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UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAMEAssistant Professor of Politics and Global AffairsKeough School of Global AffairsKroc Institute of International Peace BuildingConcurrent Faculty, Department of Political Science(2019-present)
HARVARD UNIVERSITYAcademy Scholar (Postdoctoral Fellow)Harvard Academy for International and Area StudiesWeatherhead Center for International Affairs(2017-2019, Fall 2020)


Ph.D., Political Science, Northwestern University, 2017Dissertation: “Rebels, Smugglers, Bureaucrats: How State Institutions Shape Economies of War” , with distinctionFields: Comparative Politics, International RelationsCommittee: William Reno (chair), James Mahoney, Hendrik Spruyt, Rachel RiedlM.A., Political Science, Northwestern University, 2012African Studies Cluster Fellow


"Sovereignty Resources and Civil War" Research Note, Revise and Resubmit, International Organization.
“Bureaucrats at War: The Resilient State in the Congo" African Affairs, 2020.
“Set Diagrams and Qualitative Research.” 2015. Comparative Political Studies. 48(1): 65-100. with James Mahoney.
Religious Equality in Kenya? Adjudicating the Constitutionality of Kenya’s Kadhis’ Courts.” 2012. Regulating Religion. (August).

Book Manuscript
Violent Institutions: Rebellion, Bureaucracy, and Wartime State Capture

Book Chapters
"Peace-building as State-building? Lessons from the Democratic Republic of the Congo" in The State of Peacebuliding in Africa: Lessons Learned and Best Practices for Policymakers and Practitioners. Edited volume organized by the Wilson Center, forthcoming 2020.
“Fieldwork in Dangerous Environments” (Narrative boxes) In Chris Barrett, Jeffrey Cason, Erin Lentz, Overseas Research: A Practical Guide, 3rd ed. Routeledge, forthcoming, 2020.
In Search of Order: State Systems of Property Rights Enforcement and their Failings.” In Where There is No Government: Enforcing Property Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Investigative Reports and Policy
Militarizing the Peace: United Nations Intervention Against Congo’s ‘Terrorist’ Rebels” The Lawfare Institute and the Brookings Institute, June 2019.
Clichés Can Kill in Congo” Foreign Policy, April 2019. With Christoph Vogel, Adia Benton, Esther Marijnen, Judith Verweijen, and Gillian Mathys.
Ebola briefings: under the Social Science in Humanitarian Action Platform and UNICEF "Politics, factions, and violence: listening to local voices on Ebola - Local media update #3" / "Politique, dissensions et violence: à l'écoute des porte-paroles locaux s'exprimant au sujet d'Ebola" "Local Perspectives: media and local messages on Ebola in the Grand Nord, DRC (November-December 2018)- local media update #2"
"Local Perspectives: Whatsapp and Local media on Ebola in the Grand Nord, DRC - Media update #1 (Sept 2018)"
Mass Killings in North Kivu’s Beni Territory: Duplicity and Political Violence” Investigative Report, Congo Research Group, Center on International Cooperation, September 2017. Summary available here
Amani Iliukwa (Peace Was): Rethinking the Bounds of ‘Conflict.’Amani Itukuya (Peace Will Come) Essay Series, June 2015.
Business and Politics Intersect in a String of North Kivu Killings,” Congo Siasa / Congo Research Group, January 2015
Misinformation and Misdirection in Congo’s ‘Islamist’ Attacks,” Suluhu, November 2014.

Working Papers
"Knowing What We Don't: The Problem of (Mis)Attributing Civil War Violence"
"Rebel Records: The Pen, Not Just the Sword, of Violent Organization"
"State Institutions in Civil War: Bureaucratic Development and Change Behind Frontlines" - Supported by the Initiative for Transparent Inquiry at the Qualitative Data Repository


2016-17 Investigative research grant, British Foreign and Commonwealth Office
2015-16 Harry Frank Guggenheim Dissertation Fellowship for the Study of Human Violence
Graduate Research Grant, Northwestern University
Morris Goodman African Language Award- Intermediate Lingala
2014 Dispute Resolution Research Center, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern
2013-14 Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Grant
2012-13 Morris Goodman African Language Award: funded study of advanced Swahili
2011-12 Andrew W. Mellon Research Grant
American Political Science Association (APSA) Africa Workshop Fellow
Hans E. Panofsky Research Award, Program of African Studies, Northwestern
Buffet Center Graduate Student Summer Research Award, Northwestern
2010-11 Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Fellowship for Interdisciplinary Studies- African Studies


ARMED GROUP EXPERT (2019) United Nations Office of the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for the Great Lakes RegionAnalyzed original interview data and material evidence to profile the ADF rebel organization. | Assessed regional, national, and local drivers of conflict, including recruitment, collusions, social embedment, trafficking, and trends and triggers of violence. | Designed a neutralization strategy to deescalate violence. EXPERT ADVISOR (August 2018-present) Social Science in Humanitarian Action Platform, Ebola Emergency InterventionProvided expert analysis in negotiating humanitarian access to conflict zones for the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF, DFID, USAID. | Advising a large platform of humanitarian organizations on how armed conflict affects Ebola intervention in North Kivu. | Assessed risks to Ebola response teams, including community resistance to international intervention and armed group attacks. | Analyzed security trends and potential vectors of infection passing through armed group territory. | Advised on building community trust and deescalating the politicization of the Ebola response COUNTRY ANALYST, CONGO-BRAZZAVILLE AND CONGO-KINSHASA (2014 - present)Freedom House Analyst and author for the Congo-Kinshasa (2015-2019) and Congo-Brazzaville (2016, 2017) country profiles Freedom in the World Report on political rights and civil liberties. | Researched human rights, political violence, government corruption, media repression, electoral processes, political participation, and the judiciary in DR Congo and Republic of Congo. | Debated evidence and built consensus to assign country scores CONFLICT EXPERT (2016)European Union Delegation to the United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in Congo (MONUSCO) Analyzed changing formats of armed group organization, alliance formation, and collusion between armed groups, the national army, and state institutions. | Provided security briefings for the military and civilian branches of the UN Peacekeeping mission. | Formulated recommendations for stabilization programming. | Investigated the embedment of foreign armed groups into Congolese politics and trafficking
CONFLICT ANALYST ( 2014)United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in Congo (MONUSCO) Worked systematically to collect records of rebel activity for the UN’s Stabilization Support Unit. | Gathered testimony from Congolese security forces and customary chiefs. | Briefed a wide range of offices from the UN Mission on findings. RESEARCH ADVISOR AND VISITING INSTRUCTOR (2013, 2011, 2009-2010)Institut des Recherches Intégrées, Université Chrétienne Bilingue du Congo Developed research projects with Congolese university students informal economies, conflict, and displacement, in North Kivu and Ituri. | Coordinated a social research course for Congolese university students studying parallel markets, displacement, wartime governance and forced migration in North Kivu and Ituri (2009-2010).
INTERN, INFORMAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN URBAN KENYA ( 2007)Haki ya Jamii Trust (Swahili, “Community Rights Trust”) Nairobi, Kenya Researched property disputes and dispute resolution mechanisms in Kibera informal settlement. | Examined gang structures, vigilante resistance to evictions and rent hikes, and participation in United Nation’s (UN-HABITAT) Kenya Slum Upgrading Program. | Conducted interviews and focus groups in Kibera slum with tenants, informal authorities, government officials, and vigilante groups.


Invited Academic Lectures
“Investigative Methods in Clandestine Markets and Conflict Zones” Social Science Research Council, November 2018
“State Capacity and Rebellion” Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, October 24, 2018
“Rebel-State Interaction in Civil War in Democratic Republic of Congo” Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, Medford, MA, December 4, 2017.
“The Afterlife of Rebellion: Institutional Legacies of State-Rebel Relations,” Harvard Academy Presentation Series, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, October 18, 2017.
“The Rebel State: Armed Networks in Legal Orders” Presentation at the Project on Rebel Law and Governance. Pearson Institute, University of Chicago and University of Chicago Law School. Chicago, IL. October 24, 2016.
“Better Together: States, Rebels, and the Political Economy of War.” Presentation at the Neubauer Collegium on the State, Violence, and Social Control in the Contemporary World, University of Chicago. Chicago, IL. May 26, 2016.
“Rebels, Smugglers, and Bureaucrats: How State Institutions Shape Congo’s War Economy.” Presentation at Congo Day. Pamona College, Claremont, CA. November 23, 2015.
“Congo: [Beyond] Minerals, Corruption, and Conflict.” Presentation at ArtWORKS Projects for Human Rights. With William Reno. Chicago, IL. June 17, 2015.
“Challenges to International Peace Building in the Democratic Republic of Congo” Lecture to the Peace Building class at De Paul University, Chicago, IL, April 21, 2015.
“Dynamics of Violence in Beni Territory, North Kivu “ Presentation to the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the DR Congo (MONUSCO), Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo, December 1, 2014.
“Conducting Field Research in Dangerous Settings,” Lecture to the Comparative Politics class at University of Chicago, School of Continuing Studies, Chicago, IL, May 20, 2014.
“Urban Property and Political Development in Africa” Presentation at the Human Needs and Global Resources Symposium on Property Rights, Poverty Reduction and Policy Reform, Wheaton College, February 29, 2008.

Invited Presentations for Policymakers and Practioners “Stabilization Challenges and the Implications for Regional Stability in the Middle East” United States National Intelligence Council, Arlington, VA, December 7, 2018. “Negotiating Humanitarian Access to Conflict Zones: Recommendations for Ebola Intervention in North Kivu Province” Presentation to the World Health Organization, Geneva, August 8, 2018. “Cross-Border Crises in the African Great Lakes” Presentation to the U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Washington, D.C., July 30, 2018. “Coalitions, Duplicity, and Political Violence: Mass Killings in Northeast Congo,” U.S. Department of Defense, Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Administration, Treasury Department, and Office of Analysis for Africa, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., February 2018. “Assessing Mass Killings” Presentation to the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the DR Congo, Force Intervention Brigade, March 13, 2017. “Mass Killings in Beni Territory” Presentation to United Nations Stabilization Mission, March 9, 2017. “Rebels and their pretenders,” Briefing to the Deputy Force Commander of the United Nations Peacekeeping Mission Force Intervention Brigade, Goma, DR Congo, February 2016. “ADF and the ‘False’ ADF,” Briefing to the Force Commander of the Force Intervention Brigade, United Nations Peacekeeping Mission, Goma, 26 April 2016. “Local dimensions of the Mass Killings in Northeast Congo: Coalition Structures of the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF)” Armed Group Experts’ Workshop, British Embassy in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Goma, October 2015. “Dynamics of Violence in Beni Territory, North Kivu” Presentation to the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the DR Congo (MONUSCO), Goma, DR Congo, December 2014.
“Knowing What We Don’t: Data from Conflict Zones” American Political Science Association, Washington, D.C., August 2019
“Politics by Other Means: Mass Violence in Northeast Congo,” African Studies Association. Atlanta, GA, December 2018.
“State Development in Civil War: Violence and Bureaucracy in DR Congo” American Political Science Association (APSA) Conference, Boston, MA, September 2018
“Rebel Law: Maneuvering the Boundaries of Legality in Warzones” The Institute for Global Law and Policy, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA, June 2-3, 2018.
“Beyond the State? An Institutional Theory of State-Rebel Engagement behind Frontlines.” American Political Science Association (APSA) Conference. Philadelphia, PA. September 1, 2016.
“Governing Finance: Rebels, Bureaucrats, and Transnational Networks in Eastern Congo.” African Studies Association. San Diego, CA. November 2015.
“When are Warlords State Builders? Assessing the Durability of Armed Governing Coalitions,” presented at the conference on Struggles Over Emerging States in Africa. Durham University and the Peace Research Institute of Oslo (PRIO), Durham City, England. May 9-11 2013.
“Capital and Coercion in Contemporary War: Business Networks and Insurgent Negotiations in DR Congo,” presented at the Midwest Political Science Association. Chicago, IL, April 12, 2013.
“Beyond Disorder: Civilian-Insurgent Relations in Wartime Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo,” presented at the African Studies Association, Philadelphia, PA, November 30, 2012.
“Rethinking ‘Urban Bias’ in the African State,” presented at the Midwest Political Science Association. Chicago, IL, April 3, 2008. With Sandra Joireman.
“Justice, Deliberation, and Deceit: Reconsidering the Elements of the Mytilenian Debate,” presented at the Citizenship, Identity, and Social Justice Conference at the University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada, May 17, 2007.


Contemporary Civil Wars, University of Notre Dame (2019)
Teaching Assistant, Northwestern University (2011-2015)
Chef de Travaux/ Visiting Instructor, Université Chrétienne Bilingue du Congo Beni, DR Congo (2011, 2013)


American Political Science Association - Sections: Conflict Processes, African Politics, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research
African Studies Association
Annotation for Transparent Inquiry Initiative, Qualitative Data Repository (2018)
Institute for Qualitative and Multi-Method Social Research, Syracuse University (2014)


Swahili (Advanced) French (Advanced)Lingala (Intermediate) German (Basic)