# Research Curriculum

## SECTION 1 – BIOSTATISTICS

### The Basics of Data

1. Data Scales

2. Normal vs. Non-normal Distribution

3. Parametric vs. Non-parametric Data

### Descriptive Statistics

1. Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median and Mode

2. Measures of Variability: Standard Deviation, Standard Error of the Mean, Interquartile Range, and Range

### Sampling and Estimation

1. Confidence Intervals

### Measuring Performance of Diagnostic Tests

1. Sensitivity and Specificity

2. Positive and Negative Predictive Value

4. Likelihood Ratio and Bayesian Theory

### Measures of Risk and Odds

1. Relative Risk and Absolute Risk

2. Odds Ratio

### Measuring Performance of Therapies

1. Absolute Risk Reduction and Absolute Benefit Increase

2. Number Needed to Treat and Number Needed to Harm

### Hypothesis Testing

1. The Null Hypothesis

2. Type I and Type II error

3. Statistical Power and Sample Size Estimates

4. Parametric Statistical Inference Tests: t-test and ANOVA

5. Non-parametric Statistical Inference Tests: Chi-Square test and Variants, Rank Tests of Non-parametric Data

6. "Statistically Significant" vs. "Biologically Meaningful"

1. Correlation

2. Regression

### Measures of Validity/Reliability

1. Inter-rater Reliability (Kappa)

### Measures of Safety

1. Upper limit of the 95% Confidence Interval

## SECTION 2 – STUDY DESIGN

### The “Skeleton” of a Research Paper

1. Proper Organization of a Research Paper

2. The Relationship Between Definitions and Conclusions

### Study Types

1. Prospective vs. Retrospective Studies

2. Descriptive Studies: Case Reports, Case Series, Cross-Sectional Studies

3. Evaluative/Analytical Studies: Cohort Studies, Case Control Studies

4. Experimental Studies: Randomized Controlled Trials, Non-randomized Controlled Trials

5. Synthesis Studies: Reviews, Systematic Reviews, Meta-Analyses

6. Intention-to-Treat Analysis

7. Paired/Matched Study Design

### Methodology: The “Rosetta Stones”

1. The Randomized Controlled Trial – CONSORT

2. The Chart Review –Gilbert

## SECTION 3 - PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

1. Patient Flow Diagrams

2. Tables

3. Graphs

4. Figures

## SECTION 4 - THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH

1. Informed Consent

2. Human and Animal Rights

3. The Role of the IRB

4. HIPAA

5. Forms of Scientific Misconduct

6. Conflicts of Interest

7. Investigator/Co-Investigator Responsibilities

8. Responsibilities of a Valid Author

Based on ABP's Content Outline for PEM:

PEM Core Knowledge in Scholarly Activities.pdf