Rox2 SNPs: R1b-P312>ZZ11>DF27>ZZ12>Z46512>FGC78762>ZZ19>Z34609>Z2571>FGC11380>(FGC11397 & a few dozen phylogenetic equivalents). YFull name: R-Y8397

This is a genealogy site focusing on the 'Rox2' yDNA cluster. A yDNA cluster is essentially a group of present-day men who share similar Y-STR results. Paternal yDNA is to genetic genealogy what the surname is to classical genealogy. The Y chromosome is passed down virtually unchanged to all male descendants from father to son - although small differences accumulate over time. Those differences are due to natural mutations that occasionally occur when the Y chromosome is replicated.

Rox2's 'signature' Y-STR pattern was identified in 2005. Since then it has grown from under one dozen closely matching 25 and 37 STR marker kits to become a large SNP-defined subclade. The STR haplotypes of all the Rox2 subclade founder's modern descendants remain similar enough to be identified today. Identification is made using the framework of signature STR markers present within the 111 marker Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) test. SNP testing can confirm that a STR cluster match is a member of a subclade (a related group).

Rox2's complex SNP phylogeny was discovered through NGS testing with Full Genomes Corporation (FGC ) in 2014. 'Rox2' is an early nickname that stuck - the term has no particular meaning (geographical, historical etc.) but it continues to be a handy shorthand moniker for a subclade that is known by several different alphanumeric lead SNP names on several different phylogenetic trees. STRs remain important but NGS testing can now identify and accurately place a new Rox2 match on a phylogenetic tree, like the Big Tree.

TMRCA (Time To Most Recent Common Ancestor) estimates indicate that the Rox2 subclade founder (one man) lived around 1250 years ago + or - a generous margin of error (i.e. he was born in about 750 AD). Age estimates made with modern haplotypes are not precise, yet it is possible to confidently state that Mr Rox2 was alive in the Early Middle Ages (c. 400 AD to c. 1100 AD). The Rox2 founder had at least nine 'sons' - the ancestors of all present-day Rox2 matches. These Early Medieval brothers produced nine known parallel yDNA lineages - i.e. a star cluster of nine branches born at a similar time. Surnames only became fixed many centuries after the time of the Rox2 subclade's founding and are liable to change. Prior to relatively recent emigration to worldwide colonies, Rox2 had a northern European geographical distribution. The most southerly Rox2 match so far is from northern France and the most northerly match comes from the north of Norway. The most easterly Rox2 match is from Finland and the most westerly is from Ireland.


There is no firm evidence yet as to where exactly Rox2's Early Medieval ancestor came from, that cannot be determined using modern yDNA alone. That he lived in northern Europe is a reasonable assumption given the subclade's modern distribution. However, hobbyist databases do not have uniform Europe-wide coverage and countries outside Ireland and the British Isles have a relatively low representation in those databases. 4000 year-old branch points in the phylogenetic tree, sometimes employed as a means of inferring origins, can provide clues but do not reveal early geographic origins with any certainty. For example, it is not guaranteed that a modern hobbyist's ancestor from eighteenth or nineteenth century Europe (if known) was living in the same place that the founder of the yDNA branch was living 4000 years earlier. Studies of isotopic signatures from ancient burials have shown that there was great mobility across Europe. By contrast, modern subclade frequency and variation, seen mainly through the lens of self-reported, present-day North American hobbyist data of largely NW Isles origin, cannot reveal paths of ancient European migrations made by parallel prehistoric yDNA subclades. The relatively new science of archaeogentics is beginning to solve some of the puzzles with analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological remains bearing uniparental markers across all of Europe.

The currently incongruous characteristics of Rox2 - i.e. DF27's lower frequency in largely L21+ western Britain and Ireland and Rox2's very long 3000+ year bottleneck followed by a sudden and relatively recent widespread demographic expansion by many individuals in the Early Middle Ages - do nevertheless stand out in the available data. If the Rox2 founder's ancestors were active in Britain for over 3000 years, why did they leave no trace in the British Isles and Ireland until the Early Medieval period - in an area of Europe that currently has the highest hobbyist yDNA coverage in the world? L21>DF13 subclades by comparison generally have long lineages stretching back into prehistory in Britain and Ireland.

Significant population movement occurred between the time of the decline of the Western Roman Empire in about the early-fifth century and the Norman Conquest in 1066. Rox2 was born some time between those two events. A move from one country to another can explain a new subclade's appearance 'out of the blue' following a very long yDNA bottleneck like the one we see in Rox2. The places of birth of ancient yDNA subclades (descendants of mobile prehistoric men) might never be known for certain but scientific objectivity, phylogenetic trees and archaeogenetics will provide answers. If two parallel subclades last shared a point on the phylogenetic tree c. 4000 years ago, then any number of convoluted journeys around Europe could have been made by the descendants of those lineages between that time and the modern era. The place of highest modern frequency of a subclade is not usually the place of ancient origin and, rather like water, the descendants of people might flow from a source and pool elsewhere. 'Country Reports' or SNP tracking maps made with modern hobbyist data are not proof of origin. That does not mean we can't make hypotheses but it is not possible to make assertions based on the currently available data. All that's really know for sure at this stage is that the descendants of at least nine contemporary close paternal relations, the founders several parallel Rox2 branches, were living and having children across a wide area of the British Isles and Scandinavia in the Middle Ages. For more details see Geographical Distribution and Founder pages.


This page shows early R1b-P312 branching. The current mainstream view is that the ancestor of R1b-P312, R1b-L51, probably had earliest origins to the east, somewhere on or near the forest steppe and possibly in a Yamanaya-related culture of Western Steppe Herders (WSH). Prehistoric clans moved west through Corded Ware lands and Mr P312's sons produced many of the paternal lineages of the enigmatic Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age cultures of western Europe. The three most prolific 'sons' of R1b-P312, born around 3000 BC, are DF27, L21 and U152. Together they account for the yDNA lineages of a very large proportion of the present-day European population. DF27, the subclade that Rox2 descends from, is one of the largest, most widespread but possibly least well-understood of the three big R1b-P312 subclades. Based on modern hobbyist data, it appears to make up around one quarter of the R1b-P312 subclades distributed all across Europe but has a higher present-day frequency in France, Netherlands, Belgium and Iberia and a lower present-day frequency in Ireland, Scotland and Wales. See this count (October 2019). The place where the four largest R1b-L151 subclades (DF27, U152, Z290/L21 and U106) are found in roughly equal numbers today is France. The technology used in SNP tests has difficulty identifying DF27 and it was discovered four years after L21 and U152. NGS testing highlights SNPs downstream of DF27 and understanding is improving with the sharing of results on phylogenetic trees and improved analysis of ancient archaeological yDNA. For further details see my Ancient DF27 page.

After more extensive post-2014 DF27 NGS testing (using FGC and FTDNA's Big Y) and analysis by Alex Williamson at the Big Tree, two large ancient groups just below DF27 were revealed. They are ZZ12 and the smaller, parallel branch that had already been known for several years, Z195/Z196. Additionally, a third 'son' of DF27, BY168384 (hg38 position 19555478 T>C) plus equivalents BY168387 and BY171708, was found in July 2018 and possibly a forth as-yet-unnamed one in November 2018. Both recent discoveries are currently very small in comparison to ZZ12 and Z195. More early branches might turn up in the future. There are 29 parallel branches immediately downstream of DF27>ZZ12 on the FTDNA Block Tree at the moment (August 2019).

Rox2 is DF27>ZZ12+. Its ancestral branch immediately below ZZ12 is Z46512 (hg38 4365426 T>AC ), then FGC78762 (hg38 10777194 G>T ). Next is big 'son' ZZ19/ZZ20 (hg19 25938772 T>A, hg38 22224478 A>G). Subclades under ZZ19 are widespread and present-day descendants are found all across Europe, including in Sweden, Finland, Poland, Denmark, Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, Armenia, Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Britain and Ireland. ZZ19 is a very large subclade, making up over one third of the total of all DF27>ZZ12 on the Big Tree. Below ZZ19 is Z34609. These ancient 'top layer' branches were in existence c. 2500 BC. Z34609* kits indicate that more subclades await discovery below Z34609.

'Son' of Z34609, Z2571, has two ancient parallel sub-branches descending from it, they are FGC11380 and CTS11567.


Z2571 (hg19 23076115 C>G, hg38 20914229 C>G) is a deep DF27 SNP. ISOGG: R1b1a1a2a1a2a6. Formed c. 2500 BC +/- margin of error (YFull).

FGC11380 (hg19 23098886 T>C, hg38 20937000 T>C). Early branch point (with equivalent FGC11385 position 14422221 G>T/12301496 G>T on FTDNA Block Tree). Big Tree FGC11380 Y8841, 22220783-C-T, YFull's R-Y8841: FGC11385 * FGC11384 * FGC11380/Y8841. Formed c. 2500 BC, TMRCA c. 2200 BC +/- margin of error (YFull).

FGC11397 (hg19 7332619 G>A, hg38 7464578 G>A). 'Rox2'. A currently phylogenetically equivalent SNP, one of a block of dozens of equivalent SNPs below FGC11380/Y8842 that define the subclade (available to test at YSEQ.net and FTDNA). The Big Tree leads with FGC11388. YFull lead with Y8397 (FGC name FGC11374). Another, possibly early, equivalent is FGC11381 (hg19 6720487 C>T/hg38 6852446 C>T). The FTDNA Haplotree occasionally uses FGC11395/Y8842 (position hg19 14861066 C>A/hg38 12749132 C>A), FGC11411/Y8406 (hg19 19116326 T>C/hg38 17004446 T>C ) and BY741/Y8398 (hg19 7907577 C>G, hg38 8039536 C>G), currently at the same level as FGC11397, as Rox2's lead SNPs.


The best and simplest yDNA testing strategy for clear identification of a Rox2 match is to get a NGS SNP test (e.g. Big Y, YSEQ or FGC) and then, if happy sharing results, upload those NGS SNP results for free to this external public phylogenetic tree: Big Tree. If you match the Rox2 STR signature you will, with further testing, go on to find many Big Y matches too. Analysis and inclusion on the Big Tree arranges your results into an intuitive and easily understandable 'family tree' format. Additionally, there are a large number of Rox2 111 STR marker matches, so an upgrade to Y-111 at FTDNA can be very useful - especially if your Big Y match is not identified on FTDNA's Block Tree. Please join the FTDNA DF27 project. A Big Y test will get you into the specific Rox2 groups there but 111 STRs alone won't - the volunteer admins rely on SNPs for identification. There are many more 67 and 111 marker Rox2 matches across different FTDNA surname projects who are unaware of SNPs, the DF27 project or the fact that they match Rox2. Unfortunately, a DNA test is of little genealogical use if results can not be compared with others. Write to close STR and Big Y matches and let them know about SNPs, DF27 and our Rox2 subclade.

If your more recent Rox2 branch is not currently known, a branch will form when a more closely related match uploads their NGS results to a phylogenetic tree in the future. However, little will be learned by a living close male relation taking a NGS test, the results may be identical to yours. There are occasional Sales at FTDNA for the Big Y test, usually there is one at Christmas.

The large phylogenetically equivalent SNP block shared by all Rox2 subclade matches might be imagined as a father-to-son chain of descent with dozens of SNP 'links' in that chain below Z2571>FGC11380. However, we don't know the chronological order of those links. So far that block/lineage is unbroken in thousands of years, from at least around 4500 years ago +/- a wide margin of error up to about the eighth century AD. A branch in the large shared block might turn up in the future and could potentially give some clues about the origin of the subclade. This very long SNP 'bottleneck' ends some time around 750 AD for Rox2 when several parallel branches appear to suddenly expand all at once - in a 'founding event'.

The Big Tree, December 2019 (above)


Underneath the Rox2 shared phylogenetically equivalent block, a smaller number of more recent SNPs have accumulated over time for each parallel 'brother' sub-branch down to the present day. On average around one dozen Big Y-500 SNPs and about 15 Big Y-700 SNPs, ones that are not insertions/deletions or other more complex mutations that the automated technology has difficulty reading, have occurred in each parallel branch. Those SNPs, listed as 'Public Variants' and 'Private Variants' below the SNP block led by FGC11397 at FTDNA's Block Tree, have happened in the time between the founder's birth in around 750 AD (+ or -) and the present.

If, for example, a large yDNA subclade suddenly sprang from a recent and prolific common ancestor with a previously heavily bottlenecked lineage (say, a man born in 1750 AD who had a dozen sons), his descendants would all share SNPs in a block leading forward through prehistory to that man's time of birth in 1750, but there would be very few unique Private Variants in evidence in the Big Y tests of his many present-day descendants. Also, the genetic distance (GD) between the cluster's present-day STR haplotypes would be very low. If, however, the same branch founder was born four hundred years earlier in 1350 AD, then over half a dozen reliable SNPs could have occurred in that time. The STR haplotypes would, on average, have a higher GD too.

There is wide variation in the number of SNPs detected by Big Y for different individual lineages during the same passage of time - both SNPs and STRs regularly vary from statistical norms. Testing coverage might vary depending on the area of the y chromosome being scanned. One Rox2 branch could have on average twice as many Private Variants as another - even though our many parallel branches clearly share the same common ancestor and are therefore the same age. Gaps in coverage of the y chromosome and 'low confidence' SNP reads might be reasons for the inconsistency. Over the eleven recorded generations in my family tree stretching back to the sixteenth century, the average age of fathers at the birth of their sons is 36. Some say that older fathers produce more SNPs-per-generation but that does not appear to be the case here - I have comparatively few SNPs. In fact, might younger fathers be expected to produce more SNPs in one hundred years - there being twice as many SNP-producing reproductive events (generations) in the same passage of time, link? What might happen to the mutation rates if some Medieval subclades happen to be founded by prolific individuals with many partners?

Whatever the reason for the differences, it is clear that the SNPs reported by Big Y don't happen predictably 'like clockwork' across all of Rox2's sub-branches. Generalized SNP-per-years estimates based on the average of all Big Y-500 and Big Y-700 results in the database can potentially skew estimates when they are applied to more idiosyncratic subclades. They are not necessarily applicable or accurate for each individual Rox2 sub-branch.

SNP numbers can be averaged out across dozens of NGS-tested Rox2 kits. As a very rough guide, hg38 Big Y-500 (BigY2) might on average identify one definite SNP in approximately 100 years (3-4 generations) for a Rox2 kit. For Big Y-700 tests (BIGY3) the rate is around one SNP every 2-3 generations, or 83 years-per-SNP, as found for the pioneering FGC Rox2 kits in 2014. At the moment things have become more challenging as far as SNP counting goes, with hg19 and hg38 Big Y kits, three higher-coverage FGC kits, Big Y-500 and new Big Y-700 kits and a 1000 Genomes kit all listed together on the Big Tree.

FTDNA upgraded Big Y-500 to Big Y-700 in late-2018. An upgrade from an existing Big Y-500 kit to Big Y-700 will produce more Private Variants but will not produce more Big Y matches - new matches turn up when new customers test. Rox2 matches are no longer listed as named DNA Matches at our FTDNA Big Y pages if the 30 SNP mismatch limit is exceeded. Until the threshold for Big Y Matching and the listing of irrelevant 'bogus' SNP issues are addressed, FTDNA Rox2 customers will find that their number of named Big Y 'DNA Matches' reduces after Big Y-700 tests. This does not affect the Big Tree - we see all our matches if they have uploaded their results there.

An example of a mid-2019 Big Y-500 'apples to apples' comparison, before Big Y-700, could be seen in the Rox2* paragroup, consisting of three hg38 Big Y-500 kits (BigY2) with parallel ancestry (different subclades) since the time of the Early Middle Ages Rox2 founder. They averaged out at 96 years-per-SNP at the Big Tree in August 2019.

FTDNA, YFull and YSEQ have their own criteria about what SNPs and SNP names are included in their trees. Outside analysis at Alex Williamson's Big Tree casts an invaluable extra pair of eyes over the data and often includes novel variants that other trees do not. Big Tree might contain matches that do not appear at FTDNA. This site focuses more on the Big Tree for those reasons and because it also illustrates key Rox2 branching in a more intuitive, visually straightforward and informative way. Kit owners have voluntarily shared their results (including name and kit number) on the Big Tree, it's a public site. This experienced genetic genealogist views the Big Tree as essential to research.

Big Y-700 ('BigY3' on the Big Tree) has the same coverage as the FGC Elite tests that three Rox2 matches took several years ago and therefore there are no surprises in the early phylogeny after latest Big Y-700 testing and the large shared SNP block that was identified in 2014 remains intact.

The Big Tree's accuracy and ongoing genealogical value depends on NGS/Big Y Rox2 matches uploading their results to the DNA Warehouse, otherwise important branches will not be represented and the tree will begin to resemble a jigsaw puzzle with missing pieces. Instructions are here.


There are currently eight named branches plus a paragroup containing one more Rox2* Big Y kit. These nine parallel branches can be thought of as 'sons' of the Rox2 founder but not necessarily actual sons - they probably are but the identified SNP mutation in each parallel lineage might have happened a generation or so down the line. Currently available data suggest the parallel lineages could be descendants of many Early Medieval brothers. In 2011 STR analysis showed that GD between Rox2 matches (genetic distance) formed a smooth bell curve, indicating that Rox2 is probably a monophyletic clade descended from one founder, confirmed by subsequent NGS SNP and STR analysis. Three kits have higher-coverage FGC tests from 2014 testing. Sub-branch FGC11414 has two FGC Rox2 kits and parallel sub-branch FGC39762 has one FGC kit represented at the Big Tree. Those extra FGC SNPs (visible in the equivalent block) are also present in more recent Big Y-700 tests. Alexander Williamson reports that all those FGC SNPs except two (FGC11416 and FGC11418) were found in the anonymous A17453+ 1000 Genomes Rox2 kit, HG00107.

Two close Rox2 STR matches might occasionally have very low genetic distance from each other by coincidence at lower resolution. A 'lack of divergence' between two 67 marker haplotypes can occasionally give the incorrect impression that the two matching kits are closely related. Fortunately, NGS tests using SNPs can spot such coincidental STR matches. For example, a member of one Rox2 sub-branch, BY21578, is an almost identical STR match (66/67 markers) to a member of parallel 'brother' Rox2 branch, Y17787; yet Big Y and placement on the Big Tree revealed that they are unrelated in over 1000 years.

Note: After initial Big Y-700 results come in it takes a few weeks, or longer, for them to 'settle down' into their correct positions on the FTDNA Block Tree following analysis by a specialist member of FTDNA's team. 'Bogus' or recurrent SNPs need to be removed too. It is common to find your SNP counts and details have changed since the last time you looked.

The NGS-identified and 'named' Rox2 deep sub-branches as seen on the Big Tree and Block Tree are:

  • FGC11414 is itself the result of a large founding event very soon after the founding of Rox2 itself and has several branches below, or 'downstream' of it - they are parallel 'sons' of Mr FGC11414. Five sub-branches have been named so far on FTDNA's Block Tree: FGC11419, BY21590, BY21591, Y69563 and FGC33531. New kits have not uploaded results to the Big Tree yet and as a result FGC11414 coverage is inaccurate there. New sub-branches Y69563 and FGC33531 are not represented on the Big Tree at all. The northern Swedish branch is represented by BY21590. Big Y kits can be added to the Big Tree via the DNA Warehouse. No BY21590 is found outside Scandinavia yet. See this page for STR and SNP-based age estimates and the Nordic Rox2 Y-DNA page for more details. Another FGC11414 'son', BY21591, contains Big Y kits representing old West Riding of Yorkshire families. FTDNA's Haplotree shows two kits who are BY21591* and a named branch, BY49975. Big Tree leads this branch with BY49857. See the FTDNA Robertshaw DNA Project. BY21591 (just one SNP, no equivalents) is a 'son' of FGC11414 and was born at a very early point in Rox2's history, around 1200 years ago +/- a generous margin of error. The proximity of two separate, parallel early BY21591* ancient 'brother' lineages whose currently-known representatives respectively bear the names Smithson and Falkiner today, with long pedigrees in broadly the same region that BY21591>BY49857 is from, is interesting and suggests that BY21591 has ancient continuity in that area of Yorkshire. As with all subclades immediately below Rox2, the places of birth of the FGC11414 'sons' could be nearby, or distant from, the location that their FGC11414 father was in nine months previously.
  • A17453 Immediately below this SNP is A16311. One 1000 Genomes kit (Orkney) is A17453*. Notes regarding A16311 on the Big Tree say, '*Mutations whose exact position can't be determined precisely from NGS tests, such as those in palindromes, are shown with a pink background.' FTDNA's Haplotree/Block Tree doesn't have A16311. The result of another Medieval founding event, there are four currently-known 'sons' of A16311 at the Big Tree: 1. BY21588 (plus two equivalents), 2. A16155/BY21584 (plus two equivalents), 3. Y33105 (plus three equivalents, BY21592, Y33106 & Y32852), 4. BY157355 (plus eight Big Tree equivalents and seven FTDNA equivalents including their lead SNP, BY145620). Y33105 has incomplete Big Y data at the Big Tree due to some kits not uploading results there. FTDNA and YFull's haplotrees may differ. Block Tree order: BY21592, BY21588, BY21584 and BY145620. There are many STR matches 'out there' without SNPs who will go on to match A17453 should they become aware of Big Y/NGS SNP testing and the Big Tree. It is always a good idea to email close 67 and 111 marker STR matches, let them know about Rox2, Big Y/SNPs and the Big Tree. That can increase the chances that a branch will be accurately represented on FTDNA's Haplotree - as well as enabling better SNP-based age estimates to be made.
  • Y17787 (YFull use equivalent Y17484 as lead SNP, Big Tree and FTDNA use Y17787). This branch, with a geographically-localized distribution of earliest known ancestors originating mainly in the northwest of the Isles, is comparatively well-represented on the Big Tree. The kits share four equivalent SNPs after the DF27+ Rox2 founder's time. That shared SNP block indicates that those below it have early common ancestry with kit 185183 for a 'bottleneck' period of a few hundred years in the early Middle Ages. Then, the R1b-DF27 Macauley families branch off after a large Medieval founding event by a common ancestor identified by a block of equivalent SNPs below Y17484. There are currently five early sons of the Macauley 'father of the family', Mr Y17784, on Big Tree. They are represented by Y20979, Y30689, Y71371 and Y83213 and one that will remain Y17484* until joined by a fellow branch member. The FTDNA MacAuley DNA project is here: link
  • BY21578/YSEQ's A12539 leads a SNP block on The Big Tree containing nine other currently phylogenetically equivalent SNPs and has members of the Hickey/Higgins group, with origins in Ireland, immediately below it. A branch point, BY30718/Y75797, then occurs in around 1500 AD (+/-) and BY30716 branches off. The BY21578* kits have parallel ancestries since that time. See the FTDNA Hickey DNA project.
  • FGC39762 leads a block of 15 phylogenetic equivalents on the Big Tree that so far contains two out of three Big Y kits from relatively recently related Simpson men. Further branching at an earlier point in the tree will be evident in this sub-branch once other more distantly related matches take a Big Y test.
  • BY166898 (plus Big Tree equivalents Y2:13914-C-T [not on FTDNA Haplotree], BY168115, BY166898, BY168311 and 5413822 G>C/FT33483. This branch has accumulated a comparatively low number of '+' high confidence level Big Y-500 SNPs/INDELs in 1250 years. Based on Big Tree-identified SNPs from two Big Y-500/BigY2 kits and two Big Y-700/BigY3 kits, the common ancestor of the branch named BY166504 and kit 726794 may have been alive in about 1375 AD + or - a margin of error. My kit, N3461 Corner (North Yorkshire), is currently BY166504*. At the moment the Big Tree and Block Tree 'lead' SNP names differ and Big Tree includes two SNPs that FTDNA omits from their list (K498, currently an equivalent SNP in the BY194976 branch and Y2:13914-C-T, one of BY166896's equivalents). FTDNA (30th May 2019) have BY168115 as the name of the branch known as BY166898/13914-C-T at the Big Tree. My 111 STR analysis indicates that the Rox2 Stewart STR matches might belong to this sub-branch should one of them take a Big Y test.
  • FT171815 is the first and only SNP that represents this sub-branch. Like FGC11414, FT171815 represents a 'son' of Mr Rox2, one of the nine brothers identified so far. The two kits that belong to this branch share a male common ancestor who lived around 1200 years ago at the very start of Rox2's existence - the lineages, represented by present-day Ker and Newton kits, with relatively recent origins in Scotland and Derbyshire respectively, have been in living in parallel since that time. This branch appears to have a much higher than average genetic difference from the Rox2 111 STR modal haplotype.
  • BY169396 (Block Tree only, kit missing from Big Tree). Kit 453584 in the far right Rox2* paragroup at Big Tree is below BY169396 at Block Tree.
  • Plus one additional Rox2* kit. The Block Tree differs from the Big Tree. The Big Tree does not yet have the new kit that helped form the BY169396 sub-branch, please upload .vcf files there. Kit B351108 is the last remaining Rox2* kit at Block Tree - see the column on the right of the Rox2 section of the Big Tree. At FTDNA's Block Tree there are 13 more unnamed and unidentifiable Rox2*/FGC11397* kits from 5 countries (December 2019). When matching Big Y/NGS kits turn up in the future the ninth named branch below Rox2 will be formed. Close STR matches on your FTDNA STR Matches page can be contacted via their email address but more distant ones (30 SNP threshold) remain invisible. Hopefully the threshold will be increased in the future and we might then be able to see our yDNA cousins. It is more likely (although not certain) that close STR matches might turn out to be members of your 'family branch' at Big Y should they take that test.. STR matches who share your off-modal STR pattern over 111 markers are most likely to be members of your yet-to-be-named branch below Rox2. Get in touch with any queries.

* Bold = FTDNA names. The kits on the Big Tree represent a small proportion of overall Rox2 matches. Existing branches will gain more definition with the addition of new NGS results. The above lineages, being descendants of early 'sons' of Rox2, have lived in parallel for 1000+ years. It takes at least two kits from the same early lineage to form a new branch and that can only be identified after inclusion and analysis (.vcf and BAM files) on a phylogenetic tree.

Now that the wider subclade has several families that are researching their own recent downstream 'family' sub-branches, it is becoming impractical to include all details here. Members of the family sub-branches below Rox2 might create webpages/blogs to cover information about their more recent areas of the tree. It would be great to be able to keep up to date with your progress. Let me know of anything you would like to be included on this site.