The photo above is the upper Miocene sandstone outcrop in Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan.
Globally compiled deep-sea benthic foraminiferal oxygen stable isotope records (adopted from Zachos et al., 2001). MMCO: middle Miocene climatic optimum; EAIS: east Antarctic ice sheet.
Biotic and isotopic evolution of the Miocene ocean (adopted from Ennyu, 2003, and references therein). (A) Compilation of published benthic foraminiferal (Cibicidoides) d18O records; (B) Geographical distribution of molluscan faunas in the northwestern Pacific; (C) Compilation of published benthic foraminiferal (Cibicidoides) d13C records; (D) Paleo-pCO2 estimates for the Miocene reconstructed based on alkenone carbon isotopes from DSDP Site 588. The solid and dashed lines indicate maximum and minimum pCO2 values, respectively. MMCO: middle Miocene climatic optimum; EAIS: East Antarctic ice sheet; MCIE: Monterey carbon isotope excursion.