Philippe Schlenker

Credits: F. Albert

Directeur de Recherche (classe exceptionnelle)
Institut Jean-Nicod - Département d'Études Cognitives
Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris
LINGUAE research group

New York University
(11 weeks per year)

'Euryi' Project Leader (European Science Foundation - 2007-2013)

Advanced Grant Leader - European Research Council - 2013-2018: "New Frontiers of Formal Semantics" (FRONTSEM)

Advanced Grant Leader - European Research Council - 2019-2024: "Sources of Meaning" (Orisem)

Interests: Semantics, Pragmatics; Philosophy of Language; Philosophical Logic; Syntax, Morphology; Sign Language Linguistics (ASL and LSF); Gesture Semantics; Music Semantics; Primate Vocalizations and Gestures
Ph.D (Linguistics), MIT, September 1999; Ph.D (Philosophy), École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris, January 2002
Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris, April 2005; Qualification (CNU, Professeur, Linguistique), January 2006. Silver Medal from CNRS, 2021.
Editorship (past and present): Managing Editor, Journal of Semantics (2009-2012); Member of the Editorial Boards of Natural Language Semantics, Semantics & Pragmatics, Linguistics & Philosophy, and Language & Linguistics Compass (Semantics and Pragmatics section).
Advisory role: Head of the Advisory Board, Journal of Semantics (2013-2020). Executive committee of IAST  (Toulouse Institute of Advanced Studies; 2012-2017).  
Membership: Academia Europaea, 2017-

ERC Advanced Grant Orisem (2019-2024)
ERC Advanced Grant FRONSTEM (2012 call; 20013-2019) 
ERC Starting Grant ('Consolidator') (2011 call,  SUPERSEM; declined for the ERC Advanced Grant  FRONTSEM)
Euryi Award, European Science Foundation (2007-2013)
Before 2007: National Science Foundation (USA); Ryskamp Fellowship (American Council of Learned Societies); Systèmes Complexes en SHS (CNRS); Fondation Thiers (France); Arthur Sachs Foundation (Harvard University).


Bio: P. Schlenker is a senior researcher at CNRS (Institut Jean-Nicod, Paris) and a Global Distinguished Professor at New York University.  He was educated at École Normale Supérieure (Paris), and obtained a Ph.D. in Linguistics from MIT, and a Ph.D. in Philosophy from EHESS (Paris). He has taught at École Normale Supérieure, Paris, at the University of Southern California, at UCLA, and, since 2008, at NYU. P. Schlenker’s early interests included semantics, pragmatics, the philosophy of language and philosophical logic. He has conducted research on indexicals  and indirect discourse, intensional semantics, anaphora, presuppositions, as well as semantic paradoxes. 

In recent work, he has advocated a program of 'Super Semantics' that seeks to expand the traditional frontiers of the field. He has investigated the semantics of sign languages, with special attention both to their logical structure and to the rich iconic means that interact with it. In order to have a point of comparison for these iconic phenomena, P. Schlenker has also investigated the logic and typology of gestures in spoken language.  In collaborative work with primatologists and psycholinguists, he has laid the groundwork for a 'primate semantics' that seeks to apply the general methods of formal linguistics to primate vocalizations. And in recent research, he has advocated the development of a detailed semantics for music, albeit one that is very different from linguistic semantics.

Some lectures on the web  
(Disclaimer: in some cases, I might have changed my mind about substantive issues and/or the best way to present them.)

Iconic Plurals (from 2 papers with Jonathan Lamberton). Incidental Zoom video of an internal LINGUAE seminar, April 23, 2020 (with the authorization of people asking questions). [video] [slides]

Disclaimer: This is not at all a professional video, and the first minute or so is missing. With apologies for the absence of sign language interpreting/subtitles. 
Full articles: Iconic Plurality     Meaningful Blurs

Musical Enrichments: Musical Cosuppositions. Incidental Zoom video of a workshop on 'Musical Meaning and Beyond', NYU, May 12, 2020. [video] [slides]

Music Semantics: Problems and Prospects. Distinguished Lecture Series in the Digital Humanities & Music Semantics Workshop, EPFL, Lausanne, December 4, 2017.  

Musiksemantik: Was Musik bedeutet, Barenboim-Said Academy, Was Musik Kann, Berlin, June 6, 2017.   [text] [slides] [video]
Musiksemantic - Barenboim-Said Academy
Photo: Barenboim-Said Academy

Meaning in Speech, in Sign and in Gestures
• 12th Whatmough Lecture, Harvard University [with ASL interpreting], May 1, 2017 - general audience talk  [abstract] [slides]
Jackman Humanities Institute, University of Toronto [with captions], October 30, 2018 - general audience talk [slides]
Earlier version in French (November 7, 2016, ENS, Lundis de la philosophie; no video - hence some parts are difficult to follow): [audio] [slides]

Musical Meaning within Super Semantics
• NYU CLaMe, October 15, 2019: [video] [slides]
• Related discussion with David Poeppel: [video]

Photo: D. Lopatin/Ircam
Prolegomena to Music Semantics (IRCAM Workshop on Emotional Archetypes: Music and Neuroscience, June 9, 2016) [question period]  [slides - with links to sound examples] (see here for the [long] paper with the same title, or here for a shorter version, published in Music Perception 2017)
Note: a more recent version of this talk was filmed in Lausanne in December 2017, see above.

Monkey Semantics: two 'Dialects' of Monkey Alarm Calls' (Henry Sweet lecture, Linguistic Association of Great Britain, August 2013; specialized talk intended for an audience of linguists. A link to the corresponding paper can be found below)

Semantics between Logic and Cognition ('La semantica tra logica e cognizione'; brief popular science talk on semantics in spoken and signed languages; Festival delle Scienze, Rome, January 2014 [session on 'The Science of Language' with Luigi Rizzi and Andrea Moro]; the talk starts at 37 minutes 40. In Italian [mp3] (there was LIS interpreting when the talk was given) [slides] [Italian text]). 

Anaphora: Insights from Sign Language (semi-technical talk on sign language semantics, July 2013; keynote address to the International Congress of Linguists 2013. In English)
A version of the video with ASL interpreting is now available here [ASL interpreter: Kyle Duarte].

Is Meaning Dynamic? (technical talk on recent debates on dynamic semantics, December 2011; invited talk to the MIT Ling50 Reunion)
;  The talk starts at 21minutes 23s.

Situations and Perspectives ('Situations et Perspectives'; general audience talk on sign language semantics, June 2011; invited presentation in S. Dehaene's seminar). In French, with LSF interpreting: [temporary link to the video] 

Recent Manuscripts

Schlenker, Philippe: 2021, Triggering Presuppositions. Glossa.  [LingBuzz]  
Pritty Patel-Grosz, Salvador Mascarenhas, Emmanuel Chemla, Philippe Schlenker: to appear, Super Linguistics: an Introduction. Final version to appear as an introduction to a special issue of Linguistics & Philosophy devoted to Super Linguistics.  [LingBuzz] 

Schlenker, Philippe: to appear, Musical Meaning within Super Semantics. Linguistics & Philosophy.  [LingBuzz] 

Gestures: see below for published and forthcoming articles.

Sign language:
Schlenker, Philippe and Lamberton, Jonathan: to appear, Focus and Intensification in the Semantics of Brow Raise. Accepted with minor revisions in Glossa.   [LingBuzz]
Schlenker, Philippe and Lamberton, Jonathan: to appear, Meaningful Blurs: the Sources of Repetition-based Plurals in ASL.  Linguistics & Philosophy
 [LingBuzz][published version]
Schlenker, Philippe: to appear, Non-local Attachment of Clauses: Evidence from ASL. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory [LingBuzz]

Spoken language:
Schlenker, Philippe:  to appear, Supplements without Bidimensionalism. Manuscript, Institut Jean-Nicod and New York University. Accepted with revisions in Linguistic Inquiry.  [LingBuzz]  (Older, rather different and longer version, 2013: [pdf])


I. Published or accepted for publication


Music Semantics

Gesture Semantics
  • Schlenker, Philippe: to appear, Gestural Grammar. 
     Natural Language & Linguistic Theory. [LingBuzz] [published version]
  • Schlenker, Philippe: to appear, Gesture Projection within the Transparency Theory [Squib]. Linguistic Inquiry. [LingBuzz]
  • Tieu, Lyn, Robert Pasternak, Philippe Schlenker, & Emmanuel Chemla: 2018, Co-speech gesture projection: Evidence from inferential judgments. Glossa.  
  • Schlenker, Philippe: to appear, Gestural Semantics.   To appear in 
    Natural Language & Linguistic Theory.   [LingBuzz] [published version]
  • Tieu, Lyn, Robert Pasternak, Philippe Schlenker, & Emmanuel Chemla: to appear, Co-speech gesture projection: Evidence from truth-value judgment and picture selection tasks.  Glossa. 
  • Schlenker, Philippe: 2018, Iconic Pragmatics.
     Natural Language & Linguistic Theory  36, 3: 877-936  [LingBuzz]
  • Schlenker, Philippe, and Chemla, Emmanuel: 2018, 
    Gestural Agreement. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory. 36, 2: 87–625587. [LingBuzz]
  • Schlenker, Philippe: 2018, Gesture Projection and CosuppositionsLinguistics & Philosophy 
    41, 3:295–365.  [LingBuzz] 
  • Schlenker, Philippe: 2015, Gestural Presuppositions [Squib]. Snippets.  [LingBuzz]

Sign Language Semantics
  • Schlenker, Philippe: to appear, Logical Visibility and Iconicity in Sign Language Semantics: Theoretical Perspectives [Handbook Article]. 
    To appear in Quer, Josep; Pfau, Roland;  Herrmann, Annika (eds)  The Routledge Handbook of Theoretical and Experimental Sign Language Research, Routledge. [LingBuzz]
  • Schlenker, Philippe: to appear, Iconic Presuppositions.  Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 
  • Schlenker, Philippe and Lamberton, Jonathan: 2019, Iconic Plurality.  Linguistics & Philosophy. [LingBuzz] [published version]
  • Schlenker, Philippe: 2018, Visible Meaning: Sign Language and the Foundations of Semantics. Target article in Theoretical Linguistics 2018 [LingBuzz] [entire issue]
  • Schlenker, Philippe: 2018, Sign Language Semantics: Problems and Prospects.  Theoretical Linguistics 2018 (replies to peer commentaries) [LingBuzz] [entire issue]
  • Schlenker, Philippe: to appear, Strong Pronominals in ASL and LSF? (Squib)   
    Sign Language & Linguistic. [LingBuzz]
  • Schlenker, Philippe: 2018, Locative Shift Glossa. [LingBuzz]
  • Schlenker, Philippe: 2017, Sign Language and the Foundations of Anaphora [Survey Article]. Annual Review of Linguistics 3: 149-77 [LingBuzz]
  • Schlenker, Philippe: 2017, Super Monsters I: Attitude and Action Role Shift in Sign Language.  Semantics & Pragmatics. [LingBuzz]
  • Schlenker, Philippe: 2017, Super Monsters II: Role Shift, Iconicity and Quotation in Sign Language. Semantics & Pragmatics. [LingBuzz]. [See below for Super Monsters I]
  • Schlenker, Philippe: 2017, Iconic Enrichments: Signs vs. Gestures [Short Commentary]. Commentary on Goldin-Meadow and Brentari's target article, to appear in Behavioral and Brain Sciences. [LingBuzz]
  • Schlenker, Philippe: 2016, Featural Variables.  Natural Language and Linguistic Theory.  [LingBuzz] [published version]
  • Schlenker, Philippe; Aristodemo, Valentina; Ducasse, Ludovic; Lamberton, Jonathan; Santoro, Mirko: to appear,  The Unity of Focus: Evidence from Sign Language (ASL and LSF).  [Squib] Linguistic Inquiry.  [LingBuzz]
  • "Gradient and Iconic Features in ASL" (2013) [Squib]. To appear in Snippets. [LingBuzz]  (This is a complement to 'Iconic Features')
  • "Iconic Features" (2014). Natural Language Semantics 22(4): 299-356.  [LingBuzz]
  • "Iconic Variables" (2013). Schlenker, Philippe; Lamberton, Jonathan; and Santoro, Mirko. Linguistics& Philosophy 36(2): 91-149.  [LingBuzz]
  • "A Strong Crossover Effect in ASL" (2012) [squib]. Schlenker, Philippe and Mathur, Gaurav. Snippets 27  [pdf]
  • "Generalized Quantification and Anaphora Across Ontological Domains: Evidence from ASL" [squib]UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics, Theories of Everything 17(43): 382-388. [pdf]
    A shorter version is to appear in Snippets under the title: Restrictor Set Readings Across Ontological Domains in ASL  [pdf]
  • "Anaphora: Insights from Sign Language" (Summary).  Final version to appear in the Proceedings of  the International Congress of Linguists, Geneva, 2013.   [LingBuzz]
  • "Formal Indices and Iconicity in ASL" (2012). Schlenker, Philippe and Lamberton, Jonathan. Logic, Language and Meaning: 18th Amsterdam Colloquium, Springer 7218: 1-11.   [LingBuzz]
  • "Complement Set Anaphora and Structural Iconicity in ASL" (2012) [Squib]. Snippets 25.  [pdf]
  • "Iconic Agreement" (2011). Invited commentary on Lillo-Martin and Meier's "On the linguistic status of 'agreement' in sign language". Theoretical Linguistics 37(3-4): 223–234.  [LingBuzz]
  • "Quantifiers and Variables: Insights from Sign Language (ASL and LSF)"  (2010). In Partee, B.H., Glanzberg, M., & Skilters, J. (eds),  Formal Semantics and Pragmatics: Discourse, Context, and Models. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 6(1).  [pdf]  
    Note: For a more technical and detailed experience, see "Donkey Anaphora: the View from Sign Language".
  • "Temporal and Modal Anaphora in Sign Language (ASL)" (2013). Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 31(1): 207-234.   [LingBuzz]
  • "Donkey Anaphora: the View from Sign Language (ASL and LSF)" (2011). Linguistics & Philosophy 34(4): 341-395.  [LingBuzz]
  • "Donkey Anaphora in Sign Language I: E-type vs. Dynamic Accounts" (2010).  In Logic, Language and Meaning: Proceedings of the Amsterdam Colloquium 2009 (edited by Maria Aloni and Katrin Schulz). pp405-415.  [LingBuzz]
    Note: Some more recent data appear in the Appendix of "Quantifiers and Variables" (also available on this page)
  • "Donkey Anaphora in Sign Language II: The Presuppositions of Pronouns". Proceedings of the NELS 2009, Special Session on Pronouns  [LingBuzz]
    Note: Some of the data and analyses also appear in the Appendix of "Quantifiers and Variables" (also available on this page)

Primate Semantics
  • Steinert-Threlkeld, Shane; Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel: 2021, Referential and General Calls in Primate Semantics. Linguistics & Philosophy.
  • Dezecache, Guillaume; Bourgeois, Aude; Bazin, Christophe; Schlenker, PhilippeChemla, Emmanuel; Maille, Audrey: to appear, Orangutans’ Comprehension of Zoo Keepers’ Communicative Signals. Animals (Special Issue "Human Influences on the Behaviour and Welfare of Zoo Animals")
  • Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Zuberbühler, Klaus: to appear, Semantics and Pragmatics of Monkey Communication [Encyclopedia article].  Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics, Ed. Mark Aronoff. New York: Oxford University Press.  [LingBuzz] 
  • Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Zuberbühler, Klaus: 2016, What do Monkey Calls Mean? Trends in Cognitive Sciences.  
    Initial version (very short): LingBuzz
    Penultimate version (final version to appear in TICS): [pdf]
    Published version [gated]
  • Schlenker, Philippe;Chemla,  Emmanuel; Schel, Anne; Fuller, James ;  Gautier, Jean-Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy ; Veselinovic,  Dunja; Arnold, Kate ; Cäsar, Cristiane ; Keenan, Sumir;  Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin ; Zuberbühler, Klaus: 2016,  Formal Monkey Linguistics: the Debate. (Replies to commentaries). Appears with a target article in Theoretical Linguistics. [LingBuzz]
  • Schlenker, Philippe;Chemla,  Emmanuel; Schel, Anne; Fuller, James ;  Gautier, Jean-Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy ; Veselinovic,  Dunja; Arnold, Kate ; Cäsar, Cristiane ; Keenan, Sumir;  Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin ; Zuberbühler, Klaus: 2016,  Formal Monkey Linguistics.Target article in Theoretical Linguistics. [LingBuzz]
  • Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel;  Cäsar, Cristiane; Robin Ryder; Zuberbühler, Klaus: 2016, Titi Semantics: Context and Meaning in Titi Monkey Call Sequences. To appear, Natural Language & Linguistic Theory  [LingBuzz] [published version]
  • Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Arnold, Kate; Zuberbühler, Klaus: 2016, Pyow-Hack Revisited: Two Analyses of Putty-nosed Monkey Alarm Calls.  Lingua 171 (2016) 1--23  [LingBuzz]
  • Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Arnold, Kate; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Keenan, Sumir; Stephan, Claudia; Ryder, Robin; and Zuberbühler, Klaus: 2014, Monkey Semantics: Two 'Dialects' of Campbell's Monkey Alarm Calls.  Linguistics & Philosophy 37(6): 439-501 [LingBuzz]
    Philosophical Logic
    • "The Property Paradox in (not so) Plain English" (2013). In: Gutzmann, D., Köpping, J.  and Meier, C. (eds), Approaches to Meaning. Composition, Values, and Interpretation, pp. 203-219.  [LingBuzz]
    • "Super Liars" (2010).  Review of Symbolic Logic 3 (3):374-414.  [pdf]
    • "Anselm's Argument and Berry's Paradox" (2009). Noûs 43(2): 214–223 .   [LingBuzz]
    • "How to Eliminate Self-Reference: A Précis" (12 pages).  Synthese 158, 1: 127-138  [LingBuzz]  
    • "The Elimination of Self-Reference: Generalized Yablo-Series and the Theory of Truth".  Journal of Philosophical Logic 36, 3: 251-307  (57 pages)  [LingBuzz]   

    Formal Pragmatics

    • General
    • "The Semantics/Pragmatics Interface". To appear in the Cambridge Handbook of Formal Semantics, eds. Aloni and Dekker. [LingBuzz]
    • Presuppositions and local contexts
    • "Maximize Presupposition and Gricean Reasoning". Natural Language Semantics 20(4): 391-429.  [LingBuzz]
    • "Presupposition Projection: Two Theories of Local Contexts - Part I" (2011). Language and Linguistics Compass 5(12): 848-857.  [LingBuzz]
    • (The article is divided into two parts: Part I introduces the problem of presupposition projection and presents Heim’s theory. Part II lays out the non-dynamic reconstruction of local contexts, and sketches a comparison with DRT.)
    • "Presupposition Projection: Two Theories of Local Contexts - Part II" (2011). Language and Linguistics Compass 5(12): 858-879.  [LingBuzz]
      (This is the second part of the article whose abstract is copied above.)
    • "The Proviso Problem: a Note" (2011). Natural Language Semantics 19(4): 395-422.   [LingBuzz]
    • "DRT with Local Contexts" (2011). Natural Language Semantics 19(4): 373-392.   [LingBuzz]
    • "Local Contexts and Local Meanings" (2010). Philosophical Studies 151(1): 115-142. (special issue on Stalnaker's 'Assertion')  [LingBuzz]
    • "Presupposition Projection: the New Debate", Proceedings of SALT 2008 [pdf]
    • "Presuppositions and Local Contexts" (2010). Mind, 119(474): 377-391.  [pdf]  [formerly called Local Contexts: A Précis].   [LingBuzz]
      Note: This article appears in the Philosopher's Annual list of the 'ten best articles' published in philosophy in 2010. 
    • "Local Contexts" (2009). Semantics and Pragmatics 2(3): 1–78.  [pdf]
      Note: An earlier version included a much shorter discussion of symmetric readings, but the earlier version contained a more thorough technical treatment of several aspects of the theory (e.g. its Appendix included a systematic comparison with trivalent accounts). This earlier version can be found here.
    • "Presupposition Projection: Explanatory Strategies" (2008). Replies to commentators,  Theoretical Linguistics 34(3): 287-316.  [pdf]  
    • "Be Articulate: A Pragmatic Theory of Presupposition Projection" (2008). Theoretical Linguistics 34(3): 157-212.    [pdf]  (last modified: November 6, 2008)
    • "Expressive Presuppositions" (2007) (brief commentary on Potts's "Expressive Dimension"),  Theoretical Linguistics 33(2): 237–245 [LingBuzz]
    • "Anti-Dynamics: Presupposition Projection Without Dynamic Semantics" (2007).  Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16(3): 325-256.  [LingBuzz]
    • An 8-page abstract was written (under a different title) for the Proceedings of Logic and Language 9 (August 2006) [pdf] 
    • "Transparency: An Incremental Theory of Presupposition Projection".  In  U. Sauerland and P. Stateva (eds), Presuppositions and Implicatures in Compositional Semantics,  Palgrave Macmillan, 2007 [pdf]   An Extended Abstract (6 pages) [presenting a somewhat different theory] appeared in the Proceedings of the Amsterdam Colloquium 2005  [pdf]  (last modified: November 16, 2005)
    • Supplements
      • Schlenker, Philippe: to appear, The Semantics and Pragmatics of Appositives [Handbook Article]. [LingBuzz] In: Lisa Matthewson, Cécile Meier, Hotze Rullmann, Thomas Ede Zimmermann (eds), Companion to Semantics, Wiley. 
      • "Supplements within a Unidimensional Semantics I: Scope"Proceedings of the Amsterdam Colloquium 2009 (edited by Maria Aloni and Katrin Schulz, Springer)  [LingBuzz]
      • "Supplements within a Unidimensional Semantics II: Epistemic Status and Projection". To appear in the Proceedings of NELS2009  [LingBuzz]
      Formal Semantics
      • "Informativity-based Maximality Conditions" (2012) [Squib]. Snippets 26:18-19. [pdf]
      • "Indexicals" [short survey] [pdf] Accepted for publication in the Handbook of Formal Philosophy, edited by Sven Ove Hansson and Vincent F. Hendricks, Springer (last modified: August 2010)
      • "Generalized Bishop Sentences" (2011) [Squib]. Snippets 24  [pdf]
      • "Singular Pronouns with Split Antecedents" (2011) [squib] Snippets 23 (manuscript; last modified: February 2010).  
      • "Indexicality and De Se Reports" [Survey Article]. To appear in the Handbook of Semantics edited by von Heusinger, Maienborn and Portner, Mouton de Gruyter [pdf] (near-final version; last modified: February 2010)  
      • "Semantics" [Encyclopedia Article]. In Linguistics Encyclopedia,  ed. K. Malmkjaer (Routledge), 2010.   [pdf] 
      • "Minimize Restrictors! (Notes on Definite Descriptions, Condition C and Epithets)", in Bary, Huitink and Maier (eds),  Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 2004, 385-416 [LingBuzz] (last modified: April 5th, 2005; minor improvements)
      • "Ontological Symmetry in Language: A Brief Manifesto"Mind & Language  21, 4: 504-539 (36 pages)  [LingBuzz] (last modified: August 8, 2005)
      • "The Lazy Frenchman's Approach to the Subjunctive (Speculations on Reference to Worlds and Semantic Defaults in the Analysis of Mood)".  Proceedings of Going Romance XVII [LingBuzz] (last modified: May 5, 2005)
        Slightly improved slides on the same topic: [pdf] (December 2005)
      • "Scopal Independence: A Note on Branching & Wide Scope Readings of Indefinites & Disjunctions" (2006),  Journal of Semantics 23(3): 281-314  (last modified: April 24, 2006 - revised and shortened version)   [LingBuzz]
      •  "Person and Binding: A Partial Survey" (2004), Italian Journal of Linguistics/Rivista di Linguistica 16(1): 155-218 [pdf]
      •  "Non-Redundancy: Towards A Semantic Reinterpretation of Binding Theory" (2005),  Natural Language Semantics 13(1): 1-92 [LingBuzz] (not quite the final version; last modified: August 8th, 2004)
      • "Conditionals as Definite Descriptions (A Referential Analysis)" (2004),  Research on Language and Computation, 2(3): 417-162  [LingBuzz] (not quite the final version; last modified: October 5th, 2003)
      • "Context of Thought and Context of Utterance (A Note on Free Indirect Discourse and the Historical Present)" (2004), Mind & Language 19(3):279–304. [LingBuzz]  (not quite the final version; last modified: July 30th, 2003)
      • "Sequence Phenomena and Double Access Readings Generalized" (2004), The Syntax of Time, ed. Lecarme & Guéron, MIT Press [LingBuzz]  (last modified: August 6th, 2003 [minor corrections])
      •  "A Plea for Monsters" (2003), Linguistics & Philosophy  26: 29-120 [LingBuzz]
      •  "Indexicality, Logophoricity, and Plural Pronouns" (2003), in Research in Afroasiatic Grammar II (Selected Papers from the Fifth Conference on Afroasiatic Languages, Paris, 2000), ed. J. Lecarme, Benjamins, pp. 409-428, [LingBuzz]  
      • "Clausal Equations (A Note on the Connectivity Problem)" (2003),  Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 21: 157-214 [LingBuzz] (not quite the final version)
      • "Sens et Contexte" (2005) [in French], Les Formes de l'Indexicalité, ed. S. Bourgeois-Gironde, Presses de la Rue d'Ulm [pdf]
      General Linguistics
      • "A Phonological Condition that Targets Discontinuous Syntactic Units:  ma/mon suppletion in French" (2010) [Squib] Snippets 22
      •   "La Grammaire générative entre comparatisme et cognition" (1998) [in French], joint article with A. Rouveret, Langages, 129: 9-23
      •   "La Flexion de l'adjectif en allemand: la morphologie de haut en bas" (1999) [in French], Recherches Linguistiques de Vincennes, 28: 115-132  [pdf]
      Moral psychology

      II. Other [not intended for publication]

      • Propositional Attitudes and Indexicality (A Cross-Categorial Approach), Ph.D Dissertation, MIT, September 1999
        Full thesis; revised, 2000
        [pdf] [NB: there are some typographical problems with transcriptions in this version]
      • "A Simplified Modal Presentation of the 'Non-Redundancy' System" (2004), unpublished note [not intended for publication], UCLA & IJN, 4 pages [pdf]  (last modified: August 15th, 2004 [typos corrected])
      •  "A Remark on Schlenker's Fallibility and Magri's Blindness." [pdf] 2016, unpublished note [not intended for publication] (last modified: January 28, 2016)
      • Gestural Predicates: Assertions and Presuppositions [Squib]. [LingBuzz]  (2016, revised 2017; largely superseded by the later manuscripts 'Gestural Agreement', 'Iconic Pragmatics', and 'Gestural Semantics')



      Workshop on Foundational Topics in Semantics (NYU, May 8, 2018) 

      Workshop on Primate Linguistics (NYU, May 9, 2017)

      Workshop on Music and Movement (NYU, May 23, 2016)

      Workshop ion Sign Language Meaning and Cognition (NYU, May 27, 2015)

      Formal Semantics Beyond Spoken Language (series of tutorials, New York University, May 29, 2014 [in conjunction with SALT 2014])

      Workshop on 'Semantic Approaches to Binding Theory', ESSLLI, Aug. 16-20, 2004

      CNRS Project on Implicatures and Dynamic Semantics

      Proceedings of 'Divisions of Linguistic Labor: the La Bretesche Workshop' 
      (June 2003; papers by Büring, Beyssade, Egré, Geurts & van der Sandt, Pancheva & Bhatt, Spector, Recanati, Schlenker, Sportiche)


      More recent courses

      Super Semantics (2 sessions, 6 hours, Rethymno 2017, November 2017)

      Foundational Topics in Semantics (8 weeks, NYU, September-October 2017)

      Meaning in Speech, Sign and Gestures (8 weeks, New York University, September-October 2016)

      Primate Semantics (2 sessions, Cogmaster, ENS - January 2016)

      Presupposition (3 sessions, Cogmaster, ENS - December 2015-January 2016)

      The Semantics/Pragmatics Interface (8 weeks, New York University, September-October 2015)

      Primate Linguistics (5 sessions, ESSLLI, Barcelona; August 3-7, 2015)

      Sign Language and the Foundations of Semantics (6 hours, EGG, Brno; July 30-31, 2015)

      Introduction to Formal Semantics - Week 1 (3 sessions, NYI, St Petersburg; July 13-17, 2015)

      Sign Language Semantics (10 hours, Ecole Normale Supérieure, March-April 2015)

      Monkey Semantics (6 hours, Université Libre de Bruxelles, February 7, 2015)

      Primate Semantics (3 weeks, 7 hours, Ecole Normale Supérieure, December 2014-January 2015)

      Presupposition (4 weeks, 9 hours, Ecole Normale Supérieure, November-December 2014)

      Cross-Modal Semantics (8 weeks, New York University, September-October 2014)

      Primate Linguistics (July 14-28, New York Institute, St Petersburg, Russia)

      Anaphora: Insights from Sign Language (10 hours, GLOW Spring School, Brussels, April 7-11, 2014)

      Primate Semantics (5 weeks, Cogmaster, Paris, November-December 2013)

      Primate Linguistics (and Beyond) (8 weeks, New York University, September-October 2013)

      Presupposition and Anaphora (4 weeks, Ecole Normale Supérieure, March-April 2013)

      Primate Linguistics (research seminar [with outside speakers], Spring Semester, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 2013)

      Sign Language and the Foundations of Semantics (7 weeks, New York University, September-October 2012)

      Presupposition and Anaphora (5 weeks, Ecole Normale Supérieure, December 2011-January 2012)

      Literal vs. Non-literal Meaning (7 weeks, New York University, September-October 2011)

      Semantics and Sign Language (5-session course at ESSLLI 2011, Ljubljana, August 2011)

      The Semantics of Pronouns (2 weeks, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, May 2011)

      Lean Semantics (7 weeks, New York University, September-October 2010)

      Meaning in Spoken vs. Sign Languages: Three Case Studies (3 lectures, NYI, St Petersburg, July 20-23, 2010)

      Local Contexts (1 tutorial, JSM, Nancy, March 23, 2010)

      Philosophy and Semantics (2 sessions, ENS, Paris, Winter 2009)

      Formal and Experimental Semantics
      (co-taught with E. Chemla; 7 sessions, ENS, Paris, Winter 2009)

      Cross-Reference (7 weeks, New York University, September-November 2009)

      Semantics and Pragmatics: Formal and Experimental Approaches
      (co-taught with E. Chemla; 9 sessions, ENS, Paris, Spring 2009)

      The New Presupposition Debate (3 sessions, EALing, ENS, Paris, September 2008)

      The New Presupposition Debate (7 weeks, New York University, September-October 2008)

      Current Debates in Formal Pragmatics  (2-week course at the New York-St. Petersburg Institute of Cognitive and Cultural Studies, July 2008)

      Presupposition Projection: the New Debate (4 lectures, ACTL Spring School, London, April 2008)

      Pragmatique Expérimentale (1 session, with E. Chemla, ENS, Jan. 2008)

      Seminar on Presupposition (UCLA, Fall 2007)

      Binding Theory - Empirical Aspects
      [Site set up thanks to A. Furmanska, A. Lima and V. Homer as part of the NSF Project 'Formal Semantic and Pragmatic Approaches to Binding Theory'].

      (2-week course at the New York-St. Petersburg Institute of Cognitive and Cultural Studies, July 2007)

      Linguistics 1: Introduction to the Study of Language (Winter 2006)

      Semantic Theory I (UCLA, Winter 2007)
      Updated lecture notes (some from 2009, some from 2007)

      Introduction à la Linguistique (3 sessions, ENS, Paris, October 2005)

      Tree of life


      Science news


      Primate Communication

      Radio program discussing primate calls [Jean Claude Ameisen, in French]

      Primates at Cornell's Macaulay Library of animal sounds

      Bonobo calls

      • Primate gestures

      Chimpanzee gestures (BBC)

      Hobaiter on chimpanzee gestures

      More chimpanzee gestures

      Drongos producing false alarms to meerkats

      Gorilla gestures

      Animal Psychology

      Crow intelligence (PBS documentary, 2010)

      Octopus intelligence (Nature Documentary, 2011)

      Cuddlefish (PBS documentary, 2011)

      Interview with Catherine Hobaiter


      Connected papers


      Heterodox Academy


      The Chicago Principles


      List of summer schools in linguistics

      Distributed Morphology FAQ

      Yuqing Guo on Tree-Adjoining Grammars (2006)

      Tutorial on Tree-Adjoining Grammar

      Iconicity Atlas

      Automatic translation


      Machine Learning

      Machine Learning for Humans

      Michael Nielsen's Neural Networks and Deep Learning

      Making appointments across time zones (…while taking into account daylight savings): 
      world clock converter

      Individual Pages

      Amir Anvari

      Jonathan Lamberton

      Valentina Aristodemo

      Masha Esipova

      Jonah Katz

      Jeremy Kuhn

      Salvador Mascarenhas


      Vincent Homer

      Nathan Klinedinst

      Emmanuel Chemla

      Benjamin Spector

      Emar Maier

      Arnim von Stechow's Papers

      Science and its Applications

      Language Log (linguistics)

      John Hawks's blog (paleoanthropology)

      Human evolution education resources

      Gödel's Lost Letter and P = NP (computation)

      Mark Thoma's Economist's View (economics - meta-blog)

      Paul Krugman's blog (economics)

      Greg Mankiw's blog (economics)

      Research Policy

      Improving procedures within CNRS

      The ERC should adopt an award-based funding procedure

      Pour une recherche française exemplaire (recueil collectif)

      La recherche française et les standards internationaux

      Pour la création d'un "search committee" pour la direction de l'ENS-Ulm (2012)

      Quatre Principes pour Réformer la Recherche

      Pétition  concernant  l'évaluation en Sciences Humaines et Sociales

      Trust Researchers (European Initiative) [original link currently unavailable]


      • Paris

      Theater etc.

      • Radio
      Il Teatro di Radio3

      Mendès France
      (and Mendès France on music)

      For vegan colleagues

      Vegan pastries in Paris
      Vegan burgers in Paris
      Non-dairy cheese

      Sign Language Resources

      • LSA Resolution on Sign Languages (2001)

      • LSA Guidelines for Using Sign Language Interpreters

      • ASL/LSF comparison 

      • LSF

      Metadictionary of LSF

      Elix dictionary (LSF dictionary, with some definitions in LSF)

      Pisourd dictionary (LSF dictionary, from Geneva; with some definitions in LSF, and some transcriptions in Signwriting)

      Months in LSF


      New in LSF (M6)

      L'Oeil et la Main (French LSF TV program)

      Signes (Swiss LSF TV program)

      Deaf history (Yann Cantin, LSF)

      Kandinsky's life (LSF)

      Bilingual education explained (LSF)

      The French Revolution (LSF)

      La Marseillaise in LSF

      'Ce soir nous irons au bal' (song in French and LSF)

      • ASL


      Signing Savvy (dictionary of ASL)

      ASL scientific vocabulary

      Science/Mathematics ASL Lexicon

      ASL Clear (science and technology)

      –News and TV

      The Daily Moth  


      DTV News

      iDeaf News

      Deaf Mosaic (historical ASL news)

      Sign Language Channel

      –Video book

      Acquisition of sign language [chapter 3 is on YouTube]


      Signs in history (Supalla)

      The brain (Bosworth)


      ASL fingerspelling


      Brief videos on ASL (in ASL)

      Some linguistic topics in ASL

      On sign language discourse (in ASL)

      On Black ASL (J. Hill; in ASL)

      Jewish History in ASL

      Bible stories in ASL

      Introduction to SignWriting (in ASL)

      Singing in ASL (and English)

      Re-representing D-E-A-F (Commerson)

      Highlights of the National Gallery of Art in ASL

      History of 'Toyota'

      Japanese, American and French Sign language - a few words

      • Deaf history

      Yann Cantin's chronology of Deaf history in France

      Other Language Resources

      Best Russian TV Series

      Cult Russian TV shows

      Music Cognition

      Fred Lerdahl's first LINGUAE Lecture, 2012 ('Musical Syntax and its Relation to Linguistic Syntax')

      Leonard Bernstein's 'Young People's Concerts': What does music mean?  [video][script]

      Leonard Bernstein's 'Young People's Concerts' Vol. 2

      Leonard Bernstein's 1973 Harvard Lectures, 'The Unanswered Question': [1][2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

      Leonard Bernstein on the genesis of Beethoven's Fifth

      Leonard Bernstein, What is Jazz? [a study in minimal pairs]


      • Music experiments

      Google Chrome Music Lab

      • Abstract musical animations

      Tarantella [abstract musical animation, Edwin Gerschefski]

      Line Riders - Beethoven's 5th

      [The following through J. Rawski:]

      Oskar Fischinger, An Optical Poem [on Liszt's 2nd Rhapsody] 

      Oskar Fischinger - 1931 Studie No.7 Hungarian Dance no. 5

      Oskar Fischinger - Studie No. 8

      [This one thanks to Regine Eckardt]

      Virtuos Virtuell 

      • Musical cartoons

      Silly Symphony - Compilation - YouTube

      Loony tunes

      • Musical line riders

      Line rider: Beethoven

      • Music stimuli

      Endless stairs

      • Film music

      Franco Piersanti

      • Clips cited at IRCAM's workshop on emotion and music (June 2016)

      Table Music, Thierry de Mey

      Fase, Thierry de Mey

      Silence must be!, Thierry de Mey

      Vox Humana, Hyun-Hwa Cho

      • Other

      Music experiments on Google

      Musical examples discussed in Wolff's Pourquoi la musique

      Music and the brain [Arte documentary, in German]

      Sounds in film [in French]: Ecouter le cinéma

      • Dance semantics

      P. Patel-Grosz on dance semantics

      • Hand dance

      The Art of Finger Dancing


      Early recordings

      Georges Clemenceau

      Thomas Edison (1877)

      Gounod's Ave Maria (piano and cello), c. 1906

      Piotr Tchaikovsky

      Lev Tolstoy

      Yiddish drinking song, c. 1903

      Bilingual songs

      The Partisan [Marly] [Cohen] [Cohen]

      Anna Marly

      Mary on le Chant des Partisans [in French]