a medicinal mixture.' I.e., all the medicines in a compound other than the main ones contained in the medical prescription books. These may be added in specific circumstances at the discretion of the doctor, of course. snam bu thags zin pa'i kha tshar 'go rtsom pa'i phun tshar gnyis. Chödag. Text 8. Gerke, SLT 125.

•KHA TSHAS Btsan-lha.

•KHA TSHO Btsan-lha, with synonyms kha shob & 'ud gtam, meaning empty boasting or exaggerations, swagger. kha tsho sna tsho ci 'dra yang. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 250.5.

•KHA 'TSHOS Btsan-lha.

•KHA 'DZIN Bevormundung (tutelage, patronizing treatment). Kretsch. overseer. Karmay, Treasury. Stein. Hilfe. Kaschewsky2. blandishment, partisanship, overlordship? advocacy? bdag 'dzin gyi kha 'dzin thong. Zhi-byed Coll. II 160.7. myi chos kyi kha 'dzin thong. Zhi-byed Coll. II 443.7. ngo bo rgyud la skye ba dang kha 'dzin dang bral ba dus mnyam. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 42.3. Said to mean 'respond to the wishes' by Holler in TS9 II 214.

•KHA ZHAG foam (of a lake). Norbu, Drung 110.

•KHA ZHAN gtam ngan. Gces 584.5.

•KHA ZHABS Stein.

•KHA ZHING For: kha zheng. Bereich, Ausdehnung. Kaschewsky2.

•KHA ZHE bsod nams, 'byor pa. Nomads 233.

•KHA ZHEN che chung ngam kha shas. Gces 584.1. Btsan-lha.

•KHA ZUNGS See under rwa rnyi.

•KHA ZUR LW 456.

•KHA ZLUM sgom pa kha zlum: 'aimless meditation.' Thondup, BM 352 n. 103.

dpyi'i KHA GZAR DD illus.6.

•KHA BZANG — Bellezza, L&T 89.

•KHA YA [1] thought. Borrowing from Urdu. Francke, Antiquities II 146. [2] a reply, response. [3] close attention (to a guest), hospitality, entertaining [a guest]. [4] pair, rival.

•KHA YAN MU YAN kha ral sna ral te bag yangs ci dgar btang ba'i don no. Dpe-chos 509. Btsan-lha. DCD 74.

•KHA YAR = kha yar ba. few, scattered. each, one by one. Karmay, Treasury. Zhi-byed Coll. II 212.1. bsrubs mdo' lung du las can kha yar la gdam ngag gleng slangs su gsungs pa'o. Zhi-byed Coll. II 396.7.

•KHA YEL open spout (a level of the sky in an archaic cosmology). See under steng mer.

•KHA G.YAR BA mouth borrowing. Giving the name of someone else to deflect blame for one's own actions (ex.: to write a book under someone else's name). False attribution of authorship, as in pseudepigraphy.

•KHA G.YER Btsan-lha.

•KHA G.YOGS to be blamed for something that is not one's fault. Epstein, Dissertation 124.

•KHA RA Btsan-lha.

•KHA RAG kha legs pa. Gces 582.4. Btsan-lha.

•KHA RAN Skt. vedikā. Mvy. no. 4358.

•KHA RAL SNA RAL See under kha yan mu yan.

•KHA RING Btsan-lha. kha sang. DCD 75.

•KHA RU TSHWA a mineral salt. JD 65. SS 431.1. TM I 51; IV 63. See Clifford, list. Halitum violaceum. =ma lo ṇa, smin tshwa. Rin 150.

•KHA RU MUS Aris, Discourse 31.

•KHA RUB PA mang po gros kha mthun pa.

•KHA RE MED PA Stein.

KHA ROG kha kha sdad pa. Gces 581.6. T&BS I 342. kha rog sdod pa, to stay quiet. Samdo A III 108r.2. dam pa'i zhal nas / kha rog myi tshugs par bdud tsi myi la gter ba'i [~ster ba'i] myi la skyid myed gsung [seems to be a small mistake in this sentence...]. Zhi-byed Coll. II 8.6.

•KHA LA KHYER Stein.

•KHA LAG food, meal. It is very unlikely that the modern Lhasa meaning of kha lag (hon. zhal lag) as food existed in Classical Tibetan. I think in those times it meant [deportment/behavior of] mouth and hand or even just verbal and bodily performance. Some think modern word kha lag is influenced by Indic khana that does mean food. I searched both TBRC and OTDO. In OTDO I located only one use of kha lag, and it appears from context to mean that mouth and hand (statement and deed) are to be in agreement, which is to say: not to say one thing and do another. An example was noticed in the Gling grags history of Bon. Note also Stein.

byis pa KHA LANG BA SRZT 121.

•KHA LAN Stein. answer, negative response to a negative statement, thanks [for things received].

•KHA LAS bya ba lam du 'gro ba. Nomads 233.

•KHA LAS CHE kha'i bya ba che ste dka' las sam. Gces 588.3.

•KHA LUNG Skt. bījapūraka. Citrus medica. See H.W. Bailey in BSOAS 20 (1957) 51.

•KHA LE 367 I 237.

•KHA LE KHO LE (deriv. from khol, to boil). hurriedly. Soundings 25.

•KHA LE crooked mouth. A type of heart disease is called snying nad kha le nag po. Yangga's dissert., p. 203.

•KHA LE BA Btsan-lha. grimey and dangling?

•KHA LO SGYUR BA helmsman, charioteer.

•KHA LO BSGYUR MI ruler. Sources.

•KHA LO BA a kind of grazing scout, who first drives the animals up into the mountains. Topgyal in TJ 23 no. 3 (1998) 37.

•KHA LONGS PA a problematic phrase used by Rong-zom-pa in Almogi, MA thesis 213 n. 453.

•KHA SHA [1] snow deer (this being the literal translation of the two syllables). Velm I 64. Norbu, Drung 263, n. 76. = sgra sgrogs pa. JD 231. SS 497.4. Ramble in RET XV 499 translates it as "sambar deer (?)." [2] A kind of fine cotton cloth. See Aris, Discourse 25.

•KHA SHWA Dagyab.

•KHA SHOG PA See thang phrom dkar po g.yung ba.

•KHA BSHAGS kha brda' 'am lan. Gces 583.5. Btsan-lha.

•KHA BSHAL Mouthwashing. Samdo A IV 245r.4.

•KHA SA KON NE bya kha sa kon ne lta bu. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 272.2.

•KHA SANG [1] yesterday. [2] awhile back, not long ago.

•KHA SAR Stearns, TRP 299.

•KHA SI Kashmiri word for doctor. Gerke, PT 14.

•KHA SING "yesterday." Kuijp (1986) 35.

•KHA SUG (Dbus) = skabs shig, for a while, for a moment. MTTP.

•KHA SUR date (the tree fruit). Dhongthog 96. Same meaning in Lonely Planet Phrasebook.

•KHA SO 367 I 239.

•KHA SRAN CHUNG NGU Also, kha sral chung ngu. Skt. valla. Mvy. no. 5668. Dolichos lablab, the climbing bean. Another Skt. name is niṣpāva. It is grown in gardens, and is not a regular field crop. See Helen Johnson, Grains in Mediaeval India, JAOS 61 (1941) 170 (no. 4). Monier-Williams says valla is a kind of wheat or 'winnowing corn,' while vallī is a creeping plant.

•KHA GSAG rnyed pa'i phyir gzhan nor la bsngags pa. Btsan-lha 154. bram no kha gsag che yang lkog mi thub. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 186.1. Hahn, EI 15.

•KHA GSAR a degree of newness, 'very new.' TS7 I 191.

•KHA GSAL BA brighter (color). Jackson.

•KHA GSUM TM IV 105.

•KHA GSOG GI GOS DCD 75.

•KHA BSO See discussion in Dotson, D&L 5, where he says it literally means 'to nourish mouths,' and therefore 'welfare,' although it may also relate to khab so in OTA etc., where it is usually understood broadly to mean 'revenue office.' Or, it may be an error for kha bsod, 'good fortune.' revenue office, revenue officer. Dotson, OTA glossary. This may well be the original spelling, but a search of OTDO reveals only one instance, but 10 instances of the spelling khab so.

•KHA BSOD See under kha bso.

•KHA BSRE BA one with whom one mixes one's mouth (people who may be trusted). Epstein, Dissertation 164.

•KHA HI RA See sing lding.

•KHA HRAG Btsan-lha. = kha dbrag.

•KHAG don dag. Gces 590.1. lug spyang gis bsad nas khag wa mo la byung ba (After the sheep is killed by the wolf, responsibility is sought with the fox). Ehrhard in Steinkellner Festschrift 129.

•KHAG KHUR khag dang khur. duties and burdens. Hence, responsibilities.

•KHWAG ZZ= kha. 'mouth' Bru II 291.1.

•KHWAGS shes pa tha mal la khwags bkog la dar chu zi cig blud de. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 9.7.

•KHANG [1] ZZ = 'jing ba. 'neck' or 'center'. Bru II 291.2. [2] a clan name. Btsan-lha.

•KHANG SKYONG *vihārapāla. Silk, Dissert. 237. Gatekeeper & janitor in the monastery. Silk, Dissert. 237.

•KHANG KHUNG rtsa ris dang khang khung gi sgo nas dngos grub kyi 'byung lugs dang. Zhi-byed Coll. I 188.5.

•KHANG CHEN 'great households' (meaning taxpaying land owners).

•KHANG CHEN GYI DGE 'DUN LHAG MA DCD 75-76.

•KHANG GNYER a kind of drafted labor tax, requiring that a village maintain a person at district headquarters to serve as district messenger. Goldstein, Taxation 12. khang pa'i ltag gnya' la. BBNP 482.

•KHANG TOG khang thog. Btsan-lha. DCD 75.

•KHANG LTAG (Khams) = khang rgyab, behind the house; uphill from the house. MTTP.

•KHANG STONG empty house. khang stong nang gi khyi kun 'di ni ltad mor che. Zhi-byed Coll. I 310.2. khang stong khyi'i spyod pa ltos. Zhi-byed Coll. I 325.6.

•KHANG PA'I DGE 'DUN LHAG MA DCD 75.

•KHANG PA BRTSEGS PA LNGA BRGYA PA DCD 75.

•KHANG BU = khang chung. BBNP 482.

•KHANG MING 'house names' referring to natal houses that took the place of clan names (moving from descent to residence as definitive). Dotson, Naming 3.

•KHANG ZHABS (Khams) = khang 'og, in front of the house, downhill from the house. MTTP.

•KHANGS SE KHANGS Berounsky in FBTB 102.

•KHAD [following the verb] Ex.: sleb la khad, 'ist beinahe angelangt') beinahe, fast. Kaschewsky 82. Bellezza, L&T 82.

•KHAD KYI OT = dal bu. Blaṅ 288.3. = rim gyis. 367 I 243.3. cf. khad kyis in Rnying Rgyud 1982 I 304.6. = dal bu. Lcang-skya.

•KHAD KYIS khad kyis btsugs nas zug pa ni kha gtad de zug pa'o. Dpe-chos 514. dal bus. Dbus-pa no. 160. = dal bu. Lcang-skya. adv. gradually, by degrees. C&LT 167.

•KHAD DE BA Btsan-lha.

•KHAN a kind of pith between bark and wood. Evidently derived from khan da.

•KHAN DA sman gyi khu ba gdus nas sbyin ltar dkag pa'i ming, "khan ṭa" zhes pa'i 'bri tshul gzhan zhig yin te. Skyer ba'i khan da / seng ldeng gi khan da zhes pa lta bu. Dag-yig. 'The boiled down pith between wood and bark.' See Kha 'da'. LW 456. concentrated decoction. Yangga's dissert., p. 250.

•KHAN 'DE khag po'am dka' las. Dpe-chos 516.

•KHAB [1] needle. For needles made to symbolize sword of Manjusri, see Havnevik, Dissertation 149. [2] palace, residence for royalty. [3] wife, bride, marriage.

•KHAB KHA point of the needle.

•KHAB KHOB = khab be khob be.

•KHAB GONG GZER attaching the needle to the lapel. See Goldstein, Taxation 24. bor zags med pa'i dpe. Yisun.

rtag dpyad KHAB MGO 'needle tipped.' a surgical probe. JD 272 (item 1). An instrument for checking if the cranium is cracked or not. Yisun.

•KHAB SGO Btsan-lha. outer gate, palace gate. DCD 76. There is an instance of usage in Bellezza, L&T 60.

•KHAB CHUN MA a young bride. Yisun.

•KHAB CHEN MA an elderly bride. Yisun.

•KHAB GTSAG RI MO This seems to be the current term for tattoo.

•KHAB RTSE GNYIS two-pointed needle, a metaphor used in Zhi-byed Coll. II 466.5, III 20.2.

•KHAB BZHES PA take [a royal] wife. Evidently the khab element is related to rgyal khab and not the word for 'needle'!

•KHAB RAN PA Btsan-lha.

•KHAB RAL khab snod. Dbus-pa no. 721. DCD 76. Lcang-skya. needle holder. See Mvy. 8972, where the Skt. is sūcīgṛhaka. See Kieschnick, Impact 141, where it is forbidden to make ivory needle holders for monks.

•KHAB RAL 'CHOS PA'I LTUNG BYED DCD 76.

•KHAB RIS Btsan-lha. DCD 77.

•KHAB LEN khab len rdo yis lcags rnams dbang du sdud. Zhi-byed Coll. I 272.3. rdo khab len de sa 'og tu sbed dgos. Ibid. I 460.4. lcags 'gug byed kyi rdo'i ming yin. Eimer, Dbyangs 55. = akni sta. JD 56. SS 403.5. DG 113.6. Jamspal, Treasury 3. bismuth. Simioli, AG 57. Gerke, SLT 127. Rin 70.

•KHAB SO [1] royal treasury. Yisun. [2] civil servants who had to levy taxes for the central government in imperial times. Helga Uebach, From Red Tally to Yellow Paper, RET (Oct. 2008) 58. Dotson, D&L 47. Lde'u 270. See under kha bso.

•KHAB SO GNANG CHE CAN Michael Willis's article "From World Religion to World Dominion," p. 250.

•KHAB SO 'O CHOG GI BLA Btsan-lha.

•KHABS [1] gdong sogs la chags pa'i gro thig. Yisun. [2] canopy [as part of a tent]. Bellezza, D&B 26.

•KHAM [1] a mouthful of food, a morsel (in context of giving food to a dog). Bhattacharya, LW 353, no. 10, points out that, in Bengali, kham means a 'piece.' Samdo A V 139r.3. bod kyi chos pa 'di tsho la snying kham 'dug gsung. Zhi-byed Coll. II 308.1. sangs rgyas snying kham la res pas dgos dus su stabs gcog par 'ong ngo gsung. Zhi-byed Coll. II 309.4. [2] Prefixed to color terms, I'm tempted to translate it as "tawny" [colored]. [3] a volume-numbering mark (perhaps based on Chinese words for the fingers of the hand?). BKC 55. [4] Name of one of the eight trigrams, as transcribed from Chinese.

•KHAM BKONG Btsan-lha.

•KHAM CAN In the phrase log rtog kham can, 'very weird misconception.' Similar to ham can.

•KHAM CHE Used a number of times in Zhi-byed Coll. V 169.1 ff. Compare the negative form of this, kham ma che.

•KHAM CHEN Also, kham po che, kham che, and kham chung. Stein.

•KHAM PA clay, kaolin. LW 520. Sørensen, TBH 248. tawny colored, brownish red.

•KHAM PA'I STENG DU NGAD the fragrance of the roof (said to mean soot). Simioli, AG 60.

•KHAM PO CHE Btsan-lha.

•KHAM PHOR = rdza phor. Yisun. srang ka'i kham phor bya ba zin nas 'dug. Zhi-byed Coll. I 276.1. a sipping (mouthful) bowl.

•KHAM BU JD 101. SS 524.4. kham 'bu. KP1 169.2. = a shu. Two types: ri kham, klung kham. DG 211.3. KP3 306.3. KP4 489.5. Mdo 51. Apricot. Prunus armeniaca. TDD 149. =rgya kham. peach. CTEV 28.

•KHAM BU RAG SHA Mdo 53.

•KHAM MA CHE Evans-Wentz, in polishing the translation of the Ding-ri Brgya-rtsa, translates this as 'the worst hypocrisy.' PD says it means 'don't exaggerate, don't overrate, don't be arrogant.' Very literally, it means don't take too big bites (or mouthfuls).

•KHAM TSHIG apricot pit. Also used as a unit of measure, in which 6 of them are equivalent to one walnut.

•KHAM SHING cherry. Dhongthog 64.

•KHAM SHIS Btsan-lha.

•KHAM SA clay. Karmay, Treasury.

•KHAMS Tshad Rig.

•KHAMS BRGYAD eight mineral elements used in btso thal recipe. Gerke, SLT 127, with listing.

•KHAMS BCO BRGYAD Tshad Rig.

•KHAMS 'DUS khong khro ba. Btsan-lha.

•KHAMS 'DRI (Wohl)befinden. Kaschewsky2.

•KHAM 'BRAS (coll.) = kham bu, apricot. MTTP.

•KHAM MI KHUM MI (deriv. from khum pa, crumple). in a crumpled shape. Soundings 27.

•KHAMS DRUG sa'i khams / chu'i khams / me'i khams / rlung gi khams / nam mkha'i khams / rnam par shes pa'i khams so. 600 71. mngal skyes khams drug ni / rus pa / rkang / khu ba / sha / khrag / pags pa'o. 600 81.

•KHAMS 'DREN SBU GU = khams dkar 'dren pa'i sbu gu? DD illus 21. Literally this means the 'tube which conveys the white element (semen). The seminal vescicle.

•KHAMS PA dran med du brgyal ba. Btsan-lha.

•KHAMS MYOG PA Btsan-lha. DCD 77.

•KHAMS RMYA BA Btsan-lha.

•KHAMS TSHAN DCD 77.

•KHAMS KYI ZAS First of the four types of food in Abhidharma. Mvy. 2284. To follow the the Sanskrit the khams here ought to mean 'mouthfuls,' and therefore correctly spelled kham (A. Wayman, Untying the Knots, p. 362, note 9 makes this point) although apparently this correct spelling never occurs.

•KHAMS G.YAR Btsan-lha.

•KHAMS SAS Stein.

•KHAMS SENG LA 'GRO Stein.

•KHAMS GSUM three realms. The three realms (Desire, Form and Formless) of Buddhist cosmology. Klong-chen-pa 5.13. 'dod khams / gzugs khams / gzugs med kyi khams so. 600 10.

•KHAMS GSUM SA DGU See sa dgu. DCD 77.

•KHAR GO SOL word for 'stag.' Skt. eṇa. See Velm I 61 ff.

•KHAR RJE A cultural concept that is difficult to translate exactly, although I suggest 'honor' as one good option. It seems to carry with it the senses of strength and integrity, but also having what is one's due, social standing, merit etc. chos kyi khar rje ma log pas // gdam ngag je zab je zab song. Samdo A V 104r.3. For kha rje. Samdo A V 104r.3. Term listed in Pha-dam-pa dang Ma-cig (PRC 1992) 430. khar rje 'am ste dbang men de las khyad par can sngon du song bar thag bad kyis chod do. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 112.5. khar rje dang ste bang las byung ba ma yin te. Zhi-byed Coll. V 234.3. kha rjer mi gtad skyes bus rtsol ba 'bad. Flick, Carrying Enemies 39 (verse 1.10), where it is not recognized as a proper word. kha rje dang dbang thang bde legs ji snyed cig yod pa thams cad... 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 102.3. dal ba 'byor pa 'phags lam bsgrub pa'i mi lus 'di mkhar rjes thob pa men no. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 51.1. khar rje 'am ste dbang men de las khyad par can sngon du song bar thag bad kyis chod do. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 112.5.

•KHAR TOR CHES BYUNG BA Btsan-lha.

•KHAR THUG straight.

•KHAR PHOG SNAR PHOG Lit., hit the mouth, hit the nose. Translated as 'harsh truths' in Thuken 159. See Yisun.

•KHAR TSANG "yesterday." Kuijp (1986) 35. Btsan-lha. DCD 77.

•KHAR TSAN O.T. Isn't this just meaning mkhar btsan, 'mighty fort'? But see Schaik, M&T 163. In OT texts used to describe Leng cu (Lanzhou), which was in fact a fortified walled city.

•KHAR ZAGS ? bla ma'i gdam ngag khar zags su myi gzhug pa'i brda' ru / zas zhim po zos nas myi skyug gsung. Zhi-byed Coll. II 170.2. See under zags.

•KHAR ṢHA PA ṆI See 'gron bu.

•KHAL Stein. a measure. Stearns, King 498 n. 359, says it's equivalent to about 25 to 30 pounds. See under phul. Cuevas, Travels 152 n 33: "Generally, a khal of barley weighs somewhere between 27 and 30 pounds and a khal of butter between 7 and 8 pounds."

•KHAL KHA GZUGS Costume worn by high-ranking officials. See Velm I 132. Illus. in Yisun.

•KHAL KHOL See under bya blo khal khol. bla ma'i byin brlabs ma zhugs na / nyams myong khal khol skyes kyang / sprin mthongs kyi nyi ma dang 'dra ste. Zhi-byed Coll. II 466.2.

•KHAL CA LE 367 I 235.

•KHAL BANG hat of black fox fur with red colored top worn by lower ranking officials. Velm I 132.

•KHAL BAN Stein.

•KHAS CHAD gtam pa. Nomads 233.

•KHAS 'CHES PA khas len pa. Btsan-lha. DCD 77.

•KHAS 'CHES PA'I DGE SLONG DCD 77.

•KHAS NYEN the poor and/or the powerless. Btsan-lha. DCD 77. Examples of usage in Lde'u 205, 223.

•KHAS MDAN Btsan-lha.

•KHAS BLANGS premise. In Vinaya, a part of monastic disciplinary procedures. Banerjee, Sarvāstivāda Literature 227.

•KHAS BLANGS KYIS BSAL BA Tshad Rig.

•KHAS BLANGS PAS ZHI BA rtsod pa zhi byed kyi chos bdun gyi gras... DCD 77.

•KHAS MA HROL a kind of loin cover. Namdak, Bzo-rig 74.

•KHAS LEN CAN boastful. Jamspal, Treasury 42.

•KHAS RLABS Btsan-lha.

•KHING LOG Btsan-lha. Correct spelling should be kheng log.

•KHIN Chinese 5-stringed lute. Thuken 338. Guillaume Jacques has written to me that this must be a recent borrowing of the Ming or Qing dynasties, as it was gim in middle Chinese.

•KHU [1] g.yang. [2] a clan name. Btsan-lha. Yisun.

•KHU DKAR See ha shig.

•KHU KHU Perhaps a regional western Tibetan or endearing version of "a khu," or uncle? HS V 430.4.

•KHU 'KHRIG Btsan-lha. dogs pa. rnam rtog. DCD 77.

•KHU GUN "possibly a pronoun for the third person." Kuijp (1986) 35.

•KHU CO Btsan-lha.

•KHU CHAR Btsan-lha.

•KHU CHUNG Stein.

•KHU CHEN Although it literally means great uncle, it seems to be a rank of minister or the like. They could even be buried in the royal burial ground. Lde'u 377 et passim.

•KHU 'JO BA Btsan-lha.

•KHU LJO Btsan-lha. Problematic term in OTC, it is suggested it is equiv. to khul zho, 'cradle,' although it may mean a child-carrying basket.

•KHU RDUL Btsan-lha.

•KHU PA 'chag pa. Dbus-pa no. 041.

•KHU PHRIG Btsan-lha.

•KHU 'PHANG Stein. Stein says it means 'wet snow,' but Yisun says it is a kind of snow with a round shape (not hail, exactly).

•KHU 'PHRIG rnam rtog za ba'am brtag dpyad byed pa / khu 'phrig za ba. Chödag. sems kyi khu 'phrig de sel dgos. Zhi-byed Coll. II 22.2. sems la khu 'phrig ma sol ba'i myis the tsom gyi sgrog myi khrol. Ibid. II 237.6. bden pa res 'jog ma byed par sems la khu 'phrig zad du chug gsung. Ibid. II 197.6. sems la khu 'phrig zad pas lha myed 'dre myed du 'gro ba'i dus dang bzhi. Ibid. II 362.5. khu 'brig ni nyes pa'i rtsa ba yin pas. Zhi-byed Coll. V 148.4. Nine Ways 292.

•KHU BA [1] decoction, soup. [2] = 'chags pa. Lcang-skya. See khu pa.

•KHU BA'I SNYING PO See nye shing.

•KHU BA 'BYIN PA'I DGE 'DUN LHAG MA DCD 78.

•KHU BO Uncle on father's side (uncle on mother's side called a zhang or zhang po).

•KHU BYA YE BYA 476 IV 216.6, 300.4.

•KHU BYUG cuckoo. It uses the nests of other birds. Zhi-byed Coll. I 442.6. = dpyid kyi pho nya, dpyid kyi rgyal mo. JD 226. N. of a grass; see rtsa khu byug. Skt. kokilaka. N. of a metre. Hahn, JV 39.

•KHU BYUG ME TOG DG 271.1.

•KHU BYUG RTSA BA cuckoo root. Simioli, AG 61.

•KHU TSHAN Btsan-lha. vegetable or meat broth. DCD 78.

•KHU TSHUR fist. Skt. muṣṭi. Mvy. 3983.

•KHU TSHUR PA boxer? Skt. muṣṭikā. The Skt. could also mean thief, perhaps explaining the Tib. rendering zol pa found in an alternative translation. See Hahn in Dorji Wangchuk, Cross-Cultural Transmission of Buddhist Texts (Hamburg 2016) 82. In context, it is a type of person with which the king's man must not make friends.

•KHU TSHUR TSHAD 'fist test.' A game in which the smash their fists against each others' until one of them gives up. Melvyn Goldstein, A Study of the Ldab ldob, CAJ 1 no 2 (1964) 132.

•KHU YUG (Amdo, Khams; but also Lhasa pronunciation) = khu byug, cuckoo. MTTP.

•KHU YE g.yang khu ye. An invocation for calling phywa g.yang. See also Yisun. Samdo A IV 217r.6.

•KHU RA Disks of fried bread. Ramble in Karmay, New Horizons 308.

•KHU RU khu ru myed na 'jigs dang bral. Zhi-byed Coll. I 308.6.

•KHU LI RI MO srang thur ram srang mda'i tshad kyi thig le'am ri mo'i ming. 367 II 131.6.

•KHU LU soft underwool (inner wool) of yak and 'bri. Dargyay, TVC 68. Khenrap in TJ 25 no. 4 (2000) 50. http://factsreports.revues.org/1339.

•KHU LONG pheasant. Bellezza, L&T 41. Bellezza, D&B 47.

•KHU RLANGS Btsan-lha.

•KHU SHA OT = sha khu. Blaṅ 298.4. Lcang-skya. Btsan-lha. DCD 78.

•KHUG to come [voluntarily], to fall asleep, to get interest [again], to have worth. NNV.

•KHUG KHRA A small bag worn hanging from the waist. Illus. in Yisun.

•KHUG CHOS KP3 276.7. There are two types, white and red. See ug chos.

•KHUG CHOS DAR LO A type of crocus, perhaps saffron? Kapstein, Dialectic 270.

•KHUG MCHOG See sram.

•KHUG NYAL See sbrul.

•KHUG RTA khug sta'i (i.e., khug rta'i) sgum bu (i.e. rgum bu) sa la nams kyang min. Zhi-byed Coll. I 270.5 (also, I 296.3). = 'dab khra. = char sdod byi'u. JD 229. SS 500.2. This is the bird known in Skt. as the cātaka (Mvy. 4906), a kind of cuckoo that supposedly lives only on the raindrops it catches in mid-air.

•KHUG RNA morning mist (or something like that). nam mkha' sprin dang khug rna bral na nyi ma gsal. Phag-mo-gru-pa, Gold Ms. I 204r.5. Spelled khug sna, here translated as 'mist.' Zurchungpa, Testament, p. 168.

•KHUGS [a remote] corner.

•KHUNG BU [1] a small hole or cavity, made by piercing or boring, like those made by burrowing insects or snakes. [2] In Lde'u 385, I chose to translate it as 'vacant.'

•KHUNGS BCAD have been substantiated. Sources.

•KHUNGS...DPYAD have examined...the grounds (of oral traditions). Sources.

•KHUNGS BYED PA imitieren, vorgeben, so tun als ob. Perhaps also to be understood as khud byed pa. Kretsch.

•KHUNGS PHYUNG See comments of Dorji Wangchuk in TS9 X 270. He says it means 'undermining,' but also possibly to 'challenge' or 'question.'

•KHUNGS MA CHOD PA unfounded, groundless, unproved. Sources.

•KHUD See under phyar po che. The 'dip' or pouch or holding part of the cloth of a litter or hammock (or the 'cup' made of leaves for holding liquid).

•KHUD DU BYAS PA See Blaṅ 305.3-.4. Btsan-lha.

•KHUD NA nang du. Btsan-lha.

•KHUD PA gift. PD. OT = skyas. = rdzongs. Blaṅ 288.5. = skyes, = rdzongs. BBNP 480. Btsan-lha. = skyes. = rdzongs. Lcang-skya. side glance [of a drunken woman] (?). Hahn, TSD 67.

•KHUM 'PHRIG Btsan-lha. dogs pa. rnam rtog. DCD 79. See khu 'khrig, khu 'phrig.

•KHUM ZHIG Btsan-lha. sod cig. DCD 79.

•KHUMS [1] 'appropriately done, responsibly carried out.' Coblin in TH&L 90. [2] Used in the meaning of 'slaying.' Btsan-lha. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 430.4. [3] with reference to posture of the legs: crooked, contracted.

•KHUR SKYA Btsan-lha.

•KHUR KHUR In this phrase: gzhan gyi khur khur 'tsho ba sla. I imagine this ought to read like this: gzhan gyis khur 'khur 'tsho ba sla. It's easier to lead your life when others bear the burdens. But see Hahn, TSD, where there is a different understanding.

•KHUR 'KHRI Btsan-lha.

•KHUR CHUNG See rtsa mkhris.

•KHUR DU DRAGS PA Btsan-lha. khur po bsdams pa. DCD 79.

•KHUR DROGS Btsan-lha.

•KHUR PO khur po stod du bsig byas nas sha bo ngal zhes pa ni / khur bo khur nas lam du ngal gso long med par 'gro ba'i tshe thang chad pa na sa la 'dug long med kyang khur po stod la bkyag nas yud tsam re bsdad pas shin tu ngal ba la chung zhig phan pas de la sha bo ngal zer. Dpe-chos 506.

•KHUR BA Btsan-lha. Tóth no. 128.

•KHUR BOR BA Btsan-lha.

•KHUR MANG Spelled khur mangs, Das says it is the dandelion; Pha Dam-pa ate it. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 352.4. BA 294. KP1 75.5. There are white, black, chinese (rgya khur) and 'fox' (wa khur) varieties. KP4 418.4.

•KHUR MONG Dandelion, the ubiquitous yellow-flowered lawn weed. JD 209. SS 520.3. Taraxacum officinalis. Wangchuk, Bioactive 27. TDD 183.

•KHUR TSA BA load bearer, porter.

•KHUR TSHA = khur po. BBNP 469. burden, load (another spelling for khur tsa).

•KHUR BZHI phung po'i khur / brtson 'grus kyi khur / nyon mongs pa'i khur / dam bca'i khur ro. 600 35.

•KHUR BZOD PA See under rgya theg.

•KHUR RA (sp?) Lhasa: 'bread.' T&BS I 355.

•KHUR SHING Carrying frame, as in backpacks. Illus. in Yisun.

•KHUR BSLANG Btsan-lha. Used for rngod slang.

•KHUL [1] This term originally indicated a district, but was later replaced by rdzong. It is still used with a less well defined meaning. Petech. [2] The soft inner fur of an animal. =khu lu. See under gra. [3] manner, way. =tshul. [4] region. As in: sa khul.

•KHUS See rung khus za ba. 'repeating, persistence.' Karmay, Treasury.

•KHUS 'DEBS PA ngu skad kyi cho nge 'debs pa. Yisun. Example of usage in Lde'u 60 (line 6). shouting (done to scare up game animals). Dotson, Princess 65.

•KHE khyim bdag khe mthong las la ngal ba myed. Zhi-byed Coll. I 296.2.

•KHE KHE "onomat." Kretsch.

•KHE KHYE Said to be herpes in Y. Nagano, ed., Issues in Tibeto-Burman Historical Linguistics, National Museum of Ethnology (Osaka 2009) 162.

•KHE NYEN Risiko. Kaschewsky2.

•KHE BEL Rnying Rgyud 1982 I 272.4.

•KHE'U SKYUNGS mkhas pas khe'u skyungs na 'gro ba la phan che ba yin no. Zhi-byed Coll. II 310.2. The form khe'u skyung ba is found in Lde'u 4.

•KHE'U KHA Btsan-lha.

•KHE'U GANG Btsan-lha.

•KHE RU MA allein. ZAS VII 474.

•KHE LA ZZ = rogs. Bru 291.4.

•KHE'U SUS a fine food not ordinarily eaten. Yisun.

•KHEGS See under khed. 'it is negated, it is prevented, blocked, refuted.'

•KHENG [1] ? ko kheng ltar du rengs pa. Stiff like full or stuffed[?] leather. 24 I 400.4. [2] civilian work corps. g.yung gi mi sde kheng dang yang kheng 'byed. The human communities of the civilians were divided into kheng and yang kheng. Uray, Narrative 18.

•KHENG LDOG PA Btsan-lha.

•KHENG PO Btsan-lha, with a quote from the Mkhas pa'i dga' ston, in which it would seem to refer to 'common' people. Perhaps we could translate it as 'underclass' or 'underlings.' At the moment it would seem to me that kheng designated a class of people liable to be called up for work on civil projects, for corvée labor. This class of civilians may be more restricted than gyung, a broader term for civilians.

•KHENG BA to get filled [with].

•KHENG LOG revolt. Karmay, Great Perfection 9 ("general discontent of the people"). See under khing log. Many today understand the syllable kheng to mean 'peasantry,' but Roberto Vitali interprets it as meaning 'subjects' (i.e., the clans). See his article in Christoph Cüppers, ed., The Relationship between Religion & State (chos srid zung 'brel) in Traditional Tibet, Lumbini Int'l Res. Inst. (Lumbini 2004). I am not certain yet, but I think Vitali might be right. Dotson's dissertation translates it as 'servants' (and yang kheng is translated servants' servants, and even further subordinated are the nying kheng). Generally, I think we can say that it is equiv. to 'bangs, subjects, meaning everyone below the Emperor (although it might more specifically mean the subject clans), but this is unsure. At the moment, I call it 'revolt of the civil works corps.'

•KHENGS PA [1] be full, complete. rdzogs pa. 367 II 129.3. thugs kyang khengs pa ni thugs kyang zin pa. BBNP 466. [2] expecting [something]. Jamspal, Treasury 142. [3] to be frozen. [4] be stuffed up [with pride]. This meaning frequent in Nyang-ral's history.

•KHED also, khegs. riddles. Norbu, Drung 22.

•KHEBS CHE Btsan-lha.

•KHEBS PA to be covered. NNV.

•KHEM BU Btsan-lha.

•KHEMS Btsan-lha.

•KHER RKYANG all alone. TS9 II 463.

•KHES Btsan-lha.

•KHO 3rd person pronoun. He (but see also kho bo), she (but see also kho mo). Example of usage on line 2 of Lde'u 154. Some sources say it can be a first-person pronoun, but I believe this is based on a misreading of the relevant entries in Yisun.

•KHO TI = khog ldir.

•KHO THAG khong [khod?] thag bcad. Gces 588.2.

•KHO THAG GCOD PA Stein.

•KHO THO See mdzo mo shing.

•KHO DE Btsan-lha.

•KHO BO I (first person pronoun).

•KHO BO CAG we (first person plural pronoun).

•KHO MA DRIL CHEN a type of large bell. ZZFC 240.

•KHO MA BYUNG I read this to mean something like mkho ma bzod, which has this meaning: It's no use. It's no help. Lde'u 327.

•KHO'I TSE chopstick. Acc. to Jamyang Norbu, "Newspeak & New Tibet," a borrowing from Chinese.

•KHO RANG that same person.

•KHO RAS For: kho rang. ZAS VII 474.

•KHO RE (Khams) Hey you! (addressing a man).

•KHO RE CHUNG BA Subj. of an entry in Philologia Tibetica, Jan. 25, 2014.

•KHO LAG OT = zheng. = sboms. Blaṅ 303.2. chu zheng. Dbus-pa no. 172. = mchu zheng. Lcang-skya.

•KHO LU Occurs as an interesting spelling of khol bu, servant, in Zhi-byed Coll. IV 345.2.

•KHOG In one place clearly used as equivalent of kog, 'cover, outer husk,' etc., or in this instance clearly '[egg] peelings,' since the eggs have already hatched. Lde'u 211.

•KHOG KHOG PO Btsan-lha.

•KHOG LDIR Hon.: gsol ldir. = kho ti. 'tea jug' Schmied 156. BLKC I 393 (spelled khog ltir).

•KHOG PA [1] abdominal cavity. [2] internal thoughts. Note the obscure phrase khog pa par la 'debs pa in Kapstein's contribution to J. of Tibetology 9 (2014) 77.

•KHOG PA CHE BA Stein.

•KHOG 'BUBS The most usual genre term for medical history texts. Yangga's dissert., p. 28 interprets as "pitching (building) a framework."

•KHOG MA See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 50n. For a stone cooking utensil, said to have been used by Srong-btsan-sgam-po in his retreat cave, see illus. in Po-ta-la (1996) 178.

•KHOG RTSE 1. ZZ = drod pa. 'belly' Bru II 291.6. 2. tshe 'di'i rtsel ba tsam sdug bsngal gyi rgyu yin pa sha ba khog rtse las 'bros pa lta bu. Zhi-byed Coll. II 472.1. In this case, = kog tse, 'trap.'

•KHOG YANGS broad attitude. Thondup, BM 124.

•KHOG BRLAM trance, possession. See Todd Gibson's dissertation (1991) 207.

•KHONG he, she. 3rd person pronoun.

•KHONG KHRO Tshad Rig.

•KHONG KHRO 'spleen.' Dhongthog. In ordinary language, just means 'anger.' Skt. pratigha. Mvy. 1945. EoB VII 354. This should be distinguished from 'hatred' or zhe sdang, q.v.

•KHONG 'KHYING OT = khong 'byin. Blaṅ 296.2. Dbus-pa no. 458.

•KHONG 'KHYID = khong 'byin. Lcang-skya.

•KHONG 'KHYIL Btsan-lha.

•KHONG SNYING 'dod gdung. Dpe-chos 510.

•KHONG SNYOM Btsan-lha.

•KHONG SNYOM PA = sgyid lug pa. Lcang-skya.

•KHONG TA A form of 3rd-person pronoun. They. TS5 781. Btsan-lha. Hill, Aspirated 478.

•KHONG STONG empty interior, empty space.

•KHONG DU CHUD PA Gser Sbram 360.

•KHONG NAD internal diseases.

•KHONG NAS Stein.

•KHONG MO 'brong. Btsan-lha.

•KHONG MO 'BRONG a pregnant 'brong? T.N. says it is synonymous with 'brong. Norbu, Drung 262, n. 71.

•KHONG RTSI Btsan-lha.

•KHONG MDZANGS Btsan-lha. khong mdzangs zhes pa'i mdzangs pa ni / ya rabs dang / mkhas pa dang bzang po'i don du bshad do. Eimer, Dbyangs 55.

•KHONG YUS phan btags drin ngoms. charity for show[?] Yisun. Gold Ms. III 151r.5. khong yus kyi mde'u ma phyin na / mnyam bzhag gi sha 'ur rgyas kyang / mtha' bral gyi smen pa myi ltas. Zhi-byed Coll. II 463.2. khong yus dbyung ba ni. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 234.2, 239.4. skyes bu khong yus dang ma bral na nga rgyal gyi bdud myi choms. Zhi-byed Coll. II 306.1. rtogs tshad nyams dang ldan pa'i khong yus kyis brgyal nas gang zag gzhan la phyag rgya rtag cog smra ba de. Zhi-byed Coll. V 432.4 (also, 432.5).

•KHONG YANGS broad minded, open minded. Lde'u 390.

•KHONG SA a kind of containment area for wild game animals. Dotson, Princess 74.

•KHONG GSENG See BA 732.

•KHONG LOG 'cholera.' Dhongthog.

•KHONG LHOG Btsan-lha.

•KHONGS GZO BA Btsan-lha.

•KHOD See khos.

•KHOD BCA' BA Btsan-lha.

•KHOD SNYOMS PA OT = yid mi dga' ba. = sgyid lug pa. Blaṅ 293.2. Btsan-lha. even leveled. khod ma snyoms pa'i lam du shing rta myi 'gro bar gda' gsung. Zhi-byed Coll. II 176.6.

•KHOD SPUNGS bla chen khod spungs / khod ni 'dul ba'i don dang / spungs ni ston pa ste gdul bya 'dul ba'i ston pa zhes pa'o. 506A 338.

•KHOD SHOM Btsan-lha.

•KHON GCUGS Btsan-lha.

•KHOB CHE mkho che Btsan-lha.

•KHOB CHER 'kho che. Gces 585.5.

•KHOB SHAG Btsan-lha.

•KHOM PA OT = dal ba. Blaṅ 299.5. Stein. Dbus-pa no. 616. = ngal ba. Lcang-skya.

•KHOR PA Btsan-lha.

•KHOR ZUG OT = khor yug. Blaṅ 290.1. Dbus-pa no. 227. Lcang-skya.

•KHOR YUG See under 'khor yug. an enclosure for the perimeters of something.

•KHOL This is impv. form for several verbs, including bkol ba, 'gel ba and 'khol ba.

•KHOL JO slave master. See chug khol. Sources.

•KHOL DU PHYUNG BA Btsan-lha. DCD 79.

•KHOL PO btsad po'i khol po ni rgyal po'am dpon po'i g.yog po'i ming. Dpe-chos 504. Servant. Perhaps to be connected with Turkic qul, with same meaning. Hill, Review 178.

•KHOL BU [1] a lesser servant. [2] bellows. [3] some, branch, scattered bit[s]. Yisun. See kho lu.

•KHOL MA OT = skar khung. Blaṅ 291.1. = skar khung. Lcang-skya. Btsan-lha. a khol mar brus la. Zhi-byed Coll. III 77.5. See also: ba glang mig.

•KHOL MO gshang. dril bu. Btsan-lha.

•KHOL TSHAB substitute slave (delivered to a slave owner by a community which failed to capture and return to him his runaway slave when the latter had stopped in their territory). See khral tshab. Sources.

•KHOL YUL bran g.yog khyim tshang gi ming. Btsan-lha. service tenure lands. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•KHOL G.YOG TSHONG MI slave traders. Cuevas, Travels 148.

•KHOS Institutions is the translation I am favoring (following Dotson). = mkhos. = khod. Institution[s], administration, settlement of the state. Much discussion in Uray, Narrative 18-19 ("institutions"). 'dun ma. Dbus-pa no. 155. Lcang-skya. Helga Uebach, in her paper given at St. Andrews (2001), says that it means extention of Tibetan state power over her imperial possessions, often concluded ceremonially following a matrimonial alliance. She also discusses the related forms skos, 'khos, khod, etc. Chris Beckwith, in his book, interprets the term variously as 'gather, mobilize, levy.' Refs. are supplied in Kazushi Iwao, An Analysis of the Term rkya in the Context of the Social System of the Old Tibetan Empire, Memoirs of the Toyo Bunko 67 (2009) 89-108, at p. 102, n. 7.

•KHOS impv. of 'gas. khos shig. Split! Gash!

•KHOS KA rang la khos ka myed pa nga gzhan la zhal ta gtong ba de myi bden. Zhi-byed Coll. II 455.3 (also, V 67.5). rang la khos ka myed par gzhan la zhal ta mkhas. Ibid. II 183.4. While you yourself are not up to the task, you are good at advice for others. myis chos par bzung rang khos ka myed. While people take you for a follower of Dharma, you yourself have no initiative (are not up to the task?)." Zhi-byed Coll. II 436.2. Also, Ibid. V 74.6-7. bdag gi lus la blo ltos med yang nas yang du na ba 'di'i 'khos kas na ma cig gsob gog dgyel bar thag chod pas da res sos na. Zhi-byed Coll. V 466.6.

•KHOS PA OT = 'dun pa. Blaṅ 289.1. = 'dun pa. Lcang-skya.

•KHOS DPON =khod dpon. chief administrator. In a phrase like bod kyi khos dpon, it must mean prime minister. Uray, Narrative 32-33. administratie chief, Dotson, OTA glossary.

•KHOS RANG Btsan-lha.

•KHOS RANG CHAB MI 'TSHAL BA OT = mdun ma chud mi za ba. Blaṅ 288.3.

•KHYA GE KHYO GE (deriv. from khyog, to be crooked) = khyag khyog. crookedly. Soundings 25.

mkhris pa KHYA YA SRZT 17.

•KHYA RE KHYO RE (deriv. from khyor, unstable). = khyar khyor. topsy-turvy. Soundings 25.

•KHYAG to be able to lift, to bear. mi rnams skyid la khyag chung// sdug la khyag che. People can bear great suffering, but only a little happiness (Phadampa). Thondup, EL 126. rngog ring la nag pos bal yul nas glang po che'i phru gu khur bas khyag. Rngog Ring-la-nag-po was able to withstand carrying a baby elephant from Nepal.

•KHYAD Stein.

•KHYAD CHOS BCU DRUG Thondup, BM 4.

•KHYAD CHOS DRUG six special qualities of Samantabhadra. See Yeshi & Dalton in RET 43 (Jan. 2018) 256-273, at p. 267.

•KHYAD DU Btsan-lha.

•KHYAD DU 'GUMS Btsan-lha. DCD 79.

•KHYAD DU GSAD PA 'depreciate' (etc.). Stein. have contempt? The Sanskrit for khyad du gsod pa ought to be vimānana or atimānana, acc. to Mvy. 6959, but vitaṇḍana acc. to 8429. Perhaps a kind of cavil or unnecessarily carping argument in philosophical contexts... It seems to correspond to Pāli omāna, which is the subject of Maria Heim, The Conceit of Self-Loathing, JIP 37 (2009) 61-74, where it is translated as 'conceit of inferiority' or 'self-loathing.' Disdaining is probably a good translation at times.

•KHYAD DU GSOD PA mi rtsi ba dang / brnyas bcos byed pa'am / 'dzems bag med pa / dka' ngal khyad du gsod pa / nga rgyal dbang gis gzhan khyad du gsod pa / sger gyi phan gnod khyad du bsad pa. DCD 80.

•KHYAD DU GSOD PA'I LTUNG BYED DCD 80.

•KHYAD NOR specific richnesses. Jean-Luc Achard's translation. Seems quite similar to khyad chos, which means teachings special or even exclusive to one's own school.

•KHYAD PAR always, constantly. OT = rgyun par. Blaṅ 287.5. = rtag tu. = rgyun du. Lcang-skya.

•KHYAD PAR LTOS PA BA'I RTAGS Tshad Rig.

•KHYAD PAR DU 'GRO BA Skt. viśeṣagāmitā/tva. Silk, Dissert. 345.

•KHYAD PAR DAG PA BA'I RTAGS Tshad Rig.

•KHYAD PAR GYI DUS CHEN BZHI DCD 80.

•KHYAD PAR GYI SPYOD PA LNGA DCD 80.

•KHYAD PAR 'PHAGS BSTOD DCD 80.

•KHYAD PAR GZHAN SPONG GI SGRA Tshad Rig.

•KHYAD PAR GZHAN MI SPONG BA'I SGRA Tshad Rig.

•KHYAD PAR RAB TU GRAGS PA MA YIN PA Tshad Rig.

•KHYAD GZHUGS PA some distinction emerging.

•KHYAB 'JUG GI 'JUG PA BCU nya / rus sbal / phag rgod / mi'i seng ge / mi'u thung / rā ma ṇa / nag po / shākya thub pa / rigs ldan / kīrti tsi rnams so // de la 'jug pa dang po ni / sngon rig byed bzhi rgya mtsho'i nang du nub pa khyab 'jug gis nya ru sprul te bton pa dang gnyis pa ni / rus sbal gyi gzugs kyis 'jig rten btegs nas rgyun du gnas pa dang / gsum pa ni phag rgod kyi gzugs kyis tshangs pa'i 'jig rten man chad mnan pa dang / bzhi pa ni smad mi la stod seng ge'i gzugs kyis lha min gyi dbang po 'gro skyob gser can lto dral nas bsad pa dang / lnga pa ni / mi'u thung du sprul nas lha min stobs ldan gom pa gsum gyi sa bslang zhes bslus pa dang / drug pa ni / dza mād agna'i bu dgra sta rā mar sprul te rgyal rigs srid sgrub la sogs pa bsad nas rgyal srid med par byas pa dang / bdun pa ni / rgyal po shing rta bcu pa'i bu rā ma ṇar sprul nas rang gi chung ma srin po lingka mgrim bcus phrogs pas spre'u ha lu manydzu la grogs bcol te srin po btul ba dang / brgyad pa ni / nag la rtsod pa'i dus su sems can gyi don byas pa dang / dgu pa ni / sangs rgyas shākya thub tu sprul nas sngon rgyal rigs bsad pa'i sdig pa sbyangs pa dang / bcu pa ni / rigs ldan bram ze'i bu kīrti tsi ces bya ba ma 'ongs pa na 'byung bas sems can mang po btul ba'i mthar dus ldog pa rtogs par 'gyur ba'o. 600 137-140.

•KHYAB 'JUG RIL MA See rgya skyags.

•KHYAB MNYAM Tshad Rig.

•KHYAB MTHA' Tshad Rig.

•KHYAB GDAL khyab ces pa nam mkha' la nyi 'od kyis khyab pa lta bu dang / tshig grogs gdal zhes pa'ang thams cad la khod [59r3] snyoms par gdal ba'i don yin pas / des na chos thams cad la khyab pa'i stong nyid dang chos nyid la yang khyab gdal gyi sgra 'jug pa yod. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•KHYAB GDAL CHEN PO 4 316B.3.

•KHYAB BRDAL CHEN PO 91 I 584.2-.3.

•KHYAB PA penetration, interpenetration, concomitance, invariable concomitance (Thurman), disseminate. Or, just simply, 'extent, range of coverage.' Skt. vyapti. Stein. For khyab che, see Sopa in JIABS III, no. 1, pp. 70 ff. pervasion (the usual translation). Dreyfus, Rationality 48.

•KHYAB PA 'DU BYED KYI SDUG BSNGAL DCD 81.

•KHYAB DBANG an official title? Das, JTL&CT 41.

•KHYAB 'BREL relationship of entailment. Jinpa.

•KHYAB RIG an unusual term used in Dzogchen discussions. It has been remarked upon by Jean-Luc Achard in his blog (http://khyungmkhar.blogspot.co.il/) dated June 22, 2012.

•KHYAM MI KHYOM MI (deriv. from khyom, wobble) = khyam khyom. wobblingly. Soundings 27.

•KHYAMS In architecture, an area open to the sky, whether a courtyard or veranda or roof terrace. Rolf Stein, The World in Miniature, p. 156.

•KHYAMS KHANG Btsan-lha.

•KHYAMS MTHONGS skylight. Alexander, Temples 320. The interior court, whether covered or opened to the sky. Rolf Stein, The World in Miniature, p. 156.

•KHYAR KHYER Samdo A V 244r.4.

•KHYAR KHYOR See khya re khyo re. 'gro rang mi nus sam snyam tsa na rlung skyes nas shes pa zi thon me byas khyar khyor 'gro nus tsam byung. 64 I 33.6.

•KHYI [1] dog. Pha-dam-pa and some others use it in a derogatory metaphorical sense. 'khor ba las blo myi ldog pa'i thos bsam bsgom gsum khyi yin. The learning, reflection & meditation of one who has not turned the mind from sangsara is a dog! Zhi-byed Coll. II 267.1 (other examples follow). Pa-tshab also uses it (Zhi-byed Coll. IV 42.5 ff.). Six good qualities that can be learned from the dog. Flick, Carrying Enemies 49. Simile of the hungry dog cracking a bone in its mouth who, even though his mouth is bleeding, thinks he's happy (compared to thinking one is happy with a woman). Flick, Carrying Enemies 111. = ku ku ra tsa, gzhan la zug, nor skyong, padma. JD 246. SS 500.1. A propos du chien au Tibet, by Corneille Jest, in Ethnozootechnie, no. 25, pp. 33-37. [2] Alternative spelling for khri. "throne." Kuijp (1986) 35. [3] as a unit of measure, the distance between the tips of the thumb and the little finger spread out. Vitali, Tho.ling 61.

•KHYI GU rtog pas rtog pa spong ba khyi gus khyi gu 'byin pa lta bu. Zhi-byed Coll. II 474.5. Generally, khyi gu seems to be a diminutive meaning 'puppy,' although I'm not certain that is the exact intended meaning here. It may mean something you cough up, like phlegm (see khyi phrug).

•KHYI RGAN as an insult, occuring in songs of D.L. VI, and other places, discussed by H. Decleer in a review article.

•KHYI RNGA SPYANG CHER See mdzo mo shing.

•KHYI RNGO A disease term used in Vinaya texts. Skt. kacchu. Mvy. 9497.

•KHYI LCE dog tongue. Although that is the literal meaning, I've seen it used as a description of the size of a text (a 'notebook' recording secret precepts).

•KHYI RTA In origin, a transcription of Skt. kīṭa, 'insect,' but misinterpreted for obvious reasons to mean dog and horse. Emmerick in G. Meulenbeld & D. Wujastyk, Studies on Indian Medical History, Motilal (Delhi 2001) 61.

•KHYI THOR leavings for the dogs. de dang ngas khyi thor cig zhag gsum mchan du bcug na. Zhi-byed Coll. II 145.7.

•KHYI DAM 'dog brand,' having the word 'dog' branded on the forehead as a legal punishment. French, Yoke 323. See also Havnevik, Dissertation 66, 251. Ahmad Shah, Four Years in Tibet 38.

•KHYI DUG SRZT 137.

•KHYI DUG SMAN MING CAN BDUN PA a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 121. Lag-len 97.2.

•KHYI SNA n. for an artistic motif. Vitali, Tho.ling 74.

•KHYI PHRUG 'puppies,' dough-like lumps that the oracle spits into the water to show that the cause of the disease has been extracted. Epstein, Dissertation 209.

•KHYI 'TSHED dog cooker. Roesler in Facets 167.

•KHYI GZHOB ash made from burnt dog hair. Btsan-lha.

•KHYI SHIG 'dog louse' or rather 'flea.' Roesler in Facets 179.

•KHYI SHING Mdo 58. DG 214.3.

•KHYID A measurement of the span of the knuckles but including the outstretched thumb. See Heather Stoddard, Thang stong Rgyal po, Jesus and the Fifth Dalai Lama, Archiv Orientalni, vol. 71, no. 3 (2003), p. 434. Yisun prefers the spelling mkhyid, and says there are two different kinds, one with pinky extended (brkyangs mkhyid), the other with the fingers (not the thumb) made into a fist (bskums mkhyid). lag pa'i mdzub mo dang gung mo srin lag mthe'u chung rnams brtsegs mar byas pa'i steng mthe bong gi ne'u le'i ri mo mngon tsam sbyar ba'i tshad la zer te, de dang sor lnga gzhal ba gnyis don gcig. Yisun.

•KHYIM house. bower (when it is a question of plants, like Skt. gṛhaka). It seems this is a reflex of PIE (t)k(e)ym, which means 'home' and is related to Germanic heim, etc.

•KHYIM BCU GNYIS lug gi / glang gi / 'khrig pa'i / karka ta'i / seng ge'i / bu mo'i / srang gi / sdig pa'i / gzhu'i / chu srin gyi / bum pa'i / nya'i. 600 155.

•KHYIM DU 'GRO BA NYI SHU DCD 81.

•KHYIM DU 'DUG TSHUL DGU DCD 81.

•KHYIM DU BSHOS GSOL DCD 81.

•KHYIM DRAL homeless. Btsan-lha. khyim dral / (khyim zhes pa deng sang khang pa la khyim zhes zer ba de yin) 'di brda rnying yin / brda gsar la [59r1] ming po dang bcom pa dang zhig pa dang ral pa sogs la 'jug. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•KHYIM BDAG householder. See discussion in EoB, vol. 5, pp. 287-288. Sometimes it may be used to cover everyone but the monks, the king and the brahmins (and sometimes kshatriyas are also omitted).

•KHYIM BYA lit. house bird, domestic fowl. [1] There are four things the domesticated cock has to teach. Flick, Carrying Enemies 47. Darma pyā, Chaudangsi napyā, & Byangsi nipe, all mean 'chicken.' [2] Here it is not the domestic cock, but rather the bird depicted under the feet of Bhairava; it is a type of black parrot, able to talk human speech, which comes from Nepal. = sha lu ka. JD 228.

•KHYIM ZHAG zodiacal day, equivalent to 1/30th of a zodiacal month. See Schuh in ZAS 37 (2008) 215.

•KHYIM YIG household register. Dotson, D&L 49. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•KHYIM LHA See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 149n, 190.

•KHYIM SO bud myed chos grub pa de khyim so ma zin pas 'tshengs. Zhi-byed Coll. II 249.6.

•KHYIMS encircled [by something, such as light].

•KHYIMS SO 'DZIN Familie gründen, Hausstand gründen. Kretsch.

•KHYU pack, crowd. For early Zhi-byed, to enter the packs of good [family] people is not a good thing. bzang po'i khyur zhugs nyams len mi byed snyan brgyud zas nor gnyis su 'chor. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 84.6

•KHYU GCIG phyogs gcig pa dang / khyur longs pa ni / tshogs longs pa la bya'o. Eimer, Dbyangs 55.

•KHYU MCHOG 1. glang po. 2. rta. 3. khrag sman ba sha ka. Blaṅ 526. Refers to khyung bird in Zhi-byed Coll. I 435.5. a fine bull. Jamspal, Treasury 74.

•KHYU TSHAN = rgyu tshabs chen. = rgyu stobs chen. BBNP 481.

•KHYU RDZIB Namdak.

•KHYU RIS Lde'u 392.

•KHYU RU RU khrag dang chu ser khyu ru ru song bar bsams la yan lag sprug go. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 289.4 (perhaps identical with phyu ru ru, which occurs on preceding page).

•KHYUG KHYUG Zhi-byed Coll. IV 257.7.

•KHYUG GIS rbad kyis. lhan gyis. Btsan-lha.

•KHYUG GE BA glitter, shine.

•KHYUG BDE BA agile. Sources.

•KHYUNG Germano, Poetic Thought 898. See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 187. sgong rgya bral ba'i khyung phrug nam mkha' gcod. Zhi-byed Coll. I 288.4. Rnying ma literary sources of khyung symbolism are explored in Gregory Hillis, The Rhetoric of Naturalness: A Critical Study of the Gnas lugs mdzod, doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia (2002), pp. 170-171, 216-230. EoB, vol. 5, pp. 311-312. Schaik, Sweet 18, 37. Bellezza in RET 42 (2017) 26 ff. See bya khyung.

•KHYUNG SKYUGS garuda vomit. JD 33. DG 88.4. = dza ha ra mu ra. Identified as Laspis (Jasper) in Rin 30 (with photo), with alternative names given as ga ru ṭa o, oṭḍa (?). Acc. to Rin 31, it may also refer to a type of jade called plum blossom jade, used for carving ornaments.

•KHYUNG RGOD DRAG PO a medicinal preparation. BT 46r.2.

•KHYUNG GI RGYAL MTSHAN kun la myed pa ngo mtshar che ba khyung gi rgyal mtshan lta bu. Zhi-byed Coll. II (lost page no.). khyung gi rgyal mtshan kun la yod na / ngo mtshar mi thub pa bzhin. Zhi-byed Coll. V 243.6.

•KHYUNG LNGA = bya khyung lnga pa. RR 77. TMC 50 (110). BT 38r.1. DG 532.3. SBTD I 134. Prescriptions 25. Lag-len 20.4. TM IV 65.

•KHYUNG SNGON DGU PA a medicinal preparation. TMC 30 (63). BP 177.4.

•KHYUNG CHEN NYER LNGA a medicinal preparation. BP 193.6.

•KHYUNG DOR KE RU ZZFC 241.

•KHYUNG DRUG a medicinal preparation. BP 248.6.

•KHYUNG LDING Skt. dola. Sedan chair. Lit. hovering garuḍa. N. of a sexual position, evidently with the woman on top and somehow involving swaying and swinging. Hmm.

•KHYUNG SDER JD 143. SS 439.3. There are white and dark (smug po) varieties. DG 266.5.

•KHYUNG PO 'KHOR MA Chayet in TH&L 31.

•KHYUNG PHRUG = chag pa'i kha chu. YTTM 293.21.

•KHYUNG DMAR RDO RJE GUR CHEN a medicinal preparation. BP 374.3.

•KHYUNG GSHOG garuḍa wing, as an artistic motif that appears on the side flaps of Si tu incarnates' hats, see Jackson, Patron 30. It looks more like a trailing cloud motif.

•KHYUNG BSHAL a medicinal preparation. BP 197.3.

•KHYUD KOR for the entire course [of a year]. Hahn, VG 403.

•KHYUD 'KHOR LO Btsan-lha.

•KHYUD PO hril po. Btsan-lha.

•KHYUD MO used to mean 'link' in an iron chain. See Stearns, King 479 note 144. The spelling mkhyud mo also occurs.

•KHYUR nan dhar chos byed na myi kh[y?]ur ma tshud pa cig dgos pa'o. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 119.3.

•KHYUR KHYUR GYIS 'GRO BA "the motion resembles that of a fish gliding in water or a snake slithering through grass." Togden 241.

•KHYUR GYIS Samdo A IV 78[2]v.2.

•KHYE impv. of 'gyed pa. zang zing bdud ky[i] slu ba yin yo byad phyir khye. Zhi-byed Coll. II 451.2. nags la gnas pa'i ri dags 'di ni yan bar khye. Ibid. I 314.5. de la khyed rnams kyis rgyags khye rgyags khye gsungs pa la / rgyags la 'gyed rgyu... 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 127.1.

•KHYE'U [1] child. It may literally mean 'doggy,' in origins a diminutive of khyi, 'dog'. It seems it may have to do with a Mongolian word that means 'boy' or 'son,' küü or keü, and a very similar word in Khitan (noted in an article by Rona-Tas on the Khitan ethnonym), however the form khye'u does in fact exist in O.T. texts, so the matter requires study. [2] Also called lcags sag, it is usually used by shoemakers as a chopper to cut leather, but the ldab ldob use it as a throwing weapon. See Melvyn Goldstein, A Study of the Ldab ldob, CAJ 1 no 2 (1964) 128. [3] Skt. māṇavaka. N. of a metre. Hahn, JV 37.

•KHYE PO khye po lta sgom nyams su myong na lto them zan byed na yang byed. Zhi-byed Coll. V 206.5.

•KHYE BOGS khe bzang gi brda rnying. Gser Sbram 23.

•KHYE'U SUS Btsan-lha.

•KHYED [1] you. Evidently this is originally and more properly a verb than it is an honorific form (although nowadays it most certainly is honorific). Hill, Review 180. Originally it was the plural form of khyod. Hill in NTFC II 249 ff. [2] "to halt, stop." <<re shig khyed la sdod cig>>, "halt and remain awhile!" Coblin in JAOS 111, p. 319.

•KHYED BYA See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 110n.

•KHYED RAS = khyed rang gis. "You." Kaschewsky 82. (dbus) = khyad rang gis. MTTP.

•KHYEN TE See khun ti.

•KHYEN HUN LW 520.

•KHYEM BU Btsan-lha.

•KHYER khang thog. Dbus-pa no. 735. = khang thog. Lcang-skya.

•KHYER KA phag gi lus la khyer ka myed kyang / zas dang / skom dang / gnas phyogs ris med pa'i stobs kyis... Zhi-byed Coll. II 103.1.

•KHYER SO GSUM "Three carry-over practices." Stearns, King 500, n. 372.

•KHYEL BZHUGS to sit upright. NNV.

•KHYO CAG = khyed cag. "you." Kuijp (1986) 35.

•KHYO 'DA' Tsugu in Soundings 138.

•KHYO MO wife, secondary wife. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•KHYO SHUG OT = bza' tsho. Blaṅ 287.3, 516.5.

•KHYO SHUNG bza' tsho. Dbus-pa no. 697. Lcang-skya.

•KHYOGS Also, khyogs dpyang, khyogs khri, 'gyogs byams, 'byogs khri 'do li, do le, etc. Spelled khyog in Lde'u 205. sedan-chair, litter. Called shing-chyam in Das, JTL&CT 130, which contains a discussion on why in Tibet they were used for only the Dalai Lama, Panchen Lama, Amban and Regent. Several illus. in Precious Deposits V 99-100. rgya nag skad la kyo'o zer ba bod kyis 'gyogs kyang zhes pa de / ja mar 'degs byed kyi srang gi mthil la yang 'jug pas 'dir phyi ma'o zhes a lag sha bstan dar gsungs. Gser Sbram 398. Hobson-Jobson under "Dhooly" and "Dandy" [part c]. khyongs la / khri la. Dbus-pa no. 679.

•KHYONG khyung. Btsan-lha.

•KHYOD [1] you. Originally this was the singular form with the plural khyed. Until the 11th century it could be used to address the Buddha, but thereafter it became necessary to address Buddha with (what was then considered honorific, when actually it was a plural) khyed. Hill in NTFC II 254. [2] "This pronoun, which usually means 'you,' has a technical sense in the Collected Topics (and in debating language in general): it refers to whatever phenomenon is being introduced in the logical operations." Dreyfus, Sound 199. The variable (Onoda discusses this in his book at some length).

•KHYOBS PA skyobs pa. Btsan-lha.

•KHYOR unstable. Soundings 25.

•KHYOR PA lag pa'i khyor pa means the flat of the hand.

•KHYOS PO Btsan-lha.

•KHRA [1] terms (of a treaty, chings dan gyi :::). deriv. from khra ma, = judicial decree. Sources. See khra ma below. [2] many colored, variegated, striped. [3] I think it can mean the lines scratched into woodslips for record keeping. In this case certainly related to bkra... and also khram, as in khram shing. [4] hawk. dgos pa'i dus las khra'i rtsal ni gzhan du myin. Zhi-byed Coll. I 270.1. On the hawk, see skya ga. See SS 537.4.

•KHRA KYAG covered tea dish. Hon.: zhal kyag OR khra sdeg. Schmied 205.

•KHRA KLAG See klag pa.

•KHRA RKANG See ser po khra rkang.

•KHRA KHRO CAN OT = spro thung ba. Blaṅ 286.3. Lcang-skya.

•KHRA GLAG SPYANG GSUM Nomads 259: sems can 'di gsum ni gling ge sar gyi dgra lha'i wer ma bcu gsum gyi nang nas gtso bo gsum yin pa ltar... If they follow you in your travel, it's a good sign. For the combination of hawk and wolf, see Cantwell in FBTB 154 ff.

•KHRA RGYAB PA einlegen (z.B. Edelstein wird in Ring oder Goldplatte 'eingelegt'). Kaschewsky 82.

•KHRA CHE LE OR khrog chi li. "bunt schillernd, durcheinander." Kaschewsky 82.

•KHRA THER tent. Karmay, Treasury. cog pu. ras gur chung ba. Btsan-lha.

•KHRA 'DRUD Pulling out the glossiest (hairs), a term for fine dry shading (in painting). Jackson.

•KHRA SDEG See khra kyag.

•KHRA NAR RE buntschillernd, iridescent, opalescent. Kretsch.

•KHRA PA falconer. According to Toni Huber's article, Violence in Tibetan Buddhist Societies, note 6, this form of hunting was not practiced by Tibetans even though they knew about it.

•KHRA PHUNG NGE bunt zusammengewürfelt. Kaschewsky 82.

•KHRA PHUNG PHUNG stark leuchtend, rundherum leuchtend. Kretsch.

•KHRA BO [1] varicolored, multicolored. [2] According to Toni Huber's article, Violence in Tibetan Buddhist Societies, note 6, this word is used in songs & dialects of N and NE Tibet to mean 'sharpness' or 'accuracy' and also 'hunter.'

•KHRA BO'I SHA Stein.

•KHRA MA [1] JD 213. [2] A legal term. for 'judicial settlement.' Also spelled phra ma, q.v. See discussion in H. Uebach, From Red Tally to Yellow Paper, RET (Oct. 2008) 59.

•KHRA MAN agate. Rin 32, with photo of a mostly white stone. It would seem to be an alternative spelling of phra men (?).

•KHRA MER BA See Chödag. = khra lam me. = khra lham me.

•KHRA RTSE TS7 I 192.

•KHRA RIS (Amdo, Khams) = khra dang ri mo, the pattern of the 'grain' in wood, to which great attention is paid when making bowls, drums, etc. MTTP.

•KHRA SHIG GE BA nub cig rmi lam na grong khyer chen po khra shig ge ba cig 'dug pas. 64 I 42.5.

•KHRA SHOG PA See thang phrom nag po.

•KHRAG blood. For blood as an occasional 4th humour that probably derives from the late Graeco-sphere, see for example BHBW 289, 313.

•KHRAG RKANG See ser po khrag rkang.

•KHRAG SKEM See skyu ru ra. See ba sha ka.

•KHRAG SKRAN Text 49.

•KHRAG KHRUG 'thab 'khrug. 'dzing ba. Btsan-lha.

•KHRAG GI KHRUG GI (deriv. from 'khrug pa, to disorder) = khrag khrug. disorderly. Soundings 27.

•KHRAG KHROG Descurainia. Lepidium apetalum. TDD 106.

•KHRAG MKHRIS SRZT 14. Text 6, 13, 70.

•KHRAG 'KRUGS KUN SEL a medicinal preparation. BT 33r.2.

•KHRAG 'GYUNG See ba sha ka.

•KHRAG NGAN BABS PA fallen bad blood (explained as internal bleeding). Yangga's dissert., p. 345.

•KHRAG GCOD See kon pa gab skye.

•KHRAG CHEN 'JOMS PA'I SBYAR BA a medicinal preparation. BT 43r.1.

•KHRAG RNYING Text 11.

•KHRAG 'THUNG See ba sha ka.

•KHRAG RNAG RUL SKEM PA'I SBYOR BA a medicinal preparation. BT 46v.1.

•KHRAG SBYOR Aris, Discourse 45.

•KHRAG SBYOR NYER LNGA a medicinal preparation. BP 260.2.

•KHRAG RTSA'I GTSAGS BU medical implement. JD 276 (item 2).

•KHRAG RLUNG 'blood pressure. SRZT 7. Text 2, 3, 53. Lag-len 254.2.

•KHRAG RLUNG STOD 'TSHANG See Mengele, dGe-'dun-chos-'phel 62.

•KHRAG RLUNG DUD PA a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 85. Lag-len 60.5. TMC 9 (8).

•KHRAG LONG DD illus. 2, 17. The section of large intestine on the right side. Yangga's dissert., p. 290.

•KHRAG SHED 'blood pressure.' Text 82.

•KHRAG SHOG PA See thang phrom nag po.

•KHRAG SHOR BA Blood loss, hemmorhage. SRZT 130.

•KHRAG BSHIGS PHA LAM a medicinal preparation. TMC 63 (139).

•KHRANG THANG BA sra brtan rgyun chags pa. 367 II 132.6. Btsan-lha.

•KHRANG ZHI A borrowing from Ch. Jingxi, it refers to Beijing opera. See the footnote 11 in Elliot Sperling's paper "Awe & Submission."

•KHRAB [1] body armor. [2] reins (?). rta khrab zung cig tu sbrel nas / bla ma la gtong mi nus. Zhi-byed Coll. V 308.2.

•KHRAB KHRAB [1] In 4 114B.1, it is something in the body. Chang says 'cartilege.' [2] Das says it means a weeper, one who sheds tears for every occasion.

•KHRAB BRGYA BYANG BU go cha'i steng gi lcags leb lta bu la go dgos / brgya ni mang po ston pa'i tshig. Gser Sbram 23.

•KHRAB MA Held, Recke. Kaschewsky2.

•KHRAB GSAR MA 'proverbial' expression explained in BBNP 468.

•KHRAM Namdak. Todeszeichen, Zeichen des Yama. Kaschewsky2. dgra la khram byas nas mi thams cad shi skad ni dbus par la dgra la kham byas nas mi thams cad bsad skad ces 'byung bas gam nyug byas te thams cad bsad zer zhes pa yin snyam. Dpe-chos 517. gzhan la khram 'debs kyang ma myong snyam bas. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 155.3 (also, 155.1, 155.4). Dotson, OTA glossary. tallies. Arch. of TB 179.

•KHRAM SKYA Discussed in H. Uebach, From Red Tally to Yellow Paper, RET (Oct. 2008) 62. She believes it refers to 'tallies' kept on paper rather than wood. pale tally. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•KHRAM NAG RER 'CHA' BA g.yo khram gyi khram yin pas khram nag seng bar 'gro. 367 I 241.2.

•KHRAM PA 'hustler, deceiver.' See Dagyab.

•KHRAM BAM "a corpse with an X cut across it." Bellezza in RET 29 (2014) 223.

•KHRAM BYANG woodslips. BYNP 23-27.

•KHRAM MA RY has 'deceitful woman.' I couldn't find many examples, although I did find it used to characterize Milarepa's mother. Compare khram pa, above.

•KHRAM DMAR PO H. Uebach, From Red Tally to Yellow Paper, RET (Oct. 2008) 59. I think she is right that the 'red' refers to flesh bodies, and that the phrase means a kind of military/public labor conscription of young and able-bodied males. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•KHRAM TSHAN H. Uebach, From Red Tally to Yellow Paper, RET (Oct. 2008) 59. Dotson, D&L 55, 57.

•KHRAM SHING Although lit. meaning is 'notched wood,' it means the tally-stick (woodslip for keeping records). Yisun says this is a reduced form of khram kha'i shing. See the recent studies by Tsuguhito Takeuchi. SKC 120.1. Norbu, Drung 81. Bellezza, Divine Dyads 226, 342, 348. There is a considerable discussion in TPS 592 and footnote. Strickmann, CPP 136. See now especially Helga Uebach, From Red Tally to Yellow Paper, RET (Oct. 2008).

•KHRAL Stein. Tax (as a general term, since it may include not only taxes paid in kind, but services as well). Dotson, OTA glossary. Kamil Selácek, The Chinese Tax Term Ch'ai-fa a Tibetan Loan Word? Monumenta Serica 28 (1969) 215-229.

•KHRAL BSKOS PA urging to contribute. Jamspal, Treasury 54.

•KHRAL SKYOR substitutes. Dargyay, TVC 65.

•KHRAL 'KHUL BA Btsan-lha.

•KHRAL RGYUG taxation, administration of taxes. Sources.

•KHRAL RTEN the landholdings that were the basis for assessing taxes.

•KHRAL THUD additional tax. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•KHRAL PA taxpayer. The highest sort of (the 3 kinds) of mi ser. They were tied to the agricultural land which they held hereditarily. So long as they kept certain obligations to their lord, they could not be evicted. They had the heaviest tax burdens, including corvée service. Goldstein, Taxation 4.

•KHRAL PA taxpayer. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•KHRAL PO or, khral dpon. tax official. Dotson, D&L 57.

•KHRAL MA KHROL undefining (perceptions) or undefining (appearances). Thondup, BM 309. bar du rigs pa khral ma khrol du bzhag pa'o. Rgya-ras-pa in Gling-ras-pa, Bka'-'bum II 531.2.

•KHRAL TSHAB 'substitute taxpayer' settled in a district by the authorities in order to provide a replacement for a previous taxpayer who had died without issue, but whose obligation to render taxes is still borne by the community (see khol tshab). Sources.

•KHRAL ZHING KHRAL KHYIM 'taxable fields, taxable houses' forming part of a single tax estate. Sources.

•KHRAL ROGS a type of spyi mi employed by a khral pa. Goldstein, Taxation 23.

•KHRI [1] throne, or the high platform on which the chief of an assembly is seated. [2] ten thousand. [3] a Zhangzhung word that often means 'mind.' [4] On the basis of T-B cognates, Ziesler in Anthony Aris volume decides its forgotten meaning in Old Tibetan is 'star.' (It may even connect to a Skt. root 'to scatter.')

•KHRI SKOR BCU GSUM the 13 myriarchies. la stod lho ba'i khri skor / la stod byang ba'i khri skor / chu mig khri skor / zha lu khri skor / byang 'brog khri skor / yar 'brog khri skor / 'bri gung khri skor / tshal pa khri skor / phag gru khri skor / g.ya' bzang khri skor / rgya ma khri skor / stag lung khri skor / bya yul khri skor rnams so. 600 175-176.

•KHRI KHA khri kha nas dud lings kyis mthong zhes par dbus par la khri kha nas ming cig ma thogs zhes 'byung la / khri kha nas dud lings kyis mthong zhes pa ltar na khri steng nas mar 'dud de gzengs bstod cig ma byas zhes pa yin snyam. Dpe-chos 517.

•KHRI GLING PA Btsan-lha.

•KHRI RGYAB DRUG 'GYOGS Part of the back of throne for a Buddha image, with 6 figures depicted. Illus. in Yisun.

•KHRI SNYAN May be spelled khri gnyan. See Yisun, which says khri snyan is simply an abbr. form of khri snyan sa le, in turn a Tibetanization of kṛṣṇasāra, the black speckled antelope. khri snyan myig sgyu la chu'i gdung pa ma chod na. Zhi-byed Coll. II 159.3. 'phar spyang dred la khri snyan zhe myi sdang. Zhi-byed Coll. I 289.2. myig rgyu la chu myed par ma go ba'i khri snyan sa le snying rje. Zhi-byed Coll. II 160.6. khri snyan bu la brtse ba myi gtong ba lta bu thugs rje'i gdung ba dang ldan pa dang drug. Zhi-byed Coll. V 248.4.

•KHRI TI SHING See spang rtsi.

•KHRI DRUG 'GYOG seng ge / glang chen / rta mchog / rma bya / shang shang / gyad kyi mi rnams so. 600 78.

•KHRI GDUGS throne umbrella. For some reason this means 'sun.' Example of usage in HS L 1.

•KHRI SDE Kazushi Iwao, On the Old Tibetan Khri sde [in Japanese], Report of the Japanese Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 50 (May 2004), pp. 3-16. Kazushi Iwao, On the Old Tibetan Khri-sde, contained in: Shen Weirong, ed., Historical and Philological Studies of China's Western Regions, Science Press (Beijing 2007) 209-226. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•KHRI SDE STONG DBON See nas zan.

•KHRI PA Only exceptionally, used for lay patrons, with reference to their high seating. It usually would refer to a 'chairholder' or abbot of a monastery. Schrempf in Karmay, New Horizons 331.

•KHRI 'PHANG the height of the chair. A raised seat (khri 'phangs) of stacked cushions. In deity visualizations the seat is stacked with various items including sun and moon.

•KHRI BAR I notice that the phrase khri bar gyi bdun tshigs [perhaps a proper name] found in Lde'u 231 is paralleled in an OT document, Pt 1038 (lines 13-14): khri bar la bdun tshig / shes bgyi // gnam gi lha las / sa gdog drug du // 'greng 'go nag gi rje myed gi rje // dud rngog chag ... OTDO. For another possible usage of khri ba[r], see Lde'u 189: thugs ngan slad kyi khri bar zhu 'o um bya'o, which I tentatively (even dubiously) translated as "We pray your ill spirits will once again become involved in life."

•KHRI BER Does this mean 'throne cloak'? Discussion in Singer, PCT 115.

•KHRI MON dungeon. btson gra. Gces 588.2. Yisun (also spelled khri mun). Bu-ston, Works VII 764.1: khri mon las thar byed pa. Zhi-byed Coll. II 245.7: btson ra'i khri mon la bde' skyid kyi gnas su mthong nas. I've noticed, in Bu ston's biography, the spelling khrim mon, which would seem to be a later attempt to 'regularize' an unusual spelling. Uray, Narrative 38, gives example from a Bon text: thugs rje che bas khri mun dong nas bton. Example in HS V 325.3. The Tang Annals seem to portray Tibetan prisons as simple holes in the ground from which they were not released for a few years.

•KHRI MONG different spelling for khri mon? gzhan snang yid la myi 'gyu ba khri mong du tshud pa'i rtson bu lta bu. Zhi-byed Coll. II 475.7.

•KHRI RTSE ZZ = lag ngar. Bru 291.3.

•KHRI ZHIG Btsan-lha.

•KHRI RAB TU LAN PA Btsan-lha.

•KHRI BRLING BA Btsan-lha.

•KHRI LA BKOD PA Namdak.

•KHRI LO a small type of gshang bell. Helffer in Karmay, Habitants 347, 348.

•KHRI SHING rang stobs kyis gyen du skye mi nus par ljon shing sogs gzhan la brten na gyen du 'gro nus pa'i shing zhig yin. Eimer, Dbyangs 56. Should be spelled 'khri shing.

•KHRIG KHRIG A sound that might be made by shoes, forbidden in vinaya. There are still other meanings. May be switched with phrig phrig.

•KHRIG GER dicht absperrend. Kaschewsky2.

•KHRID For nag khrid and dmar khrid, see BA 927.

•KHRID PA Stein.

•KHRIN OT fault, judicial punishment. skyon. Dbus-pa no. 462. Subject of a paper by Brandon Dotson, On the Old Tibetan Term Khrin in the Legal and Ritual Lexicons, contained in: Mark Turin, ed., Himalayan Languages & Linguistics, Brill (Leiden 2011), 77-98 (PDF). Dotson, D&L 49. judicial punishment. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•KHRIN BA Tan, Theses 111.

•KHRIMS law. Li Anche, "Tibetan Folk Law" in JRAS (1950) 126‑48.

•KHRIMS KYI KHRAM khrims kyi khram / ngag sgron du khrims kyi khral zhes pa 'dug pas ma yig nor dang / ling [57v2] mtha' byas na khral 'ul gyi khral yin. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•KHRIMS GROGS in Vinaya language, this is the chaperone. Spending a night in the same house with a woman, and without a chaparone, is a serious infraction of the rules.

•KHRIMS THO See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 116.

•KHRIMS 'DEGS RE'U MIG a scale of fines for various crimes. Cüppers in Prats, Pandita & Siddha 13. See under sku rgyal.

•KHRIMS BU CHUNG Btsan-lha.

•KHRIMS BTSUN BBNP 484.

•KHRIMS TSHIG legal statutes. Dotson, Dissert. 41.

•KHRIMS RA court of justice. Sources.

•KHRIL LE naturally, freely. Thondup, BM 364.

•KHRIL LE BA 4 270.3.

•KHRU cubit (distance from elbow to fingertip).

•KHRU GANG 'OG SA SS 533.1. earth from a cubit deep (evid. for medicinal purposes?).

•KHRU GCOD GTSO BO See ka bed.

•KHRU TOG (bum gzugs) the golden bum pa attached to the top of the wa sgor & other hats on whose bya lag a precious stone is fixed indicating the rank of the wearer. See Velm I 132-3.

•KHRU LAN SHUNG LW 517-518.

•KHRUG GE Btsan-lha.

•KHRUNG See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 43n.

•KHRUNG KHRUNG JD 258. = bya mgrin ring. SS 546.1. Julia Leslie, A Bird Bereaved: The Identity and Significance of Vālmīki's Krauñca, Journal of Indian Philosophy, vol. 26 (1998), pp. 455-487 (this article proves that the Vālmīki's krauñca was the Indian Sarus Crane).

•KHRUNG KHRUNG RKANG PA Skt. krauñcapadā. N. of a metre. Hahn, JV 40.

•KHRUNG ZHU MA Two maids of honor assisting the rgyan bzang ma. Below them are two maidservants called khrung g.yog. See Velm I 133. On beer serving women known as Khrung zhu ma, see the article in Chö Yang, no. 7.

•KHRUNG RA chang. chang khang. Btsan-lha.

•KHRUNGS rtags. Dbus-pa no. 124.

•KHRUD MA dirty washwater.

•KHRUN SNAR See Bellezza, D&B 100.

•KHRUN RING OT = mchu ring. = dkyus ring. Blaṅ 299.6-300.1. Dbus-pa no. 627.

•KHRUM KHRUM crunching of a pestle. Beyer, CT Lang. 147.

•KHRUS MKHAN washer [person]. used in the sense of a laundry person in Nāgārjuna's Prajñādaṇḍa, verse 157, where we find the Skt. rajaka, 'washerman.'

•KHRUS CHU Holy water made by washing Buddha's tooth relic. Chag 71.

•KHRUS CHOG See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 67n.

•KHRUS BUM A pitcher used in ritual, with peacock-feather stopper. Illus. in Yisun.

•KHRUS GSOL See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 191.

•KHRE JD 213. Skt. priyaṅgu (a sort of grain resembling millet; panic seed). Mvy. no. 5661. See Helen Johnson, Grains in Mediaeval India, JAOS 61 (1941) 169 (no. 10), which says it is Panicum italicum (Italian millet), in India also called kaṅgu, cīna and rāḷā (although cīna properly belongs to P. miliaceum). millet. CTEV 31.

•KHRE KHRE CAN translation unsure, although it would seem mean something like variegation in color. Lde'u 237.

•KHRE RGOD JD 213. LW 502. =ci he rgod, ci tshe rgod. Skt. śyāmāka, Panicum frumentaceum, poor-man's millet, considered the coarsest and cheapest kind of panic. Mvy. no. 5667. It can ripen only 6 weeks after sowing. See Helen Johnson, Grains in Mediaeval India, JAOS 61 (1941) 171. Appears as a famine-time food source in Lokaprajñapti (Derge version, p. 103).

•KHRE GAN train station.

•KHRE'U khra bo. Dpe-chos 517. Btsan-lha.

•KHREGS CHOD Breakthrough. 'Cut the obdurate, dissolve the insoluble.' (Klong-chen-pa 8.9 comm.). a special practice of Rdzogs-chen. 91 I 642.2. Padma-gling-pa, Works XIII 401.4. Tucci, Religions 131, etc. Ruegg 312. Germano, Poetic Thought 841. Nomads 269-70. For a Gelugpa rejection, see Thuken 297.

•KHREB Btsan-lha.

•KHREM ME lhang lhang ba. 367 II 129.3. Btsan-lha.

•KHREL Acc. to Namgyal Nyima, this word is different from ngo tsha, which means shame (on account of the perceptions of others), but means something more like English [bad] 'conscience,' which doesn't depend on the perceptions of others.

•KHREL GAD Also, khrel bgad, khrel rgod, khrel dgod. a scornful or ridiculing laugh. lha ye shes spyan can gyis khrel gad byas par rtsi ba yin. Zhi-byed Coll. V 249.4.

•KHREL GYIS = 'ba' zhig. BBNP 483.

•KHRAL 'DA' surpassing shame, shameless. Jamspal, Treasury 84.

•'KHRAB GZHUNG performance book, text for Lha mo performance.

•'KHRAL 'DAS people beyond shame, shameless ones. Jamspal, Treasury 85.

•KHREL MED khrel med pa'i ngo bo ni / dmigs yul nyes spyod la dmigs nas rnam pa gzhan rgyu mtshan du byas nas rang stobs kyis 'dzems pa med pa'i rnam pa can byed las nyes spyod 'phel bar byed pa'i sems byung ste / kun btus las / khrel med pa gang zhe na / 'dod chags dang zhe sdang dang gti mug gi char gtogs pa kha na ma tho bas gzhan la mi 'dzems pa ste nyon mongs pa dang nye ba'i nyon mongs pa thams cad kyi grogs byed pa'i las can no zhes gsungs la / nyes spyod la gzhan rgyu mtshan du byas nas rang stobs kyis 'dzems pa med pa'i sems byung zhes kyang bya'o. Gser Sbram 238.

•KHREL YOD decorum.

•KHRES KYIS BOR BA = lings kyis bor ba. BBNP 483.

•KHRES PO a package (carried on the back). Lasten, Bürde. Kaschewsky2. khres po sgres gsol cig la dbus par du khres po khur la rgyug cig ces 'byung la khres po ni khur bo'i ming yin. Dpe-chos 512.

•KHRO CHU [1] quicksilver, mercury. 4 76A.4. See dngul chu. [2] Tr. as 'molten bronze' by Templeman in TJ 26 no. 3/4 (Autumn/Winter 2001) 200. Used as brick mortar in the building of the Lha sa Gtsug lag khang (here also translated 'molten bronze'). Alexander, Temples 30. I think it might refer to any kind of molten liquified stuff, not necessarily bronze (which, anyway, I think wouldn't be very practical for brick masonry, would it?). For the vajralepa, a superior kind of cement/mortar (or just a sealant) used in India, see Raghavan, Yantras 26.

•KHRO TIG kha myig khro tig bzhin du 'gyu ba'i dus 'dir nyams su blangs pa dga'. Zhi-byed Coll. II 451.5.

•KHRO NAG JD 44. I believe it may mean pig iron. Rin 58. See 'khro nag.

•KHRO BA The preferred translation may be 'belligerence,' since it is a continual intention to harm beings directly visible in one's immediate environment (not beings in the past or future).

•KHRO BO BCU GCIG gnod mdzes / gshin rje gshed / gzhan gyis mi thub pa / rta mgrin / bdud rtsi 'khyil ba / 'dod rgyal / dbyug sngon can / stobs po che / mi g.yo ba / gtsug tor 'khor bsgyur / rdo rje sa 'og rnams so. 600 151-2.

•KHRO MO MIN See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 63n.

•KHRO GZER brass (or medium grade bronze) nails.

•KHRO LO [1] A small bell used by a medium. Bellezza, Divine Dyads 63. [2] A special variety of turnip that grows in high altitudes. ZZFC 151.

•KHROG n. for the ear tassle given to animals who are tshe thar. Holler in TS9 II 216.

•KHROG KHROG Btsan-lha.

•KHROG CHI LI See khra che le.

•KHROG CHUNG JD 171. KP1 164.2. KP3 304.2. KP4 485.5. khron chung.

•KHROG CHEN See kon pa gab skye.

•KHROG SMAN medicinal herbs in their raw unprocessed state. Not sure how old this usage is, but we find it in 20th century works at least.

•KHROGS KYIS 'GRO BBNP 484.

•KHRONG NGER aufrecht, stehend. Kaschewsky2.

•KHRON CHUNG See khron bu.

•KHRON CHEN See thar nu.

•KHRON PA well (in the sense of an excavated shaft from which water may be drawn with a bucket on a rope). Yisun gives synonyms as kun brkos, chu nyal, chu yi ka ba, brus chu.

•KHRON BU [1] diminutive of khron pa, meaning small well. [2] a botanical. = thar chung. JD 149. = zhib shing. YTMM 293.1. SS 493.3. = khron chung, 'dren byed rgyal po, rgyug byed chu bo. DG 275.3. Mdo 65. Emmerick, On Ravigupta's Gaṇas, BSOAS 34 no. 2 (1971) 374. Oreosolen wattii. Wangchuk, Bioactive 26.

•KHRON SBOS Btsan-lha.

•KHROM KHA I chose to translate as occupied front in Lde'u 264.

•KHROM GYI BRANG Btsan-lha.

•KHROM CHEN PO Btsan-lha.

•KHROM GTER Gyatso, Apparitions 75.

•KHROM ME verschieden, schillernd, ungeordnet. Kaschewsky 82.

•KHROL KHROL sound of clanging metal. Beyer, CT Lang. 147.

•KHROL BA shes pa. Dbus-pa no. 552. Lcang-skya.

•KHROL TSHAGS a sieve for blood used as ritual implement (?). Bellezza in RET 29 (2014) 196.

•KHROL LE openness. Thondup, BM 364.

•KHROL LO LO trommeln (Lautmalerei). Kaschewsky 82.

•KHROS 'KHRUGS RNGAM PA Btsan-lha.

•MKHAN This has a special meaning in OT, as a type of title/name. See Richardson in HP,PE 17. Acc. to Geza Uray, 'Greng, the Alleged Old Tibetan Equivalent of the Ethnic Name Ch'iang, AOH XIX (1966) 245-256, at p. 249, the three parts of an Old Tibetan name are 1. rus (the clan name), 2. mkhan, and 3. mying (the given name), and in that order, while the entirety of such a name was called mying rus.

•MKHAN CHUNG SS 522.1.

•MKHAN CHE (also, MKHAN CHUNG) See under mkhan drung.

•MKHAN DRUNG = mkhan po drung yig. Monk members of the yig tshang. 1. mkhan che (= mkhan drung che ba), senior chairman. 2. mkhan chung (= mkhan drung chung ba), 3 junior monks. Petech.

•MKHAN NAG Fleabane, mugwort. Artemisia vulgaris. TDD 20.

•MKHAN PA TR XIV #4, p. 16. Norbu, Drung 261. JD 156. Varieties: mkhan skya, mkhan dkar, mkhan dmar. SS 476.3. Mdo 68. Tanacetum nubigenum. Wangchuk, Bioactive 27 (here spelled khan pa dkar po). RY gives khan pa in the meaning of wormwood, but it also gives khen pa with this meaning. Bialek, SM 394.

•MKHAN PO [1] monastic ordinator. Skt. upādhyāya. Mvy. 8727. See entry for upajjhāya in EoB VIII 418-420. [2] abbot of a monastery.

•MKHAN PO GNYIS rab byung gi mkhan po dang / bsnyen rdzogs kyi mkhan po'o. 600 6.

•MKHAN PO BUG TOG PHABS SBYAR CHU LUMS a medicinal preparation. BT 14v.5.

•MKHAN 'BRU = seng phrom su. YTTM 291.27.

•MKHAN SLOB CHOS GSUM mkhan po bo dhi sa twa / slob dpon padma 'byung gnas / chos rgyal khri srong lde btsan no. 600 25.

•MKHA' sky (rare in O.T., although it does occur). Deriv. from Skt. kha, acc. to Bhattacharya, LW 353, no. 9.

•MKHA' KLONG DBYINGS This triadic term is discussed in the introduction to Namgyal Nyima's ZZ dictionary. mkha' klong dbyings gsum du spyi rgya rlabs kyis bcad.

•MKHA' 'GYING KHA mkha' ni thugs nyid skye med zhi ba'i ngang tshul nas mkha' ltar rnam par dag pas mkha' / 'gying ni skye ba ye shes kyi cho 'phrul du thugs rje khros pa'i tshul gyis 'gying ba'i // kha zhes pa ni de ltar bstan pa yang gzhan snang tsam du ma yin gyi rang snang thugs nyid skye med nam mkha' ltar las skad cig kyang ma g.yos pa la kha zhes bya'o. 506A 337.

•MKHA' 'GRO This is often a very problematic term, which certainly shouldn't be (although it generally is) automatically translated back into Skt. ḍāka or ḍākinī (mkha' 'gro ma, although under some circumstances the last syllable might be left off). Since it very literally means 'travelling [in the] sky,' it may poetically refer to a bird, birds in general, the sun, devas, clouds and arrows.

•MKHA' 'GRO BCU YI SBYOR BA a medicinal preparation. BP 151.1.

•MKHA' 'GRO GDONG Seems to be a specialized yoga term for the lower end of the avadhūti in the female body. Paṇ-chen I, Gsung-'bum II 307.4. In one context, I've seen it identified by one modern writer as the clitoris, or bya le, q.v. See http://www.khabdha.org/?p=4529.

•MKHA' 'GRO'I DBANG PHYUG 1. bya khyung. 2. ḍā ki'i gtso mo. Blaṅ 526.

•MKHA' 'GRO MA Synonyms: pho nya. bang chen. bya ma rta. Jacob Dalton says, in Buswell's Encyclopedia of Buddhism, p. 192, that the Yogaratnamālā commentary on the Hevajra says the term ḍākinī derives from the Sanskrit root dai, which means 'to fly.'

•MKHA' 'GRO LA PHUG a kind of rhubarb. Huber, Pure Crystal 99.

•MKHA' LDING 56 36.

•MKHA' SGONG rdo a dkar. dkar gong. Btsan-lha.

•MKHA' SPYOD Skt. khecarī. Coursing in space, n. of a yogic practice of turning the tongue back behind the soft palate.

•MKHA' SPYOD SKOR GSUM sa skya ba'i mkha' spyod skor gsum ni / nā ro mkha' spyod / indra mkha' spyod / mai tri mkha' spyod do. 600 19.

•MKHA' 'PHRING = phor shubs. Lcang-skya.

•MKHA' ME Since 'space' stands for zero, and 'fire' for three, and since verbally coded numbers like this have to be read from right to left, this translates into the number 30.

•MKHA' LA 'GRO 1. lha rnams. 2. 'dab chags bya. 3. mda'. Blaṅ 526.

•MKHAR [1] mkhar dpe ni khang brtsegs la byed snyam. Dpe-chos 508. [2] as a part of the vertebrae, meaning the main body of the vertebra bone, with two other parts named: mkhar mtshams and bya 'dabs. Yangga's dissert., p. 276.

•MKHAR GONG = dkar gong, dkar yol rgyu. JD 54.

•MKHAR RNGA Skt. paṇava, pāṇava. An hourglass shaped drum made of bellmetal. Discussion by Roberts, King.

•MKHAR NYAL 1. lha. 2. bya. Blaṅ 526.

•MKHAR GONG See dkar gong.

•MKHAR SGONG Btsan-lha.

•MKHAR RJE kha rje bsod nams che zer ba'i kha rje de'o. Dpe-chos 508.

•MKHAR THOG a place name. sa cha'am gnas kyi ming. Dpe-chos 503.

•MKHAR DPE Btsan-lha.

•MKHAR BA [1] superior alloy with brass, higher grade than khro. Btsan-lha. [2] a staff, as emblem of Ma-ni Bla-mas, see Havnevik, Dissertation 167. = kan ba. YTTM 291.10.

•MKHAR BA OM BTSUG lag rten dbyug pa la 'og ko brten pa'am btsug pa. Dpe-chos 503.

•MKHAR RTSE LHA See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 149n.

•MKHAR MTSHAMS See under mkhar.

•MKHAR GZHONG mkhar gzhong nang gi rul rbal (rus sbal) nyi ma'i 'od la dga'. Zhi-byed Coll. I 268.7. 'khar zhong gi nang du 'thigs pa ltar. Zhi-byed Coll. I 256.7. 'gro bar mi nus mkhar zhong nang gi rul rbal tshi chad 'gyur. Zhi-byed Coll. I 219.4.

•MKHAR RU = 'bo. = bstan 'dzin mkhar ru. A standardized measure, about 27-33 lbs., but actually a volume measure. Goldstein, Taxation 8.

•MKHAR LAN khang pa gsar rgyag byas pa. BBNP 472. obs. for mkhar las. construction work. Samdo A VI 264v.5. Btsan-lha. BD of T&TB VII 93. ngal sar mkhar lan byed pa'i skyes bu blun. Zhi-byed Coll. I 295.7. bde ba dang skyid pa'i dus su mkhar lan dang rtsed 'dzings dang ri ltad la sogs pa ye mi bya. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum IV 457.5. 'bri gung gi mkhar lan 'di shin tu legs pa zhig byung bas de la rgyu gnyis yin. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) VI 243.2.

•MKHAR LAS See under mkhar lan. Occurs in the title Mkhar las byas pa'i gnam sgo, in Bodleian Catalogue 136.

•MKHAR SLE mkhar spo. Gces 586.5.

•MKHAR GSIL Khakkhara. Rattle staff. See Kieschnick, Impact 113. Also spelled 'khar gsil, 'khar bsil, mkhar bsil.

•MKHAR LHAN khang pa gsar rgyag. Dpe-chos 511. Btsan-lha.

•MKHAL RKED Text 37. Lag-len 258.1.

•MKHAL RKYED Btsan-lha.

•MKHAL GRUM kidney arthritis. Yangga's dissert., p. 207.

•MKHAL NAD SRZT 82.

•MKHAL BRE phor shubs. Dbus-pa no. 603.

•MKHAL MA DD illus. 21. Snellgrove (in his review of F. Meyer's book on Tibetan medicine) says Tibetans did not know that urine passed through the kidneys. He is mistaken to judge from DD 59 60, 114.

•MKHAL MA'I RMEN BU DD illus. 31.

•MKHAL MA ZHO SHA See zho sha. Erythrina arborescens. Wangchuk, Bioactive 25.

•MKHAL RTSA Text 34, 44, 74.

•MKHAL RLUNG Text 74.

•MKHAS PA MI GSUM g.yo dge ba'i 'byung gnas / gtsang rab gsal / dmar shākya mu ne'o. 600 25.

•MKHAS PA'I BYA BA GSUM 'chad pa dang / rtsod pa dang / rtsom pa'o. 600 17.

•MKHAS MA See kaṇṭa ka ri.

•MKHU BA = ldog pa. Lcang-skya.

•MKHUN BU skrag pa. Dbus-pa no. 368, 371.

•MKHUR BA unleavened bread. Yangga's dissert., p. 280.

•MKHUR RTSI kusumbha (safflower). N. of a metre. Hahn, JV 39. 'Cheek dye'?

•MKHUR TSHOGS RUS PA DD illus. 9, 10.

•MKHUS PA Btsan-lha.

•MKHO 'JEBS CHE BA Btsan-lha.

•MKHO BSTOBS PA Btsan-lha.

•MKHO MTHUN Namdak.

•MKHO SHAM Btsan-lha. Dotson, D&L 7.

•MKHON See thab mkhon. Btsan-lha.

•MKHOB BAL Btsan-lha.

•MKHOS See under khos. administration, to administrate. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•MKHOS KA da lta'i mkhos ka [~dgos don] che chung zhes. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 307.2.

•MKHOS KHA CHUNG BA Btsan-lha.

•MKHOS BGYIS PA Btsan-lha.

•MKHOS SHOG Btsan-lha.

•MKHOS SU logs su. Dbus-pa no. 668.

•MKHOS SU PHAB PA Btsan-lha. mkhos su bab / mdun gnas pa. Dbus-pa no. 752.

•MKHYID OT form of mkhyud. Both forms occur in Haarh, Yar-luṅ 358. In Yisun, mkhyud pa seems to mean 'to secret away, to occultate [something or someone].' Bialek, SM 393.

•MKHYUD GANG = mkhyid gang. Btsan-lha. A measurement. Das says it is the measurement of the fist plus the extended thumb, or about 6 inches. chos mkhyid gang ma. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 201.

•MKHYUD PA hidden, concealed. sbas pa. Dbus-pa no. 263.

•MKHYUD DPYAD Explained in forthcoming article by Mike Walter: where he determines it to mean an examination of hidden connections. (Yisun agrees.) Occurs in title of a work by Mi pham, in turn having to do with a terma work attributed to Pha dam pa. See the spelling mkhyud spyad.

•MKHYUD SPYAD [1] OT man ngag phran bu sbas te 'chad pa. Blaṅ 291.3-.4. N. for minor precept. BBNP 476. [2] A name for the medicine bag equipped with a drawstring that is carried by Tibetan physicians.

•MKHYUN BU mkhyun bu mkhyun bur rgyu ba. Silk, Dissert. 311.

•MKHYEN GNYIS 1. ji lta ba mkhyen pa. 2. ji snyed pa mkhyen pa. Germano, Poetic Thought 952.

•MKHYEN PA GNYIS ji lta ba mkhyen pa dang / ji snyed pa mkhyen pa'o. 600 8.

•MKHYEN PA GSUM gzhi shes / lam shes / rnam mkhyen no. 600 27. Gser Sbram 362.

•MKHYEN PHO mkhan po. Btsan-lha.

•MKHYEN RAB Stein.

•MKHRANG GYUR 'solidified, made hard.' In Buddhist embryology, the phase in fetal development just before the limbs begin to protrude. See 'khrang gyur.

•MKHRANG CHA TM IV 111.

•MKHRIG MA wrist (ankle?). DD illus. 1, 13.

•MKHRIG MA'I CHU BA DD illus. 29, 30.

•MKHRIG MA'I NYWA SNYING DD illus. 29.

•MKHRIG MA'I RUS PA 'BUR PO DD illus. 13.

•MKHRIS See rdo mkhris. See rtsa mkhris.

snod MKHRIS gall bladder. Text 58.

snod kyi MKHRIS SKRAN SRZT 34. Text 6.

•MKHRIS NAD SRZT 13.

•MKHRIS SNA'I LDE GU a medicinal preparation. RR 79.

•MKHRIS PA SRZT 86. Lag-len 270.4. DD illus. 2, 17. 1) mi phyugs kyi mkhris pa ste, mchin pa'i logs g.yas pa'i 'og na yod pa'i khug ma'i dbyibs can zhig yin zhing nang na gsher khu mdog ljang ser ro kha ba zhig yod pa la mkhris khu zer. de ni zas 'ju ba dang, nad 'bu phra mo 'joms pa, rul ba 'gog pa bcas la nus pa yod pa zhig yin. sman gzhung du de la snod kyi mkhris pa zer. tshig bsdus na mkhris zhes 'bri chog ste: mkhris khu zhes pa lta bu. 2) sman gzhung du bshad pa'i rlung mkhris bad kan gsum gyi nang tshan gyi mkhris pa ste, rang bab tu gnas tshe lus kyi drod bskyed pa sogs la phan pa zhig dang, tshad las 'das na mkhris nad du 'gyur ba yin. de la mkhris pa 'ju byed, mkhris pa mdangs sgyur, mkhris pa sgrub byed, mkhris pa mthong byed, mkhris pa mdog gsal bcas lnga phye 'dug. Dag-yig.

•MKHRIS PA SPYI SMAN a medicinal preparation. BP 127.2.

•MKHRIS PA RTSAR RGYUG SRZT 59.

•MKHRIS PA GSHA' RINGS DD illus. 23.

•MKHRIS PHYE NYER LNGA a medicinal preparation. BP 180.5.

•MKHRIS PHYE BDUN PA a medicinal preparation. TMC 15 (24). BT 36v.4. BP 128.2.

•MKHRIS TSHAD Text 4.

•MKHRIS RIMS SRZT 52.

•MKHRIS RLUNG Text 5.

•MKHRIS LAS RNAM RGYAL a medicinal preparation. BT 31.3. BP 123.5.

•MKHRIS SRIN SRZT 15. Text 6.

•MKHREGS PA obdurate.

•'KHANG to recriminate, complain. Denwood in TH&L 136. kha rje phya la mi 'khang / bsod nams lha la mi smon. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) VI 142.5. to be vindictive. Jamspal, Treasury 55. to dislike. NNV.

•'KHANG BA Stein.

•'KHANG RA 'khar 'khum mam gdungs pa. Gces 587.6. 367 I 239. an angry or displeasured aspect? Samdo A V 120r.1. char la 'khang ra btang bas bab lo. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 1179.1. See under gnyen la 'khang.

•'KHAD DU MED khengs su med pa. Gces 588.4.

•'KHAN KHA Btsan-lha.

•'KHAN NE 'KHON NE (deriv. from 'khon, indignant) = 'khan 'khon. indignantly. Soundings 27.

•'KHAMS BZANG 'DANGS LDAN = khams bde ba dang mdangs bzang. "good health and robust." Kuijp (1986) 32.

•'KHAMS PA = brgyal ba. Lcang-skya.

•'KHAMS BA OT = brgyal ba. Blaṅ 300.2.

•'KHAR GONG SS 533.2.

•'KHAR RNGA gong (the flat bell-like instrument).

•'KHAR RJE Stein. For mkhar rje. Samdo A IV 238r.3.

•'KHAR GTAN Something used for securing doors. In a vinaya illustration text, it looks rather like a snake-like spiral.

•'KHAR PHOR Jonathan A. Silk, Dressed for Success: The Monk Kāśyapa and Strategies of Legitimation in Earlier Mahāyāna Buddhist Scriptures, Journal Asiatique, vol. 291, nos. 1-2 (2003) 173-219, at p. 193.

•'KHAR BA bronze. Rin 63. a metal. DG 110.6. JD 43. bell metal. BLKC I 341.

•'KHAR RE CHE thugs re che. Gces 585.5. Btsan-lha.

•'KHAR LAN gla. Gces 587.5. Btsan-lha. 'gron po 'tshogs pa yin gyis / ngal so ba'i sar 'khar lan ma byed ang. Zhi-byed Coll. III 15.6. See under khar lan.

•'KHU Also, 'khus. Denwood in TH&L 131.

•'KHU BA OT = zhe sdang ba. Blaṅ 286.5. Btsan-lha. sku'i zhabs nas ma thegs na thugs kyi gsang myi 'khu bar bstand pa 'di lags. Zhi-byed Coll. V 453.7 (also, 454.1). Gser Sbram 405. log pa. Dbus-pa no. 084. to have a malicious attitude. NNV. = zhe sdang. = log pa. Lcang-skya.

•'KHU ZLOG Btsan-lha. blo'i snyems zhig pa dang / gnod sbyin gyi 'khu ldog sangs pa dus mnyam. Zhi-byed Coll. II 345.4. Refers to some type of malice, generally that of spirits.

•'KHUN See kha 'khun. [1] groaning or sighing. Yisun. Gces 586.5. yas ci la 'khun ni nyid dam khyed ci'i phyir 'khun zhes pa ste / 'khun pa ni sems sdug nas 'khun bu brtags pa. Dpe-chos 510. myi mo'i phyag rgya dang 'grogs pa shin 'khun gnan pa las dgos pa myed gsung. Zhi-byed Coll. II 22.2. 'khun 'chor ba. groaning. Jamspal, Treasury 57. [2] to must (as in a bovine in heat). NNV. An example of usage in MKB 378, in these phrases: glang po che de 'khun bu byed pa, and 'khun bu ding ding ba lan gsum byas nas...

glo 'KHUN SRZT 120. TM IV 105.

•'KHUM PA [1] learning, knowing. OT = thos pa. = shes pa. Blaṅ 303.5. [2] dper na shog dril rkyangs kyang slar 'khums pa bzhin no (like a scroll which, when stretched, curls up again?). Zhi-byed Coll. V 505.7. 'jur ba. Dbus-pa no. 222. to get curled up. to be shrunken. to be cowardly (shrink back). NNV. to close (a fist). [3] to be able to see (meet).

•'KHUM BU groaning. Yangga's dissert., p. 356.

•'KHUM BU CAN "an enigmatic term." Heller in JIABR 1 (2013) 264.

•'KHUMS LUS Btsan-lha.

•'KHUR BA [1] carrying, bearing [a load]. [2] Stein. An alternative spelling for mkhur ba, meaning 'cheek.' [3] a kind of pastry made from wheat dough (PD: same as khabtse, just a regional way of saying it).

•'KHUR BA CHU BLUG a simile used in 91 I 596.1.

•'KHUR BA MI SBO not bulging out the cheeks [while eating?]. Skt. gallāpahāraka. Mvy. 8584.

•'KHUL BA Stein. Btsan-lha.

•'KHUS to be treacherous, preamble. Dotson, OTA glossary.

•'KHUS PA Btsan-lha.

•'KHUS LAN BTAB PA to return an insult. Sources.

•'KHEL BA [1] to fall on [the same date]. [2] to be blamed. [3] to be finalized. [4] to be trusted. [5] to hit, strike. For the transitive form, see 'gel ba. NNV.

•'KHONG to satiate. to huddle up [in cold weather]. NNV.

•'KHOD DEB inventory of assets. Vitali, Tho.ling 139.

•'KHOD PA 'dug pa. Dbus-pa no. 663. Lcang-skya. to attend. to be recorded [in writing]. NNV.

•'KHON 'DZIN resentment, vindictiveness, feuding.

•'KHOB PA OT = ngan pa. = mtha'. Blaṅ 299.6. ngan pa. Dbus-pa no. 624. = ngan pa. Lcang-skya. to become stiff (due to cold or age). NNV.

•'KHOBS See under mi 'khobs. (BBNP 485).

•'KHOR [1] to get turned, to circle. to get [the head] turned (i.e., to be confused). to gather (at some attraction). to come to mind, to get a memory. to elapse. to return [from a journey abroad]. NNV. yid shes 'khor gyi tshor ba: feelings that accompany the mental consciousness. dbang shes 'khor gyi tshor ba: feelings that accompany the sense consciousness. Lati Rinbochay, Death 35, 36. It is surely cognate to choro[s], Greek for 'circle dance' (or singing group). [2] retinue, courtier[s]. Associates [of the Buddha], members of the [preaching] assembly.

•'KHOR GYI 'KHYAMS Btsan-lha.

•'KHOR LNGA SDE BZANG PO kun shes kau di nya dang / rta thul / rlangs pa / ming chen / bzang ldan no. 600 54.

•'KHOR CHA Achard, L'Essence 178 n. 86, 184 n. 112.

•'KHOR 'DAS (= 'khor ba dang mya ngan las 'das pa) saṃsāra and nirvāṇa. In Rdzogs-chen thought, they are indistinguishable in terms of the substantiality of their respective dharmas. This basic identity is labelled 'Realm of Dharmas,' etc.

•'KHOR RNAM PA BZHI dge slong dang / dge slong ma dang / dge bsnyen dang / dge bsnyen ma'o. 600 32. Pabongka, Liberation II 76.

•'KHOR PA families dependent on the monasteries ('serfs'). Epstein, Dissertation 43.

•'KHOR BA [1] saṃsāra, vicious circle. Klong-chen-pa 9.11. [2] 'to take one's turn.' to come back to something again and again. [3] rounds [of a rosary]. Lde'u 348.

•'KHOR BA'I LAM GSUM nyon mongs pa'i lam / las kyi lam / sdug bsngal gyi lam mo.

•'KHOR MA Stein. rounded (spiraling?). so yang dung so 'khor mar yod. You have teeth that are rounded conch teeth. Lde'u 347.

•'KHOR MA SKYABS CHEN A type of armor worn by generals. ZZFC 241.

•'KHOR MIG A part of a door. See Dag-yig 167.

dpyi yi 'KHOR MIG DD illus. 16. Socket.

•'KHOR MO rgyun chad med pa. Btsan-lha.

•'KHOR BZHI The four retinues are male and female monks and male and female householders (catuparisa in Pāli).

•'KHOR ZUG TU 'khor yug tu. Btsan-lha.

•'KHOR YUG In older Tibetan, usually without the initial prescript letter, it just means the surroundings or the neighborhood. This may be used in Modern Tibetan to mean 'environment' in the modern sense of the word. Skt. cakravāla, cakravāḍa. Discussion in Roberts, King.

•'KHOR YUG CHEN PO "The whole dimension of one's life." Norbu, Cycle.

•'KHOR LO [1] Skt. cakra. wheel. On the history of the wheel (cartwheel, wheel for lifting well water, spinning wheel [charkha]), see Habib, Pursuing. For discussion of linguistic developments, see Beckwith, OC Loans 168-170. The PIE for 'turning point, wheel,' has been reconstructed to kwekwlo. On the rationale for the absence of wheeled vehicles in Tibet, see Li Gotami, Pictures 36. [2] oriental throw-star (a sharp-edged disk used as a weapon). Note the entry 'Chucker' in Hobson-Jobson. [3] As part of a loom, the 'spool.' See Dag-yig 325. [4] (rotary) mill, grinding stone.

•'KHOR LO'I MGRIN CAN See rnga mong.

•'KHOR LO RGYUN continuous wheel. Dalton, Crisis 142.

•'KHOR LO BSGYUR BA For the seven 'jewels' of the universal monarch in an early frieze, see Peter Skilling, New Discoveries from South India: The Life of the Buddha at Phanigiri, Andhra Pradesh, Arts Asiatiques, vol. 63 (2008) 96-118, at p. 114 and fig. 23 on p. 111 — gem, elephant, wheel, horse, queen, treasurer and compander in chief.

•'KHOR LO CHEN PO BZHI mthun par gyur pa'i yul na gnas pa / skyes bu dam pa la bsten pa / smon lam btab pa / bsod nams bsags pa'o.

•'KHOR LO DRUG spyi bo bde chen gyi 'khor lo / mgrin pa longs spyod kyi 'khor lo / snying ga chos kyi khor lo / lte ba sprul pa'i 'khor lo / gsang gnas bde skyong gi 'khor lo / nor bu'i dbus kyi 'khor lo dang drug go. 600 81-82.

•'KHOR LO MTSHUN Btsan-lha.

•'KHOR LO BZHI 1. mthun par gyur pa'i yul. 2. dam pa la bsten pa. 3. legs par smon pa. 4. sngon ma yang bsod nams. See Jinpa, Mind Training 322 (& note).

•'KHOR LO GSUM Stein. klog pa thos bsam gyi 'khor lo / spong ba bsam gtan gyi 'khor lo / bya ba las kyi 'khor lo'o. 600 18.

•'KHOR LOS BSGYUR BA'I RGYAL PO BZHI gser gyi 'khor los bsgyur ba / dngul gyi 'khor los bsgyur ba / zangs kyi 'khor los bsgyur ba / lcags kyi 'khor los bsgyur ba rnams so. 600 30-31.

•'KHOR GSUM [1] 1. rdor gong. 2. ang dar. 3. mda' gzhu. Kretsch. armour, weapons and helmet (lit.: three wheels). Sources. 1. mda'. 2. mdung (lance). 3. gri. Wylie 151, n. 340. BA 252. Jinpa, Mind Training 37 (& footnote). [2] man, horse, and cow. [3] In grammar: deed, agent, action. bya byed las gsum. Stein. [4] As a debate term: An exclamation uttered when an opponent in debate says something against scripture and reasoning. Dungkar in TJ 8 no. 4 (Winter 1993) 7. It is nicely explained in Sobisch, Dissert. where it means not being able to give three kinds of answers — i.e., statements ending in (1) rtags ma grub, reasoning insufficient; (2) 'dod, begging the question; (3) khyab pa ma byung, not giving full coverage. See also Dreyfus, Sound 217. The exclamation 'di 'khor gsum is accompanied by a gesture in which the questioner uses his right hand (perhaps with a hat in hand) to make three circles around the defender's head. Dreyfus, Rationality 50. [5] When used to describe biographies: 1. klogs pa thos bsam gyi 'khor lo. 2. spong ba bsam gtan gyi 'khor lo. 3. bya ba las kyi 'khor lo. See Smith, Catalogue 212. [6] In vinaya terminology, this refers to the 2 knees and the middle of the back, all of which should be covered by the robe when seated crosslegged (Dalai Lama XIV, Advice from Buddha Shakyamuni, p. 67, n. 29).

•'KHOR GSUM YONGS DAG Skt. trimaṇḍalapariśuddha. The Tibetan phrase has been misinterpreted by Tibetans according to Sa paṇ. See discussion in Rhoton, CD 170.

•'KHOL KHONG Btsan-lha.

•'KHOL SHES know how to use (or regard). Jamspal, Treasury 217.

•'KHOS Stein. zhar la 'khos gcig yang gi ni zhar byung du gang mkho ba zhig yong mod. Dpe-chos 508. Btsan-lha.

•'KHOS MED unimportant, inexperienced.

•'KHOS SU BAB = 'dun pa. Lcang-skya.

•'KHOS SU BAB PA = logs su bzhag pa. Lcang-skya.

•'KHYAG 'KHYOG = kyog kyog .

•'KHYAG GE 'KHYOG GE (deriv. from 'khyog po, crooked) = 'khyag 'khyog. crookedly. Soundings 27.

•'KHYAGS PA ice. For metaphorical usage, about how ice may be water, but you have to melt it before it will act like water.

•'KHYAM 'khyam grwa. Gces 590.1. to roam.

•'KHYAM PA n. of a disease. Jaeschke. 'khyams po in Das. Text 24.

•'KHYAM PO be bum 'khyam po rnams sgrugs nas. Zhi-byed Coll. V 71.5.

•'KHYAMS RGYUG PA Btsan-lha.

•'KHYAR to be spread about, to get leaked [a secret]. NNV.

•'KHYAR RE 'KHYOR RE (deriv. from 'khyor po, shakey) = 'khyar 'khyor. shakily. Soundings 28.

•'KHYAL to go beyond [the correct and good]. to become not straight. NNV.

•'KHYIG PA Namdak. 267 I 238.

•'KHYIGS PA Btsan-lha. 'gro ba'i rkang pa khyigs. Zhi-byed Coll. II 292.4.

•'KHYING See khong 'khying. Blaṅ 296.2.

•'KHYID PA Btsan-lha.

•'KHYIL BA Stein. to form a puddle, to coil.

•'KHYU GU (Amdo) = me lce. undulating tongues of fire. MTTP.

•'KHYUG PA 'chug pa. Dbus-pa no. 422. Lcang-skya. to zigzag (fish, lightning). NNV.

•'KHYUG POR 'KHYUS 'khyug por 'khyus / 'di 'chi [57v3] med mdzod du / bros dang / zhogs dang / 'ur ba dang / kun bros / rnam bros / 'khyug pa'o / zhes bros pa'i ming mi 'dra ba drug gsungs pa'i gcig yin. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•'KHYUG YIG Ordinary cursive handwriting (like that used in letters). Dungkar in TJ 8 no. 4 (Winter 1993) 12.

•'KHYUR BA Btsan-lha.

•'KHYUL Namdak.

•'KHYUS See under dza lnga nge.

•'KHYUS PA Btsan-lha.

•'KHYOG to limp, be twisted. NNV.

•'KHYOG 'GRO 1. me. 2. sprul (sbrul??). Blaṅ 526. See sbrul.

•'KHYOGS = khri. Lcang-skya.

•'KHYOGS PA bent, stooped (with age).

•'KHYONGS to achieve. NNV. Lde'u 391. To continue on and bring a project to completion, or to a good outcome.

•'KHYON MA slut, prostitute. Btsan-lha. = 'phyon ma.

•'KHYOM to move, be shaken, sway.

•'KHYOR See g.yas 'khyor g.yon 'khyor. to totter. NNV.

•'KHYOR DU shor ram 'gyog tu. Gces 586.6.

•'KHYOL to fulfil. NNV. arrive at, reach, make it to.

•'KHYOS PA Btsan-lha.

•'KHRA BA gdon dang nad la sogs pa thams cad gnyid la 'khra [~brten pa] ba yin pas gnyid spang gsungs. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 222.4.

•'KHRANG 'GYUR solidifying. This is one of the phases of early fetal development.

•'KHRANG BA Btsan-lha.

•'KHRAN PA zhen pa. chags pa. Btsan-lha.

•'KHRAM SHON BYED PA to dance. Karmay, Treasury.

•'KHRAL 'KHRUL Gold Ms. I 21v.3. Btsan-lha. = 'khral le 'khrul le.

•'KHRAS Btsan-lha.

•'KHRI blo gtang. Gces 581.5.

•'KHRI SNYAM SA LE See gnyan.

•'KHRI MA CHOD rib ma chod. Gces 584.3. re ba ma chod. Btsan-lha.

•'KHRI SHING See dbyi mong.

•'KHRI SHING BCU GNYIS a medicinal preparation. BP 279.

•'KHRIG MA for mkhrig ma, 'wrist joints'.

•'KHRIGS be overcast [with clouds]. NNV.

•'KHRID CHUD PA Btsan-lha.

•'KHRIMS SHING 'KHRUNGS 'khrim shing 'khrungs / ngag sgron du 'khri shing 'khrungs zhes pa las mi 'dug pas ma yig nor yin 'dug cing 'khri shing zhes pa ljon shing gi ming yin. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•'KHRIMS be scared, intimidated. NNV.

•'KHRIS KHA Stein.

tshad 'KHRU SRZT 99.

byis pa 'KHRU SKYUGS SRZT 120.

•'KHRU GCOD See mon char.

•'KHRU NAD SRZT 96.

•'KHRU YAD thabs de zab kyang gang zag chags zhen can thog ma nas 'khru yad pa la goms pa'i stobs kyis. Zhi-byed Coll. V 429.2.

•'KHRUG to get upset, get disturbed, get out of order. NNV.

•'KHRUG GLO KUN SEL a medicinal preparation. TMC 38 (82).

•'KHRUGS 'agitated.' a stage of fever disorders. Text 44.

•'KHRUGS GLO KUN SEL a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 33. Lag-len 25.4. BP 203.6. BP 215.2.

•'KHRUD PA Stein. zol po tsho rna can lo ma 'khrud ni g.yo can rnams gzhan gyi skyon 'tshang 'bru zhes pa'o // dbus par la zog po zhes 'byung ba ltar na brdzu ma zhes par 'jug go. Dpe-chos 515.

•'KHRUD MA Btsan-lha.

•'KHRUN OT = 'phang. = srid. Blaṅ 303.2. Lcang-skya. Btsan-lha.

•'KHRUN RING = dkyus ring. =mchu ring. Lcang-skya.

•'KHRUL 'KHOR Tummelplatz (exercise ground, playground). Kretsch. I think it means rather the exercises themselves. Stein. 4 172A.6. Usually means hatha-yoga-like exercises. For a Bon text on yogic postures with illustrations, 'Khrul-'khor Dpe-ris, see Everding's Bon catalog, no. JS 2738. This practice is described along with stong ra, in C.A. Muses, Esoteric Teachings of the Tibetan Tantra, chap. 4, "The Steps of Practice in the Path." See Toh, Ming 146, where it is found in the Chinese expression yanshe'er, formerly translated as "great happiness." Notice the extended analogy here, which might explain how hatha yoga could be called yantra: The human body is like a puppet, with the breath flow in the body like the puppet string, and the mind that controls the breath is like the hands of the puppet master.

•'KHRUL 'KHOR GYI SGYU 'PHRUL Evidently this is for yantrakalā, the art of devices, or simply mechanics. A master of this art — 'khrul 'khor gyi sgyu rtsal gyi slob dpon — would be a mechanic, as mentioned in a story in the Vinayavastu.

•'KHRUL 'KHOR BCU GNYIS dus 'khor nas bshad pa'i 'khrul 'khor bcu gnyis ni / sgyogs kyi 'khrul 'khor / glu / gri gug / gur / lcags mda' / ral gri / me'i 'khrul 'khor / rlung gi 'khrul 'khor / shing rta'i tshad / khang bzang / khyogs kyi mtshan nyid / chu gyen du 'dren pa'i 'khrul 'khor rnams so. 600 157.

•'KHRUL PA Error. Whatever it is that went wrong with saṃsāra. Skt. saṃbhrānti, bhrānti. wandering, confusion, perplexity, mistake. Germano, Poetic Thought 866, 939, translates 'distortion, straying.'

•'KHRUL PA DRUG legs pa'i gdams ngag mi tshol bar don med tha snyad slob pa 'di yang 'khrul / ri khrod dgon pa mi 'grims par 'khor ba'i mun khang brtsigs pa 'di yang 'khrul / gcig pur don nyid mi sems par 'khor mang nang du chos byed 'khrul / bdag med bsam gtan mi bsgoms par / longs spyod 'du 'dzi byed pa 'khrul / sbyin pa chags med mi gtong bar / ser snas zas nor gsog pa 'khrul / de chos tshul bzhin mi spyod par / mi chos sems 'dzin byed pa 'khrul lo. Bka'-gdams Thor-bu 40v.5.

•'KHRUL ZHIG Stein.

•'KHRENG to get attached [to]. NNV.

•'KHREN to fit in, have enough room, to feel a strong desire or craving. T&BS II 278. khyim 'khren gyi sgrib pa. Zhi-byed Coll. I 205.7.

•'KHREN PA rjes su chags shing gdungs pa'i sems shor ba. zhen pa dang chags pa che ba. Btsan-lha.

•'KHRES SHING 'KHAR 'khres shing 'khar / ngag sgron bar mar / ('di glog 'khyugs pa zhes pa ltar myur ba'i don yin) [57v4] par 'khren pa 'khres shing 'khar / zhes yod kyang dper dag par 'khras shing 'khar zhes 'khor bar zhen chags kyis blos mi gtong pa'i don yin / des mtshon nas btsan rdzong blos ma btang ba la yang rdzong la 'khras zhes pa lta bu mang du [57v5] yong. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•'KHRO NAG See khro nag. DG 113.3.

•'KHROL THAM a 'seal of release' from the landlord to permit a son to go to the monastery.


*GA*

•GA SKYA TM I 50.

•GA GA gang. Lcang-skya.

•GA GA TSIL = skyi g.ya' ba. Lcang-skya.

•GA GA TSHIL BYED PA mdzub mos ga ga tshil byed pa. Skt. Aṅguli prabodhana, tickling with one's finger. Mvy. no. 8488.

•GWA GWA mdzo gwa gwa means a multicolored mdzo, while g.yag gwa gwa means a multicolored yak. Naga in TJ 24 no. 3 (1999) 70.

•GA GE yul. Dbus-pa no. 396. Lcang-skya.

•GA GON OT = zha nye. Also, tshon mo steng. Blaṅ 305.2. melon. Aris, Discourse 31. = nyung ma. Lcang-skya. zha nye nag po. Lcang-skya.

•GA DGU LA 'BYON PA Stein.

•GA CA go cha. Btsan-lha.

•GA CHAD Btsan-lha, according to which it means happiness (grinning, laughter). Also, total exhaustion (perhaps even depression). to be exhausted (with loss of motivation). NNV. Listless.

•GA TA LA See nye shing.

•GA ṬA LI See 'om bu.

•GA TU some kind of vase. Shastri in TS9 I 139.

•GA THA YA See skom.

•GA THAG Btsan-lha. = gang dag. Lcang-skya.

•GA THO MU THER (?) 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) VI 197.5.

•GA DA RA See gze ma.

•GA DAR housecleaning, = gad bdar. Btsan-lha. yang nas yang du ga dar byas pa'i sems 'di la ci yang bcos su btub pa yin gsung. Zhi-byed Coll. II 433.4. Defined as 'perfect' in Nine Ways 292. I've noticed this in the title of an esoteric text attributed to Marpa: Ga dar gyi don bsdu ba'i man ngag (check this in TBRC), and again in a title from the Dran pa gser gdams (Adriano Clemente's book Visionary Encounters, p. 83).

•GA DIR See ser lding.

•GA DUR Fundamentals 15.3 (item 16). an astringent medicinal root. Das. = lig dur, stod li. JD 165. SS 443.2. Mdo 71. Nepalese cranesbill, Nepal geranium. Geranium nepalense. TDD 83. Cranesbill. Geranium wallichianum. TDD 84.

•GA DO MU DO ? Samdo A III 101r.5.

•GWA DOR Btsan-lha.

•GA DHI See lca ba.

•GA NAS GA NAS Lit.: where from where from? How would I presume? Soundings 21.

•GA NAS YONG Wie käme ich dazu? Kretsch.

•GA PA Occurs once in Lde'u 221, where from context it might seem to mean the 'hump' of a camel: 'gel ba'i khal du rnga mong ga par 'gel. Could also be same as gwa pa, meaning the white spot found in center of an animal's (horse, mule, yak) face.

•GA PHUR brag skyes ga phur. mineral camphor? KP1 30.3 = yu mo mdil 'byin. KP3 251.1. KP4 384.5. = gnam lcags zil pa.

•GA BA Namdak.

•GWA BA dre'u gwa ba means a bald headed baby mule. Naga in TJ 24 no. 3 (1999) 70.

•GA BU ga'u. Btsan-lha. nang rtsi phyi ru gsal ba shel gyi ga bu lta bu. Zhi-byed Coll. II 482.5.

•GA BUR camphor (clearly, the Tibetan word is a foreign borrowing). Also spelled ga pur, ga phur. gzhi' las gnyis su myed pas ga phur gyi ngo bo la sman dug myed pa lta bu. Zhi-byed Coll. II 471.6. drang ba'i (i.e., grang ba'i) nad la ga pur rten myi bya. Ibid. I 278.2. R.A. Donkin, Dragon's Brain Perfume: An Historical Geography of Camphor, Indological Library vol. 14 (Leiden 1999), 307 pp. The word is Indic (Sanskrit karpūra) or perhaps Javanese in origin, although it could have come into Tibetan via Arabic (kāfūr). See Hobson-Jobson. Pelliot, Notes on Marco Polo 664-670. JD 72-73. LW 457. = he ma. YTTM 291.13. DG 145.4. Jamspal, Treasury 148. Stearns, TRP 634 n. 47. Levey, Aromatic 402. Camphor is sometimes used as a metaphor for secrecy, since when it is left out in the open it very quickly dissipates (losing all its virtues). There is a discussion of cognates/ borrowings in R. Yoeli-Tlalim's article "Central Asian Mélange." Discussion in ATPP 66.

•GA BUR SNGON PO See g.ya' gyim.

•GA BUR BCU BZHI a medicinal preparation. BP 177.5.

•GA BUR BCU GSUM SBYOR BA a medicinal preparation. BT 36v.1.

•GA BUR NYI SHU RTSA LNGA'I SBYOR BA a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 95. Lag-len 68.4. BP 174.6.

•GA BUR TI LO = seng ge spar mo. JD 202.

•GA BUR DRAG PO NYI SHU RTSA GSUM a medicinal preparation. BT 34v.2.

•GA BUR DRI LDAN See ba li ka.

•GA BUR BDUN PA a medicinal preparation. RR 75.

•GA BUR NAG PO See phag ril thal ba.

•GA BUR SMUG PO See gla rtsi.

•GA BUR ZIL GNON See hong len.

•GA BUR GSUM SBYOR a medicinal preparation. RR 74.

•GA BYIN See dug mo nyungs.

•GA BRA = bri ha ti, stag tsher, kaṇṭa ka ri smug po, JD 117. SS 422.1. = chu sho ba. KP1 94.3. YTTM 291.18. DG 235.5. Raspberry. Rubus ellipticus. TDD 165.

•GA MA See go ga ma.

•GA MA KA "That which makes things clear for someone." JTS II 85.

•GA MUG Namdak.

•GA MO LI See shu dag.

•GA DZA DANTA = glang po'i so, ba glang gi so, ba so. ivory. DG 98.1.

•GA ZHA bzhad gad kyi sgra. An example in Toh. no. 217 (Śrīgupta Sūtra), p. 551: hi hi zhes bya ba dang / ca co dang ga zha 'thon to. It also occurs in Khyi-thang-pa's biography of Rin-chen-bzang-po. bzhad gad. Lcang-skya. Other examples may be found in the Tib. translations of the Abhiniṣkramaṇa and Lalitavistara.

•GA ZHAN bzhad gad. Btsan-lha. Perhaps the correct spelling is ga zha?

•GWA ZHIR a mare with a white lining on its back. Naga in TJ 24 no. 3 (1999) 70.

•GA'U Thondup, BM 58. See also ske'i ga'u & ga bu. The term is used frequently in descriptions of the final burial of the emperor. See Haarh, Yar-luṅ, 213, and chap. 15.

•GA'U GSUM SGROM A jewellery item illus. in Yisun.

•GĀ YA TRI Skt. Gāyatrī. N. of a metre. Hahn, JV 37.

•GA YONG NAS For: gang nas yong na. ZAS VII 474.

•GA RE 'ga' re. Gces 586.4. Btsan-lha. As an interrogative (as in modern language), this doesn't seem to be in use in C.T., but I have noticed it used at beginnings of clauses (in Mani Bka'-'bum, other examples in Yisun), as a particle (or exclamation) expressing reflection and doubt, perhaps to be translated 'What to do?'

•GA LA SHA Btsan-lha.

•GA'A LA OK Karaoke. TS9 II 457.

•GA SHA Btsan-lha. phrag pa dang mchan khung phan tshun bsnol mar 'ching ba'i thag pa la zer. Gser Sbram 108. sha ba ri dbang phyug phyag na mda' dang gzhu 'dzin pa sbrul gyi ga sha can. 121 II 115. The 'sacred thread' of Hindus. As used in Sba bzhed, it is translated 'harness' in Kapstein, Assimilation 71. Sba 7. Translated shoulder belt. Bashey4 197 (the footnote says it indicates all the bone raiments, not just the shoulder belt).

•GA SHAR Blumenkranz. Kaschewsky2.

•GA SHED tha chad. Gces 582.1. Btsan-lha. unspecified place/yul, 'in some place or another.' Gold Ms. I 24v.5. Las-chen, Chos-'byung I 15.3, II 228.5. Bka'-gdams Glegs-bam Pha-chos (PRC) 327.17. This word is much used in alphabetic poems.

•GA SHES Btsan-lha. kha zer. Dbus-pa no. 672. Lcang-skya.

•GA SA GA LA (coll.) all over, everywhich way, here there and everywhere.

•GA SRA See lca ba.

•GAG OT = gang. Blaṅ 285.1. Btsan-lha. Dbus-pa no. 002. In his Bstan pa rgyas pa rgyan gyi me tog (fol. 6r of the published version), Rig-ral gives this as an example of something that should have been fixed in the 'new language regulations' under Sad-na-legs (evidently). It actually occurs many times in the Avatamsaka section of the Kanjur, which is surely one sign that this sūtra never underwent corrections under the new language reform. I wonder, though if it might be spelled gag because of assimilation to the following ending. Ought to check if it only occurs in forms like gag gi, or gag gis, and not in forms like gag la (this needs testing, and it's true I did find one instance of gag la in OTDO, in a work that ought to date to time of Sad-na-legs).

•GAG GCOD 'CHI MED DGU SBYOR a medicinal preparation. BT 52v.7.

•GAG THAG gang dag. Dbus-pa no. 466.

•GAG NAD SRZT 65. Text 21.

•GAG PA gag lhog pa zhes pa'i gag pa ni gre phugs su 'thor ba 'dra ba byung ste mgrin pa dgag pa'i rma'o. Dpe-chos 510. Czaja in Schrempf, ed., Soundings 360. diphtheria. Yangga's dissert., p. 73.

•GAG SPANG translated as 'door lintel' in Alexander, Temples 46.

•GAG LHOG See gag nad and lhog pa. Text 12, 24, 25. Czaja in Schrempf, ed., Soundings 360. diphtheria and anthrax. Yangga's dissert., p. 198.

•GAGS Btsan-lha. stoppage, stop-up.

•GANG [1] OT = gag. Blaṅ 282.3. [2] In Classical, this can stand for most of the interrogatives, like 'when,' 'where,' and 'who,' which in Modern would be, respectively, ga dus, ga par & su. It can also mean 'what,' but in Classical, 'what' is usually ci/ji, which is in any case more impersonal. [3] Forming 2nd element of a measurement term, meaning 'one full.'

•GANG GA For the metaphor of the one who digs a well at the side of the Ganges, see Hahn, TSD 65-66.

•GANG GA CHUNG gentiana. TR XIV #4, p. 16. JD 178. SS 453.1. KP1 83.5. KP4 425.3. Mdo 74. Gentiana urnula. Wangchuk, Bioactive 25.

•GANG GI TSHE an expression of relative time. The pair of gang gi tshe and de'i tshe, or nam zhig and de'i tshe (corresponding to Skt. yadā... tadā), are said not to exist in scriptural translations from Chinese, so their occurrence would seem to show that they are not translations from Chinese according to Tenshô Miyazaki, Discerning the Original Language of the Tibetan Versions of Mahāyāna Sūtras: From a Simple Mistake in the Ldem kar ma Regarding the Ajātaśatrukaukṛtya-vinodanāsūtra, Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies, vol. 55, no. 3 (March 2007), pp. 1101‑1105.

[RNAM PAR SNANG MDZAD] GANG CHEN MTSHO Apparently a Sambhogakāya form of Vairocana. 445 III 5.6, 11.1, 12.6, 26.1.

•GANG TIG Btsan-lha.

•GANG LTAR RUNG Wie dem auch sei. ZAS VII 474.

•GANG 'THAD Was man auch antrifft, was man auch tut. ZAS VII 474.

•GANG BDE BDE BYED DU CHUG lasst ihn machen, was ihm beliebt! Kretsch.

•GANG 'DRA BA LA zu welcher Zeit? Kretsch.

•GANG 'DRA YONG Wie soll das gehen? Kretsch.

•GANG PO gcig po. 367 II 129.5.

•GANG BA CAN arrow sheath. Btsan-lha.

•GANG BYA GANG LA Btsan-lha.

•GANG BYAS (coll.) = ji ltar byas kyang, however, although it may have been so.

•GANG BYUNG MA BYUNG Unsinnig.

•GANG BYUNG MA BYUNG BYED PA allen möglichen Unsinn machen. Kretsch.

•GANG BYUNG MANG BYUNG (coll.) every (possible) thing. every which way. all kinds of things.

•GANG BYO Btsan-lha.

•GANG MANG MANG so viel als möglich. Kretsch.

•GANG MING Stein.

•GANG TSUG Btsan-lha.

•GANG ZHIG This phrase is used in debate-style language, at the end of the first clause of an argument. It divides the first part of the argument from the part that follows; in English it is not necessary to translate it. Of course, it usually just means 'a certain someone, somebody who...'

•GANG ZAG [1] person. Skt. pudgala. See the entry "Puggala" in EoB. [2] tobacco (etc.) pipe. A loan word from Chinese by way of Mongolian. T&BS I 354.

•GANGS DKAR (poet.) lit., white snow, pure mind. MTTP.

•GANGS TIG BCU DRUG a medicinal preparation. BP 143.1.

•GANGS THIG Although lit. means 'snow drop,' it is used for a type of white or whitish stone. = shel dkar thig pa, lha zho. JD 45. DG 119.6. gangs khrigs in YTTM 293.15. a stone. SS 403.4. Superior, middling and inferior types illustrated and described in Rin 88-90.

•GANGS THIG SER PO See gser rdo.

•GANGS LDAN 'having snow.' 1. N. of Tibet. bod. 2. [A] glacier mountain. gangs ri. 3. shu dag dkar po. Blaṅ 526. See shu dag dkar po.

•GANGS SBAL 'snow frog,' lizard. = da byid, sro ma seng ge, stobs skyed, mu tig gos can, phu'i rgyal po. JD 250. An important aphrodiac. Yangga's dissert., p. 239.

•GANGS RI'I RDOR 'DZIN the official deputed to control the Bhutanese enclave in the Kailash area of W. Tibet, also known as the Gangs ri Bla ma. Sources.

•GANGS KYI RUS PA See bse ru.

•GANGS SHAM PA See bdud rtsi gangs sham pa.

•GANGS SENG GE See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 68, 93. The snow lion seems to be alluded to in Zhi-byed Coll. II 169.7: seng ge gangs dang bral bar myi bya gsung. See the discussion by Dge-'dun-chos-'phel in TJ 26 no. 2 (Summer 2001) 92-4, where he finally argues that gangs seng is an abbr. of gangs can nags kyi seng ge ('lion of Himalayan forests'), and that the Tibetan snow lion is no better than a myth. An interesting occurrence of gangs kyi seng ge is found in Lde'u 56, in the words of Śākyamuni.

•GANGS LHA ME TOG Saussurea medusa. A flower used in Tibetan and Chinese medicine ('snow lotus'). A photo may be seen in: http://mushroaming.com/Medicinal_Plants.

•GANYDZI RA See ZAS XII (1978) 524-5.

•GAD Stein.

•GAD GUD gad gud na nyams drod skams pa'i mi mang po yod nas smras pa yin. Zhi-byed Coll. II 262.3.

•GAD PA [1] sweepers. TS7 I 191. Tsarong in TJ 23 no. 3 (1998) 25. [2] gorge, or rather, cliff. gad pa gser gyi bya skyibs can la klu'i rgyal po ma dros pa bzhugs pa. 64 I 17.5.

•GAD MO [ordinary or mild] laughter.

•GAD MO BRGYAD dpa' bo'i gad mo brgyad ni / ha ha bsdigs pa'i gad mo / hi hi dgyes pa'i gad mo / he he sgeg pa'i gad mo / ho ho zil gyis gnon pa'i gad mo rnams so.

•GAD MO BCU GNYIS listed in Klong-chen-pa 12.9 comm.

•GAN [1] 'heads' of a coin. Choix, P. tib. 1055 (note). [2] treasury. bang mdzod. Btsan-lha. [3] This syllable may preface the name of an article that is considered a treasure (ex., gan dril, 'treasured bell,' or gan dkar, 'treasured porcelain'). [4] Tibetan transcription of [Mongol] Qan. See Kuijp, KPTB 50.

•GAN RKYAL bde 'gro. Btsan-lha. gan rkyal ni / lus kyi rgyab sar dbab ste gan rkyal du log pa. Utpal 24.4. gan rkyal phyi gan 'gyel. Khyung-sprul 15.

•GAN GOS Btsan-lha.

•GAN RGYA dngul bun gan rgya, means a cash loan agreement or an IOU (the gan rgya means 'agreement'). Jampel Kaldhen, Interest Rates in Tibet, TJ 1 no. 1 (1975) 109.

•GAN CHEN PO Great Qan. Kuijp, KPTB 50.

•GAN JI RA The metal-work finial on the roof of a temple. Illus. in Yisun.

•GAN TA Perhaps same meaning as gal ta, q.v. gan ta gcig dang sha rkyal gcig kyang 'bul. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 523.5.

•GAṆḌI wooden gong. It is analogous in form and function with the Greek semantron, dating back to the 6th century, although the semantron is sometimes made of a flat piece of metal, and not always of wood.

•GAN DU 'GRO = gang du 'gro. "where are you going?" Kuijp (1986) 34.

•GANDHA KĀṢṬAṂ See a ka ru.

•GANDHA PA TRA = pa la sha. YTTM 292.13. Clifford, list.

•GANDHA BHA TRA = dri bzang. JD 200. SS 512.5. Cudweed. Gnaphalium hypoleucum. TDD 86.

•GANDHA SĀ RA See tsandan.

•GAN DHAR BHA BA HASTA See dan khra.

•GAN DHI See su gan dhi.

•GANDHI Rose quartz. Apparently a shortened form of the Indic rakta su gandhi. Rin 24.

•GAN DHO LA incense house, temple. In Tibetan, dri 'dzin; n. for dri gtsang khang, = lha khang. BBNP 477.

•GAN PA Btsan-lha.

•GAN SPOS BRGYAB PA A redrawn loan contract (done by mutual consent). Jampel Kaldhen, Interest Rates in Tibet, TJ 1 no. 1 (1975) 110.

•GAN BUB gan rgyal kha bub. Gces 589.4. Btsan-lha.

•GAN 'BYAR under-robes (for images). Vitali, Tho.ling 60.

•GAN SBYAR undershirt. Vitali, Tho.ling 66.

•GAN MDZOD = bang mdzod. Btsan-lha.

•GAN SHOG There were superior grades of paper called dga' ldan gan shog & rab brtan gan shog. See Cüppers, Remarks.

•GAB brjod pa'i gab, = brjod pa'i tha snyad. BBNP 481. Perhaps connected to PIE [s]keu, with similar meaning.

•GAB KHUNG Btsan-lha.

•GAB GAB PO Btsan-lha.

•GAB 'DRE hidden ghost (in the machinery of samsara), metaphor for errant conceptualization. Samdo A V 59r.1.

•GAB PA PHRUM See thar nu.

•GAB BE GOB BE (from gob lob, to be perfunctory) = gab gob. languidlin. Soundings 28.

•GAB TSE [1] In astrology, 'a chart.' Karmay, Treasury. A chart for astrological purposes, associated with Chinese 'elemental' astrology ('byung rtsi). calculation table. a table for doing divinations. See the Btsan-lha dictionary, pp. 76-77. Translated as 'astrological chart' in Schaik, Sweet 34 (also, text in 46 line 156), although I'm thinking that the 'basket' meaning makes more sense here. See Das, which has a reasonable entry for this word. [2] a kind of basket. Mvy., no. 5911, tells us that gab tse is the Tibetan word for a kind of basket or box known in Sanskrit as cañca (also spelled cañcu) or samudga. See Poussin, Abhidharmakośa, vol. 2, p. 489 (chap. 3, verse 99) and note 558 on p. 549. At the end of the kalpa, when human lifespan is only 10 years, the daily ration of grain will be spooned out from this type of basket. Compare Lokaprajñapti (Derge version, p. 102).

•GAB RTSE also spelled gab tshe. Btsan-lha. See discussion in Shen-yu Lin, The Tibetan Image of Confucius, Revue d'Etudes Tibétaines 12 (March 2007) 105-129, at p. 113. gtsug lag gi gab tshe sum brgya drug cu. Sba 2 (the same phrase is in the Toling Manuscript). Stoddard, Early 4.

•GAB TSHANG In architecture, the woodpieces between the crossbeams lying on top of the main beam. See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs, figs. 3 & 4.

•GAB TSHAD SRZT 47. Text 12.

•GAB LE apparently means 'custom,' 'tradition.'

•GAB SA Deckung, Versteck. Kaschewsky2.

•GAM GOL nye 'khor. Dbus-pa no. 021.

•GAM PHYE DMAR PO man ngag gam phye dmar po a medicinal preparation. BP 183.4, 229.1, 384.2.

•GAM YO OT = nye 'khor. Blaṅ 285.3. Btsan-lha. Yisun says drung ngam nye 'gram. = nye 'khor. Lcang-skya.

•GAMS PA Eimer, Testimonia 44.

•GAR Btsan-lha.

•GAR CIG gang zhig. Dbus-pa no. 272.

•GAR GYI CHA BYAD DGU 1. sgeg pa. 2. dpa' ba. 3. mi sdug pa. 4. drag shul. 5. bzhad gad. 6. 'jigs rung. 7. snying rje. 8. rngams pa. 9. zhi ba. Bod Mkhas-pa, Snyan-ngag-gi Bstan-bcos 6v.3.

•GAR GYI NYAMS DGU sgeg pa / dpa' ba / mi sdug pa / drag shul / bzhad gad / 'jigs rung / snying rje / rngams pa / zhi ba'i nyams so. 600 124.

•GAR CIG OT = gang zhig. Blaṅ 291.6. Lcang-skya.

•GAR CHANG strong beer, stout (?). gar chang phor gang 'thungs pa lta bu'i nyams dang ma bral bar bya'o. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 268.2.

•GAR THABS See nyams brgyad.

•GAR THOD gar phrad. Gces 588.3. Btsan-lha.

•GAR MDUNG a spear used in a particular dance. Karmay, Treasury.

•GAR NAG BCU GCIG a medicinal preparation. BP 157.3.

•GAR NAG BCU PA a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 7. Lag-len 10.1. TMC 14 (23). BT 31v.1. BP 128.6, 236.6.

•GARBA OT Skt. = nga rgyal. Blaṅ 307.4.

•GAR BU [1] ball, globe. Used in an architectural description of the maṇḍala in Paṇ-chen I, Gsung-'bum II 371.5. [2] a food eaten by deities. Haarh, Yar-luṅ 215. [3] tongue. = ljags. Lcang-skya.

•GAR BLUGS Btsan-lha.

•GARBHA TSAṆṬA LI See 'ol mo se.

•GAR ZHIG gang zhig. Btsan-lha.

•GAR GZHAL Skt. hemātra. Mvy. 7755.

•GAR GZIGS "the appearance of the eyes of a painted figure seeming to follow the observer." Jackson.

•GAR YANG gang yang. Btsan-lha. Dbus-pa no. 120. Lcang-skya.

•GAR SHA See mtheb mdzub bar gyi gar sha.

•GAL a kind of trap or snare. Btsan-lha. gal nang zas la rgyug pa'i sems can de ni snying rje'i yul. Zhi-byed Coll. I 218.2.

•GAL GA Btsan-lha.

•GAL GYIS OT = nan gyis. = rgyal gyis. Blaṅ 290.5. Btsan-lha. nan gyis. Dbus-pa no. 375. = nan gyis. = rgyal gyis. Lcang-skya. nan gyis / bya [62v2] bzhag gang la yang / 'ol ci hol rgyugs la ma song ba'i nan chen po byed pa la nan gyis zhes sogs. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•GAL TA Namdak. diminutive form: gal te'u. a provisions bag made of yak hair. Samdo A III 153r.1. It is probably the same as gan ta, q.v.

•GAL TE a kind of food container. Btsan-lha. chos 'byung ba'i rgyur rkyen du sna tshogs 'gro ba'i brda ru / rten 'brel gyi gal te phyag na 'dzin. Zhi-byed Coll. II 140.3. 'khor ba la rang bzhin myed pa'i brda' ru / rten 'brel gyi gal te'i grib ma la bzhad. Ibid. II 167.1 (also, 296.4). Misunderstood by the translators as 'cloth' in Thuken 365.

•GAL BA 'gal ba. Dbus-pa no.

•GAL YA one of a pair of saddle bags.

•GAL LA See hwags.

•GAL GZUGS Btsan-lha.

•GAL BZUNG Btsan-lha. = sun 'byin. Lcang-skya.

•GAL LA Btsan-lha.

•GAS to be cracked, split. NNV.

•GAS LCAGS ZAN Tapir. LW 445. Evidently the Chinese for tapir is mo. See Kieschnick, Impact 47.

•GAS GZONG A flat engraving tool. Man LXI no. 102 (p. 83b).

•GI GU SHA enamel. LW 473.

•GI WANG Beyer 284, 291, 308, 309. See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 58. Derived from Chinese, acc. to Beyer, CT Lang. 141. ghi hang (gi wang?) zad pa'i glang po sgrog las thar. Zhi-byed Coll. I 278.3. ghi hang. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 244.3; V 296.3. = gi bam, gi'u, gi waṃ, dud 'gro'i me, sing ka la, go ro tsa na, glang chen mkhris pa. JD 78. a tree. SS 415.6. bezoar. LW 508. DG 160.1. On bezoar, a word of Persian origin, see Hobson-Jobson. The Skt. is gorocanā, acc. to Mvy. 5789. In the western world, the bezoar was most esteemed as antidote to poison.

•GI WANG DGU PA a medicinal preparation. RR 76. See ghi waṃ dgu pa.

•GI WAṂ BCU GCIG a medicinal preparation. BP 142.6, 164.1.

•GI WAṂ BCO LNGA a medicinal preparation. BP 271.5.

•GI LIN LW 508.

•GING OT Skt. from Kingka ra, q.v. Blaṅ 307.4. This word may also stand for gying, most probably a borrowing from Arabic Jinn, although Tucci didn't think so. "The Gin are the fiends of Bon mythology, which Lamaism however has accepted like all the rest. Grünwedel supposed them to be the same as the Jinn of the Arabs, but there is no foundation for such a view." Tucci, TPS 617 n. 294.

•GING CHEN Btsan-lha.

•GING PHO GING MO g.yog po dang g.yog mo. Btsan-lha.

•GING BA ging ba'i las byas sgyu ma'i dge slong la ni ltung bas gos myi 'gyur. Zhi-byed Coll. I 217.4. ging ba srog la mkhas pa'i sgyu ma'i skyes bu sdig mi sog. Zhi-byed Coll. I 220.7. I'm guessing it means executioner, or imprisoner.

•GU As in gyur cig gu, in OT, "smon pa'i tshig" [optative suffix?]. Blaṅ 285.5. mi gu. OT = mi zhum. Blaṅ 294.4.

•GU KHU LA See gu gul.

•GU GU LA See gu gul.

•GU GU SHA enamel (?). Precious Deposits IV 41-3. LW 473.

•GU GU SHA MO morel mushrooms, here interpreted as "cuckoo mushroom." Daniel Winkler, in an article in his webpage on the internet.

•GU GUL [1] frankincense (bdellium?). OT derived from gu ghu la. Blaṅ 308.4. Beyer 263, 283, 416, 461. TS7 II 1074. Daniel Potts & A. Parpola, et al., Guhlu & Guggulu, WZKM 86 (1996) 291-305, which suggests that Skt. word comes from Akkadian. = 'dre 'jigs thang chu, bgegs skrad, 'dra 'dul klu dug (sp?). JD 126. LW 453. SS 429.4 (here it is a tree, apparently the tree that produces the aromatic resin). DG 243.1. = khum bha na, bum pa can, u lu kha la, kau shi ka, ku ra, gug gul, gu khu la, bha yi sha, gu bu lu, 'dre bdud klu dug, 'dre gsod, gza' gsod, gza' dug, ljon pa'i bcud, gsod byed spyang nag, rdzas kyi phyag rdor. Indian bdellium (frankincense). Clifford, list. Anna Akasoy & Ronit Yoeli-Tlalim, Along the Musk Routes, Asian Medicine, vol. 3 (2007), pp. 217-240, at p. 233. [2] Said to be the high altitude plant Amyris agallocha, in I. Riaboff, Rituals for the Local Gods among the Bod of Paldar, Études mongoles et sibériennes, centralasiatiques et tibétaines no. 35 (2004) 184-201. [3] M.T. Google.

•GU GUL DKAR PO See spos dkar.

•GU GUL BCU GCIG a medicinal preparation. BP 192.2.

•GU GUL GNYIS YTTM 291.2.

•GU DU SPAGS Btsan-lha.

•GU PA = lkugs pa. 5 76.

•GU PU See smug stag.

•GU MA rab rib dang gu ma smra chos pa'i lugs myen no. Zhi-byed Coll. III 71.2.

•GU MI GU zhum mi zhum Btsan-lha.

•GU ZU ? Bellezza, D&B 139.

•GU YA gcin snyigs. Btsan-lha.

•GU YANGS rang 'dod dang mthun pa. Nomads 233.

•GU YANGS PA Stein.

•GU YU NYER BRGYAD a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 35. Lag-len 26.3. TMC 43 (94).

•GU RAM Perhaps a misreading for gur ma? (no, doesn't seem so!). Perhaps a contraction of gu gul & ram? pho bong gi gud na gu ram gyi chu myig gda' ste 'thung nus pa'i myi yod de myi mchi gsung. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 126.7. gu ram gyi 'dag cha la btab pa'i chus lus dag par dkrus la. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 246.3.

•GU RAS Btsan-lha.

•GU RI TSI See sle tres.

•GU RU See a ka ru. See gu rub.

•GU RU KHA See sku ru kha.

•GU RUB [1] horse. Also spelled gu ru and go ru. Btsan-lha (there is a different entry for go ru). With spelling gu rug, it is said to be an ass, or the foal of an ass. S. Hummel, On Zhang-zhung, LTWA (Dharamsala 2000), pp. 105, 108 n. 7, with alternative spellings gu ru, gu rub, gu rug, gu rum, go ru, mgo ro, gong ru, gu rug. The spelling gong ru appears in Lde'u 188, where it clearly is referring to a horse of some kind or another. [2] This appears in the name of one of the very early legendary Tibetan emperors, which is variously spelled, but here, too, it may very well mean 'steed.' In this context, the only spelling I could find in a Dunhuang text was the one in Pt 1286: Go-ru-legs Btsan-po. However, the usual spelling in the Sba-bzhed is gu ru, although go ru occurs once.

•GU LANG GSER a type of superior grade gold found at the gold field of Gu lang. Roberto Vitali has discussed it in a footnote to his paper "A Tentative Classification of the Bya ru can Kings of Zhang zhung."

•GU LING evid. a type of silk. BA 850. The Tibetan reads here "dar gu ling yug gcig." NTSP section NGA 122r.2 (here spelled 'gu ling; 'gu ling gi chos gos).

•GU LU de nas nub cig gi mnal lam na sbrul ser po cig dang / nag po cig gnyis sngun na tshur gu lu byung. 64 I 43.3.

•GU LU GU LU Verhagen, HSGL II 11. Supposedly onomatopoeic, imitating the sound of a fish gulping fruit.

•GU LU LU byed snying gu lu lu 'dod pa ni byed 'dod sha sha ra byung ba'o. Dpe-chos 509. Btsan-lha. directly.

•GU SE LANG LING n. of deity from whom the gdung families claim descent. Sources. See Toni Huber, An Obscure Word for 'Ancestral Deity' in Some East Bodish and Neighbouring Himalayan Languages & Qiang Ethnographic Records towards a Hypothesis. IN: Mark W. Post, et al., eds., Language & Culture in Northeast India & Beyond (Canberra 2015), at p. 165.

•GUG GUL See gu gul.

•GUNG [1] = dbus. BBNP 481. [2] The heavens, or the apex of the heavens. Haarh, Yar-luṅ 221. [3] the sky hole of a felt tent. sbra'i gnam khung. Nomads 233. [4] a kind of wild cat. = nags khyi. JD 237. = caracal. Karmay, Treasury. A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 293. Aris, Discourse 25 (where he thinks it is a 'jackal'). Btsan-lha. [5] duke (evidently a borrowing from Chinese, and mostly used for Chinese personages). See Thuken 333. See dgung.

•GUNG BKROS Btsan-lha.

•GUNG SKYEMS Haarh, Yar-luṅ 369. Uebach, Three 102.

•GUNG THAG sbra'i gnam khung sum byed kyi thag pa. Nomads 233.

•GUNG THUN Btsan-lha.

•GUNG PA'I PRA THANG a medicinal preparation. BP 194.5.

•GUNG BLON Called 'State Chancellor" in Precious Deposits I 90. In account of imperial times, it seems they were concerned with external affairs. ZZFC 244.

•GUNG TSHIGS See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 152.

•GUNG LA dkyil. dbus. Btsan-lha.

•GUNG LA PHUG = gung dmar la phug, se rag dur sman, lca ba. Dhongthog 58. LW 503.

•GUNG LANG evid. Shiva. tshangs pa gung lang khyab 'jug dang // brgya byin dbang phyug chen po rnams... 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) I 65.4. I believe gu lang is the more correct spelling. See Rhoton, CD 134.

•GUNG LHA gnam gyi lha. Nomads 233.

•GUNYDZA See ma ru rtse.

•GUD DU 'DONG Btsan-lha.

•GUD DU BYA Btsan-lha.

•GUD NA "apart from." bsgom bya chos nyid gud na med. Rnying Rgyud 1982 I 682.2. gud nas zhes pa logs zhig gam gzhan zhig nas. 367 II 127.3. rgud na med ni gzhan na med dang logs na med ces pa yin.

•GUD NA MED Btsan-lha. are none other than, are nothing but. Jamspal, Treasury 198.

•GUM PA Btsan-lha. shi ba. Dbus-pa no. 685. Lcang-skya.

•GUR [1] Abbreviated n. of a tantra. 75 13. T&BS I 344. [2] tent. For a discussion of varieties of Tibetan tents, see Dung-dkar 17-18, where he lists lding gur rta gzugs ma, lcog gur, dmag gur, sbra gur. It is rather puzzling, and needs explanation, that in some contexts gur is used to translate Skt. pañjara (as in Vajrapañjara, Pañjaramahākala), which should mean 'cage, aviary, skeleton' etc. M-W. Edgerton. See Lo Bue in Skorupski, ed., Indo-Tibetan Studies (Tring 1990), p. 179. Dorje Wangchuk has speculated that the Tibetan may relate to Mongolian ger. For use of the tent in funerary rituals, see discussion in Bellezza, D&B 26.

•GUR KHYUGS (coll.) outer canopy (of a tent).

•GUR KHYUNG a medicinal preparation. BP 127.2, 378.4.

•GUR KHYUNG PHYAG RDOR CAN a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 116. Lag-len 86.1. TMC 37 (78).

•GUR KHRA a variegated colored yak-hair tent, which is more portable than the sbra gur. Topgyal in TJ 23 no. 3 (1998) 44.

•GUR GUM saffron. OT derivative from Skt. kunku ma. Blaṅ 308.4. See Hobson-Jobson. True saffron & turmeric are often confused. JD 77. = kung ku maṃ, ku sumbha, dhā raṃ, (spang gi me tog) chos gos ngur smrig. YTTM 291.14. SS 416.3. LW 453, 474. saffron. TM I 50, 51. DG 155.2. TM IV 101. Clifford, list. Singh (p. 100): Skt. kuṅkuman. Crocus sativus, saffron. Fundamentals 15.3 (item 16). JD (p. 77) distinguishes five types: 1) 'birdfoot' (bya rkang ma) coming from the Vindhya range of India; slightly bluish colored. 2) Kashmiri (kha che ba), the most highly regarded for use in medicine. 3) leb rgan ma, a type of Indian gur gum which is not so fragrant, but of a very clear yellow color. 4) Nepalese, of a vermilion (li khri) color. 5) Tibetan, the least used in medicine. Dag-yig: The best comes from Spain, but Tibetan tradition calls it Kashmiri gur gum. Otherwise there is a 'herb' (rtsa gur gum) that grows in India, Nepal & Tibet which is used in medicine as a substitute for gur gum. Mdo (pp. 351-2): describes the Tibetan substitute called rtsa gur gum. For 'flower gur gum' (me tog gur gum), see under (me tog) a byag. Sylvain Lévi, Le nom chinois du safran, Journal Asiatique (March 1917), p. 358. Levey, Aromatic 402-403. There is a discussion of cognates/ borrowings in R. Yoeli-Tlalim's article "Central Asian Mélange." Discussion in ATPP 55.

•GUR GUM BRGYAD PA a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 52 (actually, 51). Lag-len 35.1. TMC 63 (140). BT 46v.3.

•GUR GUM BCU GSUM a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 30. Lag-len 23.5. TMC 42 (91). BT 48r.6. BP 179.5, 189.3, 276.6. Das, JTL&CT 134.

•GUR GUM BCO LNGA a medicinal preparation. byang lugs gur gum bco lnga. BP 368.2.

•GUR GUM CHU 'BEBS a medicinal preparation. BP 252.4.

•GUR GUM NYER LNGA a medicinal preparation. BP 205.4.

•GUR GUM MCHOG BDUN a medicinal preparation. BP 219.3.

•GUR GUM THANG a medicinal preparation. BT 8v.1.

•GUR GUM BDUN PA a medicinal preparation. RR 75, 76. TMC 51 (111). BT 26v.2. BP 161.6, 179.1. TM IV 60.

•GUR GUM GSUM YTTM 290.21.

•GUR TIG DG 247.4.

•GUR PO DANG GOR PO Btsan-lha.

•GUR BU OT = gru bzhi. Blaṅ 288.4. Btsan-lha. Lcang-skya.

•GUR MA = bu ram. "sugar cane, molasses, treacle." Kuijp (1986) 34.

•GUL GUL Btsan-lha.

•GUL NAG myrrh. LW 448. Das. Note that the gul is short for gu gul.

•GUL BA Btsan-lha.

•GUS = gus pa. a humble replacement for the first person pronoun.

•GUS GUS 'DUD 'DUD respectfully. Soundings 21.

•GUS RTAG BRTSON PA Btsan-lha.

•GE'U unknown medical ingredient mentioned in Lobsang Yongdan, "The Introduction of Edward Jenner's Smallpox Vaccination to Tibet in the Early 19th Century," Archiv Orientalni, vol. 84 (2016), pp. 577-593, at p. 584.

•GE KHOD Bonpo gods. 56 38. ge ni bdud dang / khod ni 'dul zhes pa ste don du bdud 'dul zhes pa'o. 506A 336. Btsan-lha.

•GE GE MO See che ge mo.

•GE COG thams cad. Dbus-pa no. 478.

•GE 'PHAN a clan name. Btsan-lha.

•GAI RI KA See btsag rdo.

•GE LEB shing ge leb. shing phran phan phung ngam tshang tshing. 367 II 127.2.

•GE SHAN a creature like srin po. ST. 274 I 599.4. Nine Ways 293.

•GE SAR [1] long hairs (of the flower [the anthers], or of a person). Tib. loan of Skt. ke sa ra. Blaṅ 308.5-.6. Laufer, LW 454. See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 56, 67, 91. JD 105. DG 216.3. [2] plant name. Czaja in NTFC I 109-110.

•GE SAR RNAM PA GSUM YTTM 290.15.

•GE HĀ RDO RJE NYER LNGA a medicinal preparation. BT 56v.6.

•GEN DU gam du. mdun du. Btsan-lha.

•GEN PO stobs rtsal can. Btsan-lha.

•GER MA OT = rag ma. Blaṅ 290.3. Btsan-lha. Lcang-skya.

•GER LING Btsan-lha. Also spelled gyi ling. Ge ling in the following quotes: ge ling sgrog tu bcug pa srol. Zhi-byed Coll. I 304.4. ge ling sgrog dang bral nas kun tu rgyug par rigs. Zhi-byed Coll. I 314.7.

•GEL PA OT = yal ga. Blaṅ 294.2. sdong po. Dbus-pa no. 369.

•GEL PO Btsan-lha.

•GO [1] [Skt. for] cow. On the 9 meanings of the Skt. word, see Almogi in Dorji Wangchuk, ed., Cross-Cultural Transmission of Buddhist Texts (Hamburg 2016) 13. [2] On the game of go, see Dralha Dawa Sangpo, A Survey Report on a Carved Stone Tibetan "Go" Board: Newly Found evidence of the Tibetan Culture of "Go", contained in: Erberto Lo Bue, ed., Art in Tibet, Brill (Leiden 2011), pp. 139-150.

•GO KHA thab kyi sgo. Nomads 233. Door of the oven. See illus. in Nomads 269.

•GO KHYI a lammergeier (go bo) dog, a bird believed to be found in the vulture's nest.

•GO KHRAB coat of mail, body armor.

•GO GA MA 'hearth lady.' unmarried lay religious nomad women. = go ma (Anne Klein).

•GO GAR Btsan-lha.

•GO GE PA native to Gu-ge.

•GO GYI LA See ko byi la.

•GO GRE BCU BDUN a medicinal preparation. BP 152.5.

•GO GRE BCU GSUM a medicinal preparation. BP 152.6.

•GO BGOS PA go cha gyon pa. Gser Sbram 365.

•GO BGYIS Btsan-lha.

•GO RGYA BKRAMS PA Btsan-lha.

•GO RGYU Verständnis, Gehalt. Kretsch.

•GO BRGYA BKRAM PA mi mang po phyogs phyogs su bgo bsha' byas te bkram nas tshol du bchug ces pa'o. Dpe-chos 505.

•GO NGAN Tan, Theses 105.

•GO CA OT = go cha. Blaṅ 283.3. Btsan-lha.

•GO COG [1] all. tshang ma, thams cad. Btsan-lha. = thams cad. Lcang-skya. [2] peaked headdress Bellezza in RET 42 (2017) 20.

•GO CHA Namdak. armor. go cha 'jig rten pa gon pas chos 'das pa rgyud la myi skye. Zhi-byed Coll. II 317.5. 'bras bu 'das pa 'dod pa la go cha 'jig rten pa dang 'bral dgos pa yin te. Ibid. II 321.1. This is very probably a direct borrowing of Skt. kavaca, meaning 'armor, coat of mail.'

•GO CHA'I DPA' MO DRUG English, Vajrayoginī 164.

•GO CHA GSUM (in fact 4 are listed). bzlog pa'i go cha, shes rab kyi go cha, lta ba'i go cha, 'jug pa'i go cha. Zhi-byed Coll. III 104.3 ff.

•GO CHOD qualify, have the authority. See RY. See negative form go mi chod pa.

•GO 'JO ZAS VII 474.

•GO SNYOD JD 187. SS 489.2. KP1 187.6. KP3 313.2. KP4 504.4. caraway. Dhongthog. = nyi li. YTTM 292.18. Carum carvi. Wangchuk, Bioactive 24. Caraway said to be good for eyes, but bad for knees. TDD 40.

•GO SNYOD BRGYAD a medicinal preparation. BT 50v.4.

•GO SNYOD MA See a gar dmar po.

•GO SNYOD ZUR BRGYAD See under sha sman 'khor lo.

•GO SNYOD A GAR See a gar dmar po.

•GO TAM PA'I RAS koṭambaka. A type of cloth, too fine for use in monastic robes. Silk, Dissert. 378.

•GO THAL Btsan-lha.

•GO THAL BDUN PA a medicinal preparation. BP 254.1.

•GO 'THUN Btsan-lha. = sna tshogs. Lcang-skya.

•GO DOR = ra to 'du ru. YTTM 292.2.

•GO DOR GSUM YTTM 290.22.

•GO 'DUN OT = tshogs shing 'du ba, = sna tshogs. = gang mos. Blaṅ 289.2, 290.2. Btsan-lha. Dbus-pa no. 230. = gang mos. = tshogs shing 'du ba. Lcang-skya. Discussion of this in Philologia Tibetica, December 22, 2016.

•GO 'DED Btsan-lha.

•GO BRDĀL A Tibetan spelling for the Persian word Khodā, 'god,' used in Kha che Pha lu's famous work.

•GO PAN rol mo. gri leb thung ba. Btsan-lha. Translated as 'hangings' in ZZFC 239. Ear level lines to ribbons (?). Bellezza in RET 42 (2017) 22.

•GO PUL CHE go ba che ba. nus stobs che ba. Btsan-lha.

•GO BA [1] a mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 297. [2] cause to understand, explain, convince, give an accounting. Schopen in IIJ 44 (2001) 111.

•GAU BĀ NĪ See rgun 'brum.

•GO BA LHANG BA Btsan-lha.

rtsib ma'i GO BAR DD illus. 7.

•GO BI cabbage. LW 531.

•GO BER phu rung med pa'i gos zla gam. Btsan-lha.

•GO BO lammergeier. = thang dkar. = nam mkhar ring 'phur. JD 240. SS 536.6.

•GO BYI BDUN PA a medicinal preparation. BT 49r.6.

•GO BYI LA = ma nu khrag can, ma nu bse shing, bse 'bras. JD 90. LW 457. Note go bye in YTTM 291.21. gi bye in SS 429.1 (here it is a tree). = ldum stag. SS 458.6. = pa ta la ka, bhal lā ta ka, bhai la ba. DG 198.4. For an article on bhallātaka, balādhur, or 'Marking Nut,' used as a drug against forgetfulness, see Gerrit Bos in BSOAS 59 (1996) 229-236. Despite the similar sounding name, I very much doubt this has anything to do with the "goji berries" sold as a health supplement these days, but should look into it more (they are marketed as 'Tibetan' but don't actually come from Tibet).

•GO BYED 'khar gsil dang shes par byed.

•GO 'BYED nam mkha' ste gzugs gzhan go bar 'byed pa'i phyir ro go skabs 'byed po. Example of usage in Lde'u 111, but here the emphasis seems to be on the space that divides things from each other (and not on 'openness' per se).

•GO MAG See Stearns, King 96, where it is translated "adoptive bridegroom." See under mag pa.

•GO MI CHOD PA incapable, incapacitated, indecisive.

•GO MO DA DG 83.2.

•GO MTSHON armourer. Sources.

•GO MTSHON SNA DGU Namdak.

•GO ZHUB Btsan-lha.

•GO ZU a black silk dress. Norbu, Drung 94.

•GO BZLOG PA A 'law-reversal' that occurs every 12 years in Mustang when the village constitutions are reviewed and changed through mutual agreement (Charles Ramble).

•GO YU betel nut, areca nut. Aris, Discourse 31. = go 'bras, [shing] pa ṭha. JD 99. LW 457. DG 210.4. Areca palm, betel. Dhongthog. See under rwa rnyi. Areca catechu. Wangchuk, Bioactive 24.

•GO YU DGU SBYOR a medicinal preparation. BP 224.2, 369.5.

•GO YU BDE BA'I DPAG BSAM a medicinal preparation. BP 293.1.

•GO YUL (Dbus, Gtsang) = sa cha, place, space. MTTP. Btsan-lha.

•GO YO go 'o. Btsan-lha.

•GO RA enclosure, fenced-in area, prison, etc. [1] OT deriv. from Skt. go la. = zlum po. Blaṅ 309.3. OT = btson ra. Skt. bhandhagara. Blaṅ 294.2. btson ra. Dbus-pa no. 363. Lcang-skya. ra ba. Gces 587.3. Btsan-lha. [2] (Amdo) = sha bag leb, small wheat loaf filled with meat. MTTP. [3] Also called go kha, it is a kind of low-walled area in front of the lower opening of the stove proper (it's meant to hold the ashes scraped out of the oven). See Nomads 269. rtsis dang go rar mi chud pa. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 250.4.

•GO RA BA Nāgārjuna's Prajñādaṇḍa, verse 113. See Hahn in Archiv Orientalni LXXXI (2003) 529, where it is understood as standing for the proper name Kaurava (?).

•GO RU See gu ru, gung ru, gu rub, etc.

•GO RE OT = rdzogs pa. Skt. purna. Blaṅ 292.6. Btsan-lha. (In Amdo) 'bread, cake.' T&BS I 355. rdzogs par. Dbus-pa no. 311. = rdzogs pa. Lcang-skya.

•GO RE LONG OT = gad byed pa. Blaṅ 305.3. Btsan-lha. lag g.yog. Dbus-pa no. 728. = lag g.yog. = gad byed pa. Lcang-skya.

•GO RO TSA NA See gi wang. Part of a brief pill recipe. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 31.1.

•GO ROG = bya rog. "crow, raven." Kuijp (1986) 34.

•GO LA [1] Generally, a globe or anything globular. "Globe," from Sanskrit guda ('globe, ball'), and of course Skt. gola ('ball, globe'). See Vai.Dkar. 437 I 28.1. Discussion in Decleer, Tragkar verse 7. See Gavin Kilty's translation, Mirror of Beryl, p. 64, and n. 136. [2] Betel nut. Chag 84, 97. Mentioned in Zhi-byed Coll. IV 160.2 among food items not known in Tibet. See discussion in Cantwell & Mayer in Anthony Aris vol., p. 112. [3] In Namdak, Bzo-rig 90 ff., it is a general term for armor, including helmet, body armor and iron fortified boots.

•GO LAB Btsan-lha.

•GO LE SOS DAL ga le sos dal mo zhes pa yin. Dpe-chos 503. Btsan-lha.

•GO LEB See under rwa rnyi.

•GO LO (Gtsang) = lang tsho, beauty. MTTP.

•GO LOB Btsan-lha. kha zer tsam. Dbus-pa no. 749.

•GO LOR Btsan-lha.

•GO LOS = kha zer tsam. Lcang-skya. Compare go lob.

•GO SHIR ṢA See tsan dan dkar po.

•GO SA position. Besides the usual meaning, which is 'rank,' it may also refer to a position in space, an occupied space (of something).

•GO GSAL PHYED PA Btsan-lha.

•GOG [1] to crawl. to fall down, peel off (from the wall). [2] to fall out (teeth, box bottoms, handles). [3] to cough up (phlegm). NNV.

•GOG PO Stein. 367 I 236. bla ma'i chags gog po cig spyi bor blangs pa bsod nams che ba yin. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 63.3.

•GOG TSAM phru gu bsgur nas 'gro ba. Btsan-lha.

•GONG DKAR G.YU BYA See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 51.

•GONG NGA = gong ba. 'collar.'

•GONG NGE GONG ? Lde'u 236. Perhaps this has to do with lgong nge, which is supposed to mean perfectly white [said of marble stone].

•GONG RJES (Wohl für; gong ma'i rjes su). dem Herrscher folgend oder: oberster Herr. Kaschewsky2.

•GONG THAG Brustriemen, Umriemen (beim Pferd). Kretsch.

•GONG DU PHUD verbindlich, unabdingbar, unumgänglich. Kretsch.

•GONG NAS GONG DU more and more.

•GONG NON gong non zhes pa dbyibs gru bzhi mtha' rgyan dang dkyil du dga' 'khyil gyi ri mo sogs yod pa che rab cig zur ltebs byas te gos kyi phyi yi thog nas bgos te bsdams pa zhig yod pa la 'dod do snyam. Namdak, Bzo-rig 78.

•GONG 'PHEL SNANG BA See snang bzhi.

•GONG BA Stein. collars (not allowed for monastics). Rhoton, CD 71.

•GONG BA 'DZIN PA See brag skya ha bo.

•GONG MA Stein.

•GONG MA BKUN PA OT = the tshom med pa. Blaṅ 289.3.

•GONG MA SREG partridge. Banerjee, Sarvāstivāda Literature 234.

•GONG MED don med. Gces 585.4.

•GONG MO 367 I 233. grouse (the bird). Norbu, Drung 113, 262, n. 55. A red-beaked meadow bird. Samdo A V 52v.3. white grouse. Huber, Pure Crystal 256 n. 57. In a list of wild carnivores in Pha-dam-pa dang Ma-cig (PRC 1992) 438. JD 224. SS 538.2. The English version of Yisun says it's the Tibetan snowcock (Tetragallus tibetanus).

•GONG 'DZIN See gong ba 'dzin pa.

•GONG LAG collar. Karmay, Treasury.

•GONG SA See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 45n. Supposed to be a calque of a Chinese term; see Laufer, LW 446.

•GOD god du ma chud pas. Would not be used up elsewhere. Here it seems god is just an OT spelling for gud. Dotson, D&L 56.

•GOD KHA loss (e.g. sudden loss of cattle). Skorupski, TA.

•GOD DU CHUD PA steal from a house or treasury (burglery?). grong du chud pa. Btsan-lha.

•GOD 'DU SHA phrase occurring in Dunhuang version of a sūtra, in place of the later version's ras bcos bu. Silk, Dissert. 378.

•GOD PA [1] exhaust, waste away, bring to low point, make to dwindle (resources, especially livestock). = 'phri ba. 367 II 127.3. [2] ma god pa (in the negative), = ris med. Namdak.

•GOD MA Btsan-lha.

•GOD TSHABS CHE BA god tshabs che ba ni shor god che ba'o. Dpe-chos 514.

•GOD LAN Btsan-lha. OZZ 116.

•GON clothes, gown (a word of Middle English roots). I believe both this and gos ('cloth, clothing') are related to the verb 'go ba, with meaning to stick all over, to envelope.

•GON KHA (Dbus, Gtsang) = gon 'dog, wearing with reluctance. MTTP.

•GOB 'bur gyi ldog cha ste (added drawing). The opposite of protruding relief (groove, engraving?). Nomads 233.

•GOB LON bya sla ba le lo byas pa. Btsan-lha. = bya sla. Lcang-skya.

•GOB LOB See gab be gob be. Btsan-lha.

•GOM PA step, stride. As in: gom pa bor ba, to take strides (usually bor ba means to abandon, leave behind or throw away).

•GOMS PA to habituate oneself to something, to apply oneself, to get used to something, to practice something, to get acclimatized.

•GOR BU Btsan-lha. gla bzhi. stan zlum. zlum po. Dbus-pa nos. 170, 638, 741. = gru bzhi. = stan zlum. Lcang-skya. Diemberger, dBa' bzhed 52 (here they guess it means 'horse'). Bellezza, L&T 37 note 15, translates it as 'magical equid' (i.e., horse).

•GOR MA Hon. for rdo. stone. Blaṅ 312.2, 516.3. Btsan-lha, with still other meanings. rdo ba. Dbus-pa no. 626. = rdo ba. = rdo. Lcang-skya. rag ma / rag dang zangs zhes pa'i rag gam / dpe 'gar rags ma yod pas / rags kyi phyi mo lta bur rags ma zer ba sogs. Dalai Lama VII, Yig. Bellezza, D&B 136 (smra gor, smra gor rdo).

•GOR MA BKUM PA Btsan-lha. = the tshom med pa. Lcang-skya.

•GOR MA CHAG PA without doubt. OT = the tshom med pa. Blaṅ 289.2. Dbus-pa no. 196. = the tshom med pa. Lcang-skya.

•GOR MO OT = sdang sems. Skt. krodha. Blaṅ 293.3. Btsan-lha. = stang sems. Lcang-skya.

•GOR TSAN DAN See shug pa. See sgron shing.

•GOR RTSE Btsan-lha.

•GOR BRTSAMS Glossed as brtsogs 'grus in Bsam-gtan Mig Sgron 166.3.

•GOR SHI SHA Skt. gośīrṣa. = ba glang mgo (ox head), a particular type of white sandalwood. BBNP 469. tsan dan gyi nags bzangs na / gor shi sha bya ba yod de / de'i mtha' ma na de bas zhan pa'i tsan dan gyis skor nas yod skad. Zhi-byed Coll. I 436.5.

•GOL see gol sa.

•GOL MA Btsan-lha.

•GOL SHOR Stein.

•GOL SA "turnoffs" on the road to Enlightenment, "side-tracks." = lam gol (Skt. unmārga), taking the wrong way. Perhaps = Skt. vivarta, to turn away, go astray. Or, utpatha or vipatha, wrong route.

•GOL SA NYI SHU RTSA GSUM Almogi, MA thesis 167.

•GOL SA DRUG Explained in comm. to Klong-chen-pa 5.7.

•GOL SA BZHI Bka'-ma Rgyas-pa XVII 432.4. gzung 'dzin ma spangs na kha lta yin pas gol / nyon mongs ma spangs na ming gi sgom chen yin pas gol / phyogs ris ma spangs na spyod pa tshul 'chos yin pas gol / bya ba ma thongs na skye bo tha mal yin pas gol lo. Bka'-gdams Glegs-bam 38v.4.

•GOL SA GSUM Listed in Bsam-gtan Mig Sgron 437.4.

•GOL SGRIB SUM CU Almogi, MA thesis 167.

•GOS [1] robe, clothing. Skt. vastra. Mvy. 5846. This word is probably borrowed from Persian, although possibly borrowed indirectly, through Uighur or Chinese. At the same time, I'm sure it is related to the verb 'go ba. [2] cloth, or sometimes more specifically silk.

•GOS SKU thang kas made with cloth. There are 4 types, according to the art history by Dkon-mchog-bstan-'dzin, Bzo-gnas 134-5. The first, dras drub kyi gos sku, is a thang ka made by sewing cloth pieces onto a paper backing, on which the design has been placed. This is also called lhan drug gos sku. The second is like the first only it has stuffing inside the cloth pieces like a quilt. It is called gos sku 'bur ma. For the third, see under 'tshem thang (also called by some gtsags sku). The fourth, 'thag thang, is one in which the picture is entirely pre-woven into the cloth (like those mass-produced ones nowadays, which are not highly esteemed).

•GOS KHYUD dhoti. Vitali, Tho.ling 71.

•GOS KHRUMS PA Btsan-lha.

•GOS SNGON CAN 1. Phyag rdor. 2. stobs bzang. 3. gza' spen pa. Blaṅ 527.

•GOS CAN See tsandan.

•GOS PO Btsan-lha.

•GOS BOR BLANGS Btsan-lha.

•GOS RAL GA Btsan-lha. See under ral ga.

•GOS RIS (gold) brocade designs. Jackson.

•GYA GYU Flick, Carrying Enemies 78.

•GYA GYUR 'GRO 1. du bu. 2. sbrul. 3. chu. Blaṅ 527.

•GYA CAN spu gra can. Nomads 233.

•GYA GCIG TU Btsan-lha.

•GYA NYES Namdak. Btsan-lha.

•GYA STON [1] Short for Brgyad cu gya ston (?). A celebration of the 80th birthday (important in eastern Tibet).

•GYA THO OT = rna rgyan. Blaṅ 294.5. Btsan-lha. Lcang-skya. Have seen it spelled gya do.

•GYA NOM PA OT = phun sum tshogs pa. Blaṅ 287.4. Btsan-lha. Dbus-pa no. 127. Lcang-skya. Skt. praṇīta. Negi. Edgerton defines the Skt. as meaning (of food or Dharma) excellent, superior, distinguished, first-class.

•GYA NOM SNANG BA OT = yod pa. = legs pa. Blaṅ 287.4.

•GYA PA Btsan-lha.

•GYA BA OT = nyams pa. Blaṅ 285.2. Dbus-pa no. 014. Lcang-skya. Btsan-lha. rgyal pos lung bu'i spyod pa byas na gya ba bzhin no. Zhi-byed Coll. V 135.6. bzod pa'i pha rol tu phyin pa dang gya ba ngan chung nye. Zhi-byed Coll. V 507.1.

•GYA MA GYU onomat. for sound of crashing thunder. Noble Mountaineer 267.

•GYA MA DO Stein. Btsan-lha.

•GYA TSOM OT = ma brtags pa. Blaṅ 286.5. Btsan-lha.

•GYA TSHOM Btsan-lha.

•GYA TSHOM PA = ma brtags pa. Lcang-skya.

•GYA YA Btsan-lha.

•GYA LOG Btsan-lha, where it seems to be a kind of skilful method involving saying (or doing) the opposite of what you mean to (or ought to mean). I think it means something like 'reverse psychology.' skam thag chu nang du gcod pa 'khor 'das gya log gi gnad 'di cha myed. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 129.6 (similar, V 396.7). gya log gnad kyi skor (title in Zhi-byed Coll. III 72.1). skam thag chu nang du gcod par byed pa gya log gi gnad 'di ltos cig ces bstan no. Zhi-byed Coll. II 72.7. bya log gi gdams pa 'di grub pa'i mtha' gzhan la cha med pa'o. Zhi-byed Coll. V 264.2. 'khor 'das gya log gdams pa'i gnad. Zhi-byed Coll. V 286.2. 'dir tshogs mi 'grub pa'i dus su bsags na che ba gya log gi mtshang bla ma'i man ngag go. Zhi-byed Coll. V 467.7. It's possible this is related (or the 'same' as) the rare term ja log, found in Rnying-ma works. As it occurs in some titles of medical works it is sometimes spelled bya log and ja log, also.

•GYAG PA OT = brlag pa. Blaṅ 285.2. Dbus-pa no. 016. Btsan-lha. Lcang-skya.

•GYANG A part of a house construction. The walls. See Dag-yig 67. Rammed-earth/shuttered-earth walls (walls made by packing wet earth, clay and stone between wooden forms, as in modern cement construction). ZZFC 47. I imagine this is an interchangeable spelling for rgyang, q.v. BLKC I 40 ff.

•GYANG SKOR circumvallation, surrounding wall. Yisun says it means a wall surrounding a house or town. Perhaps the gyang 'khor of Lde'u 348 is a mistaken spelling for this? (you can see khu sgra in place of the normally spelled ku sgra on the very same page). Per Sørensen, in his Tibetan Buddhist Historiography: The Mirror Illuminating the Royal Genealogies, Harrassowitz (Wiesbaden 1994), p. 210 translates it as pisé-wall, which I guess means a rammed-earth wall (or does it mean adobe?).

•GYANG NGE GYONG NGE (deriv. from gyong po, obstinate) = gyang gyong, obstinately. Soundings 28.

•GYANG CHAGS PA gesegnet, gedeihlich. Kaschewsky 82.

•GYANG TO Haarh, Yar-luṅ 381.

•GYANG RDO kho bos cig las ma mthong ste / bsam yas kyi gyang rdo tsam cig snang. Zhi-byed Coll. V 226.5.

•GYANG RA Stein. 367 I 234.3.

•GYAD [1] hero. The same word with same meaning exists in Old Chinese. Coblin, Sinologist's 93. According to Guillaume Jacques, in an email, the Chinese word would have been pronounced gjet. [2] stobs. Dbus-pa no. 212.

•GYAD GYID Btsan-lha.

•GYAD DO sna brgyan. Dbus-pa no. 385.

•GYAM PA See under gram kha.

•GYAM SHING [1] OT = rol mo. Blaṅ 297.1. [2] = rgyam shing, a type of horse. TS7 II 614.

•GYAR (to be away from station, as they say in India) "to be at" (a place other than your usual one).

•GYAL BA Btsan-lha. gdangs pa. Dbus-pa no. 221.

•GYAS = byas. "made." Kuijp (1986) 34.

•GYI GRAN ZZ 'enemy, impediments' Bru 155.2.

•GYI LCE See kyi lce.

•GYI 'DA' "so ma lhug pa gyi 'da' tsam//" Rnying Rgyud I 668.2.

•GYI NA mean, vulgar, ordinary. dman pa. tha shal pa. Dagyab. ma brtar. dman pa. Dbus-pa nos. 087, 171. dman pa. Lcang-skya. ma chad tsam ngan ngon tsam. Rtse-le VIII 428. go cha dang po gyi na tsam la bslab / dngos po gyi na tsam la bslabs pas. Zhi-byed Coll. II 13.4. gyi na dngos po bden myed du 'khyer bar bya'o. Ibid. II 24.3. brtson 'grus gyi na nas slongs. Ibid. II 430. bla ma'i bka' stsald gyi na la gdam ngag tu mthong nas nges shes skye zhes pa ni. Ibid. V 62.6 (also, 63.2). tshe 'dir rang don 'ba' zhig las gzhan don gyi na cig kyang mi byed pas / rab byung gi dgos pa stor ba'o. Zhi-byed Coll. V 83.6. dngos po gyi na las med kyang yongs su gtong ba'i blo yod pa de 'byor ldan yin. Zhi-byed Coll. V 270.2. Schaeffer, Dissert. 233 (Schaeffer, Dreaming 107) notes a line in a Dohā: gyi na rig byed bzhi dag 'don. He says gyi na renders eva hi, and translates [They] vainly recite the four Vedas. brda' gyi na cig bstand pa 'di yin. Zhi-byed Coll. V 414.2. sngo rngad la sogs pa gyi na tsam gyis 'tshor bar bya zhing... 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) I 103.4, 353.1. There is an interesting, but difficult, relationship between this term gyi na and the term of similar meaning na ya (sometimes one even counters gyi na ya, which makes it confusing!).

•GYI NA BA tha mal pa. Dagyab. See Yisun.

•GYI NAR See Chandra.

•GYI NAR BOR BA Btsan-lha. For an example of usage, see Hahn, IE lxxxi, at note 46.

•GYI NAS Prob. just instrumental case of gyi na, q.v. Chandra gives the sentence from the Spyod-'jug: bdag ni kha zas gyi nas kyang / nyams dang ldan zhing 'tsho bar shog.

•GYI LING See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs 116. Have seen this spelled kyi ling. A type of horse. TS7 II 614. bye thang la gyi ling gi sgrog khrol. Zhi-byed Coll. II 229.5. Although surely meant to indicate a superior type of horse, it is still interesting to consider, as Berounsky does (in his article "Wind-Horse Galloping," p. 194) that it is related to the Chinese 'unicorn' called Qi-lin. B. Laufer, Loan-words in Tibetan, p. 508: "222. gi-liṅ, listed by Jäschke as 'a fabulous animal' after Klaproth's Description du Tubet (p. 157). We further have the transcriptions gi-liṅ ("strong-bodied, durable horse") and gyi-liṅ mentioned in rGyal-rabs as an excellent breed of horses. In the Pol.D. the names of the eight famous steeds of Mu Wang and other designations of horses are rendered into Tibetan by means of the word gyi-liṅ. The French Dict. (p. 152) notes also a variant ger-liṅ. Transcription of Chinese *gi-lin (k'i-lin) X X. In the Hua i yi yü, Tibetan gi-lin is identified with this Chinese term."

•GYING 208 I 310.1. See Shākya-mchog-ldan, Works VII 213.3. See under ging.

•GYING GONG zhi pa [zhi ba?]. Dbus-pa no. 748. = zhi ba. Lcang-skya.

•GYIN GONG Btsan-lha.

•GYIN Also, gyin 'dar. OT = dman pa. = don med. = rang bzhin pa. Blaṅ 288.4-.5.

•GYIN TA rgyus med. rgyu rkyen med pa. Btsan-lha. = rgyu med. Lcang-skya.

•GYIN DA rgyu med. Dbus-pa no. 448.

•GYIN 'DA' rang bzhin. Dbus-pa no. 192.

•GYIN 'DAR Btsan-lha.

•GYIN 'DAS = rang bzhin. Lcang-skya.

•GYIB SHING See sngon bu.

•GYIM PO Btsan-lha.

•GYIM SHING Btsan-lha. = rol mo. Lcang-skya.

•GYIM SHIR rol mo. Dbus-pa no. 498.

•GYU GOD god kha. Nomads 233.

•GYU BA OT = bkur ba. Blaṅ 296.3. Btsan-lha. bkru ba. Dbus-pa no. 460. = bkru ba. = skabs la lar nga rgyal can la zer. Lcang-skya.

•GYU RU LUGS Btsan-lha.

•GYUR [1] srog chags bye brag pa zhig. [2] when used as a substantive, 'penalty, interest' (talk by Tsuguhito Takeuchi, Paris 2008). interest (on an overdue loan). Dotson, D&L 28, 69. [3] used to qualify the actions of the otter, interpreted as 'lively' or 'winding himself,' 'clumsy maneuvering.' OZZ 115, 117.

•GYUR TA RE = gyur 'ong. BBNP 475. Btsan-lha. gyur par nges zhes pa'i don. Gser Sbram 359. Example of usage in Lde'u 57.

•GYUR DUG SRZT 133.

•GYUR 'DED PA the one pursuing the interest, the lender. Dotson, D&L 69.

•GYUR MO NYA a fish. 4 225.3.

•GYUR BU Btsan-lha.

•GYUR MID khyur mid. Btsan-lha.

•GYE gye / bod sgra kye dang don gcig. Gser Sbram 11.

•GYE GED ancestral clan gods of western Tibet. KWT 82.

•GYE NING gzhes ning. Btsan-lha.

•GYED = byed. "make." Kuijp (1986) 34.

•GYED 'GYUR = byed par 'gyur. "will make." Kuijp (1986) 35.

•GYEN RGYU 1. me. 2. rtsa ba'i rlung lnga'i bye brag. Blaṅ 527.

•GYEN LDOG 'revolting, uprising. Goldstein. Text 3.

•GYEN PO Btsan-lha.

•GYEN BZLOGS PA 'to vomit.' Das.

•GYEN LOG [1] [modern] rebels, overthrowers (of the power holders in Cultural Revolution times). Tsering Shakya, Dragon 327. An early Red Guard movement in Tibet took this name, with its main support from Red Guards from China and lower to middle ranking cadres. [2] [classical] = gyen ldog. dma' sa nas mtho sar g.yo 'gul byed pa'i don te: rlung gyen ldog / rba rlabs gyen ldog / dbugs gyen ldog lta bu / Dag-yig. Any kind of upward agitation from a low to a high place, as in the rising of wind, waves or breath.

•GYEN SLONG Btsan-lha.

•GYER SGOM See discussion in Stein's article on Zhang-zhung, at p. 241 (he also discusses gyer). Jinpa, Mind Training 356 (& note).

•GYER SPUNGS zhang skad de / gyer ni bon spungs ni ston pa ste bon gyi ston pa zhes pa'o. 506A 338.

•GYER PO Skt. paṭu. dexterous, clever, skilful. Mvy. no. 2909.

•GYER MO apparently means 'song' in 73 420.6, 421.1.

•GYER TSE ZZ = bon log. See dun-tse.

•GYER LING rta mchog. Btsan-lha.

•GYES MDO dividing point[s]. Lde'u 380.

•GYO DUM (ceramic) shards. rin chen gling na gram sag gyo dum myed. Zhi-byed Coll. I 276.3. dper na sgyu ma'i gzhi shing bu dang sde'u gyo dum dang spre bzhug la sogs pa la mi'i dngos po cung zad kyang ma grub. Zhi-byed Coll. V 412.7.

•GYO MO shards of pottery. IN Pabongka, Liberation I 171. rin po che'i do shal bkrol nas lus kyi brgyan du gyo mo'i 'phang lo 'degs pa cig mthong. Zhi-byed Coll. II 254.1. JD 63. SS 533.3. When people only live 10 years, they will see even these as weapons, acc. to Lokaprajñapti (Derge version, p. 94). Blue Annals 850.

•GYO RAL Btsan-lha. sa zhag. Dbus-pa no. 589.

•GYOG Btsan-lha.

•GYOG GE Btsan-lha.

•GYOG CHEN Btsan-lha.

•GYONG khe gyong. Gces 584.5. [acting] tough. BHBW 352.

•GYONG BSKUR We also find gyong bkur & gyong la bskur. to pare down to the bare necessities. gyong lto gos la bkur nas ched du myi 'chal. he pared down his food and clothing to the bare necessities and didn't deliberately look for them. Zhi-byed Coll. II 143.4.

•GYONG KHEB Stein.

•GYONG KHYENGS gyong khyengs nang du langs pa'i mi la phyin gnod byed... Zhi-byed Coll. V 506.6.

•GYONG GRUGS Btsan-lha.

•GYONG BO rod bu. Gces 589.6.

•GYONG RAL OT = sa zhag. Blaṅ 299.1. Btsan-lha. Lcang-skya. sa zhag / shed bu dang [63v3] shed las kyis sa zhag zos zhes pa lta bu yin la li shi'i gur khang bris ma 'gar gyo ral zhes yod shing thag ni cog / ras gur rang shong la cog pu dang shing sogs kyi gsol stegs la cog tse dang / yod do cog sogs. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•GYOD BTAB Namdak.

•GYOD BDAL Btsan-lha.

•GYOD LA BSGRIN PA Btsan-lha.

•GYOD SA BKRI Btsan-lha.

•GYON PO rtsal 'gran pa zer ba 'dra. Dpe-chos 515.

•GYON RLAN LNGA THANG a medicinal preparation. BT 6v.3.

•GYON SLONG BDUN THANG a medicinal preparation. 'bam sel gyon slong bdun thang. BT (recipe on p. inserted after 32r).

•GYOL to get lame.

•GYOL POR GYUR Btsan-lha.

•GYOS PO father-in-law. Skt. śvaśura, śvacūra. Mvy. 3893. Example of usage in Lde'u 300.

•GYOS MO mother-in-law.

•GRA [1] a clan name. Btsan-lha. [2] corner, piece. [3] the tips of animal hairs, distinguished from the part of the fur called the khul.

•GRWA an alternative spelling for gru, 'corner.'

•GRWA SKOR a monk tour. This was a practice generally done by a monk who has completed most or his training. He would go to learn about other monastic courses of study besides his own, perhaps debate with members of other monasteries and receive teachings from them.

•GRWA BSKOR DAM BCA' 'defense during a scholastic tour.' Dreyfus, Sound 140.

•GRA KHANG variant reading for brang khang. BBNP 478.

•GRA GRU Btsan-lha.

•GRWA RGYUN monk flow. Havnevik, Dissertation 285. new [monastic] recruit. Dreyfus, Sound 56.

•GRWA CHUNG tr. as 'pouch' in Stearns, SR 33.

•GRA THOG PA = tsam pa ka. YTTM 291.26.

•GRWA DAG PA Btsan-lha.

•GRWA SPYI Vitali, Tho.ling 139.

•GRWA PHUD tr. as 'sack' in Stearns, SR 33.

•GRWA PHOR monk's tea-bowl. Illus. in Yisun.

•GRA BA supposed to be an equivalent to ra ba, q.v. Btsan-lha.

•GRA MA name for pigs and fish during the year after their birth. T&BS II 278. Good, noble. A type of thorn tree. Btsan-lha. SS 481.2.

•GRA MA BCAG N. of a horseback riding feat. Khenrap in TJ 25 no. 4 (2000) 58, "breaking the wild awn plant."

•GRA TSHA ? TS7 I 182.

•GRA 'DZUM Stein.

•GRWA ZHING a monk field (a field of sufficent size to finance the upkeep of a monk).

•GRAG MGO STAN See drag mgo bstan.

•GRAGS PA [1] known. [2] Skt. yaṣas. fame. EoB VIII 783-784. [3] credible. Thuken 335.

•GRAGS 'OS MA Btsan-lha.

•GRAGS G.YER snyan grags. Nomads 234.

•GRANG rung. Btsan-lha. dri ba'am the tshom ston byed kyi tshig grogs brda rnying zhig. Gser Sbram 225. Examples of usage in Toh. no. 217 (Śrīgupta Sūtra), p. 547.5 ff. In same work (p. 559.4 etc.) we see that this has an interesting usage with the negative. Here mi bsnyad grang must mean 'would be likely (or liable) to tell,' and mi bsad grang, 'would be likely to be killed.'

•GRANG MKHRIS SRZT 16. Text 7. Lag-len 271.4.

•GRANG CHAL Btsan-lha.

•GRANG CHU Lag-len 278.2.

•GRANG RNYOGS unstable cold disorders. Text.

•GRANG NAD Text 36.

•GRANG BA Bhattacharya, LW 353, no. 11, suggests a connection with Indic vernacular terms like ṭhaṇḍa.

•GRANG SEL NYI MA'I DKYIL 'KHOR a medicinal preparation. BT 52r.6.

•GRANG SRIN Text 36, 65.

•GRANGS CHU Lag-len (text no. 11, item 17), says: One of the two categories of dmu chu [q.v.]. The symptoms are as for general phlegm disorders (bad kan). The urine is a bluish color and soft foam gradually fills the container. The swelling itself, tender and peeling, generally increases gradually from the lower part of the body.

•GRANGS MED This is the number '1' with 59 zeros after it, making 60 'places.' This precisely corresponds to novemdecillion, as a writer for "lotsawaschool" blog pointed out. Perhaps the most elegant English version I can come up with is 'inestimable' [eons]. In translating Lde'u, I translated it as eons without numbering, although I guess more intelligible in English would be eons of incalculable duration.

•GRANGS MED GSUM the three eons beyond numbering, three inestimable eons. This is most generally regarded as the length of time it takes to traverse the Mahāyāna Path to Enlightenment

•GRANGS YIG PA a position in a scriptorium, charged with numbering the pages (acc. to Kurtis Schaeffer, forthcoming work on Bu-ston).

•GRAN = dgra. enemy, opponent, antagonist. Karmay, Treasury.

•GRAB In architecture, the cross-wood over the rafters. See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs, fig. 3.

•GRAB RGYAGS Btsan-lha.

•GRABS "fast" (auf Deutsch). ZAS VII 474.

•GRABS BYAS PA chu lud sogs grabs byas nas 'debs pa'i don no. Dpe-chos 513.

•GRABS YUL sta gon (preparatory stage of rituals, etc.).

•GRAM jag ma. Gces 586.2.

•GRAM KHA thog mar blo sbyong gi mchan du gtam rgyud 'di'i skabs la gram kha zhes 'byung ba ni gzhung chu 'gro sa yul skad la gyam pa zer ba de'o. Dpe-chos 506.

•GRAM GRUM Nishida, TTDD 145.

•GRAM PA skabs 'dir chu 'gram gyi gad pa. Dpe-chos 507.

•GRAM RUNGS Nishida, TTDD 145.

•GRAM SAG water smoothed shore pebbles. rin chen gling na gram sag gya dum myed. Zhi-byed Coll. I 276.3.

•GRAL THABS order of rank. Dotson, D&L 57.

•GRAL DPON See BA 440. Perhaps this is khral dpon?

•GRAS MKHAN a job in a scriptorium. collator (acc. to Kurtis Schaeffer, forthcoming work on Bu-ston).

•GRAS PA lan kan. gcun pa. Btsan-lha.

•GRI [1] knife, dagger. Surely related to Tangut khji (related to Tangut verb to cut), meaning 'dagger' (the gri/gyi alternation occurs in O.T. texts). [2] as 2nd element in a two-syllable compound, "death by" [whatever]. Used for any kind of untimely death, such as 'death by horse,' or rta gri, q.v.

•GRI SKOR dper na rgya gar gyi gri skor mkhan po des. Zhi-byed Coll. I 444.2.

•GRI KHUG Btsan-lha.

•GRI'I 'KHOR LO The gate to the cavern called Śantapuri is guarded by a 'wheel of swords.' See Ehrhard, Old & New 112.

•GRI GU It ought to be a word for 'small knife,' but not in this example: yang rdo rje gdan gyi gri gu na bud med cig gis... HS V 409.5.

•GRI GUG hooked knife. I suppose the word for 'hook' could actually be related to the English word 'hook' (kôg in Indo-European). See Tsung-tung Chang, Indo-European Vocabulary in Old Chinese, Sino-Platonic Papers (Jan. 1988) 25.

•GRI'I DNGO Btsan-lha.

•GRI GCONG Essen Catalog 61.

•GRI LCAGS Säbel. Kaschewsky 82.

•GRI'I LCUGS Btsan-lha.

•GRI CHAD knife penalty (fine for unsheathing a knife or sword). Sources.

•GRI THO =dri tho. A ritual construction. Bellezza, D&B 139, 152 (dri do).

•GRI 'DUR (with verb) to perform the posthumous evocation ritual of the killed. Karmay, Treasury.

•GRI BO NGAS Btsan-lha.

•GRI BSHAD a genre of literature celebrating the sword and its parts. See Charles Ramble's essay "The Victory Song of Porong."

•GRI SEG 4 76A.2. This probably means a whetstone (seg brdar / se gdar, seg dar) for knives (gri).

•GRIB See discussion in Epstein, Dissertation 90 ff.

•GRIB SBYANG (or grib spyang) see under 'jib spyang. These 'spirit helpers' may be therio- or anthropomorphic.

•GRIB SMYO 'pollution madness.' A morbid fear of polluting objects, characterized by paralysis and/or chronic illness. May result in bla 'khyer. Epstein, Dissertation 139.

•GRIB TSHOD This might be the Tibetan corresponding to chāyā in the sense of sundial. See Schopen in Sūryacandrāya (1998) 167.

•GRIB SO shadow.

•GRIMS PA Skt. catura, caturasra (lit., four-cornered). ingenious, clever. Mvy. 2910.

•GRU [1] corner. [2] boat (both river crossing raft and sea sailing vessel). There is a possibility that this word is derived from or otherwise related to Arabic gurāb or a similar word in yet another language (see Hobson-Jobson 391, entry for grab). In Daṇḍin, verse 1.12, the corresp. Skt. is nau. [3] river crossing, fording place, ferrying raft. For a very funny folksy story of the origin of the first ferries in Tibet, involving a weasel paddling across the river on a dung pattie, see Stearns, King 33.

•GRU SKAS Lde'u 351 has 'phrul skas, while the small Lde'u has dru skas, but the parallel descriptions of Bsam-yas in other texts have this spelling, gru skas. I think it means sets of stairs between floors located in the corners.

•GRU GU [1] Turks. yu gur gyi yul, li yul. Nomads 234. [2] a thread ball, ball of yarn. [3] some kind of weapon, especially one of the weapons associated with Dpal-ldan Lha-mo. [4] a place in Khams. Garnknäuel. Kaschewsky2. clan name. Btsan-lha. [5] gru gu'i g.yu 'bigs na zhe la zhog.

•GRU RGYONGS 'di'i rgyongs zhes pa rdzongs kyi yul skad yin pas gru'i nang du chas dngos sogs kyis 'geng ba'i gru rdzongs byed pa'i don yin. Dalai Lama VII, Yig.

•GRU LCAGS — boat landing (at a ferry crossing point). Stearns, SR 111.

•GRU CHAD Achard, L'Essence 134.

•GRU CHAR gentle rain. char 'jam po. Yisun. Appears in Zhi-byed Coll.

•GRU PA Skt. nāvika. Mvy. 3850. This may mean a boatman, mariner or sailor in general (add the word 'great' for the sea captain), but it could also mean the operator of a ferry boat or raft for river crossings.

•GRU PHUGS BYED PA Btsan-lha. making signals with the elbows...

•GRU MO a cubit, the distance from the elbow to the knuckles of a closed fist, equal to 2 cha chen. Jackson. 'elbow.'

•GRU MO DD illus. 1, 5, 6, 13.

•GRU MO'I CHU BA DD illus. 30.

•GRU MO'I NYWA SNYING DD illus. 29.

•GRU BTSAS PA OT = gru tshugs pa. Blaṅ 304.3. A la btsas built on a plain or riverside. Karmay in Karmay, New Horizons 390.

•GRU BZHI [1] N. of a mineral. JD 49. = [rdo] pho rog, grub bzhi. SS 405.4. Identified as Limonite. Also called cho lung pa, pho rog sho rdo, 'dre mo rdo sho. Rin 107. [2] square (shape). bstan pa gru bzhi; "[upholding] all four corners of the doctrine." Jinpa, Mind Training 365. Similar usage in Thuken 105.

•GRU GSUM in magic. 124 498.1. On triangular gtor mas and the argument that they aren't taught in [Indian] mantra texts, see Rhoton, CD 125.

•GRUG to get rough, chafed. NNV.

•GRUNG PO 367 I 234. dge ba'i rtsa ba sa bon grub po dang 'dra ba... 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) I 84.5.

•GRUNG RU SHI LW 519-520.

•GRUNGS BYED Btsan-lha.

•GRUB CHU water produced by stabbing a rock with a phur pa. Ramble in Mandala & Landscape 221, n. 84. Probably should not be confused with sgrub chu, 'mantraized water,' meaning water readied for ritual use.

•GRUB CHEN BRGYAD sa 'og bgrod dang ral gri dang // tshar bcad phan 'dogs gnyis ka dang // ril bu mig sman gter rnams dang // rkang mgyogs dag dang bcud kyis len. 120 185.1 ff.

•GRUB THOB RIL DKAR a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 88. Lag-len 62.5. TMC 16 (27). BP 125.2, 327.1. This pill, originally against joint problems, now popular for digestive disorders, is subject of Nianggajia, The White Pill: Perceptions & Experiences of Efficacy of a Popular Tibetan Medicine in Multiethnic Rebgong, Asian Medicine 10 (2015) 221-248.

•GRUB PA BRGYAD sgrol bo / legs sgrol / sgrol mthar phyin / mgu gyur / nyams dga' / rab dga' / dga' ba / mchog dga' rnams so. 600 116.

•GRUB PA DANG BDE BA Skt. yogakṣema. See discussion by Wayman in JAOS 105 (1985) 582.

•GRUB PA BZHI 397 V 4.

•GRUB PA'I RIG 'DZIN thun mong gi dngos grub mig sman dang / ral gri dang / sngags kyi dngos grub sogs la grug pa'i rig pa zhes bya zhing dngos grub de thob pa la grub pa'i rig pa 'dzin pa zhes bya'o. Eimer, Dbyangs 54.

•GRUB BZHI = gru bzhi. DG 127.6.

•GRUM [1] with missing parts. Vitali, Tho.ling 68. [2] pha bong grum nas bstul shul du lha khang brtsigs. Sba 7.

•GRUM PA A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 294. grum pa ni zhig pa dang gas pa sogs la 'jug. Eimer, Dbyangs 56. One is pictured in 'Jam-dpal-rdo-rje's materia medica, where it says it's simply a marmot, but similar in type to both dog and pig, grey colored (nag skya), hibernates in the winter. JD 247. Translated as 'badger' in Schaik, Sweet 37. Huber in N-L I 277 says the only badger in the vicinity of Tibet is the Asian badger or sand badger. Bellezza, D&B 74. Holding the wind to no purpose is something even the marmots and badgers know how to do. don med rlung 'dzin pa phyi ba dang grum pas kyang shes gsung. HS V 439.7. Langelaar, Chasing 21.

•GRUM PO phyag tu rta thams cad zher 'theng grum por song ba yong. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) VI 56.2.

•GRUM BU SRZT 100. Text 1, 41, 43, 44, 46, 48, 77, 84. arthritis. Yangga's dissert., p. 67.

•GRUM BU'I NAD 'rheumatism.' Sometimes translated as arthritis. TM IV 22. Dhongthog. Lag-len 266.3. rus tshigs na ba'i nad bye brag pa zhig gi ming te. Dag-yig.

•GRUM RTSE From Chinese. See Blaṅ 311.1. See brum tshe.

•GRUMS PA khang pa'i yang thog grums pa (uppermost roof of a house falling apart, ruined...). Jamspal, Treasury 89. to be broken, shattered. NNV.

•GRUL See nyid grul. Blaṅ 296.6.

•GRUL BUM Beyer 342. Blondeau in Karmay, New Horizons 261. EoB III 58, says that the demon called kumbhāṇḍa is so called because it has testicles like pots. Banerjee, Sarvāstivāda Literature 137. See also EoB VI 257-258. Prithvi Kumar Agrawala, The Kumbhāṇḍa Figures in Sanchi Sculpture, East and West, vol. 37 nos 1-4 (1987) 179-189.

•GRUS PO See sum grus.

•GRUS MA n. for a yak calf in its first year of life. A yearling yak. Topgyal in TJ 23 no. 3 (1998) 38. Equiv. to drus ma, 'hulled'.

•GRUS LOG See under rkyang tshab.

•GRE GU GSER THIG See bri gu gser thig.

•GRE GRE Nishida, TTDD 145.

•GRE 'GYUR Stein.

•GRE NAD larynx diseases. Yangga's dissert., p. 107.

•GRE BA OT deriv. from Skt. gri ba (griva). = mgrin pa. throat, [bird] gullet. Blaṅ 309.4. DD illus. 17, 18.

•GRE BA'I THEM BU medical instrument pictured in JD 281 (item 3).

•GRE BA TSHA sore throat. Text 59. Lag-len 282.2.

•GRE BA SHING = sgro puṣpa, sgro bu. JD 124.

•GRE BO [1] "barren, bare, bereft of" Kuijp in JAOS 111, p. 100. [2] In the line so bya ni gre bo chung, I guess it must be sgre bo, q.v. OZZ 115, 122.

•GRE WA TSHA 'sore throat.' Text 59. Lag-len 282.2.

•GREGS PA ? gregs pas myos par myi 'gyur rigs ngan bu. Zhi-byed Coll. I 290.3.

•GRED PA Btsan-lha.

•GRES PA lan kan. Btsan-lha.

•GRES MA See dres ma.

•GRO JD 213. roadfood (also, gro kha). Skt. godhūma (wheat). Mvy. no. 5660. See Helen Johnson, Grains in Mediaeval India, JAOS 61 (1941) 168, no. 4. Wheat. Triticum aestivum. TDD 195.

•GRO DKAR palm-sized flat bread. Gutschow, Being a Buddhist Nun 68.

•GRO KHUR a brief way of saying what Pha-dam-pa's two foods were, gro mo and khur ma (dandelion). Zhi-byed Coll. IV 154.4.

•GRO GA 4 128B.2. birch bark (or the birch itself). gro ga theb mo gang la nyi ma cig la rdzogs par bris te. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 244.6. As a writing material for magic spells, see Zhi-byed Coll. V 142.7. Birchbark was very commonly used for writing material in Kashmir (as was the palm leaf in much of the rest of India); see Hartzell, Dissert. 550. An amazing Islamic-style bound birchbark book in Sanskrit illus. in Precious Deposits 113-116. The Skt. word būrjja/bhurja is obviously related to 'birch' (this fact was noticed and utilized by Klaproth already in 1830 CE). See BYNP 26-28.

•GRO GCUD "Kabtse" or Tibetan pretzels. See Tucci, Tibetan Folk Songs, fig. 10.

•GRO THIG freckles, moles. Lit., wheat spots. Goldstein.

•GRO 'DEBS PA lam du zhag bab byed pa. Dpe-chos 507.

•GRO BA Btsan-lha. strawberry colored horse.

•GRO BO "reddish grey color (of horses), swarthy, dappled." etc. See Kuijp in JAOS 111, p. 100.

•GRO MA a particular Tibetan root vegetable, a 'wild sweet potato.' Topgyal in TJ 23 no. 3 (1998) 41. Spelled dro ma, it was eaten by Pha Dam-pa. Zhi-byed Coll. IV 352.3 (also, BA 912, where it is mistakenly translated 'peas'). Evidently marmots horde them (see gro mdzod). = 'gro los 'dzin, tsi tsis 'dzin. JD 167. KP1 93.4. SS 510.6. A potato-like wild root eaten by Tibetans (but not by surrounding peoples). Das, JTL&CT 123. Potentilla peduncularis. Wangchuk, Bioactive 26. There is a photo and a short essay about this food plant on the internet here: http://www.danielwinkler.com (or try looking here: http://mushroaming.com/Medicinal_Plants, at the end of the page). Here gro lo sa 'dzin is given as an alternative name. Winkler identifies it as Potentilla pacifica.

•GRO MA ZA MKHAN A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibetan 302.

•GRO MO feminine form of the strawberry colored horse denoted by gro ba, q.v.

•GRO TSHIG black pigment made from burnt wheat. Anyetsang in TSB 15 (1980) 6.

•GRO MDZOD a sbras bsags pa'i gro phung. Nomads 234. A pile of gro ma roots collected by the marmots.

•GRO ZHIG Pause, Rast mit Mahlzeit. Kaschewsky2.

•GRO ZHIB "fine flour" used in book-making. Man LXI no. 102 (p. 84A).

•GRO ZHO a dish made with gro ma and yoghurt. gro ma dang zho bsres pa. Nomads 234.

•GRO LO evidently something edible. gro lo la zas byas. Zhi-byed Coll. II 301.5. Acc. to Yisun, the leaves of the gro ma (q.v.): gro ma'i lo ma. This makes sense, and seems to be correct.

•GRO LO SA 'DZIN Mdo 80. = 'bol lo. SS 510.6.

•GRO SO PHYE MAR The wooden vessel of flour used in New Year ceremonies (and weddings). It literally means the parched wheat (gro so) and roasted barley (phye mar) flour contained in its two halves Illus. in Yisun. Khenrap in TJ 25 no. 4 (2000) 73.

•GROG = rnyed pa. 367 130.1. An sign (of something good; see Yisun under grog skad).

•GROG RKED lit., 'ant waist,' name of a channel. Yangga's dissert., p. 299.

•GROG MKHAR anthill. Skt. valmīka. Mvy. 7093. As a metaphor for saving up wealth little by little, see Hahn, STD 24-25.

•GROG SBUR Samdo A V 121v.1. a type of insect, apparently one similar to the common ant. Perhaps an 'armored' ant, or an ant-shaped beetle.

•GROG MA For other words for 'ant' in related languages, see Beyer, CT Lang 9-10. khyed rang grog ma'i spyod pa bor la sdom gyi brgyud pa zung gsung. Zhi-byed Coll. II 174.4. = rakṣa mig med, rgyur rgyur, gshin rje'i bu. JD 257. SS 530.4. A Bon text on benefits of food offerings to ants, see Katen no. 041-30d.

•GROG MA'I GZUGS CAN See pi pi ling.

•GROG MED gyog med de rnyed pa med ces pa'o. Dpe-chos 511.

•GROG RMIS (regionalism), = gyog. A word for rnyed pa. BBNP 478. Btsan-lha.

•GROG SMAN PI PI LING [grog ma, ant] n. for pepper explained in Blaṅ 310.2. = drod sman pi pi ling.

•GROG ZHING Btsan-lha. SS 537.4.

•GROG SHING DG 143.2. Haircaps. Polytrichum sp. TDD 145.

•GROGS MED Btsan-lha.

•GRONG Tucci, Lhasa 49. mi rigs bzhi yod pa ni grong dang / bzo rigs bco brgyad yod pa grong khyer dang / grong khyer du ma yod pa grong brdal dang / grong brdal du ma yod pa yul ljongs dang / yul ljongs du ma yod pa yul 'khor zhes kong sprul yon tan rgya mtshos gsungs la / brgyad stong 'grel chen las / bzo'i bye brag bco brgyad tshang ba la grong khyer dang / de ma tshang ba'i khyim gcig gnyis sogs la grong dang / tshong ba mang po yod pa'i gnas la grong rdal dang / mi rigs bzhi tshang ba'i yul phyogs la ljongs zhes gsungs / mngon brjod 'ga' zhig tu / bye ba'i grong gis nges bcings yul // 'bum phrag grong gis yul 'khor dang // brgyad brgya'i grong gis grong khyer te // zhes bshad do. Gser Sbram 297. Similar explanation in Zhi-byed Coll. V 103.6 ff. Grong corresponds to Skt. grāma (just as grong khyer corresponds to Skt. nagara). An interesting attempt at etymology is found at 'Gos, Stong-thun 17.1. These town, city and district names are also defined in Sum-pa Mkhan-po's work 'Dzam gling spyi bshad, fol. 6r.

•GRONG KHA One may see two instances in Lde'u 87, 393, where it must mean 'moment of death.' I suppose grongs kha might be considered a more correct spelling for this, but it isn't sure.

•GRONG KHYER BZHI lha ma yin gyi grong khyer bzhi ni / 'od ldan / skar phreng / zab pa / gser ldan no. 600 30.

•GRONG CHOG General word for rituals, etc. for which monks might be called into the villages. Very popular with Tibetan people, but often criticised for seeming to violate the monastic ideals.

•GRONG CHOS grong pa'i chos. village dharma (euphemism for sexual relations). Gutschow, Being a Buddhist Nun 144. Kramer, rNgog 91.

•GRONG 'JUG For a possible reason why it might be called such, see Hartzell, Dissert. 717: "[The Trika system.] This is a further step in the type-identity hierarchy whereby the group of cosmic principles or planes intersecting with the individual bio-psyche (tattvas) is called a grāma or village— since the tattvas refer to both the constituent elements of the individual and those of the cosmos." White, Alchemical Body 378, n. 73, mentions an Ayurvedic rejuvenation technique called kuṭī-praveśa, 'entering the hut,' and notes that there is a close Taoist parallel. There is an entry in Dungkar Rinpoche's dictionary, mentioning Stong 'khor Rin po che Bsod nams rgya mtsho as an example. Rngog Chos kyi rdo rje (1036-1102) demonstrated his abilities to perform this four times (Blue Annals 404).

•GRONG LTAG DGON PA Stein.

•GRONG BRDAL a town with a large population, a city. Sga 332.

•GRONG MO CHE GSUM Has a metaphorical usage in the mouth of Pha dam pa, although I don't yet understand to what it refers. yid smon gyis grong mo che gsum dang myi 'bral. Zhi-byed Coll. II 231.5.

•GRONG BSHUL the personal property left by a dead person. Sources.

•GROD PA gsus pa'i nang gi grod pa. Dpe-chos 515.

•GROD LING mar tshud grod ling tsho la stug pa dang. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 523.4.

•GRON Btsan-lha.

•GRON PA Stein.

•GROL KHANG ? khyod rang gdams ngag grol khang du nyon gsung. Zhi-byed Coll. II 298.1.

•GROL PHUG 'original.' Karmay, Treasury. source. Karmay, Arrow 264 etc.

•GROL BA Skt. muktaka. In poetics (as in Daṇḍin), a single verse, complete in itself.

•GROL BA CAN 1. mu tig. 2. na le sham. Blaṅ 527.

•GROL BA BZHI Holly Gayley, Soteriology of the Senses in Tibetan Buddhism, Numen 54 no 4 (2007) 459-499, at p. 463.

•GROL BYED LAM Stein.

•GROL MA pho ba dang rgyu ma'i nang gi zhar skyes srin bu zhig ste, kha skad du rgyu 'bu yang zer. Dag-yig. Text 66.

•GROL GZHI Karmay, Great Perfection 183, 189.

•GROL LUGS LNGA Klong-chen-pa 10.26 comm.

•GROS counsel, consultation, advice, course of action.

•GROS GCOM PA Btsan-lha.

•GROS CHANG conversation beer (i.e., engagement confirmation negotiation). Khenrap in TJ 25 no. 4 (2000) 68.

•GROS THAG GCOD PA to decide on a course of action, come to agreement on what to do. A couplet from the Ding ri brgya rtsa reads: yengs ma lam la mdun ma 'chal mar 'chor // gros thag da lta chod cig ding ri ba.

•GROS MI (village) counsellors. Sources.

•GROS RA Versammlungsplatz. Kaschewsky2.

•GROS SHOMS Stein.

•GROS SU BLUG Namdak.

•GLA RKANG a tree. KP1 205.1. KP3 319.7. KP4 518.2.

•GLA GOR Haarh, Yar-luṅ 354, a type of wood.

•GLA GOR ZHO SHA See zho sha.

•GLA SGANG TR XIV #4, p. 16. Haarh, Yar-luṅ 369. = mon lug, mon dug. JD 165. YTTM 291.20. SS 522.2. KP3 341.4. gla lgang. KP4 398.4, 566.1. Mdo 83. Emmerick, On Ravigupta's Gaṇas, BSOAS 34 no. 2 (1971) 365. 'bras gang, 'bra gang, 'bras khang, or gla skang, is in Skt. musta, muthā, mothā, mustā. A sort of grass [Cyperus rotundus or Cyperus rotandus]. It may also refer to a poison derived from that grass used in making poisoned arrows. Mvy. 5817, 5818. Geranium spp. Wangchuk, Bioactive 25. See glas gangs.

•GLA DA ? gla da rang brtod. Haarh, Yar-luṅ 215.

•GLA DOS SHIG Btsan-lha.

•GLA LDAN GSA' A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 293.

•GLA NE GLE NE See glan glen.

•GLA PHO A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 298.

•GLA BA [1] A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 298. Musk of the musk deer. For early medieval Eurasian trade in Tibetan musk, see Beckwith in CAJ 22 no. 2 (1977) 96, 100-101. See also Hobson-Jobson. BA 850. gnyen po mthu' dang ldan pa bla ba (i.e. gla ba) rtsi gnod byed pa lta bu. Zhi-byed Coll. II (lost page ref.). Pelliot, Notes on Marco Polo 742. According to Sa paṇ, animal substances, including musk in incense, are forbidden for use in offerings (although of course musk is very commonly used in Tibetan incense to this day). Rhoton, CD 134. Anna Akasoy & Ronit Yoeli-Tlalim, Along the Musk Routes, Asian Medicine, vol. 3 (2007), pp. 217-240. Levey, Aromatic 398-399.་The Skt. muṣka (little mouse, scrotum) is likely source of the English word musk. [2] N. of a plant or tree. Acc. to CFMS 83, it is a plant. = dri bzang, rtsi ldan. JD 233. LW 496. SS 539.1. Translated as trees of the Hippophae rhamnoides species by Sørensen, TBH 249. For shing gla ba, see star bu.

•GLA BA SDAD MA KP1 216.5. Spelled gla ba srad ma in KP3 324.3. Thermopsis barbata. Wangchuk, Bioactive 27 (here spelled gla ba sran ma).

•GLA BA TSHER MA See star bu.

•GLA BO gleng mo. Dpe-chos 513. Btsan-lha.

•GLA BO DRIN DU BCAGS PA = gleng mo bka' drin bskyangs pa. BBNP 483. Btsan-lha. Pabongka, Liberation II 28.

•GLA MI Term used in Vinaya texts for day laborers. See Schopen, Menial 228.

•GLA RTSI musk. = kaspu ri (sp? prob. kastu ri), rtsi'i ma gi ta, ga bur smug po, dri can lte ba, rtsi'i rgyal po, ri dwags lte ba, sbrul dug. JD 78. KP1 12.1. = mri ga ma, ka du ri. DG 161.2. = mar rdza ri. YTTM 292.14. = phre chen lte ba. YTTM 292.23. Jamspal, Treasury 17. Skt. kastūrīkāṇḍa, mṛgamada. Mvy. 5832, 5833. By the way, it is no accident that Skt. kastūrī resembles the English word 'castration.' See A. Rao & J. Mattelaer, The Etymology of 'Castration' and Its Association with the Self-Castrating Beaver, European Urology Supplements, vol. 7, no. 3 (March 2008), p. 72. See discussion in Anya King's dissertation (I.U. 2007), p. 28.

•GLA RTSI LNGA SBYOR a medicinal preparation. BP 238.4.

•GLA RTSI BYU LONG A mammal. See Sandberg, Tibet 296.

•GLA YI rung. chog. Btsan-lha.

•GLA'I RIN DU GCAGS PA gla'i rin 'jal ba. Gces 583.3.

•GLA SHING a kind of wood used in the construction of the foundation of the Jo khang. Guessed to be the wood of the full-grown sea buckthorn bush. Alexander, Temples 320.

•GLA SRAN MA KP4 528.2.

•GLAG PA OT = lhag pa. Blaṅ 283.1. ltag pa. Btsan-lha.

•GLAGS Btsan-lha. <<brgyad stong 'grel chen>> las / glags zhes bya ba ni / nyes pa dang bu ga zhes bya ba yin no zhes pa ltar go dgos so. Gser Sbram 400.

•GLAGS BCAD Btsan-lha.

•GLAGS PA OT = 'jug pa. = 'gro 'tshams. Blaṅ 295.5-.6. Btsan-lha. = 'khebs pa. Lcang-skya.

•GLAGS BAG TSAM = long skabs cung zad. BBNP 483. Btsan-lha.

•GLANG "bull" An official position, originally an "advocate" for tenants of gzhung rgyugs pa villages. Goldstein, Taxation 25. SS 501.4.

•GLANG KLAD elephant brain? Acc. to Rockhill in Das, JTL&CT 100, it is a name for soap. I suppose it could be a brand name, and hesitate to speculate on the reasoning for this.

•GLANG GI DUS Zeit nach Mitternacht. Kaschewsky2.

•GLANG RNGA asparagus lettuce. CTEV 25.

•GLANG CHEN elephant. A pair of remarkable ritual stands in elephant shape illus. in Precious Deposits V 71. A number of languages like old Scandinavian languages & Hebrew have words descending from Persian pīl. Oldest use of the word that resembles 'elephant' is in Homer.

•GLANG CHEN KHRI 'PHANG See thar nu.

•GLANG CHEN MKHRIS PA See gi wang.

•GLANG CHEN GANGGĀ CHU BSGYUR a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 90. Lag-len 64.1. TMC 27 (53). BP 381.2. BP 160.4.

•GLANG CHEN CIG THUB See (glang chen) cig thub.

•GLANG CHEN BCU GCIG a medicinal preparation. BP 142.6.

•GLANG CHEN BCU GSUM a medicinal preparation. BP 142.4.

•GLANG CHEN BCO BRGYAD a medicinal preparation. TMC 56 (123). BP 140.6, 251.1, 380.4. RR 27.

•GLANG CHEN CHUR ZHUGS N. of a Mahāyoga tantra and a simile: ci spyad stong 'gyur 'ching med pas // glang chen chur zhugs man ngag bshad. Rnying Rgyud 1982 II 23.3.

•GLANG CHEN DBANG PO'I RNAM PAR ROL PA ṛṣabhagajavilasita. N. of a metre. Hahn, JV 39.

•GLANG CHEN ME TOG BCO BRGYAD a medicinal preparation. Prescriptions 61. Lag-len 42.3. BP 141.3, 320.1. BT 50r.6.

•GLANG CHEN SMYO CHU a medicinal preparation. Goldstein, History 208.

•GLANG CHEN SMYON PA See thang phrom dkar po. This medicine/poison is the one said to have been used to kill the Dalai Lama's father, according to Noodle Maker of Kalimpong, p. 66 (Shakabpa's history, English version, p. 480, note 32 has an explanation).

•GLANG CHEN SUM 'GROL a medicinal preparation. BP 279.1.

•GLANG THABS 'colic.' SRZT 90. Text 12, 14, 16, 38, 49, 65, 66, 75. Lag-len (text 11, no. 16). SRZT 90: Contributing causes are 'hot' and 'cold' classified disorders due to 'worms' (srin bu) and disagreeable diet. Although there are many types, they may all be placed in the categories of 'hot,' 'cold,' 'worm,' and 'infectious' glang thabs. Whenever there is pain below the upper opening of the stomach (lhen sne), it is "stomach glang thabs." If below the navel, it is "intestinal glang thabs." If in the vicinity of the navel, it is "abdominal glang thabs." If on the right side, it is "blood glang thabs." If on the left side, it is "worm glang thabs." If in the middle it is called "tsampa (parched barley flour) glang thabs." If there is jumpiness, lethargy and sweating, it is "hot glang thabs (caused by 'heat disorders'). Without the jumpiness and lethargy, it is "cold glang thabs (from 'cold disorders'). When it is caused by too much milk or sweet foods, the pains are like a hot piercing or as if wound up in a ball. When there is much jumpiness and lethargy, and one cannot bear to stand up, it is 'worm glang thabs." When it feels like a knife is stirring around in the stomach and intestines, it is 'infectious lhan thabs. See Glang thabs (Acute Diseases of the Organs of the Abdominal Cavity) and their Correction in Tibetan Medicine, ed. by B.V. Semichov, in TM IV (1981).

•GLANG THABS RIL BU TSHA GRANG a medicinal preparation. Prescription 75. Lag-len 37.2.

•GLANG SNA [1] 'Elephant snout,' an architectural detail found in the capitals of pillars (see illus. in Pho-brang Po-ta-la [1988], illus. no. 14 following p. 29). See also Po-ta-la (1996) 49. [2] Pedicularis. Lousewort (there are many varieties). Also n. of a flower, me tog glang sna. JD 181: Grows from a single root. The leaves are hard, dark green and notched. The middle of the dark, mottled flower is shaped like an elephant's trunk, hence the name. Fundamentals 16.2 (item 17). KP1 48.3. Sde-srid/2 531.5: It grows in sunlight and shade. It grows from a single root and stalk. It has a hundred tiny flowers. Pedicularis flagellaris. Wangchuk, Bioactive 26. TDD 129. See me tog glang sna.

•GLANG PO Skt. vṛṣabha. N. of a metre. Hahn, JV 39.

•GLANG PO BRGYAD phyogs kyi glang po brgyad ni / sa srung bu / padma dkar po / g.yon phyogs / mig sman / sa la dga' / me tog so can / sa kun la grags pa / cha mdzes rnams so. 600 106.

•GLANG PO CHE elephant. = thal dkar, so gnyis pa, gnyis 'thung. JD 236. On the tracks of the elephant in the forest being a metaphor for the way shown by the Buddha (both being unmistakably marked), see D.R. Shackleton Bailey, The Śatapañcāśatka of Mātṛceṭa, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge 1951), p. 204. Attaching swords to the elephant's trunk. NTSP section NGA 153r.6.

•GLANG PO CHE'I RJES elephant's footprint. Also, glang chen zhabs rjes. Dominik Wujastyk, "The Elephant's Footprint: An Ancient Indian Logic Diagram," Studia Orientalia Electronica, vol. 6 (2018), pp. 56-61. For the parable of the woodsman following the footprints of the bull elephant (the real faith in Buddhahood is found only in actually becoming a Buddha), see EoB VII 604.

•GLANG PO CHE'I YAN LAG BDUN rkang lag bzhi / mjug ma ma zeg pa dang / rling pa 'doms kyi bar na 'dug pa dang / sna legs par gnas pa ste bdun no. 600 87-88.

•GLANG PO'I SO See ga dza danta.

•GLANG MA JD 122. Two types: glang dkar & glang nag. DG 241.3. Jackson, MB 108 says glang ma or blang ma means the himalayan willow. See under glang shing. For example of wall made with woven glang ma, see BLKC I 48.

•GLANG MA NAG PO Salix calyculata. TDD 171.

•GLANG MIG See (gla gor) zho sha.

•GLANG MU ZI bon po mu stegs. Gces 589.1. Btsan-lha.

•GLANG MO BRGYAD Wives of the glang po brgyad. sprin grol / dmar ser / ser skya / dpe med ma / zangs sna / so legs / yan lag mdzes pa / gsal ldan ma'o. 60 106.

•GLANG RDZI mahout. Jamspal, Treasury 110.

•GLANG SHING the wood of the glang (or glang ma, willow?) tree. See mdzo mo shing.

•GLANG HRANG glang thug. Dpe-chos 512.

•GLANG HRAN Btsan-lha.

•GLAD often for klad. Tr. as 'forehead' in Hahn, VG 417.

•GLAN n. of a clan. Btsan-lha.

•GLAN KA OT. censure, blame. Hill, Aspirated 476.

•GLAN GLEN glan glen nyi tshe ni gla ne gle ne kha re kho re'am phyogs re ba'o. Dpe-chos 509.

•GLAN PA Stein. mi sha glan pa, 367 I 234. Btsan-lha. Example of usage in Tôh. 236, fol. 275.

•GLAN 'DZING einfältig kämpfend. Kaschewsky2.

•GLAB PA lab pa. Dbus-pa no. 327.

•GLAM glam zhes pa / ba dag byung. Dbus-pa no. 740.

•GLAM GYIS KHYER Btsan-lha.

•GLAM PA OT = snam bu 'thug po. Blaṅ 286.3. Btsan-lha. Lcang-skya.

•GLA'O ZUR PA Btsan-lha.

•GLAL 1. ngu. 2. kha gdangs. Blaṅ 527.

•GLAL BA OT = kha gdangs. = rnam par bsgyings pa. Blaṅ 289.6. Lcang-skya. to yawn. NNV.

•GLAS a vessel for measuring grain etc. Btsan-lha.

GLAS GANGS odd spelling for gla sgang, a medicinal root. Bellezza in RET 29 (2014) 190. Bellezza, D&B 122 (mon lug glas gang).

•GLAS PA Btsan-lha. phun sum tshogs pa ma glas [gnas spos pa] te. 'Jig-rten-mgon-po, Bka'-'bum (2001) IV 432.1. To move, change dwellings.

•GLING [1] In the specialized language of spirit mediums, used to refer to the mirror, which may be divided into three areas themselves called gling. They are arranged concentrically, starting from the outer parts of the mirror: phyi gling, nang gling, bar gling. They may also be three separate mirrors. See Bellezza's Calling Down the Gods. [2] island, continent. [3] park, garden. See gling ka, which especially has this meaning. [4] sector [of a painting, of a map]. Lde'u 290.

•GLING KA See under gling, above.

•GLING CHEN a herb discussed in Huber, Pure Crystal (index under 'lingchen').

•GLING DON The aimed-for island (i.e., the island of jewels that is the object of the sea captain's quest). gling don bud med khar mi gtang. Zhi-byed Coll. V 276.7.

•GLING DRUG dus 'khor las bshad pa'i gling drug ni / zla ba dang / 'od dkar dang / rab mchog ku sha dang / mi'am ci dang / khrung khrung dang / drag po'i gling rnams so. 600 70.

•GLING BDUN dus 'khor nas bshad pa'i khor yug gi gling bdun ni / zla ba / 'od dkar / ku sha / mi'am ci / khrung khrung / drag po'i gling / 'dzam gling chen po rnams so. 600 86.

•GLING SDUG übles Land, schlechter Volksstamm. Kaschewsky2.

•GLING ME all-night funerary lamp. TS5 742 n. 2.

•GLING BZHI shar lus 'phags gling / lho 'dzam bu gling / nub ba lang spyod / byang sgra mi snyan no. 600 35.

•GLING BSRE As a monastic dge-bshes title, it originated with Chos-rje Ye-shes-bzang-po (1415-1498), the Dga'-ldan Khri-pa X. Dreyfus, Sound 144.

•GLINGS PA Btsan-lha.

•GLU Sa paṇ makes fun of Tibetans who explain the word with reference to slu ba. Rhoton, CD 169.

•GLU DBYANGS [1] Singing or reciting together. Skt. saṃgīti. Mvy. 5022. See EoB VII 720-728. [2] Skt. madraka. N. of a metre. Hahn, JV 40.

•GLU DBYANGS KYI NGES PA BDUN 1. bar ma. 2. drang srong. 3. sa 'dzin. 4. drug ldan. 5. lnga pa. 6. blo gsal. 7. 'khor nyan. Bod Mkhas-pa, Snyan-ngag-gi Bstan-bcos 6v.2. Rin spungs pa'i snyan 'grel 510.3 ff.

•GLUGS PA Btsan-lha.

•GLUD 87 LXIX. Discussed in Karmay, Arrow 246, 339 ff. Best described as a 'ransoming' ritual (not as a scapegoat). See also Yoeli-Tlalim in Anthony Aris volume, p. 751 ff.

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