Publications & Press

Our Publications

Frank, Steven J. and Andrea M. "Analysis, Attribution, and Authentication of Drawings with Convolutional Neural Networks." International Journal of Arts and Technology (2022) 14 (3): 192-205. (preprint available at

Frank, Steven J. and Andrea M. "Complementing Connoisseurship with Artificial Intelligence." Curator: The Museum Journal (2022) 65.4. 

Frank, Steven J. "The Work of Art in an Age of Mechanical Generation." Leonardo (2022) 55 (4): 378-381. (preprint available at

Frank, Steven J. and Andrea M. "A Neural Network Looks at Leonardo's (?) Salvator Mundi." Leonardo (2021) 54 (6): 619-624.

Frank, Steven J. "State of the Art." IEEE Spectrum 58(9)/September 2021, 26-31.

Frank, Steven J. and Andrea M. "Salient Slices: Improved Neural Network Training and Performance with Image Entropy." Neural Computation 32:6, 1222-1237. (pdf available here)

About Art Eye-D Associates

Anderson, Mark. "Amateurs’ Al Tells Real Rembrandts From Fakes." IEEE Spectrum, 25 April 2019,

Bello, Sumbo. "Researchers Train AI to Spot Art Forgery." Edgy, 29 April 2019,

Caulfield, Brian. "An AI for Fine Art: Attorney Trains NVIDIA RTX 2070 to Authenticate Masterpieces." The Official NVIDIA Blog, 27 August 2021,

Cole, Alison. "Disarming new findings on Leonardo's Salvator Mundi." The Art Newspaper, 26 January 2021,

Davis-Marks, Isis. "New Research Suggests ‘Salvator Mundi’ Originally Looked Completely Different," Smithsonian Magazine, 4 February 2021,

Di Liscia, Valentina. "Sections of Salvator Mundi Not Part of Leonardo’s Original Design, Research Suggests," Hyperallergic, 2 February 2021,

Drösser, Christoph. "Ist das Teuerste Bild der Welt Eine Fälschung?" NZZ magazin, September 2022,

Goukassian, Elena. "Can a Computer Authenticate Disputed Artworks?" Artsy, 4 April 2019,

Keener, Katherine. "A-Eye: another tool for authenticating artworks?" Art Critique, 24 April 2019,

Leibson, Steven. "Authenticating Rembrandts: CNNS plus image entropy identify the real paintings among the copies." PSG@Intel, 3 June 2019,

Ng, Andrew. "Seeing Through Forgeries." The Batch, 3 November 2021, 

"Portrait of the Portrait Sleuths." IEEE Spectrum 58(9)/September 2021, 2.

Squires, Nick. "Parts of $450 million Salvator Mundi were not painted by Leonardo, researchers claim," The Telegraph, 4 February 2021, (pdf here)

Tangermann, Victor. "A new AI can spot art forgeries." World Economic Forum, 29 April 2019,