+Corresponding author

So, W.C., Wong, E., Ng, W., Fuego, J., Lay, S., So, M.T., Lee, Y.Y., Chan, W.Y., Chua L.Y., Lam, H.L, Lam W.T., Li H.M., Leung, W.T., Ng, Y, H., Wong, W.T. (2024). Seeing Through a Robot’s Eyes: A Cross-Sectional Exploratory Study in Developing a Robotic Screening Technology for Autism. Autism Research, 17, 2, 366-380.

Lam, H.W., Law, W.W., & So, W.C.+ (2023). Parents’ Modelling of Play Skills in Spontaneous Interactions May Promote Autistic Children’s Play Behaviours. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 108:102231

Zhang, X., Song X.K., So, W.C. (2023). Examining Phenotypical Heterogeneity and its Underlying Factors in Gesture Skills of Chinese Autistic Children: Clustering Analysis. Journal of autism and Developmental Disorders. 

So, W.C., Law, W.W., Cheng C.H., Lee C., Ng K.C., Kwok F.Y., Lam H.W., &  Lam, K.Y. (2023). Comparing the effectiveness of robot-based to human-based intervention in improving joint attention in children with autism. Frontiers in Psychiatry - Autism, 14:1114907

Alban, A.Q., Alhaddad, A.Y., Abdulaziz,  A.A., So, W.C., Connor, O., Ayesh, M., Qidwai, U.A., Cabibihan J-J. (2023). Heart Rate as a Predictor of Challenging Behaviours among Children with Autism from Wearable Sensors in Social Robot Interactions. Robotics, 12(2), 55.

So, W.C., Cheng, C.H., Law, W.W., Wong, T., Lee, C., Kwok, F.Y., Lee, S.H., Lam, K.Y. (2023). Robot dramas may improve joint attention of Chinese-speaking low-functioning children with autism: Stepped wedge trials. Disabilities and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 18:2, 195-204

So, W.C. & Song, X.E. (2022). Whose gestures are more predictive of expressive language abilities among autistic Chinese-speaking children? A comparison of caregivers’ and children’s gestures. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 53(9):3449-3459

Song, X.K. & So, W.C. (2022).  The Influence of Child-based factors and Parental Inputs on Expressive Language Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism, 26(6):1477-1490.

Huang, Y., Wong, K.Y., Lam, W.Y., Cheng C.H., & So, W.C. (2022). What Affects Gestural Learning in Children with and without Autism? The Role of Prior Knowledge and Imitation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 19;129:104305.

Huang, Y.,  Cheng, C.H., Law, W.W., Wong, T., Leung, O.K., So, W.C. (2022). Gesture Development in Chinese-Speaking Preschool Children with Autism and the Roles of Parental Input and Child-Based Factors. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research,  Vol. 65, 6: 2309-2326.

Song, X.K., Lee, C., & So, W.C.+ (2022). Examining Phenotypical Heterogeneity in Language Abilities in Chinese-Speaking Children with Autism: A Naturalistic Sampling Approach. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 52, 1908–1919 

So, W.C., Song, X.K., Cheng, C.H., Law, W.W., Wong, T., Leung, O.K., & Huang, Y. (2022). Conversation Skills in Chinese-Speaking Preschoolers with Autism: The Contributing Role of Parents’ Verbal Responsiveness. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders., 52, 1106-1119.

Alban, A.Y.Q., Ayesh, M., Alhaddad, A.Y., Al-Ali, A., So, W.C., Connor, O. B., & Cabibihan J.J. (2021). Detection of Challenging Behaviours of Children with Autism using Wearable Sensors during Interactions with Social Robots. Proceedings of the 30th IEEE International Conference on Robot & Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), pp. 852-857.

Huang, Y., Wong, M.K.Y.,  Lam, W.Y., Cheng, C.H., & So, W.C. (2020). Gestures in Storytelling by Preschool Chinese-Speaking Children With and Without Autism. Frontiers in Psychology, 11:573212.

So, W.C.,  Cheng, C.H., Lam, W.Y., Huang, Y., Ng, K.C., Tung, H.C., & Wong, W. (2020). A Robot-Based Play-Drama Intervention May Improve the Joint Attention and Functional Play Behaviors of Chinese-Speaking Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 50(2), 467-481.

So, W.C.,  Cheng, C.H., Lam, W.Y., Wong, T., Law, W.W., Huang, Y., Ng, K.C., Tung, H.C., & Wong, W. (2019). Robot-Based Play-Drama Intervention May Improve the Narrative Abilities of Chinese-Speaking Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 95.

So, W.C., Wong, K.Y., Lam, W.Y., Cheng, C.H., Ku, S.Y., Lam, K.Y., Huang, Y., Wong, W.L. (2019). Who is a better teacher for children with autism? Comparison of learning outcomes between robot-based and human-based interventions in gestural production and recognition. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 86, 62-75. 

Cabibihan, J-J, Chellali, R., So, W.C., Aldosari, M., Connor, O., Alhaddad, A., Javed, H. (2019). Social Robots and Wearable Sensors for Mitigating Meltdowns in Autism - A Pilot Test. Lecture notes in Artificial Intelligence: Social Robotics. In  Ge, S.S., Cabibihan, J.-J., Salichs, M.A., Broadbent, E., He, H., Wagner, A., Castro-González, Á. (Eds.): ICSR 2018, Vol: 11357, pp. 1–12,

Lui, M., So, W.C., Tsang, Y.K. (2018). Neural Evidence for Reduced Automaticity in Processing Emotional Prosody among Men with High Levels of Autistic Traits. Physiology and Behavior, 196, 47-58.

Cho, P. & So, W.C. (2018). A Feel for Numbers: The Changing Role of Gesture in Manipulating the Mental Representation of an Abacus among Children at Different Skill Levels. Frontiers in Psychology, 9:1267

So, W.C., Wong, M.K.Y., Lam, K.Y, Lam, W.Y., Chui T.F., Lee, T.L., Ng, H.M., Chan, C.H., Fok, C.W. (2018). Using a social robot to teach gestural recognition and production in children with autism spectrum disorders. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 13:6, 527-539. 

So, W.C., Wong, M.K.Y, Lam, W.Y., Cheng, C.H., Yang, J.H., Huang, Y., Ng, P., Wong, W.L., Ho, C.L., Yeung, K.L., Lee, C.C. (2018). Robot-Based Intervention May Reduce Delay in the Production of Intransitive Gestures in Chinese-Speaking Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Molecular Autism, 9; 34. 

So, W.C. & Wong, M.K.Y. (2018). Tracing the development of spatially-modulated gestures in the manual modality: Do non-signing children share the same developmental trajectory as signing children? Applied Psycholinguistics, 39, 3, 527-544. 

Wong, M.K.Y & So, W.C.+ (2018). Absence of delay in spontaneous use of gestures in spoken narratives among children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 72, 128-139. 

張建國, 蘇詠芝+, 朱嘉俊, 陳瑜明, 馬俊雄, 黃寶如 (2017).  推拿治療兒童自閉症探析. 環球中醫藥, 8, 915-917.

Ng, M.R.R., Goh, W., Yap, M.J., Tse, C.S., So, W.C. (2017). How we think about temporal words: A gestural priming study in English and Chinese. Frontiers in Psychology, 8:974.

Hou, S.M. & So, W.C.+ (2017). Combining gesture with verbal instruction promotes problem-solving skills among young children attempting difficult tasks. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 1 , 87-101.

So, W.C., Wong, M.K.Y., Cabibihan, J-J., Lam K-Y., Chan Y-Y, & Qian H-H (2016). Using robot animation to promote gestural skills in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32, 632–646

Wong, M.K.Y & So, W.C. (2016). Spoken narrative assessment: A supplementary measure of children’s creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 28: 4, 471-477. 

So, W.C., Wong, M.K.Y., & Lam, K.Y. (2016). Social and Communication Skills Predict Imitation Abilities in Children with Autism. Frontiers in Education, 1:3.

So, W.C. & Wong, M.K.Y (2016). I use my space not yours: Use of gesture space for referential identification among children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 26, 33-47

So, W.C., Shum, P.L.C., & Wong, M.K.Y. (2015). Gesture is more effective than spatial language in encoding spatial information. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, 12, 2384-2401 

Ng, M.M.R., Demir, E., & So, W.C. (2015). The role of gesture in referential communication: Developmental perspective. In L. Serratrice & S. Allen (eds.) The acquisition of reference. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 105–121.

So, W.C., Wong, M.K.Y., Lui, M., & Yip, V. (2015). The development of co-speech gesture and its semantic integration with speech in 6- to 12-year-old children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Autism: International Journal of Research and Practice, 19(8), 956-968. 

So, W.C., Lui, M., Wong, T.K., & Sit, L.T. (2015). The use of hand gestures to communicate about non-present objects in mind among children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, Vol. 58, 373-382. 

So, W.C., Ching, T.H.W., Lim, P.E., Chen, X.Q., & Ip, K.Y. (2014). Producing gestures facilitates route learning. PLoS ONE 9(11): e112543.

Hou, S.M. & So, W.C. (2014). Gestures in China: Universal and culturally specific characteristics. Müller, Cienki, Fricke, Ladewig, McNeill, Teßendor. (eds.), Body . Language . Communication (HSK 38.2), de Gruyter, 1233-.1240.

So, W.C., Lim, J.Y., & Tan, S.H. (2014). Sensitivity to information status in discourse: Gesture precedes speech in unbalanced bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35, 71-95

So, W.C., Kita, S., Goldin-Meadow, S. (2013).When do speakers point? The role of language proficiency in semantic relation between pointing gestures and speech. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 42, 6, 581-594

So, W-C, Low, Y.F., Yap, DF, Kheng, E and Yap, J-M M (2013) Iconic gestures prime words: comparison of priming effects when gestures are presented alone and when they are accompanying speech. Frontiers in Psychology. 4:779.

Chong, A., Choi, B., Kwong, E., Chan, J., Chong, I., Ip, M., Yeung, C., &  So. W.C. (2013). Producing gestures facilitates encoding of spatial relation. In M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, & I. Wachsmuth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2000-2005). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society

Cabibihan, J-J., So, W.C., Pramanik, S. (2012). Human recognizable robotic gestures. IEEE: Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development, 4, 4, 305-314. 

Cabibihan, J-J., So, W.C., Saj ,S., Sam Ge, S. (2012). Telerobotic pointing gestures shape human spatial cognition. International Journal of Social Robotics, 4, 3, 263-272.

Ece, D., So, W.C., Ozyurek, A., Goldin-Meadow, S. (2012). Turkish- and English-speaking children display sensitivity to perceptual context in the referring expressions they produce in speech and guesture. Language and Cognitive Processes, 6, 844-867

So, W.C., Sim, C., Low, W.S. (2012). Mnemonic effect of iconic gesture and beat in adults and children. Is meaning important for memory recall? Language and Cognitive Processes, 5, 665-681

So, W.C., & Lim, J.Y. (2012). Point to a referent, and say, "what is this?" Gesture as as potential cue to identify referents in a discourse. Applied Psycholinguistics, 33, 2, 329-342.

So, W.C. (2011). Simulating a route with your index finger: Effect of mental rehearsal on spatial memory.  In L. Carlson, C. Hölscher, & T. Shipley (Eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pp.2252-2257 . Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society

Yap, D.F., So, W.C., Yap, M., Tan, Y.Q. (2011). Iconic gestures prime words. Cognitive Science, 35, 171-183.

So, W.C. (2010). Cross-linguistic transfer in gesture in Chinese-English bilinguals. Language and Cognitive Processes, 25 (10), 1335-1353

So, W.C., Demir, E. & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2010) When speech is ambiguous gesture steps in: Sensitivity to discourse-pragmatic principles in early childhood. Applied Psycholiinguistics, 31, 1, 209-224 


Cabibihan, J., & So, W.C., Nazar, M., & Shuzhi Sam Ge (2009). Pointing Gestures for a Robot Mediated Communication Interface. Lecture notes in Computer Science: Intelligent Robots and Applications, 5928, 67-77


So. W.C., Sotaro, K., Goldin-Meadow, S. (2009) Using the hands to identify who does what to whom: Gesture and Speech Go Hand-in-Hand. Cognitive Science, 33, 1, 115-125

 Goldin-Meadow S., So. W.C., Ozyurek, A., & Mylander, C. (2008) The natural order of events: Evidence of nonverbal tasks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105:9163-9168

 Tardif T., So W.C., & Kacirtoi N. (2007). Language and false belief: Evidence for general, not specific effects in Cantonese-speaking preschoolers.  Developmental Psychology, Vol 43(2) 318-340

 Demir, E., & So, W.C. (2007). “What's hidden in the hands? How children use gesture to convey arguments in a motion event”. BUCLD 31 Proceedings, ed. A. Brugos, M.R. Clark-Cotton, and S.Ha, 172-183. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

 So W.C., Coppola M., Liccidarello V., Goldin-Meadow S. (2005). The seeds of spatial grammar in the manual modality. Cognitive Science, 29, 6, 1029-1043.

 Coppola M. & So W.C. (2005). The seeds of spatial grammar in the manual modality: Spatial Modulation and Coreference in Homesigning and Hearing Adults. BUCLD 30 Proceedings, ed. A. Brugos, M.R. Clark-Cotton, and S.Ha, 119-130. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

 Coppola & So (2004). Abstract vs. object-anchored deixis: Pointing and Spatial Layout in Adult Homesign Systems in Nicaragua. BUCLD 29 Proceedings, ed. A. Brugos, M.R. Clark-Cotton, and S.Ha, 144-155. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.