Peer-Reviewed Publications (+ abstracts)

“How Global Citizenries Think about Democracy: an Evaluation and Synthesis of Recent Public Opinion Research” with Doh Chull Shin (Japanese Journal of Political Science – June 2018)

Since the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, individual scholars and research institutes have conducted numerous public opinion surveys to monitor how global citizenries react to the process of democratization taking place in their own countries and elsewhere. This article reviews the various issues surrounding the divergent conceptions of democracy among political scientists and ordinary citizens, and synthesizes significant findings of the conceptual and empirical research based on these surveys. It also raises a set of new questions that future surveys should address to broaden and deepen our knowledge about citizen conceptions of democracy. [PDF]

“Liberal Democracy as the End of History: Western Theories versus Eastern Asian Realities” with Doh Chull Shin (Asian Journal of Comparative Politics – October 2016)

A growing number of political scientists have recently advocated the theses that democracy has emerged as a universal value and that it is also becoming the universally preferred system of government. Do most people in East Asia prefer democracy to nondemocratic systems, as advocates of these Western theses claim? Do they embrace liberal democracy as the most preferred system as they become socioeconomically modernized and culturally liberalized? To address these questions, we first propose a typology of privately concealed political system preferences as a new conceptual tool in order to ascertain their types and subtypes without using the word “democracy”. By means of this typology, we analyze the third wave of the Asian Barometer Survey conducted in 12 democratic and nondemocratic countries. The analysis reveals that a hybrid system, not liberal democracy, is the most preferred system even among the culturally liberalized and socioeconomically modernized segments of the East Asian population. Our results show that the increasingly popular theses of universal and liberal democratization serve merely in East Asia as prodemocracy rhetoric, not as theoretically meaningful propositions. [PDF]

"The Gender Readings Gap in Political Science Graduate Training" with Heidi Hardt, Amy Erica Smith, and Philippe Meister (Journal of Politics - Forthcoming)

Do academic institutions influence gender representation in assigned readings during graduate training? Whereas recent studies have identified gender gaps in citations and publications, less is known about the readings used to train future political scientists. Introducing a unique dataset of 88,673 citations from 905 Ph.D. syllabi and reading lists, we find that overall, only 19% of assigned readings have female first authors. Scholarship by female scholars is underrepresented in all subfields, relative to several benchmarks. Both supply and demand side factors affect gender representation. First, representation of female-authored readings varies by the size of the pool over female scholars, over time and across subfields. Second, instructor gender and department composition affect demand for female-authored scholarship. As departments hire more female instructors, instructors of both genders become more likely to assign female-authored work. This article contributes an original dataset to the study of graduate training and advances scholars' understanding of gender diversity in political science.

“The Political Science 400: With Citation Counts by Cohort, Gender and Subfield” with Bernard Grofman (PS: Political Science & Politics - January 2019)

We update the Masuoka et al. 2002 dataset that identified the then 3,719 faculty in political science Ph.D.-granting departments in the U.S. That dataset contained information about each faculty member, such as date and granting department of Ph.D., lifetime citation counts, fields of interest, and school of employment. We similarly create a database with the 4,089 currently tenured or tenure-track faculty, including emeritus, at U.S. Ph.D.-granting departments ca. 2017-18. Using Google Scholar Profiles, along with hand counts for those who do not have a Profile, we sort the dataset by citation count, Ph.D. cohort, field of interest, and gender. In this paper we identify the 100 currently most cited scholars, the 25 most cited in each Ph.D. cohort and subfield, and we also identify the 40 most cited women scholars and the 25 most cited emeriti. The full list of the Political Science 400 is available as an on-line appendix. [PDF]

"Job Mobility, Tenure, and Promotions in Political Science Ph.D. Granting Departments, 2002-2017: Cohort, Gender and Citation Count Effects " with Bernard Grofman (PS: Political Science & Politics - May 2019)

Using updated data from 2002 and 2017 data on the political science discipline, we show how the cohort and gender composition of Ph.D granting departments has dramatically changed over time. Integrating 2002 and 2017 data, we examine overall patterns and gender differences in job mobility, tenure and promotion, and university prestige level among non-emeritus 2002 faculty, controlling for cohort effects. Even with such a control, we find strong gender effects in some of these success dimensions. We then introduce a further variable, citation counts, and find that women are consistently less cited than men, with some important variations in the pattern across different cohorts. However, with a control for citation, some gender differences in success tend to disappear. We consider possible explanations for these findings. [PDF]

"US Foreign Aid and Economic Policy Concessions " with Taehee Whang, Jungtaek Han, and Youngwan Kim (Policy Studies - October 2018)

Why do donors continue to provide foreign aid despite its failure to help poor countries over the past several decades? While some scholars argue that foreign aid is purely for humanitarian purposes, others assert that such aid serves as a tool to pressure recipient countries into accepting policy concessions. In this study, we subject these arguments to empirical testing using a dataset that integrates the amount of US aid and economic policies of recipient countries for 1995–2012. The findings suggest that aid decisions correspond to the interests of the United States, such as policy concessions in economic and business liberalisation. However, an increase in US aid is not directly associated with further economic reforms in recipient countries. We conclude that US foreign aid programs are strategic in nature and successful not in alleviating economic problems in recipient countries but, at the very least, in buying their policy compliance. [PDF]

“International Signaling and Economic Sanctions” with Taehee Whang (International Interactions – May 2015)

Do economic sanctions serve international signaling purposes? A fully structural statistical model that employs a signaling game as a statistical model is used to investigate the existence of signaling effects of sanctions. Estimation results suggest that sanctions fail to work as a costly signal. The cheapness of sanctions prevents a target state from being able to distinguish a resolute sender state from a sender who is bluffing. When sanctions are imposed, a target rarely updates its initial evaluation of the sender state’s resolve, much less than when a military challenge is observed. [PDF]

“The Role and Power of UN Human Rights Council Advisory Committee” with Changrok Soh and Youni Kim (Korea Observer – February 2015)

In an attempt to explain the role of the Advisory Committee, this paper posits that it contributes to the international human rights system in two ways. First, the Advisory Committee influences human rights resolutions within the United Nations (UN) through its role as an epistemic community as well as through its agenda-setting power. Second, the Advisory Committee influences beyond the United Nations through the process of norm socializing and the experts' roles within their own nations. Through these methods, the Advisory Committee is able to contribute not only within the United Nations, but also beyond into the global realm of human rights. [PDF]

“CSR in Korea: Lessons from American and British CSR Policies” with Changrok Soh and Taehee Whang (Journal of International and Area Studies – December 2014)

The primary purpose of this research is to distinguish between government-led and society-led implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The first part of this paper works to answer the question of why CSR has remained largely a Western phenomenon. Then, through a comparison between the United Kingdom and the United States, research for this study suggests that the UK tends to adopt the top-down approach whereas the US adopts a bottom-up approach towards CSR. The second part of this research revolves around what these findings suggest in order to advance the overall CSR program within South Korea. It argues that South Korea needs to adopt more of the topdown approach for the better enactment and implementation of CSR. [PDF]

Selected Works in Progress

“Defenders of Democracy? The Middle Class and Support for Democracy in East Asia”

"The 2016 Middle Class Protests in South Korea"

“Democratic Citizenship in the United States: Measuring Democratic Support in the Trump Era” with Maneesh Arora (under review)

"Active Democracy: How Political Activists and Ordinary Citizens Support Democracy in Taiwan" with Lev Nachman (under review)

"Gender, Race, Age and National Origin Predict Whether Faculty Assign Female-Authored Readings in Graduate Courses" with Heidi Hardt, Amy Erica Smith, and Philippe Meister (under review)

"Who Creates a Google Scholar Profile?" with Bernard Grofman