2003 PhD recommendations of investigating criminal behaviours and crimes perpetuated through Vatican networks that harm women, children, and homosexuals, particularly of northern European genetic inheritance and Mediterranean houses of Nobility (my Matrilineal Houses of Nobility from my Mother, Gigliola M. Addini, are Guerrini and Teri), including Jews (my Patrilineal family name is typically Jewish, "Stein") with ethnic origins from Israel in the Mediterranean region. Early in 2005 Cristoph Schönborn's Vienna, Austria office provided the endorsement for my European student issued visa valid through 2014, and it is through this endorsement that I remain in Europe to see that these issues are resolved to the satisfaction of Europe's and Israel's women's interests, dating back to the rape and murder of Alexis von Hesse and her children by matrilineal inheritance and the state murder of Lady Diana Spencer. Judaism is a matrilineal inheritance. Preparing Israel's admission into the expanding European Union requires us to protect Houses of Nobility, particularly matrilineal and Mediterranean - "Standing Again at Sinai" by Judith Plaskow, 1991.

Vatican City’s Revelations and Cultural Rape of the Mother Pisti Sophia Vision:

A Multi Cultural Model Analyzing Emerging Trends in US Media Rooted in Vatican City’s Interpretations and Her Revelations

Proposal for Interdisciplinary PhD Degree: Humanitarian Communication, Nursing & Philosophy

Submitted Spring Semester 2003


Silvia Mary Francesca Addini-Stein

MA Communication 2002, BA Italian Studies 1997, BA Political Science 1997,

Washington State University

Pullman Campus, WA

Table of Contents

I. Introduction –. 1

II. Relevant issues include- 5

III. Areas of Interest –. 7

IV. Units Granting Degree - 8

V. Advisory Committee - 9

VI. Coursework for PhD Degree – 86 (72 credits minimum required) 10

VII. Justification for Interdisciplinary –. 12

VIII. Timeline –. 13

IX. Proposed Research - Thesis: Women in Ukraine, formerly stigmatized by standards of colonial domination rooted in Vatican City’s able-bodied phallocentric intercultural doctrines of acquisition of property, tolerance and conversion, perceive a serious disregard by US media of perpetuating the assignment of negative stigma. 14

X. Summary - 18

Appendix A.. 19

Appendix B.. 20

References –. 23

I. Introduction –

How do you think an Eastern European feels after reading the following headline on the front cover of a bi-monthly North American trendy magazine?



The thesis underlying this coursework proposal is: Women in Ukraine, formerly stigmatized by standards of colonial domination rooted in Vatican able-bodied phallocentric intercultural doctrines of acquisition of property, tolerance and conversion, perceive a serious disregard by US media of perpetuating the assignment of negative stigma.

Why select Ukrainian women you may ask if you know I’m not ethnically Ukrainian. The answer is simple, in the United States I experienced intensely frustrating culturally based interpersonal communication barriers. The barriers occurred when someone in a position of power over me disregarded my varied cultural background, knowledge rooted in lived experiences, and dignity, and instead decided that purely based on their status they knew what was better than I. In the Italian culture that I grew up in a male would take this on as a dare, an insensitive insult that required the person in power to learn to change their perception by opening their heart to human feelings. Typically a woman would not be expected nor accepted in taking on a person of higher status, but I’m not an ordinary Italian woman. The tact taken by men is to first subtly, and if necessary, forcibly, awaken the opponent’s heart to listening and properly serve the person of lower status. In contrast to violent Roman Catholic derived male movements which lead to violence, I learned to use writing as an art for subtle or forcible conversion to the ‘heart’, a synonym for engaged compassion. I attribute this orientation to my childhood raised in Florence, Italy where I was treated more like a boy than a girl (I wore glasses which destined me for academics and not marriage) and could thus identify with peaceful approaches used by men in Florentine culture. I learned to emulate our cultural male heroes Dante Allighieri, writer of the Divine Comedy, and Michelangelo Buonarotti who wrote and painted a hell, purgatory and heaven for enemies, acquaintances, and friends, respectively in that order. Similarly Ukraine has a peaceful cultural male hero of letters, Taras Schevechenko, who, like Dante, Michelangelo, and me, being persecuted, used the right hand, and not the sword, in converting hardened hearts.

The first time in the US that I experienced virtually no cultural communication barriers in interpersonal dealings was while associating with mostly female Ukrainian scholars who had visited the US. We were equally sensitive to, emotionally expressive and concerned about one another’s difficulties. Similarly to my Italian childhood with eyeglasses disqualifying me for femininity, Ukrainian culture treats capable yet physically handicapped women as not destined for marriage and family responsibilities. Unlike Italians, Ukrainians assist those, like me, who through pure determination and boldness seek a position of leadership to initiate change. And unlike the US, a physical or cultural disability is not a reason for disqualification, but a reason to make up for past injustices. This destiny, and the sense of stigma many Ukrainians have based on lower economic status and a long history of oppression, which I share in, seems to provide that I and those around me be intuitively connected to one another’s feelings and needs rooted in escaping unjust social stigma and suffering, without energy wasted on linguistic articulations; in Italy this was known as having an open heart, where as in the US this made us targets for cold-hearted opportunists who seek individual security and status, rather than collectively accepting and restoring the oppressed and subjugated into positions of real power.

Being a communication scholar I immediately suspected that media usage by other Americans, acceptance of media violence, and the negative stigmatizing stereotypes other Americans held somehow contributed to our shared perception of lack of heart by American media cultivated persons and what we perceived as blatant insensitivity towards us and our issues in the US and by Roman Catholics.

Ukraine is 90% Ukrainian Orthodox, having disassociated itself from western European religions for over a 1000 years.

Having found sympathy among Ukrainian scholars on our mutual issues of discontent with Americans and their insensitivity I decided to explore this issue for my doctoral. A sensitive examination of the impression Ukrainians, and specifically women, have of US media culture requires direct immersion into Ukraine, a Nation In Transition (NIT).

It has been academically enriching for me to be in Ukraine these past three months. Personally, my experiences in Ukraine parallel my experiences while Italy was similarly a nation undergoing transition. Ukrainian women and many men I’ve met in this nation in transition (NIT) are similarly emotionally literate as the women and men among my Italian family and friends when the Italian economy and culture were likewise in transition.

In Ukraine it has been particularly easy and enjoyable for me to abandon the US media cultivated taste for commodities and inculcated messages of assimilation ascribing self-stereotypes seemingly aimed at me and others to acquire. In writing this document I have carefully listened to and adopted many of the ideas presented to me by Ukrainian, Lithuanian, Polish, Tartar, Kazakh, Jewish, Moldovian, and Russian women and men residing in Ukraine.

II. Relevant issues include-

    1. Responsibility of the Advisory Committee:

As a whole, the function of the advisory committee is to insure the student has a well-rounded graduate program and to initiate assistance in insuring the PhD dissertation is completed in a timely manner. Initially the expectations for the committee is to assist the candidate preparing the program proposal. Assuming the members are able to continue, the next step is to see the student through preliminary examinations by initiating suggestions on approaches to the research design, theory, and, if members are still permitted to continue on the committee, to continue making suggestions through the dissertation and final examination. The communication department committee's responsibilities particularly include initiating suggested reading lists for preliminary examinations and assisting the candidate in correctly articulating the visualization and care portions of the emerging communication model.

    1. Articulating how cultural, religious and media communication of stereotypes of stigma and its consequences such as social discrimination and assimilation through domineering images affect self-image, health and access to health care in Ukraine and the United States (e.g. through physical and psychological abuse, denial of economic opportunities, poor provision and seeking of health care and partners, etc.).

    2. Articulating how stereotypes associated with specific health conditions interacts with stereotypes of stigma associated with individual, group and community interactions and employment in Ukraine and the US.

    3. Articulating how present NGO’s, religions, and governmental officials fail to anticipate and address or relieve the harm caused by their policies of neglect rather than posing an alternative holistic multi cultural approach in working with, mentoring, and following through or clearly terminating a relationship with each individual victim case as exemplified in the project under the Strategic Humanitarian Communication and Policy Consultancy NGO created by and coordinated by the researcher, Silvia Stein, in Kiev, Ukraine.

    4. Articulating strategies for intercultural communication and feminist scholars, media professionals and religious leaders to prevent and mitigate the negative effects of stereotypes communicating stigma and the discrimination produced and communicated against women via visual communication and communication scholarship publications.

    5. Developing, implementing and tracking safeguards to ensure safety of project researcher, consultants and participants.

    6. Situating the ideological underpinnings and implications of the US intercultural writings on whiteness within the assimilative cultural frame of domination and enslavement of whites by exposing the current trend in US media sensationalizing Ukrainian women and the sex slavery industry depicting white Ukrainian women abducted by and sold as merchandise to men of color from Israel, Italy, South Africa, Greece, the Middle East and particularly Turkey.

    7. Articulating an alternative agenda: analyzing whiteness within a multi cultural framework addressing cultural groups not as minorities but as equals, each deserving restitution of their languages, cultural artifacts, identity, land, and money lost to the current cultural assimilation process under western religious and media trends.

III. Areas of Interest –

Interdisciplinarity in Communication Problem Solving – frame analysis, journalistic ethics, audience perception, strategies of visual communication, and Canadian strategies to control and censor US media trends towards global assimilation of cultural diversity.

Ukrainian studies – actively being pursued via intense submersion into Ukrainian history, literature, and language lessons, Ukrainian media and religious exposure, and constant contact with different sectors of Ukrainian life including the unemployed, the underemployed, homeless children, Chernobyl victims with cancer and diabetes, prostitutes, madams, rape victims, pimps, mafia and other criminal members, underpaid university professors and a university president, state administrators, pastors, sociologists, NGO’s, medical doctors and nurses, legal and illegal migrants in Odessa, Kyiv, and Lviv regions of Ukraine. This exposure is not available at WSU.

Nursing and Communication - health issues for women, and associated psycho-physiological indicators of trauma and stress reported by women in their reactions to reading American media reports associated with their experiences of cultural intolerance, insensitivity, abuse, prejudice, discrimination, etc..

Nursing and Psychology - the effects of stigma on women with post traumatic stress.

Nursing and Philosophy - the development of logical arguments locating agency and advancing the status of targets of stigma and cultural minorities, specifically white Ukrainian women.

Nursing and Communication – effective intervention strategies to reduce the communication of stigma and improve receptiveness to health messages.

Psychological Anthropology - the use of stigma and malicious gossip in the maintenance of abuse among women’s subcultures

IV. Units Granting Degree -

Communication - Humanitarian Communication research and the research on Communication of Stigma leading to acts of Prejudice are two areas entailing interdisciplinary approaches for problem solving in developing nations not operating under traditional laws. Interdisciplinary research ideally lends itself to analyzing hybrid intercultural communication patterns (Klein, 1990) evolving in Nations In Transition (NIT) such as Ukraine.

Nursing – Nursing literature provides case studies and time-tested intercultural organizational clinical, personnel, administrative and organizational models from successful health providers, health intervention and health messaging programs for women from NIT in co-operation with first world experts and researchers.

Philosophy – Philosophy provides the ethical arguments.

Psychological Anthropology - Psychology has developed stigmafying labels to target and treat persons with the disadvantage of creating illness when cultural differences are not accounted for. Targets of stigma as well as the communicators of stigma learn unhealthy cognitive patterns as a result of communicating stigma. Studies in the sphere of psychological anthropology provide a cultural overview of the implications of the psychological models and labels involved.

V. Advisory Committee -

Harry Silverstein, Chair (Philosophy)

Lorna Schumann (Nursing)

John Patton (Cultural/Psychological Anthropology)

Maria Gartstein (Psychology)

Julie Andsager (Communication) – scheduled to leave WSU in the summer 2003.

Paul Bolls (Communication)

VI. Coursework for PhD Degree – 86 (72 credits minimum required)

59 credits including current Spring 2003 semester (34 minimum must be graded)

53 graded credits (6 graded credits undergraduate level after BA)

12 pass/fail independent study and instructor practicum

21 credits 800 level towards PhD

6 Philosophy

3 PHI 572 Philosophy of Art, Aesthetics & Ethics – Roman Catholic aesthetic appeals of male nudity in art and the ethics defending male homoerotic expressiveness, fall 1997.

3 PHI 501 Ancient Philosophy – philosophical foundations of sex work and homosexual orientation to males in the Republic (Plato, 360 BCE), fall 1997.

33 Communication

1 UNIV 591, strategizing interdisciplinary projects and problem solving, fall 2002.

1 UNIV 598, implementing and overseeing interdisciplinary approaches, spring 2003.

3 COM 560 Media Criticism – theories on evaluating media content, summer 1999.

3 COM 540 Media Ethics – ethical theories judging media content, summer 1999.

3 COM 524 Critical Public Address - How to analyze, critique and structure rhetoric, fall


3 ENG 509 Classical Rhetoric - analyzing the rhetoric of ethics & classical philosophy, fall 1999.

3 COM 525 Rhetorical Theory - How to persuade, spring 2000.

3 COM 591 Qualitative Methods - How to qualitatively frame and articulate emerging communication theory, spring 2000.

3 COM 515 Media Law - how to assess and avoid legal implications of media messages, summer 2001.

3 COM 580 Media and Gender - How stigma is framed in portrayals of gender, fall 2001.

3 COM 509 Quantitative Methods - How to quantitatively frame and measure communication variables for theory evaluation, spring 2002.

3 COM 501 Theory Building - How theory systematizes stigma in the disciplines by

framing a quality as a categorical cause/independent variable, fall 2001.

1 COM 504 Instructor Practicum – how to teach across generational, emotional, and intellectual boundaries, fall 2001.

17 Psychological Anthropology (emphasis on labeling process of stigma and health implications and psychological issues across human cultures)

3 PSY 333 Abnormal Psychology - Identifying stigma ascription and effects on producing illness and delinquency, fall 2002.

8 PSY 600 independent research on sex worker transmigration, stigma and global health

issues – authored $200,000 National Institute of Health grant proposal, fall 2002.

3 ANTH 316 Gender Across Cultures – focus on role shifts and sexual migration based on resource availability, summer 2001.

3 ANTH 600 Independent Study of the use of gossip in ascribing stigma in the

maintenance or disruption of abuse by women in women’s cultures, spring 2003.

3 Nursing (concerns for international health care and humanitarian organizational communication and campaigns)

3 NURS 598 Graded Readings on special Topics – contractural networking, developing international organizational communication in health care, humanitarian concerns in working with eastern Europeans, eastern European methods of articulating and dealing with infectious diseases, trauma and stress, spring 2003.

21 UNIV 800 and 6 NURS credits to complete between Spring 2003 and Fall 2005\

6 UNIV 800 Fall 2003

3 NURS 598 Fall 2003

9 UNIV 800 Spring 2004

1 UNIV 800 Fall 2004

3 NURS 598 Fall 2004

5 UNIV 800 Spring 2005

VII. Justification for Interdisciplinary –

Interdisciplinary problem-solving tends to focus on cultural studies methodologies to resolve issues, and not people: issues like drug and tobacco abuse, cancer, infection, disease, health communication interventions and other health crisis topics in Third World nations and eastern European nations in transition. (Klein, 1990). Knowledge in the humanitarian communication discipline is undergoing an evolutionary process and not all articulations of knowledge in accompanying disciplines are evolving at the same rate. (Klein, 1990). The interdisciplinary approach is ideal for developing problem solving in shifting areas of knowledge so as to develop research projects which avoid harming human subjects. (Klein, 1990). Humanitarian Communication and the Communication of Stigma are areas entailing interdisciplinary approaches for collaborative international institutional grant proposals. (See Appendix B). The proposal in the appendix studies the framing of stigma and women's health issues for problem solving research in developing nations not operating under nor willing to convert to using traditional Western institutions and power structures.

VIII. Timeline –

Complete All but UNIV 800 Coursework – Spring 2005

Debut My Work:

- International Multi Cultural Conference in Odessa & Kyiv, April 2003

- World Communication Association in Stockholm, Sweden, July 2003

- International Media, Culture, and Religion Conference tentatively

scheduled for Odessa in September 2003

Written Preliminary Examination – November 2003

Oral Preliminary Examination - November 2003

Conduct and Complete Research – Spring 2003-Fall 2005

Graduate – Fall 2005

IX. Proposed Research -

Thesis: Women in Ukraine, formerly stigmatized by standards of colonial domination rooted in Vatican City’s able-bodied phallocentric intercultural doctrines of acquisition of property, tolerance and conversion, perceive a serious disregard by US media of perpetuating the assignment of negative stigma.

Guiding my doctoral program are three sequential research questions: “Do Ukrainian women in Ukraine detect the communication of negative stigma against Ukrainian women in selected examples of two genre of American media, national print media for news and entertainment, and whiteness research communication publications?”; “What are the similarities and differences between the two genres of US print and publications in comparison to Vatican proscriptions against women dating back to the division over the Byzantine Rite and the institutionalization of compassion towards men over women through the crucifix?” “How can these differences be explained?” “What are the possible ramifications for Ukrainian women that should concern the authors and editors of American print media of news, entertainment, and intercultural studies in covering topics affecting Ukrainian women in working towards the self-empowerment of women?”

For this discussion the male centered ideological underpinnings and real life implications of communicating stigma and the whiteness studies movement will be situated within a broader framework currently covered by US media: the sex slavery industry in which white Ukrainian women are abducted into and sold to men from Israel, Italy, Poland, Germany, South Africa, and Middle East, particularly to Turkey.

The intercultural communication studies zealous emphasis on whiteness and the Roman Catholic zealous clinging to male phallic imagery and able bodiedness will be evaluated for its socially regressive content in the light of the sex industry. Particular emphasis will be placed on scrutinizing whiteness studies and orientation to western maleness as a diversion between a lexical meaning of an idiomatically bound expression of whiteness and maleness and a literal and visually bound meaning of whiteness and maleness. The pattern will then establish insensitivity by intercultural communication studies and religious academics showing a patent disregard for the feelings of Ukrainian women against the stealing of their property, psychological and physical violence resulting from doctrinal stigma, and the culture of white female slavery.

The coursework will address the issues presented in the following outline:

· The Pisti Sophia: The Dead Sea Scrolls & John’s Revelation

  • Why is Sex Fun? Evolution of Human Sexuality, Sexually Immoral Proscriptions Against Sex, Unfulfilled Sexual Feelings, & Ethnic Intolerance

· Saint John’s Revelations: Tracking Roman Catholic Assimilative Forces in US Media by Exposing the Forces of Able-Bodied Roman Catholic Western Phallocentric Oriented Cultural Assimilation in Media, Politics, and Religion

1. The Use of Roman Catholic Male Cultural Symbols in US Media in Cultivating Anti-Arabic and Anti-Muslim Pro-War Global Public Sentiment

2. The Use of Ukrainian Female Cultural Symbols and AIDS in the US Media in Cultivating Anti-Ukrainian and Anti-Women Public Sentiment

· The Use of Male Cultural Symbols by the Roman Catholic Church and Fascist Nations to Cultivate Anti-Women, Anti-Semitic, Anti-Arabic and Anti-Muslim Global Public Sentiment

· The Historical Dissolution of Mother Cultures in Israel and Ukraine Under Christianity and the Resurgence of Female Iconography and Contemporary Collectivistic Business Enterprises

· The Dangers of the Male Inter-Cultural and Roman Catholic Assimilationist Movement throughout History: Generating Out-Groups by Inter-Cultural Teachings of Assimilation and Tolerance Rather than Multi-Cultural Understanding, Economic Restitution, Language Identity Restoration, Political Appointments, Land Restitution, and Settlement of Differences

· The Replication of this Pattern as Able-Bodied Individualism in US Cultural and International Politics

· The Dangers of Being Assimilated by US and Roman Catholic Able-Bodied Cultural Individualism

1. The Trend Towards Individual US Isolationism and the Vatican away from a Global Multi-Cultural Community

2. The Political Use of Cultural Individualism by the US Government and the Vatican in Targeting, Stigmatizing, and Ritually Punishing the Public Speakers of Collective Dissatisfaction: Martin Luther King and Jesus of Palestine

· Role of Roman Catholicism in Cultivating and Disassociating Itself from Extremist Cultural Groups

o The Anti-Semitic NAZI Movement

o The Separatist French Quebecois Nationalist Movement

o The US Anti-Abortion Movement

o The Italian Anti-Islam Movement

· Design and Implementation of a Roman Catholic Multicultural Policy of Restitution Based on the Canadian Multi Cultural Model which Preceded Restitution made by Christian Institutions in Canada:

1. Transformation of the Traditional Ukrainian Governance to an Official Multicultural Platform through Official Recognition of the Rights to Identity, Language, and Property Restoration

2. Vatican Restitution to All Affected Colonized or Occupied Women’s Cultures in Ukraine

· Subverting the Forces of Able-Bodied Roman Catholic Western European Cultural Assimilation by Turning Individually Targeted Objects of Cultural Hatred into Leaders: Appointing Stigmatized Persons into Key Positions of Visible Leadership

After extensively conferring with Ukrainian women who are professionals and academics and all survivors of rape, prejudice, abuse, and exploitation this study has taken on even greater meaning of purpose for me. Their helpful observations inform my concern to address what I have painfully experienced as US and Roman Catholic insensitivity towards the painful experiences of women, particularly disabled as not having a phallus or some other body part, outside of America and in America.

X. Summary -

The PhD coursework and research is in all essence an area for intercultural communication, journalism and humanitarian communication in analyzing cultural texts and artifacts from religious, print and electronic media. The current Washington State University PhD program in Communication does not permit for extensive overlap with other disciplines such as humanitarian communication, psychological anthropology, philosophy of ethics, Ukrainian studies, and nursing. Thus the proposal itself is clearly within the bounds of the interdisciplinary PhD. Additionally, the majority of the School of Communication graduate faculty members have been documented as unsupportive of any formal participation on this student’s PhD committee.

The interdisciplinary course work proposal is written as a product of the PhD applicant’s interdisciplinary NIH project proposal to fund her PhD research, which received strong and positive support from the respective deans and the director of the School of Communication (See Appendix B).

Appendix A

To the Faculty of Washington State University:

The members of the Committee appointed to examine the Proposal for the

Interdisciplinary PhD Degree of SILVIA ADDINI-STEIN find it satisfactory and

recommend that it be accepted.








Appendix B

The purpose of this proposal is to further the seminal work of Erving Goffman on the operation of framing (Goffman, 1974) and stigma (Goffman, 1963) by comparing US and Ukrainian newspaper front page framing of women, their health issues and stigma. The research will inform NIH interests to analyze the actual and potential media roles creating and disseminating stigma-related beliefs and behaviors. Our study has 3 objectives: (a) systematically assess the coverage and representation of women related health issues; (b) to illuminate the dynamics of framing women’s health and the communication of stigma in a comparative and interdisciplinary context; (c) avoid any stressful interactions with targets of stigma by performing content analysis of front-page newspaper coverage. This study will employ established quantitative and qualitative communication studies methodologies to further work on the operation of framing and stigma in media. If funded, research will be performed at Pereyaslav-Khm. State Pedagogical University (PSPU) in Ukraine. PSPU is located 72 kilometers from Kiev, the capital of Ukraine and the nation's public and private media center. Through a United States Information Agency American Studies grant (IA-ASJL-G9190288) Washington State University (WSU) and PSPU have an established scholar exchange program which ends the summer of 2003. WSU has already provided English language, communication and American studies expertise and material to PSPU faculty and students. WSU’s providing English language training concerns us. A young woman’s familiarity with English language is an appealing quality to criminal organizations practicing deception and abductions in order to supply the international sex-industry with Ukrainian women possessing typically Slavic features. Women are made vulnerable to health concerns such as infections, disease, violence and abuse. Our hope is that by using the available facilities at PSPU as a research site to perform a content analysis of front page media framing of health issues facing Ukrainian women, the WSU investigators and consultants will develop an increased sensitivity of the issues through cultural immersion. Media indicators of stigma produced can assist all sectors to formulate policies, plan media interventions and generate publications while exploring possible future informed collaboration in research and pedagogical activities between the two universities. All equipment purchased for Ukraine will belong to PSPU after completion of the project.

* This total will equal "Total Amount Requested" on page 1.

** In-kind contribution

*** Cash commitment by University

References –

Andsager, J.L., & Powers, A. (2001). Framing women’s health with a sense-making approach: Magazine coverage of breast cancer and implants. Health Communication, 13, pp. 163-185.

Andsager, J.L. (2000). How interest groups attempt to shape public opinion with

competing news frames. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, pp. 77,

pp. 577-592.

Andsager, J.L., & Powers, A. (1999). Social or economic concerns: How news and women’s magazines framed breast cancer in the 1990s. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 76, pp. 531-550.

Andsager, J.L. (1999). Contradictions in the country: Rituals of sexual subordination and strength in music video. In M.G. Carstarphen and S. Zavoina (Eds.), Sexual rhetoric: Media perspectives on sexuality, gender and identity (pp. 225-237). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Andsager, J.L., Miller, M.M., & Riechert, B.P. (1998). Framing the candidates in

presidential primaries: Issues and images in press releases and news coverage.

Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 75, pp. 312-324.

Andsager, J.L. & White, H.A. (1991). Newspaper column readers’ gender bias:

Perceived interest and credibility. Journalism Quarterly, 68, pp. 709-718.

Arthur, L. (2000). Religion, Dress, and the Body. NY: Berg.

Austin, E.W. & Pinkleton, B.E. (2001). Strategic Public Relations: Planning and managing effective communication programs. Malwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.

Baskette, F.K., Sissors, J.Z. & Brooks, B.S. (1997). The Art of Editing. Needham Heights, MASS: Allyn & Bacon.

Bem, S. L. (1993). The Lenses of Gender. New Haven, NY: Yale University Press.

Belk, R.W., Ostergaard, P. & Groves, R. (1998). Sexual Consumption in the Time of AIDS: A Study of Prostitute Patronage in Thailand. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing. 12, 197-214.

Bolls, P.D. (In press). I Can Hear You but can I See You: The use of visual cognition during exposure to high imagery radio advertisements. Communication Research.

Bolls, P.D., Grabe, M. E., Lang, A. & Zhou, S. (2000). Cognitive access to negatively arousing news: An experimental investigation of the knowledge gap. Communication Research, 27 (1) pp. 3-26.

Bolls, P.D., Potter, R.F. & Callison, C. (1999). Intense Emotions: The effects of message valence on attitude toward the ad. In M.S. Roberts, Ed., The Proceedings of the 1999 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, pp. 10-16.

Bolls, P.D. & Potter, R.F. (1998). I Saw it on the Radio: The effects of imagery evoking radio commercials on listeners’ allocation of attention and attitude toward the ad. In D. Muehling, Ed., The Proceedings of the 1998 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, pp. 123-130.

Brookey, R.A., Westerfelhaus, R. (2002). Hiding Homoeroticism in Plain View. Critical Media Studies. Vol. 19, N. 1.

Brussa, L. (1998). The TAMPEP Project in Western Europe. In Global Sex Workers: Rights, resistance, and redefinition. Kempadoo & Doezema (eds). New York: Routledge.

Brussa, L. (1991). Survey on Prostitution, Migration and Traffic in Women: History and current situation. Council of Europe. EG/Prost.

Brussa, L. (1989). Migrant Prostitutes in the Netherlands. In Vindication of the Rights of Whores. Pheterson, G. (ed). Seattle, WA: Seal Press, pp. 227-240.

Burke, K., (1989). On Symbols and Society. Gusfield, J.R. (ed). Chicago: Iniversity of Chicago Press.

Diamond, J., (1997). Why is Sex Fun? The Evolution of Human Sexuality. New York: Basic Books.

Gartstein, M.A., Slobodskaya, H.R., Kinsht, I.A. (in press). Cross-cultural differences in the first year of life: United States of America (U.S.) and Russian. International Journal of Behavioural Development.

Gartstein, M.A., Short, A., Noll, R.B., & Vannatta, K. (1999). Psychosocial

adjustment of children with chronic illness: An evaluation of three models.

Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 20, pp. 21-29.

Gerbner, G. (1998). Cultivation Analysis: An overview. Mass Communication &

Society, 1(3/4), pp. 175-194.

Goffman, E. (1974). Frame Analysis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Goffman, E. (1963). Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Hecht, M.L. (1998). Communicating Prejudice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hendricks, A. (2002). Examining the Effects of Hegemonic Depictions of Female Bodies on Television: A call for theory and programmatic research. Critical Studies in Media Comunication, 19, pp. 106-123.

Jenkins, P. (2002). The Next Christianity. The Atlantic Monthly. 11, pp. 53-74.

Kempadoo, K. & Doezema, J. (1998). Global Sex Workers: Rights, resistance & redefinition. NY: Routledge.

Klein, J.T., (1990). Interdisciplinarity: History, theory, & practice. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

Laczko, F. (2000). Migrant Trafficking and Human Smuggling in Europe: A review of the evidence with case studies from Hungary, Poland and Ukraine. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration (IOM).

Lincoln, Y.S., & Guba, E.G. (1989). Fourth Generation Evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Lincoln, Y.S., & Guba, E.G. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Link, B.G. & Phelan, J.C. (2001). On Stigma and Its Public Health Implications. N.Y.: Columbia University. Paper presented at the 2001 international conference on Stigma.

Lipson, J.G., Dibble, S.L. & Minarik, P.A. (2001). Culture & Nursing Care: A pocket guide. San Francisco, CA: UCSF Nursing Press.

Lucaites, J.L. Condit, M.L., & Caudill, S. (1999). Contemporary Rhetorical Theory: A reader. NY: Guilford Press.

Millon, T., Blaney, P.H. & Davis, R.D. (1999). Oxford Textbook of Psychopathology. NY: Oxford Press.

Milburn, S.S., Carney, D.R. & Ramirez, A.M. (2001). Even in Modern Media, the Picture is Still the Same: A content analysis of clipart images. Sex Roles: A journal of research. 44, pp. 277-294.

Nakayama, T. (2002). Dialogue on the Edges: Ferment in communication and culture. Transforming Communication About Culture: Critical new directions. Collier, M.J. ed.. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Narayan, U. (1997). Dislocating Cultures: Identities, traditions, and third world feminism. NY: Routledge.

Plaskow, J. (1994). Standing Again at Sinai: Judaism from a feminist perspective. San Francisco, CA: Harper.

Robinson, F. (). Globalizing Care: Ethics, feminist theory, and international relations. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Severin, W.J. & Tankard, J.W. (1997). Communication Theories: Origins, methods, and uses in the mass media. NY: Longman Press.

Simmons, L.A., (2001). Marriage, Migration, and Markets: International matchmaking and international feminism. PhD Dissertation in International Studies at the University of Denver.

Sontag, S. (1989). Illness as Metaphor and AIDS and its Metaphors. NY: Doubleday.

Starhawk, (1988). Dreaming the Dark: Magic, sex and politics. Boston: Beacon Press.

Stein, S.F.M. (2002). Exploring Sexual Feelings Through Roman Catholic Images: The lust judgment of Gentile religion. Thesis. Pullman, WA: Washington State University Masters of Arts in Communication. Thesis freely available on-line through Washington State University at:,1,1,B/l856&FF=astein+silvia&1,,0,1,0

Tan, A., Fujioka, Y., Bautista, D., Maldonado, R., Wright, L., & Tan, G. (2000).

The influence of television and parental communication on educational aspirations of Hispanic children. Howard Journal of Communication, 11, 107-125.

Tan, A., Fujioka, Y., & Tan, G. (2000). Television use, stereotypes of African Americans and opinions on affirmative action: An affective model of policy reasoning. Communication Monographs, 67, 362-371.

Ting-Toomey, S. & Oetzel, J.G. (2001). Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Weiss, M.G. & Ramakrishna, J. (2001). Background paper. Presented at the International Conference on Stigma.

Wing, A.K. (2000). Global Critical Race Feminism: An international reader. NY: New York University Press.

[1] Kevin G. (2003). “Slave Drivers” in Details. New York; Fairchild Publications. Vol. 21:4, January / February edition. pp. 106 – 115.

\ Courses yet to register in. The period is extended to include International Women’s Center in Heidelberg, Germany research scholarship with TAMPEP (Transnational AIDS/STI prevention among Migrant Prostitutes in Europe Project) in Amsterdam, Holland with La Strada sociologist Licia Brussa, PhD.