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Book 8

Bamberg Msc. Class. 78

Niese, Flavii Iosephi Opera, vol. 2

William Whiston (1737)



BOOK VIII. Containing The Interval Of One Hundred And Sixty-Three Years.—From The Death Of David To The Death Of Ahab.



CHAPTER 1. How Solomon, When He Had Received The Kingdom Took Off His Enemies.

[I.i.1] David itaque eius quia uirtutem quantorumque bonorum auctor extiterit contribulibus suis quantaque bella pugnasque gesserit et longaeuus sit mortuus inprecedente declarauimus libro. Salamone uero eius filius ad huc aetate iuuenculo suscipiente regnum quem ad huc pater dominum populi uniuersi uoluntate dei constituit. Sedente uidelicet eo in solio patris omnis aequidem populus sollempniter fauit, ut ad solet in regis initio quatenus eius res optime regerentur, et usque ad senectutem feliciter permaneret in rego.

Περὶ μὲν οὖν Δαυίδου καὶ τῆς ἀρετῆς αὐτοῦ καὶ ὅσων ἀγαθῶν αἴτιος γενόμενος τοῖς ὁμοφύλοις πολέμους τε καὶ μάχας ὅσας κατορθώσας γηραιὸς ἐτελεύτησεν, ἐν τῇ πρὸ ταύτης βίβλῳ δεδηλώκαμεν. [2] Σολόμωνος δὲ τοῦ παιδὸς αὐτοῦ νέου τὴν ἡλικίαν ἔτι ὄντος τὴν βασιλείαν παραλαβόντος, ὃν ἔτι ζῶν ἀπέφηνε τοῦ λαοῦ δεσπότην κατὰ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ βούλησιν, καθίσαντος ἐπὶ τὸν θρόνον ὁ μὲν πᾶς ὄχλος ἐπευφήμησεν, οἷον εἰκὸς ἐπ᾽ ἀρχομένῳ βασιλεῖ, τελευτῆσαι καλῶς αὐτῷ τὰ πράγματα καὶ πρὸς γῆρας ἀφικέσθαι λιπαρὸν καὶ πανεύδαιμον τὴν ἡγεμονίαν.

1. We have already treated of David, and his virtue, and of the benefits he was the author of to his countrymen; of his wars also and battles, which he managed with success, and then died an old man, in the foregoing book. And when Solomon his son, who was but a youth in age, had taken the kingdom, and whom David had declared, while he was alive, the lord of that people, according to God's will; when he sat upon the throne, the whole body of the people made joyful acclamations to him, as is usual at the beginning of a reign; and wished that all his affairs might come to a blessed conclusion; and that he might arrive at a great age, and at the most happy state of affairs possible.


[I.ii.3] Adonias autem qui eius etiam patre ad huc uiuente temptauerat regni culmen inuadere, ingressus ad regis matrem bersabeae eaque humiliter salutata requisitus ab ea ut si pro aliqua petitione uenisset, ad ad iaceret permittens se uoluntatem conferre. Adonias ita locutus est, nosti quida[e]m et ipse regnum et propter aetatem et propter populi uoluntatem fuisse meum sed decreto dei ad salomem tuum filium peruenisse me tamus[en] conplecti profa[i]teor et gratis seruire et libenter agere quae gesta sunt. His dictis pariter postulauit ut apud filium eius suum fratrem intercederet, eique suaderet dari sibi abisag quae cum eius patre domierat uxorem dicens, quia per senectute non eam pater cognouisset. Sed ad huc uirgo consisteret. Besabae uero et ministraturam se in hoc negotio studio se promisit et nuptias promereri propter utrumque. Quia et rex et uelit aliquid praecare et illa pro eo prona uoluntate deposcere. Adonias autem spe nuptiarum laetus perrexit ad filium locutura de quibus adoniae supplicante promisit. Et occurentes ibi filio eamque conplectante cum deduxisset eam ad locum ubi solium erat regnum constitum, rex alium solium a dextris matri iussit ad poni. Cumque sedisset bersabae, unum inquit o fili munus petenti mihi concede, et ne uellis quasi difficile denegare tristemque deserere. Cui salomon ut impleri quod uellet ait, quod sanctum esset matri cuncta praebere. Culpabat tamen si eius petitionis initium quod tamquam non habens firmissimam adeptionis spem huiusmodi uerba proferret et ad huc quicquam sibi negare metueret, Tunc illa rogabat ut uirginem abisach adoniae fratri donaret uxorem.

[3] Ἀδωνίας δέ, ὃς καὶ τοῦ πατρὸς ἔτι ζῶντος ἐπεχείρησε τὴν ἀρχὴν κατασχεῖν, παρελθὼν πρὸς τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως μητέρα Βερσάβην καὶ φιλοφρόνως αὐτὴν ἀσπασάμενος, πυθομένης εἰ καὶ διὰ χρείαν τινὰ πρὸς αὐτὴν ἀφῖκται καὶ δηλοῦν κελευούσης ὡς ἡδέως παρεξομένης ἤρξατο λέγειν, [4] ὅτι γινώσκει μὲν τὴν βασιλείαν καὶ αὐτὴ καὶ διὰ τὴν ἡλικίαν καὶ διὰ τὴν τοῦ πλήθους προαίρεσιν οὖσαν αὐτοῦ, μεταβάσης δὲ πρὸς Σολόμωνα τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς κατὰ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ γνώμην στέργει καὶ ἀγαπᾷ τὴν ὑπ᾽ αὐτῷ δουλείαν καὶ τοῖς παροῦσιν ἥδεται πράγμασιν. [5] ἐδεῖτο δ᾽ οὖν διακονῆσαι πρὸς τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτῷ καὶ πεῖσαι δοῦναι τὴν τῷ πατρὶ συγκοιμωμένην πρὸς γάμον αὐτῷ Ἀβισάκην: οὐ γὰρ πλησιάσαι τὸν πατέρα διὰ τὸ γῆρας αὐτῇ, μένειν δ᾽ ἔτι παρθένον. [6] ἡ δὲ Βερσάβη καὶ διακονήσειν σπουδαίως ὑπέσχετο καὶ καταπράξεσθαι τὸν γάμον δι᾽ ἀμφότερα, τοῦ τε βασιλέως αὐτῷ χαρίσασθαί τι βουλησομένου καὶ δεησομένης αὐτῆς λιπαρῶς. καὶ ὁ μὲν εὔελπις ἀπαλλάττεται περὶ τοῦ γάμου, ἡ δὲ τοῦ Σολόμωνος μήτηρ εὐθὺς ὥρμησεν ἐπὶ τὸν υἱὸν διαλεξομένη περὶ ὧν Ἀδωνίᾳ δεηθέντι κατεπηγγείλατο. [7] καὶ προϋπαντήσαντος αὐτῇ τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ περιπλακέντος, ἐπεὶ παρήγαγεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον, οὗ συνέβαινεν αὐτῷ κεῖσθαι τὸν βασιλικὸν θρόνον, καθίσας ἐκέλευσεν ἕτερον ἐκ δεξιῶν τεθῆναι τῇ μητρί. καθεσθεῖσα δ᾽ ἡ Βερσάβη ‘μίαν, εἶπεν, ὦ παῖ, χάριν αἰτουμένῃ κατάνευσον καὶ μηδὲν ἐξ ἀρνήσεως δύσκολον μηδὲ σκυθρωπὸν ἀπεργάσῃ.’ τοῦ δὲ Σολόμωνος προστάττειν κελεύοντος, [8] πάντα γὰρ ὅσιον εἶναι μητρὶ παρέχειν, καί τι προσμεμψαμένου τὴν ἀρχήν, ὅτι μὴ μετ᾽ ἐλπίδος ἤδη βεβαίας τοῦ τυχεῖν ὧν ἀξιοῖ ποιεῖται τοὺς λόγους ἀλλ᾽ ἄρνησιν ὑφορωμένη, δοῦναι τὴν παρθένον αὐτὸν Ἀβισάκην Ἀδωνίᾳ τἀδελφῷ πρὸς γάμον παρεκάλει.

2. But Adonijah, who, while his father was living, attempted to gain possession of the government, came to the king's mother Bathsheba, and saluted her with great civility; and when she asked him, whether he came to her as desiring her assistance in any thing or not, and bade him tell her if that were the case, for that she would cheerfully afford it him; he began to say, that she knew herself that the kingdom was his, both on account of his elder age, and of the disposition of the multitude, and that yet it was transferred to Solomon her son, according to the will of God. He also said that he was contented to be a servant under him, and was pleased with the present settlement; but he desired her to be a means of obtaining a favor from his brother to him, and to persuade him to bestow on him in marriage Abishag, who had indeed slept by his father, but, because his father was too old, he did not lie with her, and she was still a virgin. So Bathsheba promised him to afford him her assistance very earnestly, and to bring this marriage about, because the king would be willing to gratify him in such a thing, and because she would press it to him very earnestly. Accordingly he went away in hopes of succeeding in this match. So Solomon's mother went presently to her son, to speak to him about what she had promised, upon Adonijah's supplication to her. And when her son came forward to meet her, and embraced her, and when he had brought her into the house where his royal throne was set, he sat thereon, and bid them set another throne on the right hand for his mother. When Bathsheba was set down, she said, "O my son, grant me one request that I desire of thee, and do not any thing to me that is disagreeable or ungrateful, which thou wilt do if thou deniest me." And when Solomon bid her to lay her commands upon him, because it was agreeable to his duty to grant her every thing she should ask, and complained that she did not at first begin her discourse with a firm expectation of obtaining what she desired, but had some suspicion of a denial, she entreated him to grant that his brother Adonijah might marry Abishag.


[I.iii.9] Hoc uerbum rex iracundiae suscipiens dimisit quidem matrem dicens. Quoniam adonias causas nimis eminentis appeteret, et mirare se quomodo in posceret etiam regnum quae quasi seniore abisach danduam rogaret uxorem, qui potentes haberet amicos ioab principem militiae et abiathar sacerdotem. Mittens baneam qui erat supra corporis custode[o]s fratrem adoniam praecepit occidi. Uocans autem et abiathar sacerdotem dixit eti ammori quidem, hoc te liberat quia et cum patrem eo saepius laborasti et arcam cum eo in hac regione uexisti. Hoc autem tibi propono supplicium eo quod fueris cum adonia conductus et consenseris ut neque hic moreris neque ad faciem ingredians. Sed pergens in tuam patriam in agris degere: et hanc conuersationem donec uiuis exerceto. Quando peccasti non est iustum habere te sacerdotium, sic igitur domus ithamar sacerdotii honore priuitatem propter praedictam causam sicut abithar[eo] con heli praedixerat. Transiuitque ad genus finees id est ad sadoch. [91v] De genere uero finees tempore quo ad domum ithamar sacerdotium transmigrauit, heli primo pontificatum accipiente isti descendisse noscuntur quia sacerdotio sunt priuati uochar filius ioseph summi sacerdotis, huius autem filius iotham, iotham autem mareoth. Mareoth uero asophi, asophi autem achitobi. Achitobi autem sadoch qui primum a rega sacerdos est facto[u]s.

[9] Λαβὼν δὲ πρὸς ὀργὴν ὁ βασιλεὺς τὸν λόγον ἀποπέμπεται μὲν τὴν μητέρα μειζόνων ὀρέγεσθαι πραγμάτων εἰπὼν Ἀδωνίαν καὶ θαυμάζειν, πῶς οὐ παραχωρῆσαι καὶ τῆς βασιλείας ὡς πρεσβυτέρῳ παρακαλεῖ τὸν γάμον αὐτῷ τὸν Ἀβισάκης αἰτουμένη φίλους ἔχοντι δυνατοὺς Ἰώαβον τὸν στρατηγὸν καὶ Ἀβιάθαρον τὸν ἱερέα, μεταπεμψάμενος δὲ Βαναίαν τὸν ἐπὶ τῶν σωματοφυλάκων ἀποκτεῖναι προσέταξεν αὐτῷ τὸν ἀδελφὸν Ἀδωνίαν. [10] καλέσας δὲ τὸν Ἀβιάθαρον τὸν ἱερέα ‘θανάτου μέν, εἶπε, ῥύεταί σε τά τε ἄλλα ὅσα τῷ πατρὶ συνέκαμες καὶ ἡ κιβωτός, ἣν σὺν αὐτῷ μετήνεγκας. ταύτην δέ σοι τὴν τιμωρίαν ἐπιτίθημι ταξαμένῳ μετὰ Ἀδωνία καὶ τὰ ἐκείνου φρονήσαντι: μήτε ἐνθάδε ἴσθι μήτε εἰς ὄψιν ἀπάντα τὴν ἐμήν, ἀλλ᾽ εἰς τὴν πατρίδα πορευθεὶς ἐν τοῖς ἀγροῖς ζῆθι καὶ τοῦτον ἄχρι τελευτῆς ἔχε τὸν βίον ἁμαρτὼν τοῦ μηκέτ᾽ εἶναι δικαίως ἐν ἀξίᾳ.’ [11] καταλύεται μὲν οὖν ἀπὸ τῆς ἱερατικῆς τιμῆς ὁ Ἰθαμάρου οἶκος διὰ τὴν προειρημένην αἰτίαν, καθὼς καὶ τῷ Ἀβιαθάρου πάππῳ προεῖπεν ὁ θεὸς Ἠλεί, μετέβη δ᾽ εἰς τὸ Φιναάσου γένος πρὸς Σάδωκον. [12] οἱ δὲ ἰδιωτεύσαντες ἐκ τοῦ Φιναάσου γένους καθ᾽ ὃν καιρὸν εἰς τὸν Ἰθαμάρου οἶκον ἡ ἀρχιερωσύνη μετῆλθεν Ἠλεὶ πρώτου ταύτην παραλαβόντος ἦσαν οὗτοι: ὁ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως Ἰησοῦ υἱὸς Βοκίας, τούτου δὲ Ἰώθαμος, Ἰωθάμου δὲ Μαραίωθος, Μαραιώθου δὲ Ἀροφαῖος, Ἀροφαίου δὲ Ἀχίτωβος, Ἀχιτώβου δὲ Σάδωκος, ὃς πρῶτος ἐπὶ Δαυίδου τοῦ βασιλέως ἀρχιερεὺς ἐγένετο.

3. But the king was greatly offended at these words, and sent away his mother, and said that Adonijah aimed at great things; and that he wondered that she did not desire him to yield up the kingdom to him, as to his elder brother, since she desired that he might marry Abishag; and that he had potent friends, Joab the captain of the host, and Abiathar the priest. So he called for Benaiah, the captain of the guards, and ordered him to slay his brother Adonijah. He also called for Abiathar the priest, and said to him, "I will not put thee to death because of those other hardships which thou hast endured with my father, and because of the ark which thou hast borne along with him; but I inflict this following punishment upon thee, because thou wast among Adonijah's followers, and wast of his party. Do not thou continue here, nor come any more into my sight, but go to thine own town, and live on thy own fields, and there abide all thy life; for thou hast offended so greatly, that it is not just that thou shouldst retain thy dignity any longer." For the forementioned cause, therefore, it was that the house of Ithamar was deprived of the sacerdotal dignity, as God had foretold to Eli, the grandfather of Abiathar. So it was transferred to the family of Phineas, to Zadok. Now those that were of the family of Phineas, but lived privately during the time that the high priesthood was transferred to the house of Ithamar, [of which family Eli was the first that received it,]were these that follow: Bukki, the son of Abishua the high priest; his son was Joatham; Joatham's son was Meraioth; Meraioth's son was Arophseus; Aropheus's son was Ahitub; and Ahitub's son was Zadok, who was first made high priest in the reign of David.

[I.iv.13] Igitur ioab militiae princeps peremptum audiens adoniam ualde per territus est. Erat eius amicus potius quam salomonis regis. Et hoc periculum propter illius fauorem non rationabiliter, suspicatus fugit ad altare, credens sibi cautelam reglionis inter uentu pietatis regiam pro futuram. Quod dum fuerat regi nuntiatum mittens banaan eum iussit ad duci ut mei iuditio satisfaceret. Ioab autem non se relicturum esse sacrarium, sed ibi potius quam in loco alio moriturum. Quod dum baneas renuntiasset regi, praecepit salomon ibi sibi ut uellit caput eius abscidi. Et hanc eum recipere poenam pro duobus militiae principibus quos in decenter occiderat. Et eius cadauer sepelire ut peccata quae gessit eius numquam desererent genus, at a ioab morte ipse eiusque pater esse in noxius. Quod dum fecisset ipse princeps militiae totius exercitus constitutus est. Sadochaum solum fecit sacerdotem in loco abiathar quem remouit.

[13] Ἰώαβος δὲ ὁ στρατηγὸς τὴν ἀναίρεσιν ἀκούσας Ἀδωνία περιδεὴς ἐγένετο, φίλος γὰρ ἦν αὐτῷ μᾶλλον ἢ τῷ βασιλεῖ Σολόμωνι, καὶ κίνδυνον ἐκ τούτου διὰ τὴν πρὸς ἐκεῖνον εὔνοιαν οὐκ ἀλόγως ὑποπτεύων καταφεύγει μὲν ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον, ἀσφάλειαν δὲ ἐνόμιζεν αὑτῷ ποριεῖν ἐκ τῆς πρὸς τὸν θεὸν εὐσεβείας τοῦ βασιλέως. [14] ὁ δὲ ἀπαγγειλάντων αὐτῷ τινων τὴν Ἰωά&#9#946;ου γνώμην πέμψας Βαναίαν ἐκέλευσεν ἀναστήσαντα ἄγειν ἐπὶ τὸ δικαστήριον ὡς ἀπολογησόμενον. Ἰώαβος δὲ οὐκ ἔφη καταλείψειν τὸ ἱερόν, ἀλλ᾽ αὐτοῦ τεθνήξεσθαι μᾶλλον ἢ ἐν ἑτέρῳ χωρίῳ. [15] Βαναίου δὲ τὴν ἀπόκρισιν αὐτοῦ τῷ βασιλεῖ δηλώσαντος προσέταξεν ὁ Σολόμων ἐκεῖ τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ ἀποτεμεῖν, καθὼς βούλεται, καὶ ταύτην λαβεῖν τὴν δίκην ὑπὲρ τῶν δύο στρατηγῶν, οὓς ὁ Ἰώαβος ἀνοσίως ἀπέκτεινε, θάψαι δ᾽ αὐτοῦ τὸ σῶμα, ὅπως τὰ μὲν ἁμαρτήματα μηδέποτε καταλείπῃ τὸ γένος τὸ ἐκείνου, τῆς δὲ Ἰωάβου τελευτῆς αὐτός τε καὶ ὁ πατὴρ ἀθῷοι τυγχάνωσι. [16] καὶ Βαναίας μὲν τὰ κελευσθέντα ποιήσας αὐτὸς ἀποδείκνυται στρατηγὸς πάσης τῆς δυνάμεως, Σάδωκον δὲ ποιεῖ μόνον ἀρχιερέα ὁ βασιλεὺς εἰς τὸν Ἀβιαθάρου τόπον, ὃν μετεστήσατο.

4. Now when Joab the captain of the host heard of the slaughter of Adonijah, he was greatly afraid, for he was a greater friend to him than to Solomon; and suspecting, not without reason, that he was in danger, on account of his favor to Adonijah, he fled to the altar, and supposed he might procure safety thereby to himself, because of the king's piety towards God. But when some told the king what Joab's supposal was, he sent Benaiah, and commanded him to raise him up from the altar, and bring him to the judgment-seat, in order to make his defense. However, Joab said he would not leave the altar, but would die there rather than in another place. And when Benaiah had reported his answer to the king, Solomon commanded him to cut off his head there and let him take that as a punishment for those two captains of the host whom he had wickedly slain, and to bury his body, that his sins might never leave his family, but that himself and his father, by Joab's death, might be guiltless. And when Benaiah had done what he was commanded to do, he was himself appointed to be captain of the whole army. The king also made Zadok to be alone the high priest, in the room of Abiathar, whom he had removed.

[I.v.17] Semei uero praecepit ut domum sibi aedificaret in hierosolimis, ibique maneret ut torrentem cedron transgredi non auderet. Quod si transcenderet, ultionem mortis incurreret. Super hanc minationem iuris iurandi eum religione constrinxit. Semei autem hoc praecepto salomonis gaudere se dicens atque seruare. In super adiciens ius iurandum relicta patria in ierosolimis habitabat. Trans actis autem annis tribus audiens duos seruos qui ei fugerant in geth commorare perrexit ut quereret eos. Quod cum eis reuertentem cognoscens rex quia et mandatum eius et ius iurandum preuisset grauiter hoc tulit. Eoque uocato tu inquid iurasti non te me esse relicturum, ne ab hac ciuitate ad aliam aliqua tenus aliqua tenus egressurum. Non ergo ius iurandi effugies ultionem, sed etiam pro quibus patrem meum fugientem in iuris ad fecista dabis nunc poenas agnoscas, quia nihil lucrantur qui non repente pro sua iniustitia puniuntur, sed omni tempore quaeso putant nihil patiendos in timore consistere crescit eorum poena et causa maiore perficitur qua peccas renoscuntur. Tunc semei banias iussu regis occidit.

[17] Σουμουίσῳ δὲ προσέταξεν οἰκίαν οἰκοδομήσαντι μένειν ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις αὐτῷ προσεδρεύοντι καὶ μὴ διαβαίνειν τὸν χειμάρρουν Κεδρῶνα ἔχειν ἐξουσίαν, παρακούσαντι δὲ τούτων θάνατον ἔσεσθαι τὸ πρόστιμον. τῷ δὲ μεγέθει τῆς ἀπειλῆς καὶ ὅρκους αὐτῷ προσηνάγκασε ποιήσασθαι. [18] Σουμούισος δὲ χαίρειν οἷς προσέταξεν αὐτῷ Σολόμων φήσας καὶ ταῦτα ποιήσειν προσομόσας καταλιπὼν τὴν πατρίδα τὴν διατριβὴν ἐν τοῖς Ἱεροσολύμοις ἐποιεῖτο. διελθόντων δὲ τριῶν ἐτῶν ἀκούσας δύο δούλους ἀποδράντας αὐτὸν ἐν Γίττῃ τυγχάνοντας ὥρμησεν ἐπὶ τοὺς οἰκέτας. [19] ἐπανελθόντος δὲ μετ᾽ αὐτῶν ὁ βασιλεὺς αἰσθόμενος, ὡς καὶ τῶν ἐντολῶν αὐτοῦ καταφρονήσαντος καὶ τὸ μεῖζον τῶν ὅρκων τοῦ θεοῦ μηδεμίαν ποιησαμένου φροντίδα, χαλεπῶς εἶχε καὶ καλέσας αὐτόν ‘οὐ σύ, φησίν, ὤμοσας μὴ καταλείψειν ἐμὲ μηδ᾽ ἐξελεύσεσθαί ποτ᾽ ἐκ ταύτης τῆς πόλεως εἰς ἄλλην; [20] οὔκουν ἀποδράσῃ τὴν τῆς ἐπιορκίας δίκην, ἀλλὰ καὶ ταύτης καὶ ὧν τὸν πατέρα μου παρὰ τὴν φυγὴν ὕβρισας τιμωρήσομαί σε πονηρὸν γενόμενον, ἵνα γνῷς ὅτι κερδαίνουσι μὲν οὐδὲν οἱ κακοὶ μὴ παρ᾽ αὐτὰ τἀδικήματα κολασθέντες, ἀλλὰ παντὶ τῷ χρόνῳ ᾧ νομίζουσιν ἀδεεῖς εἶναι μηδὲν πεπονθότες αὔξεται καὶ γίνεται μείζων ἡ κόλασις αὐτοῖς ἧς ἂν παραυτίκα πλημμελήσαντες ἔδοσαν.’ καὶ Σουμούισον μὲν κελευσθεὶς Βαναίας ἀπέκτεινεν.

5. But as to Shimei, Solomon commanded that he should build him a house, and stay at Jerusalem, and attend upon him, and should not have authority to go over the brook Cedron; and that if he disobeyed that command, death should be his punishment. He also threatened him so terribly, that he compelled him to take all oath that he would obey. Accordingly Shimei said that he had reason to thank Solomon for giving him such an injunction; and added an oath, that he would do as he bade him; and leaving his own country, he made his abode in Jerusalem. But three years afterwards, when he heard that two of his servants were run away from him, and were in Gath, he went for his servants in haste; and when he was come back with them, the king perceived it, and was much displeased that he had contemned his commands, and, what was more, had no regard to the oaths he had sworn to God; so he called him, and said to him, "Didst not thou swear never to leave me, nor to go out of this city to another? Thou shalt not therefore escape punishment for thy perjury, but I will punish thee, thou wicked wretch, both for this crime, and for those wherewith thou didst abuse my father when he was in his flight, that thou mayst know that wicked men gain nothing at last, although they be not punished immediately upon their unjust practices; but that in all the time wherein they think themselves secure, because they have yet suffered nothing, their punishment increases, and is heavier upon them, and that to a greater degree than if they had been punished immediately upon the commission of their crimes." So Benaiah, on the king's command, slew Shimei.



CHAPTER 2. Concerning The Wife Of Solomon; Concerning His Wisdom And Riches; And Concerning What He Obtained Of Hiram For The Building Of The Temple.

[II.i.21] Cumque salomon iam regnum haberet firmum punitis omnibus inimicis, duxit uxorem filiam faraonis regis egyptiorum, aedificatis muris ierosolimorum multum potioribus atque munitioribus quam primitus existerunt. De cetero maxime pace gubernauit imperium, in nullo per iuuentutem circa ius iustitiam legumque custodiam aut paternorum memoriam mandatorum minor existens, sed cuncta quae cumque aetate perfecti sapientiaque perfecti faciunt cum integritate praecipua caelebrabat. Placuitque ei ut ueniens in chebron in altare aureo quod fecerat moyses sacrificaret deo. Tunc ille mille oues obtulit holocaustum, quod dum fecisset praecipue deum uisus est honorasse. Apparuitque illi ea nocte personum praecipiens ut quae dum sibi pro cultu pietatis peteret dona conferre. Salomon autem obtima et eximia postulabit, quae et deus grate praeberet et utiliter homo praeciperet. Non igitur aurum non argentum, non alias diuitias ut homo iuuenis sibi dari depraecatus est. Haec enim apud multos sola putantur magna, et dei esse dona praecipua. Redde mihi inquit domine mentem sanam et prudentiam bonam, ut circa populum iustum possem uerumque proferre iudicium. His placationibus placata est diuinitas gloriam de inimicis uictoriam prae omnibus intellectum a[c] sapientiam qualem nullus alter hominum habuit nec regum nec priuaturum seruaturumque se etiam nepotibus eius imperium [92r] multo tempore eum promisit si iuste uiueret et ei oboediret patris sui in optimis actionibus imitator existeret. Haec salomon audiens dictas a deo repente exiliunt e somno et adorans eum ad ierosolima remeauit: et ante tabernaculum sacrificiis caelebratis aepulas uniuersis exibuit.

[21] Ἤδη δὲ τὴν βασιλείαν βεβαίως ἔχων Σολόμων καὶ τῶν ἐχθρῶν κεκολασμένων ἄγεται τὴν Φαραώθου τοῦ τῶν Αἰγυπτίων βασιλέως θυγατέρα: καὶ κατασκευάσας τὰ τείχη τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων πολλῷ μείζω καὶ ὀχυρώτερα τῶν πρόσθεν ὄντων διεῖπε τὰ πράγματα λοιπὸν ἐπὶ πολλῆς εἰρήνης μηδ᾽ ὑπὸ τῆς νεότητος πρός τε δικαιοσύνην καὶ φυλακὴν τῶν νόμων καὶ μνήμην ὧν ὁ πατὴρ τελευτῶν ἐπέστειλε βλαπτόμενος, ἀλλὰ πάνθ᾽ ὅσα οἱ τοῖς χρόνοις προβεβηκότες καὶ πρὸς τὸ φρονεῖν ἀκμάζοντες μετὰ πολλῆς ἀκριβείας ἐπιτελῶν. [22] ἔγνω δ᾽ εἰς Γιβρῶνα παραγενόμενος ἐπὶ τοῦ χαλκέου θυσιαστηρίου τοῦ κατασκευασθέντος ὑπὸ Μουσείου θῦσαι τῷ θεῷ καὶ χίλια τὸν ἀριθμὸν ὡλοκαύτωσεν ἱερεῖα. τοῦτο δὲ ποιήσας μεγάλως ἔδοξε τὸν θεὸν τετιμηκέναι: φανεὶς γὰρ αὐτῷ κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους ἐκείνης τῆς νυκτὸς ἐκέλευσεν αἱρεῖσθαι, τίνας ἀντὶ τῆς εὐσεβείας παράσχῃ δωρεὰς αὐτῷ. [23] Σολόμων δὲ τὰ κάλλιστα καὶ μέγιστα καὶ θεῷ παρασχεῖν ἥδιστα καὶ λαβεῖν ἀνθρώπῳ συμφορώτατα τὸν θεὸν ᾔτησεν: οὐ γὰρ χρυσὸν οὐδ᾽ ἄργυρον οὐδὲ τὸν ἄλλον πλοῦτον ὡς ἄνθρωπος καὶ νέος ἠξίωσεν αὑτῷ προσγενέσθαι, ταῦτα γὰρ σχεδὸν νενόμισται παρὰ τοῖς πλείστοις μόνα σπουδῆς ἄξια καὶ θεοῦ δῶρα εἶναι, ἀλλὰ ‘δός μοι φησί, δέσποτα, νοῦν ὑγιῆ καὶ φρόνησιν ἀγαθήν, οἷς ἂν τὸν λαὸν τἀληθῆ καὶ τὰ δίκαια λαβὼν κρίνοιμι.’ [24] τούτοις ἥσθη τοῖς αἰτήμασιν ὁ θεὸς καὶ τά τε ἄλλα πάνθ᾽ ὧν οὐκ ἐμνήσθη παρὰ τὴν ἐκλογὴν δώσειν ἐπηγγείλατο πλοῦτον δόξαν νίκην πολεμίων, καὶ πρὸ πάντων σύνεσιν καὶ σοφίαν οἵαν οὐκ ἄλλος τις ἀνθρώπων ἔσχεν οὔτε βασιλέων οὔτ᾽ ἰδιωτῶν, φυλάξειν τε καὶ τοῖς ἐκγόνοις αὐτοῦ τὴν βασιλείαν ἐπὶ πλεῖστον ὑπισχνεῖτο χρόνον, ἂν δίκαιός τε ὢν διαμένῃ καὶ πειθόμενος αὐτῷ καὶ τὸν πατέρα μιμούμενος ἐν οἷς ἦν ἄριστος. [25] ταῦτα τοῦ θεοῦ Σολόμων ἀκούσας ἀνεπήδησεν εὐθὺς ἐκ τῆς κοίτης καὶ προσκυνήσας αὐτὸν ὑπέστρεψεν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα, καὶ πρὸ τῆς σκηνῆς μεγάλας ἐπιτελέσας θυσίας κατευωχεῖ τοὺς Ἰουδαίους ἅπαντας.

1. Solomon having already settled himself firmly in his kingdom, and having brought his enemies to punishment, he married the daughter of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and built the walls of Jerusalem much larger and stronger than those that had been before, and thenceforward he managed public affairs very peaceably. Nor was his youth any hinderance in the exercise of justice, or in the observation of the laws, or in the remembrance of what charges his father had given him at his death; but he discharged every duty with great accuracy, that might have been expected from such as are aged, and of the greatest prudence. He now resolved to go to Hebron, and sacrifice to God upon the brazen altar that was built by Moses. Accordingly he offered there burnt-offerings, in number a thousand; and when he had done this, he thought he had paid great honor to God; for as he was asleep that very night God appeared to him, and commanded him to ask of him some gifts which he was ready to give him as a reward for his piety. So Solomon asked of God what was most excellent, and of the greatest worth in itself, what God would bestow with the greatest joy, and what it was most profitable for man to receive; for he did not desire to have bestowed upon him either gold or silver, or any other riches, as a man and a youth might naturally have done, for these are the things that generally are esteemed by most men, as alone of the greatest worth, and the best gifts of God; but, said he, "Give me, O Lord, a sound mind, and a good understanding, whereby I may speak and judge the people according to truth and righteousness." With these petitions God was well pleased; and promised to give him all those things that he had not mentioned in his option, riches, glory, victory over his enemies; and, in the first place, understanding and wisdom, and this in such a degree as no other mortal man, neither kings nor ordinary persons, ever had. He also promised to preserve the kingdom to his posterity for a very long time, if he continued righteous and obedient to him, and imitated his father in those things wherein he excelled. When Solomon heard this from God, he presently leaped out of his bed; and when he had worshipped him, he returned to Jerusalem; and after he had offered great sacrifices before the tabernacle, he feasted all his own family.

[II.ii.26] His itaque diebus iudicium apud eos deductum est cuius terminum erat inuenire difficile. Causam uero unde iudicium salomon prouenerat necessariam iudicare ferret ut ingentibus iugiter nota sit difficultas. Et sit alia quidem miserent quasi ex imagine e gregiae decreti cito possit, huiusmodi proferre sententiam. Duae ad eum mulieres socia conuersatione uenerunt, quarumquem laesa uidebatur. Prima coepit haec uerba proferre. Habitabamus inquit o rex et ego et haec in una domo. Contigit autem ambabus ut una die eadem hora pareremus. Transacta iam tertia die dormiens haec supra suum filium incubuit, et eum uiolenter occidit. Tollensque eum a se contulit in ulnas meas dormientes aposuit. Mane facto dum ubera porrigerem filio meum quidem non repperi. Huius autem mortuum ad iacere cognoui. Et misera certius [hoc] turbataque considerans factum scelus inspexi unde repretens meum filium et non abista recipiens ad tuum domine remedium conuolaui. Dum enim solismus et nullum qui nos arguat metuamus et contempnens haec denegare persistit. His dictis requisiuit rex quid ad legare uellit et altera quae negante quod hoc fecisset, et dicente suum uiuere filium et aduersariae suae fuisse defunctum. Cum nullus possit huius rei iudicium sed in eius discriptione omnium mens coherceret, solus rex huius modi quaestionem inopinantur ex soluit iussitque deferri et mortuum et uiuum infantem. Uocauit quendam armigerum praecipiens ut euaginato gladio ambo diuiderentur infantes utraque medietate: et eius qui mortuus erat et qui uiuebat acciperet. In hoc autem iudicio omnis quidem populus ignorans sententiam deridebant quasi ab olescente rege, pro latam, inter haec autem uera matre pro clamante ne hoc fieret. Sed potius ut infantulus eius sociae traderetur sibi sufficere dicens ut tantum uiueret eumque uideret licet alterius esse putaretur. Et aediuerso altera praeparata esset, ut diuisum uideret infantem, in super uera matre tormentis affici postularet. Cognoscens rex utriusque uoces de uero cordis fonte pro latas reclamante quidam ne perimeretur infantulus, iussit filium redonari ueram matrem eam esse cognoscens. Alterius uero malitiam accusauit quae necato proprio filio etiam suae amice natum uidere cupiebat extinctum. Hoc itaque magnum exemplum et praecipuum sapientiae et prudentiae eius indicium populus credidit uniuersus, et ex illo tamquam diuinum habentem sensum omnis inspiciebat.

[26] Ταύταις δὲ ταῖς ἡμέραις κρίσις ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν ἤχθη δυσχερής, ἧς τὸ τέλος εὑρεῖν ἦν ἐπίπονον: τὸ δὲ πρᾶγμα περὶ οὗ συνέβαινεν εἶναι τὴν δίκην ἀναγκαῖον ἡγησάμην δηλῶσαι, ἵνα τοῖς ἐντυγχάνουσι τό τε δύσκολον τῆς κρίσεως γνώριμον ὑπάρξῃ, καὶ τοιούτων μεταξὺ πραγμάτων γενόμενοι λάβωσιν ὥσπερ ἐξ εἰκόνος τῆς τοῦ βασιλέως ἀγχινοίας τὸ ῥᾳδίως ἀποφαίνεσθαι περὶ τῶν ζητουμένων δυνηθῆναι. [27] δύο γυναῖκες ἑταῖραι τὸν βίον ἧκον ἐπ᾽ αὐτόν, ὧν ἡ ἀδικεῖσθαι δοκοῦσα πρώτη λέγειν ἤρξατο: ‘οἰκῶ μέν, εἶπεν, ὦ βασιλεῦ, μετὰ ταύτης ἐν ἑνὶ δωματίῳ, συνέβη δ᾽ ἀμφοτέραις ἡμῖν ἐπὶ μιᾶς ἡμέρας ἀποτεκεῖν κατὰ τὴν αὐτὴν ὥραν ἄρρενα παιδία. [28] τρίτης δὲ ἡμέρας διελθούσης ἐπικοιμηθεῖσα τῷ αὑτῆς παιδίῳ αὕτη τοῦτο μὲν ἀποκτείνει, βαστάσασα δὲ τοὐμὸν ἐκ τῶν γονάτων πρὸς αὑτὴν μεταφέρει καὶ τὸ νεκρὸν ἐμοῦ κοιμωμένης εἰς τὰς ἀγκάλας μου τίθησι. [29] πρωῒ δὲ θηλὴν ὀρέξαι βουλομένη τῷ παιδίῳ τὸ μὲν ἐμὸν οὐχ εὗρον, τὸ δὲ ταύτης νεκρὸν ὁρῶ μοι παρακείμενον: ἀκριβῶς γὰρ κατανοήσασα τοῦτο ἐπέγνων: ὅθεν ἀπαιτῶ τὸν ἐμὸν υἱὸν καὶ οὐκ ἀπολαμβάνουσα καταπέφευγα, δέσποτα, ἐπὶ τὴν παρὰ σοῦ βοήθειαν: τῷ γὰρ εἶναι μόνας καὶ μηδένα τὸν ἐλέγξαι δυνάμενον φοβεῖσθαι καταφρονοῦσα ἰσχυρῶς ἀρνουμένη παραμένει.’ [30] ταῦτ᾽ εἰπούσης ὁ βασιλεὺς ἀνέκρινε τὴν ἑτέραν, τί τοῖς εἰρημένοις ἀντιλέγειν ἔχει. τῆς δὲ ἀρνουμένης τοῦτο πεποιηκέναι, τὸ δὲ παιδίον ζῆν τὸ αὑτῆς λεγούσης, τὸ δὲ τῆς ἀντιδίκου τεθνηκέναι, μηδενὸς ἐπινοοῦντος τὴν κρίσιν ἀλλ᾽ ὥσπερ ἐπ᾽ αἰνίγματι περὶ τὴν εὕρεσιν αὐτοῦ πάντων τῇ διανοίᾳ τετυφλωμένων μόνος ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐπενόησέ τι τοιοῦτον: [31] κελεύσας κομισθῆναι καὶ τὸ νεκρὸν καὶ τὸ ζῶν παιδίον μεταπέμπεταί τινα τῶν σωματοφυλάκων καὶ σπασάμενον ἐκέλευσε τὴν μάχαιραν ἀμφότερα διχοτομῆσαι τὰ παιδία, ὅπως ἑκάτεραι λάβωσιν ἀνὰ ἥμισυ τοῦ τε ζῶντος καὶ τοῦ τετελευτηκότος. [32] ἐπὶ τούτῳ πᾶς μὲν ὁ λαὸς λανθάνων ἐχλεύαζεν ὡς μειράκιον τὸν βασιλέα, μεταξὺ δὲ τῆς μὲν ἀπαιτούσης καὶ ἀληθοῦς μητρὸς ἀνακραγούσης τοῦτο μὴ ποιεῖν ἀλλὰ παραδιδόναι τῇ ἑτέρᾳ τὸ παιδίον ὡς ἐκείνης, ἀρκεῖσθαι γὰρ τῷ ζῆν αὐτὸ καὶ βλέπειν μόνον κἂν ἀλλότριον δοκῇ, τῆς δ᾽ ἑτέρας ἑτοίμως ἐχούσης διαιρούμενον ἰδεῖν τὸ παιδίον καὶ προσέτι βασανισθῆναι καὶ αὐτὴν ἀξιούσης, [33] ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐπιγνοὺς τὰς ἑκατέρων φωνὰς ἀπὸ τῆς ἀληθείας γεγενημένας τῇ μὲν ἀνακραγούσῃ τὸ παιδίον προσέκρινε, μητέρα γὰρ αὐτὴν ἀληθῶς εἶναι, τῆς δὲ ἄλλης κατέγνω πονηρίαν τό τε ἴδιον ἀποκτεινάσης καὶ τὸ τῆς φίλης σπουδαζούσης ἀπολλύμενον θεάσασθαι. [34] τοῦτο μέγα δεῖγμα καὶ τεκμήριον τῆς τοῦ βασιλέως φρονήσεως καὶ σοφίας ἐνόμιζε τὸ πλῆθος, κἀξ ἐκείνης τὸ λοιπὸν τῆς ἡμέρας ὡς θείαν ἔχοντι διάνοιαν αὐτῷ προσεῖχον.

2. In these days a hard cause came before him in judgment, which it was very difficult to find any end of; and I think it necessary to explain the fact about which the contest was, that such as light upon my writings may know what a difficult cause Solomon was to determine, and those that are concerned in such matters may take this sagacity of the king for a pattern, that they may the more easily give sentence about such questions. There were two women, who were harlots in the course of their lives, that came to him; of whom she that seemed to be injured began to speak first, and said, "O king, I and this other woman dwell together in one room. Now it came to pass that we both bore a son at the same hour of the same day; and on the third day this woman overlaid her son, and killed it, and then took my son out of my bosom, and removed him to herself, and as I was asleep she laid her dead son in my arms. Now, when in the morning I was desirous to give the breast to the child, I did not find my own, but saw the woman's dead child lying by me; for I considered it exactly, and found it so to be. Hence it was that I demanded my son, and when I could not obtain him, I have recourse, my lord, to thy assistance; for since we were alone, and there was nobody there that could convict her, she cares for nothing, but perseveres in the stout denial of the fact." When this woman had told this her story, the king asked the other woman what she had to say in contradiction to that story. But when she denied that she had done what was charged upon her, and said that it was her child that was living, and that it was her antagonist's child that was dead, and when no one could devise what judgment could be given, and the whole court were blind in their understanding, and could not tell how to find out this riddle, the king alone invented the following way how to discover it. He bade them bring in both the dead child and the living child; and sent one of his guards, and commanded him to fetch a sword, and draw it, and to cut both the children into two pieces, that each of the women might have half the living and half the dead child. Hereupon all the people privately laughed at the king, as no more than a youth. But, in the mean time, she that was the real mother of the living child cried out that he should not do so, but deliver that child to the other woman as her own, for she would be satisfied with the life of the child, and with the sight of it, although it were esteemed the other's child; but the other woman was ready to see the child divided, and was desirous, moreover, that the first woman should be tormented. When the king understood that both their words proceeded from the truth of their passions, he adjudged the child to her that cried out to save it, for that she was the real mother of it; and he condemned the other as a wicked woman, who had not only killed her own child, but was endeavoring to see her friend's child destroyed also. Now the multitude looked on this determination as a great sign and demonstration of the king's sagacity and wisdom, and after that day attended to him as to one that had a divine mind.

[II.iii.35] Isti quidem principes militiae et duces erant in omni prouintia. In tribu quidem ephraim uri. In regione autem bethleem erat dochis: Dorensem autem et mari timorum regionem abian. Adaph habuit sub potestate sua ducens filiam salomonis uxorem. Campus autem maximus erat sub bania filium achi, cui adiecta est terra ad iordanem usque protensa. Galaaditen uero et galuaniten usque ad montem libanum et centum sexaginta ciuitates maximas atque munitas habens sub se. Gabiar gubernabat eas achina. Daui autem totius galileae usque ad sidonem curam habebat, et ipse habens filiam salomonis nomine basima. Maritima uero quae circa arce ciuitatem sunt posita habuit banach. Sabath autem montem tabyrum et carmellum et inferiorem galileam. Regionem autem usque ad iordanem fluuium constitutam basan disponebat. Sumei sors beniamitidis erat in iuncta. Gabar autem habuit regionem positam trans iordanem et super omnes hos unus positus erat princeps mirabilis siquidem crementum habuit et populus hebraeorum et tribus iuda conuersi ad terrae culturam. Nam pacem potiti et ad bella atque tumultus ulterius non abstracti in super et desideratum libertatem adepti in temperantes erant circa substantias congregatas, et eas semper potius extendentes.

[35] Στρατηγοὶ δ᾽ αὐτῷ καὶ ἡγεμόνες ἦσαν τῆς χώρας ἁπάσης οἵδε: τῆς μὲν Ἐφραίμου κληρουχίας Οὔρης: ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς Βιθιέμες τοπαρχίας ἦν Διόκληρος: τὴν δὲ τῶν Δώρων καὶ τὴν παραλίαν Ἀβινάδαβος εἶχεν ὑπ᾽ αὐτῷ γεγαμηκὼς τὴν Σολόμωνος θυγατέρα: [36] τὸ δὲ μέγα πεδίον ἦν ὑπὸ Βαναίᾳ τῷ Ἀχίλου παιδί, προσεπῆρχε δὲ καὶ τῆς ἄχρι Ἰορδάνου πάσης: τὴν δὲ Γαλαδῖτιν καὶ Γαυλανῖτιν ἕως τοῦ Λιβάνου ὄρους καὶ πόλεις ἑξήκοντα μεγάλας καὶ ὀχυρωτάτας ἔχων ὑφ᾽ αὑτὸν Γαβάρης διεῖπεν: Ἀχινάδαβος δὲ τῆς Γαλιλαίας ὅλης ἄχρι Σιδῶνος ἐπετρόπευε συνοικῶν καὶ αὐτὸς θυγατρὶ Σολόμωνος Βασίμα τοὔνομα: [37] τὴν δὲ περὶ Ἀκὴν παραλίαν εἶχε Βανακάτης: Σαφάτης δὲ τὸ Ἰταβύριον ὄρος καὶ Καρμήλιον καὶ τὴν κάτω Γαλιλαίαν ἄχρι τοῦ ποταμοῦ Ἰορδάνου χώραν ἐπὶ τούτῳ πᾶσαν ἐπετέτραπτο: Σουμούις δὲ τὴν τῆς Βενιαμίδος κληρουχίαν ἐγκεχείριστο: Γαβάρης δὲ εἶχε τὴν πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου χώραν: ἐπὶ δὲ τούτων εἷς πάλιν ἄρχων ἀποδέδεικτο. [38] θαυμαστὴν δ᾽ ἐπίδοσιν ἔλαβεν ὅ τε τῶν Ἑβραίων λαὸς καὶ ἡ Ἰούδα φυλὴ πρὸς γεωργίαν τραπέντων καὶ τὴν τῆς γῆς ἐπιμέλειαν: εἰρήνης γὰρ ἀπολαύοντες καὶ πολέμοις καὶ ταραχαῖς μὴ περισπώμενοι καὶ προσέτι τῆς ποθεινοτάτης ἐλευθερίας ἀκρατῶς ἐμφορούμενοι πρὸς τῷ συναύξειν ἕκαστος τὰ οἰκεῖα καὶ ποιεῖν ἄξια πλείονος ὑπῆρχεν.

3. Now the captains of his armies, and officers appointed over the whole country, were these: over the lot of Ephraim was Ures; over the toparchy of Bethlehem was Dioclerus; Abinadab, who married Solomon's daughter, had the region of Dora and the sea-coast under him; the Great Plain was under Benaiah, the son of Achilus; he also governed all the country as far as Jordan; Gabaris ruled over Gilead and Gaulanitis, and had under him the sixty great and fenced cities [of Og]; Achinadab managed the affairs of all Galilee as far as Sidon, and had himself also married a daughter of Solomon's, whose name was Basima; Banacates had the seacoast about Arce; as had Shaphat Mount Tabor, and Carmel, and [the Lower] Galilee, as far as the river Jordan; one man was appointed over all this country; Shimei was intrusted with the lot of Benjamin; and Gabares had the country beyond Jordan, over whom there was again one governor appointed. Now the people of the Hebrews, and particularly the tribe of Judah, received a wonderful increase when they betook themselves to husbandry, and the cultivation of their grounds; for as they enjoyed peace, and were not distracted with wars and troubles, and having, besides, an abundant fruition of the most desirable liberty, every one was busy in augmenting the product of their own lands, and making them worth more than they had formerly been.

[II.iv.39] Erant autem regi et alii duces qui [92v] syrorum terras et alienigenarum a fluuio eufratren distentus usque ad aegyptum gubernant tributa colligentes ex gentibus. Inferebant autem et eius mense cottidianae ad regale conuiuum simile choros triginta farinae expensae ad salomonis mensam, sexaginta boues saginatos decim, et de pascuis uiginti agnos saginato centum. Haec omnia praeter illa quae de uenationibus capiebant, idem ceruos et bululos et uolatilia sed et pisces cottidie alienigenis portabantur. Tantam uero multitudinem currum habuit, ut quadraginta milia praesepia aequorum sub iugalium essent, et praeter erant duodecim milia aequites quorum medietas quidem regi in ierosolimis obseruabant. Reliqui uero per uicos regios dispersi manebant. Idem uero dux cui commissa erant mense regalis, expensa etiam aequis necessaria ministrabat de uehens haec ad locum ubi rex ipse morabatur.

[39] Ἦσαν δὲ καὶ ἕτεροι τῷ βασιλεῖ ἡγεμόνες, οἳ τῆς τε Σύρων γῆς καὶ τῶν ἀλλοφύλων ἥτις ἦν ἀπ᾽ Εὐφράτου ποταμοῦ διήκουσα μέχρι τῆς Αἰγυπτίων ἐπῆρχον ἐκλέγοντες αὐτῷ φόρους παρὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν. [40] συνετέλουν δὲ καὶ τῇ τραπέζῃ καθ᾽ ἡμέραν καὶ τῷ δείπνῳ τοῦ βασιλέως σεμιδάλεως μὲν κόρους τριάκοντα, ἀλεύρου δὲ ξ, σιτιστοὺς δὲ βόας δέκα καὶ νομάδας βόας εἴκοσι, σιτιστοὺς δὲ ἄρνας ἑκατόν. ταῦτα πάντα πάρεξ τῶν ἀπ᾽ ἄγρας ἐλάφων λέγω καὶ βουβάλων καὶ τῶν πετεινῶν καὶ ἰχθύων ἐκομίζετο καθ᾽ ἡ&#956#956;έραν βασιλεῖ παρὰ τῶν ἀλλοφύλων. [41] τοσοῦτον δὲ πλῆθος ἦν ἁρμάτων Σολόμωνι, ὡς τέσσαρας εἶναι μυριάδας φατνῶν τῶν ὑποζευγνυμένων ἵππων: χωρὶς δὲ τούτων ἦσαν ἱππεῖς δισχίλιοι καὶ μύριοι, ὧν οἱ μὲν ἡμίσεις τῷ βασιλεῖ προσήδρευον ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις, οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ κατὰ τὰς βασιλικὰς διεσπαρμένοι κώμας ἐν αὐταῖς κατέμενον. ὁ δ᾽ αὐτὸς ἡγεμὼν ὁ τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως δαπάνην πεπιστευμένος καὶ τοῖς ἵπποις ἐχορήγει τὰ ἐπιτήδεια συγκομίζων εἰς ὃν ὁ βασιλεὺς διέτριβε τόπον.

4. The king had also other rulers, who were over the land of Syria and of the Philistines, which reached from the river Euphrates to Egypt, and these collected his tributes of the nations. Now these contributed to the king's table, and to his supper every day thirty cori of fine flour, and sixty of meal; as also ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and a hundred fat lambs; all these were besides what were taken by hunting harts and buffaloes, and birds and fishes, which were brought to the king by foreigners day by day. Solomon had also so great a number of chariots, that the stalls of his horses for those chariots were forty thousand; and besides these he had twelve thousand horsemen, the one half of which waited upon the king in Jerusalem, and the rest were dispersed abroad, and dwelt in the royal villages; but the same officer who provided for the king's expenses supplied also the fodder for the horses, and still carried it to the place where the king abode at that time.

[II.v.42] Tantam itaque deus praebuit salomoni prudentiam ac sapientiam ut etiam homines excelleret, et nec aegyptiis qui sapientia omnibus differi dicuntur comparatus uel modicum minus esset. Cuius utique tumultum nimis sapientia procedebat. Trascendit autem sapientia etiam eos quia apud hebraeos tunc scientia clarere uidebantur quae omnia non praeteribo. Erant autem athan et heman, et calcheus et dardanus filii madanis. Conposuit autem et libros de canticis et modulationibus quinque et mille. Et parabularum atque similitudinum fecit libros tria milia: Per unum quodque enim arboris genus parabolam dixit ab hyssopo usque ad cedrum. Eodem modo et de iumentis et dereliquis terrenis, nec non aquatilibus et sacris animalibus disputauit. Nullam namque naturam ignorabat in examinatam quae praeterit, sed de omnibus philosophatus est et disciplinam proprietatem earum eminenter exposuit. Prestitit autem deus ut etiam contra daemones ad utilitatem homnium et eorum curas, curas edisceret: et incantationes instituit quibus egritudines soleant mitigare[i]. Modo etiam coniurati onum quibus obstricti daemones, nec denuo redeant effugiantur inuenit. Et haec cura actenus apud nos multum prae ualere dinoscitur. Uidi et enim quendam eleazarum degente nostram prefente uespasiano et eius filio et tribunis, alioque simul exercitu curantem eos quid a daemonibus uexabatur. Anulum habentem subter signaculum radicem salomone monstratam. Deinde daemonium pernares odorantis extraxit, et repente cecidit homo postea coniurauit eum iuramentum obiciens salomonis de ad eum denuo remearet. Idem cantica quae ille conposuit super eum et dicens. Uolens autem satisfacere atque probare praesentibus eleazarus hanc se habere uirtutem, ponebat ante eos aut calicem aquam plenum aut paelum, et daemon inperabat ut haec ab homine egresse uertent et uidentibus praeberet indicium quod hominem relinquisset. Quo facto sapientia salomonis cunctis in notuit, propter quam ut omnis magnitudunis eius naturam cognosceret atque religionem, et ut nullus regis uirtus de omni genere sub sole lateret, haec dicere sum conpulsus.

[42] Τοσαύτη δ᾽ ἦν ἣν ὁ θεὸς παρέσχε Σολόμωνι φρόνησιν καὶ σοφίαν, ὡς τούς τε ἀρχαίους ὑπερβάλλειν ἀνθρώπους καὶ μηδὲ τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους, οἳ πάντων συνέσει διενεγκεῖν λέγονται, συγκρινομένους λείπεσθαι παρ᾽ ὀλίγον, ἀλλὰ πλεῖστον ἀφεστηκότας τῆς τοῦ βασιλέως φρονήσεως ἐλέγχεσθαι. [43] ὑπερῆρε δὲ καὶ διήνεγκε σοφίᾳ καὶ τῶν κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν καιρὸν δόξαν ἐχόντων παρὰ τοῖς Ἑβραίοις ἐπὶ δεινότητι, ὧν οὐ παρελεύσομαι τὰ ὀνόματα: ἦσαν δὲ Ἄθανος καὶ Αἱμανὸς καὶ Χάλκεος καὶ Δάρδανος υἱοὶ Ἡμάωνος. [44] συνετάξατο δὲ καὶ βιβλία περὶ ᾠδῶν καὶ μελῶν πέντε πρὸς τοῖς χιλίοις καὶ παραβολῶν καὶ εἰκόνων βίβλους τρισχιλίας: καθ᾽ ἕκαστον γὰρ εἶδος δένδρου παραβολὴν εἶπεν ἀπὸ ὑσσώπου ἕως κέδρου, τὸν αὐτὸν δὲ τρόπον καὶ περὶ κτηνῶν καὶ τῶν ἐπιγείων ἁπάντων ζῴων καὶ τῶν νηκτῶν καὶ τῶν ἀερίων: οὐδεμίαν γὰρ φύσιν ἠγνόησεν οὐδὲ παρῆλθεν ἀνεξέταστον, ἀλλ᾽ ἐν πάσαις ἐφιλοσόφησε καὶ τὴν ἐπιστήμην τῶν ἐν αὐταῖς ἰδιωμάτων ἄκραν ἐπεδείξατο. [45] παρέσχε δ᾽ αὐτῷ μαθεῖν ὁ θεὸς καὶ τὴν κατὰ τῶν δαιμόνων τέχνην εἰς ὠφέλειαν καὶ θεραπείαν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις: ἐπῳδάς τε συνταξάμενος αἷς παρηγορεῖται τὰ νοσήματα καὶ τρόπους ἐξορκώσεων κατέλιπεν, οἷς οἱ ἐνδούμενοι τὰ δαιμόνια ὡς μηκέτ᾽ ἐπανελθεῖν ἐκδιώξουσι. [46] καὶ αὕτη μέχρι νῦν παρ᾽ ἡμῖν ἡ θεραπεία πλεῖστον ἰσχύει: ἱστόρησα γάρ τινα Ἐλεάζαρον τῶν ὁμοφύλων Οὐεσπασιανοῦ παρόντος καὶ τῶν υἱῶν αὐτοῦ καὶ χιλιάρχων καὶ ἄλλου στρατιωτικοῦ πλήθους ὑπὸ τῶν δαιμονίων λαμβανομένους ἀπολύοντα τούτων. ὁ δὲ τρόπος τῆς θεραπείας τοιοῦτος ἦν: [47] προσφέρων ταῖς ῥισὶ τοῦ δαιμονιζομένου τὸν δακτύλιον ἔχοντα ὑπὸ τῇ σφραγῖδι ῥίζαν ἐξ ὧν ὑπέδειξε Σολόμων ἔπειτα ἐξεῖλκεν ὀσφρομένῳ διὰ τῶν μυκτήρων τὸ δαιμόνιον, καὶ πεσόντος εὐθὺς τἀνθρώπου μηκέτ᾽ εἰς αὐτὸν ἐπανήξειν ὥρκου, Σολόμωνός τε μεμνημένος καὶ τὰς ἐπῳδὰς ἃς συνέθηκεν ἐκεῖνος ἐπιλέγων. [48] βουλόμενος δὲ πεῖσαι καὶ παραστῆσαι τοῖς παρατυγχάνουσιν ὁ Ἐλεάζαρος, ὅτι ταύτην ἔχει τὴν ἰσχύν, ἐτίθει μικρὸν ἔμπροσθεν ἤτοι ποτήριον πλῆρες ὕδατος ἢ ποδόνιπτρον καὶ τῷ δαιμονίῳ προσέταττεν ἐξιὸν τἀνθρώπου ταῦτα ἀνατρέψαι καὶ παρασχεῖν ἐπιγνῶναι τοῖς ὁρῶσιν, ὅτι καταλέλοιπε τὸν ἄνθρωπον. [49] γινομένου δὲ τούτου σαφὴς ἡ Σολόμωνος καθίστατο σύνεσις καὶ σοφία δι᾽ ἣν, ἵνα γνῶσιν ἅπαντες αὐτοῦ τὸ μεγαλεῖον τῆς φύσεως καὶ τὸ θεοφιλὲς καὶ λάθῃ μηδένα τῶν ὑπὸ τὸν ἥλιον ἡ τοῦ βασιλέως περὶ πᾶν εἶδος ἀρετῆς ὑπερβολή, περὶ τούτων εἰπεῖν προήχθημεν.

5. Now the sagacity and wisdom which God had bestowed on Solomon was so great, that he exceeded the ancients; insomuch that he was no way inferior to the Egyptians, who are said to have been beyond all men in understanding; nay, indeed, it is evident that their sagacity was very much inferior to that of the king's. He also excelled and distinguished himself in wisdom above those who were most eminent among the Hebrews at that time for shrewdness; those I mean were Ethan, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol. He also composed books of odes and songs a thousand and five, of parables and similitudes three thousand; for he spake a parable upon every sort of tree, from the hyssop to the cedar; and in like manner also about beasts, about all sorts of living creatures, whether upon the earth, or in the seas, or in the air; for he was not unacquainted with any of their natures, nor omitted inquiries about them, but described them all like a philosopher, and demonstrated his exquisite knowledge of their several properties. God also enabled him to learn that skill which expels demons, which is a science useful and sanative to men. He composed such incantations also by which distempers are alleviated. And he left behind him the manner of using exorcisms, by which they drive away demons, so that they never return; and this method of cure is of great force unto this day; for I have seen a certain man of my own country, whose name was Eleazar, releasing people that were demoniacal in the presence of Vespasian, and his sons, and his captains, and the whole multitude of his soldiers. The manner of the cure was this: He put a ring that had a Foot of one of those sorts mentioned by Solomon to the nostrils of the demoniac, after which he drew out the demon through his nostrils; and when the man fell down immediately, he abjured him to return into him no more, making still mention of Solomon, and reciting the incantations which he composed. And when Eleazar would persuade and demonstrate to the spectators that he had such a power, he set a little way off a cup or basin full of water, and commanded the demon, as he went out of the man, to overturn it, and thereby to let the spectators know that he had left the man; and when this was done, the skill and wisdom of Solomon was shown very manifestly: for which reason it is, that all men may know the vastness of Solomon's abilities, and how he was beloved of God, and that the extraordinary virtues of every kind with which this king was endowed may not be unknown to any people under the sun for this reason, I say, it is that we have proceeded to speak so largely of these matters.

[] Audiens autem iras rex tyri quia salomon dauid patre successisset in regno et ualde laetatus quando dauid fuerat amicus misit ad eum salutans, et propter prasentia bona gaudens destinauitque ad eum, denuo salomon litteras haec habentes rex salomon iram regis cito patrem meum uoluisse deo aedificare templum et bellis frequentibus fuisse prohibitum. Non enim primum non desiit inimicos extinguere donec eos tributarios sibimet subiugaret. Ego uero gratias ago deo pro pace prasenti propter cuius uocationem non dubito aedificare templum. Ipse namque patre meo dixit a me hanc esse faciendum qua propter rogo ut aliquos mittere iubeas cum eis ad montem libani qui ligna seccare possent. Ad sectionem namque siluarum sidonii sunt doct[i]ores nostris mercedes uero quas decreuera[i]s ego incidentibus ligna praebebo.

[50] Ὁ δὲ τῶν Τυρίων βασιλεὺς Εἴρωμος ἀκούσας ὅτι Σολόμων τὴν τοῦ πατρὸς διεδέξατο βασιλείαν ὑπερήσθη, φίλος γὰρ ἐτύγχανε τῷ Δαυίδῃ, καὶ πέμψας πρὸς αὐτὸν ἠσπάζετό τε καὶ συνέχαιρεν ἐπὶ τοῖς παροῦσιν ἀγαθοῖς. ἀποστέλλει δὲ πρὸς αὐτὸν Σολόμων γράμματα δηλοῦντα τάδε: [51] ‘βασιλεὺς Σολόμων Εἱρώμῳ βασιλεῖ. ἴσθι μου τὸν πατέρα βουληθέντα κατασκευάσαι τῷ θεῷ ναὸν ὑπὸ τῶν πολέμων καὶ τῶν συνεχῶν στρατειῶν κεκωλυμένον: οὐ γὰρ ἐπαύσατο πρότερον τοὺς ἐχθροὺς καταστρεφόμενος πρὶν ἢ πάντας αὐτοὺς φόρων ὑποτελεῖς πεποιηκέναι. [52] ἐγὼ δὲ χάριν οἶδα τῷ θεῷ τῆς παρούσης εἰρήνης καὶ διὰ ταύτην εὐσχολῶν οἰκοδομῆσαι τῷ θεῷ βούλομαι τὸν οἶκον: καὶ γὰρ ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ τοῦτον ἔσεσθαι τῷ πατρί μου προεῖπεν ὁ θεός. διὸ παρακαλῶ σε συμπέμψαι τινὰς τοῖς ἐμοῖς εἰς Λίβανον τὸ ὄρος κόψοντας ξύλα: πρὸς γὰρ τομὴν ὕλης ἐπιστημονέστερον ἔχουσι τῶν ἡμετέρων οἱ Σιδώνιοι. μισθὸν δ᾽ ὃν ἂν ὁρίσῃς ἐγὼ τοῖς ὑλουργοῖς παρέξω.’

6. Moreover Hiram, king of Tyre, when he had heard that Solonion succeeded to his father's kingdom, was very glad of it, for he was a friend of David's. So he sent ambassadors to him, and saluted him, and congratulated him on the present happy state of his affairs. Upon which Solomon sent him an epistle, the contents of which here follow:

Solomon To King Hiram.

" Know thou that my father would have built a temple to God, but was hindered by wars, and continual expeditions; for he did not leave off to overthrow his enemies till he made them all subject to tribute. But I give thanks to God for the peace I at present enjoy, and on that account I am at leisure, and design to build a house to God, for God foretold to my father that such a house should be built by me; wherefore I desire thee to send some of thy subjects with mine to Mount Lebanon to cut down timber, for the Sidonians are more skillful than our people in cutting of wood. As for wages to the hewers of wood, I will pay whatsoever price thou shalt determine."


[II.vii.53] Legens autem iram hanc epis tolam et in his quae scripta fuerant delectatus. Salomoni ita rescripsit. Rex iram regis salomoni. Dignum est aequidem et benedicatur deus quod tibi paternum praebuit principatum, sapienti uero et omni uirtute pollenti. Ego autem in his omnibus te delectatus quae cumque mandasti [93r] libentissime ministrabo. Incidens enim ligna procera cedrina et cypessina per meos ad mare destinabo praecipiens ut factis ratibus nauigantibus ad locum quem cumque uolueris ea deponant ut tui haec ad hierosolimam deferant sed et tu pro his praebe nobis frumenta, eo quod horum nobis uideatur inoppia. Qua propter supplicamus in hoc te esse sollictum, […]

[53] Ἀναγνοὺς δὲ τὴν ἐπιστολὴν Εἵρωμος καὶ τοῖς ἐπεσταλμένοις ἡσθεὶς ἀντιγράφει τῷ Σολόμωνι: ‘βασιλεὺς Εἵρωμος βασιλεῖ Σολόμωνι. τὸν μὲν θεὸν εὐλογεῖν ἄξιον, ὅτι σοι τὴν πατρῴαν παρέδωκεν ἡγεμονίαν ἀνδρὶ σοφῷ καὶ πᾶσαν ἀρετὴν ἔχοντι, ἐγὼ δὲ τούτοις ἡδόμενος ἅπαντα ὑπουργήσω τὰ ἐπεσταλμένα: [54] τεμὼν γὰρ ξύλα πολλὰ καὶ μεγάλα κέδρου τε καὶ κυπαρίσσου διὰ τῶν ἐμῶν καταπέμψω ἐπὶ θάλασσαν καὶ κελεύσω τοὺς ἐμοὺς σχεδίαν πηξαμένους εἰς ὃν ἂν βουληθῇς τόπον τῆς σαυτοῦ χώρας πλεύσαντας ἀποθέσθαι: ἔπειθ᾽ οἱ σοὶ διακομίσουσιν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα. ὅπως δὲ καὶ σὺ παράσχῃς ἡμῖν ἀντὶ τούτων σῖτον, οὗ διὰ τὸ νῆσον οἰκεῖν δεόμεθα, φρόντισον.’

7. When Hiram had read this epistle, he was pleased with it; and wrote back this answer to Solomon.

Hiram To King Solomon.

"It is fit to bless God that he hath committed thy father's government to thee, who art a wise man, and endowed with all virtues. As for myself, I rejoice at the condition thou art in, and will be subservient to thee in all that thou sendest to me about; for when by my subjects I have cut down many and large trees of cedar and cypress wood, I will send them to sea, and will order my subjects to make floats of them, and to sail to what place soever of thy country thou shalt desire, and leave them there, after which thy subjects may carry them to Jerusalem. But do thou take care to procure us corn for this timber, which we stand in need of, because we inhabit in an island."

[II.viii.55] harum igitur epistolarum actenus rescripta seruantur non in nostris solum modo libris, sed etiam apud tyros. Et siquis haec uoluerit integre cognoscere rogans custodem monumentorum populicorum tyri ciuitatis inueniet ea consona horum quae a nobis edicta sunt. Haec itaque dixi uolens lecturos agnoscere, quod nihil amplius extra uentatem proferimus neque exueris similibus rebus hanc historiam conpotentes. Ex aminationem quidem fieri declinanus, et ut nobis credetur exigimus, immo in nullo potius recipi deprecamur, nisi ad hibita probatione et manifestiis indiciis uirtutem ipsius ueritatis habeamus.

[55] Διαμένει δὲ ἄχρι τῆς τήμερον τὰ τῶν ἐπιστολῶν τούτων ἀντίγραφα οὐκ ἐν τοῖς ἡμετέροις μόνον σωζόμενα βιβλίοις ἀλλὰ καὶ παρὰ Τυρίοις, ὥστε εἴ τις ἐθελήσειε τὸ ἀκριβὲς μαθεῖν, δεηθεὶς τῶν ἐπὶ τοῦ Τυρίων γραμματοφυλακείου δημοσίων εὕροι συμφωνοῦντα τοῖς εἰρημένοις ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν τὰ παρ᾽ ἐκείνοις. [56] ταῦτα μὲν οὖν διεξῆλθον βουλόμενος γνῶναι τοὺς ἐντευξομένους, ὅτι μηδὲν μᾶλλον ἔξω τῆς ἀληθείας λέγομεν, μηδὲ πιθανοῖς τισι καὶ πρὸς ἀπάτην καὶ τέρψιν ἐπαγωγοῖς τὴν ἱστορίαν διαλαμβάνοντες τὴν μὲν ἐξέτασιν φεύγειν πειρώμεθα, πιστεύεσθαι δ᾽ εὐθὺς ἀξιοῦμεν, οὐδὲ συγκεχωρημένον ἡμῖν κατεξανισταμένοις τοῦ πρέποντος τῇ πραγματείᾳ ἀθῴοις ὑπάρχειν, ἀλλὰ μηδεμιᾶς ἀποδοχῆς τυγχάνειν παρακαλοῦντες, ἂν μὴ μετὰ ἀποδείξεως καὶ τεκμηρίων ἰσχυρῶν ἐμφανίζειν δυνώμεθα τὴν ἀλήθειαν.

8. The copies of these epistles remain at this day, and are preserved not only in our books, but among the Tyrians also; insomuch that if any one would know the certainty about them, he may desire of the keepers of the public records of Tyre to show him them, and he will find what is there set down to agree with what we have said. I have said so much out of a desire that my readers may know that we speak nothing but the truth, and do not compose a history out of some plausible relations, which deceive men and please them at the same time, nor attempt to avoid examination, nor desire men to believe us immediately; nor are we at liberty to depart from speaking truth, which is the proper commendation of an historian, and yet be blameless: but we insist upon no admission of what we say, unless we be able to manifest its truth by demonstration, and the strongest vouchers.


[II.ix.57] Rex itaque salomon dum ei fuissent litterae tyri regis ad latae uoluntatem et faborem ualde laudabit: et ei quae poposcerat repensauit. Misitque singulis annis tritici uiginti milia choros et totidem olei batus. Batus autem capit sextarios lxxii. Eandem uero mensuram etiam uini praebebat. Amicitiae siquidem iram et salomonis hoc potius largitate creuerunt et iurauerunt has esse iugiter permansuras. Rex autem indixit omni populo tributum triginta milia operariorum, quatenus opus prae multitudine sine labore constaret. Diuisitque eos ualde prudenter. Decim milia enim fecit incidere uno mense in libano monte: ut duobus mensibus remeantes ad propria requiescerent. Donec igitur uiginti milia definito tempore suum opus implerent. Ita contingebant quarto mense priores ad laborem denuo remearent. Super hos enim laboratores scrutator institutus adoram. Erant autem ex his quos reliquerat dauid ad portandos lapides aliamque materiam septuaginta milia uiri et eorum qui lapides incidebant octoaginta milia et eorum praepositi tria milia trecenti uelociterque secabant lapides eximios ad fundamenta templi quos primitus poliebant et sepolabunt in montibus et ad ciuitatem deferebant. Fiebantque haec non solum prouincialibus structorum sed etiam ab artificibus quos miserat rex iram.

[57] Ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς Σολόμων ὡς ἐκομίσθη τὰ παρὰ Τυρίων βασιλέως γράμματα τήν τε προθυμίαν αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν εὔνοιαν ἐπῄνεσε καὶ οἷς ἠξίωσε τούτοις αὐτὸν ἠμείψατο, σίτου μὲν αὐτῷ κατ᾽ ἔτος πέμψας δισμυρίους κόρους καὶ τοσούτους ἐλαίου βάτους, ὁ δὲ βάτος δύναται ξέστας ἑβδομήκοντα δύο: τὸ δ᾽ αὐτὸ μέτρον καὶ οἴνου παρεῖχεν. [58] ἡ μὲν οὖν Εἱρώμου φιλία καὶ Σολόμωνος ἀπὸ τούτων ἔτι μᾶλλον ηὔξησε καὶ διαμένειν ὤμοσαν εἰς ἅπαν. ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς ἐπέταξε παντὶ τῷ λαῷ φόρον ἐργάτας τρισμυρίους, οἷς ἄπονον τὴν ἐργασίαν κατέστησε μερίσας αὐτὴν συνετῶς: μυρίους γὰρ ἐποίησε κόπτοντας ἐπὶ μῆνα ἕνα ἐν Λιβάνῳ ὄρει δύο μῆνας ἀναπαύεσθαι παραγινομένους ἐπὶ τὰ οἰκεῖα, μέχρις οὗ πάλιν οἱ δισμύριοι τὴν [59] ἐργασίαν ἀναπληρώσωσι κατὰ τὸν ὡρισμένον χρόνον ἔπειθ᾽ οὕτως συνέβαινε τοῖς πρώτοις μυρίοις διὰ τετάρτου μηνὸς ἀπαντᾶν ἐπὶ τὸ ἔργον. ἐγεγόνει δ᾽ ἐπίτροπος τοῦ φόρου τούτου Ἀδώραμος. ἦσαν δ᾽ ἐκ τῶν παροίκων οὓς Δαυίδης καταλελοίπει τῶν μὲν παρακομιζόντων τὴν λιθίαν καὶ τὴν ἄλλην ὕλην ἑπτὰ μυριάδες, τῶν δὲ λατομούντων ὀκτάκις μύριοι, τούτων δ᾽ ἐπιστάται τρισχίλιοι καὶ τριακόσιοι. [60] προστετάχει δὲ λίθους μὲν αὐτοῖς τέμνειν μεγάλους εἰς τοὺς τοῦ ναοῦ θεμελίους, ἁρμόσαντας δὲ πρῶτον καὶ συνδήσαντας ἐν τῷ ὄρει κατακομίζειν οὕτως εἰς τὴν πόλιν. ἐγίνετο δὲ ταῦτ᾽ οὐ παρὰ τῶν οἰκοδόμων τῶν ἐγχωρίων μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὧν ὁ Εἵρωμος ἔπεμψε τεχνιτῶν.

9. Now king Solomon, as soon as this epistle of the king of Tyre was brought him, commended the readiness and good-will he declared therein, and repaid him in what he desired, and sent him yearly twenty thousand cori of wheat, and as many baths of oil: now the bath is able to contain seventy-two sextaries. He also sent him the same measure of wine. So the friendship between Hiram and Solomon hereby increased more and more; and they swore to continue it for ever. And the king appointed a tribute to be laid on all the people, of thirty thousand laborers, whose work he rendered easy to them by prudently dividing it among them; for he made ten thousand cut timber in Mount Lebanon for one month; and then to come home, and rest two months, until the time when the other twenty thousand had finished their task at the appointed time; and so afterward it came to pass that the first ten thousand returned to their work every fourth month: and it was Adoram who was over this tribute. There were also of the strangers who were left by David, who were to carry the stones and other materials, seventy thousand; and of those that cut the stones, eighty thousand. Of these three thousand and three hundred were rulers over the rest. He also enjoined them to cut out large stones for the foundations of the temple, and that they should fit them and unite them together in the mountain, and so bring them to the city. This was done not only by our own country workmen, but by those workmen whom Hiram sent also. 




CHAPTER 3. Of The Building Of This Temple

[III.i.61] Coepit autem salomon aedificare templum anno quarto regni sui mense secundo, quaem macedones artemisia uocant. Haebraei autem hiaro anno quingentesimo secundo filiorum israhel prouectionis ex aegypto. Post mille autem et uiginti annos aduentus abraham ad chananaeam de mesopotamia. A tempore uero diluuii anno millensimo quadrincentesimo. Ab adam autem protoplausto usque ad aedificationem templi salomonis praetereunt anni simul tria milia centum et duo qua tempestate caepit aedificare templum. Tunc siquidem undecimum iam in regno iram annum habebat. A tyri uero conditione usque ad aedificium templi fuit tempus annorum quadraginta et ducentorum.

[61] Τῆς δ᾽ οἰκοδομίας τοῦ ναοῦ Σολόμων ἤρξατο τέταρτον ἔτος ἤδη τῆς βασιλείας ἔχων μηνὶ δευτέρῳ, ὃν Μακεδόνες μὲν Ἀρτεμίσιον καλοῦσιν Ἑβραῖοι δὲ Ἰάρ, μετὰ ἔτη πεντακόσια καὶ ἐνενήκοντα καὶ δύο τῆς ἀπ᾽ Αἰγύπτου τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν ἐξόδου, μετὰ δὲ χίλια καὶ εἴκοσι ἔτη τῆς Ἁβράμου εἰς τὴν Χαναναίαν ἐκ τῆς Μεσοποταμίας ἀφίξεως, ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἐπομβρίας μετὰ χίλια καὶ τετρακόσια καὶ τεσσαράκοντα: [62] ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ πρώτου γεννηθέντος Ἀδάμου ἕως οὗ τὸν ναὸν ᾠκοδόμησε Σολόμων διεληλύθει τὰ πάντα ἔτη τρισχίλια καὶ ἑκατὸν δύο. καθ᾽ ὃν δὲ ὁ ναὸς ἤρξατο οἰκοδομεῖσθαι χρόνον, κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον ἔτος ἤδη τῆς ἐν Τύρῳ βασιλείας ἑνδέκατον ἐνειστήκει Εἱρώμῳ, τῆς δὲ οἰκήσεως εἰς τὴν οἰκοδομίαν τοῦ ναοῦ διεγεγόνει χρόνος ἐτῶν τεσσαράκοντα καὶ διακοσίων.

1. Solomon began to build the temple in the fourth year of his reign, on the second month, which the Macedonians call Artemisius, and the Hebrews Jur, five hundred and ninety-two years after the Exodus out of Egypt; but one thousand and twenty years from Abraham's coming out of Mesopotamia into Canaan, and after the deluge one thousand four hundred and forty years; and from Adam, the first man who was created, until Solomon built the temple, there had passed in all three thousand one hundred and two years. Now that year on which the temple began to be built was already the eleventh year of the reign of Hiram; but from the building of Tyre to the building of the temple, there had passed two hundred and forty years.

[III.ii.63] Deposuit itaque rex fundamenta templi in nimia terrae profunditate de lapidibus ualde fortissimis et qui possint longo tempore permanere: qui aeque constipati sibi conserti terrae pauimentum et fortitudo super aedificati operis essent, et propter inferiorem sui fortitudinem sine defectu in positam magnitudinem et pretiosiam una pulchritudinem sustinerent. Quae utique fundamenta non minus pondus erant habitura quam alia quae erant tanta celsitudine, et fastigio quasi ad instar mundi et ad magnificentiam fabricanda. Eleuauit itaque templum usque ad cameram ex lapide albo constructum altitudo fuit sexaginta cubitorum et longitudo tantum eodem latitudo autem uiginti. Super hoc autem aliud erat ad aedificatum aequa mensura ita ut esset omnis altitudo templi cubitorum centum uiginti. Eratque conuersum ad orientem cuius uestibulum habebat longitudinem cubito uiginti quantum et latitudo templi. Latitudinem uero cubitorum decem, in altitudinem surgens cubitis centum et uiginti. Aedificauit autem in circuitu templi triginta paruulas domus quae sui populatione totum templi spatium extrinsecus ambiebant. Nam et in ingre- [93v] -ssus earum ita fecit ad inuicem ut ex alia intraretur ad aliam. Harum namque singulae domus latitutdinem habebat quinque cubitorum et tandundem longitudinis, altitudinis uero uiginti. Erant autem supra aedificate his aliae et rursus aliae super eas aequales, et mensuris et numero ita ut omnem altitudinem haberent proxime sicut domus inferior. Superior namque circum aedificata non erat, operiebantque eas camera caedrina et domibus quidem singulis erat hoc proprium et inputribile tegumentumm. Aliorum uero erat tectum commune longissimis trabibus ad opertum et cuncta tegentibus ita ut medii parietes ab eis trabibus constipati firmiores existerent. Camera uero quae sub trabibus erant de lignis eiusdem fecit caelatis opere laqueario auroque uestitis. Parietes autem cedrinis tabulis ex ornauit, easque pariter de aurauit ut omne templum nimis efulgerat, et uultus ingredientium auri limine resplendere. Fabrica uero totius mundi multa arte conferta est de lapidibus polytis arteque conpositis et nimis limpide constitutis, ita ut neque mallei neque alterius instrumenti fabrilis aliquid considerantibus appareret indicium, sed propter hunc usum omnis materia congruenter explicata uideretur, ut naturali armonia potius quam ferramorum crederetur necessitate confecta. Ex cogitauit autem rex ascensum superioris domus per latitudinem parietis efficere. Nam enim habuit ianuam grandem ad orientem sicut domus inferior, sed a lateribus erant ingressus ianuarum ualde paruarum. Uestiit autem templum instrinsecus delignis caedrinis uncinis fortibus colligatis quatenus hoc pro munimine et fortitudine magna constaret.

[63] Βάλλεται μὲν οὖν τῷ ναῷ θεμελίους ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐπὶ μήκιστον τῆς γῆς βάθος ὕλης λίθων ἰσχυρᾶς καὶ πρὸς χρόνον ἀντέχειν δυναμένης, οἳ τῇ τε γῇ συμφυέντες ἔμελλον ἔδαφος καὶ ἔρεισμα τῆς ἐποικοδομησομένης κατασκευῆς ἔσεσθαι καὶ διὰ τὴν κάτωθεν ἰσχὺν οἴσειν ἀπόνως μέγεθός τε τῶν ἐπικεισομένων καὶ κάλλους πολυτ&##941;λειαν, ᾗ βάρος ἔμελλεν οὐχ ἧττον εἶναι τῶν ἄλλων ὅσα πρὸς ὕψος καὶ πρὸς ὄγκον κόσμου τε χάριν καὶ μεγαλουργίας ἐπενοεῖτο. [64] ἀνήγαγε δὲ αὐτὸν ἄχρι τῆς ὀροφῆς ἐκ λευκοῦ λίθου πεποιημένον. τὸ μὲν οὖν ὕψος ἦν ἑξήκοντα πηχῶν, τῶν δ᾽ αὐτῶν καὶ τὸ μῆκος, εὖρος δ᾽ εἴκοσι. κατὰ τούτου δὲ ἄλλος ἦν ἐγηγερμένος ἴσος τοῖς μέτροις, ὥστε εἶναι τὸ πᾶν ὕψος τῷ ναῷ πηχῶν ἑκατὸν καὶ εἴκοσι: [65] τέτραπτο δὲ πρὸς τὴν ἀνατολήν. τὸ δὲ προνάιον αὐτοῦ προύστησαν ἐπὶ πήχεις μὲν εἴκοσι τὸ μῆκος πρὸς τὸ εὖρος τοῦ οἴκου τεταμένον, ἔχον δὲ πλάτος πήχεις δέκα καὶ εἰς ὕψος δὲ ἀνεγηγερμένον πηχῶν ἑκατὸν καὶ εἴκοσι. περιῳκοδόμησε δὲ τὸν ναὸν ἐν κύκλῳ τριάκοντα βραχέσιν οἴκοις, οἳ συνοχή τε τοῦ παντὸς ἔμελλον ἔσεσθαι διὰ πυκνότητα καὶ πλῆθος ἔξωθεν περικείμενοι, καὶ δὴ καὶ τὰς εἰσόδους αὐτοῖς δι᾽ ἀλλήλων κατεσκεύασεν. [66] ἕκαστος δὲ τῶν οἴκων τούτων εὖρος μὲν εἶχε πέντε πήχεις, μῆκος δὲ τοὺς αὐτούς, ὕψος δὲ εἴκοσιν. ἐπῳκοδόμηντο δὲ τούτοις ἄνωθεν ἕτεροι οἶκοι καὶ πάλιν ἄλλοι κατ᾽ αὐτῶν ἴσοι καὶ τοῖς μέτροις καὶ τῷ ἀριθμῷ, ὡς τὸ πᾶν ὕψος αὐτοὺς λαβεῖν τῷ κάτωθεν οἴκῳ παραπλήσιον: ὁ γὰρ ὑπερῷος οὐκ ἦν περιῳκοδομημένος. [67] ὄροφος δὲ αὐτοῖς ἐπεβέβλητο κέδρου καὶ τοῖς μὲν οἴκοις ἴδιος ἦν οὗτος ἑκάστῳ πρὸς τοὺς πλησίον οὐ συνάπτων, τοῖς δ᾽ ἄλλοις ὑπῆρχεν ἡ στέγη κοινὴ δι᾽ ἀλλήλων δεδομημένη μηκίσταις δοκοῖς καὶ διηκούσαις ἁπάντων, ὡς τοὺς μέσους τοίχους ὑπὸ τῶν αὐτῶν συγκρατουμένους ξύλων ἐρρωμενεστέρους διὰ τοῦτο γίνεσθαι. [68] τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ τὰς δοκοὺς στέγην τῆς αὐτῆς ὕλης ἐβάλετο πᾶσαν ἐξεσμένην εἰς φατνώματα καὶ προσκόλλησιν χρυσοῦ. τοὺς δὲ τοίχους κεδρίναις διαλαβὼν σανίσι χρυσὸν αὐταῖς ἐνετόρευσεν, ὥστε στίλβειν ἅπαντα τὸν ναὸν καὶ περιλάμπεσθαι τὰς ὄψεις τῶν εἰσιόντων ὑπὸ τῆς αὐγῆς τοῦ χρυσοῦ πανταχόθεν φερομένης. [69] ἡ δ᾽ ὅλη τοῦ ναοῦ οἰκοδομία κατὰ πολλὴν τέχνην ἐκ λίθων ἀκροτόμων ἐγένετο συντεθέντων ἁρμονίως πάνυ καὶ λείως, ὡς μήτε σφύρας μήτε ἄλλου τινὸς ἐργαλείου τεκτονικοῦ τοῖς κατανοοῦσιν ἐργασίαν δηλοῦσθαι, ἀλλὰ δίχα τῆς τούτων χρήσεως πᾶσαν ἡρμόσθαι τὴν ὕλην προσφυῶς, ὡς ἑκούσιον τὴν ἁρμονίαν αὐτῆς δοκεῖν μᾶλλον ἢ τῆς τῶν ἐργαλείων ἀνάγκης. [70] ἐφιλοτέχνησε δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς ἄνοδον εἰς τὸν ὑπερῷον οἶκον διὰ τοῦ εὔρους τοῦ τοίχου: οὐ γὰρ εἶχε θύραν μεγάλην κατὰ τῆς ἀνατολῆς ὡς εἶχεν ὁ κάτωθεν οἶκος, ἀλλ᾽ ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν ἦσαν εἴσοδοι διὰ μικρῶν πάνυ θυρῶν. διέλαβε δὲ τὸν ναὸν καὶ ἔνδοθεν καὶ ἔξωθεν ξύλοις κεδρίνοις ἁλύσεσι παχείαις συνδεδεμένοις, ὥστε ἀντ᾽ ὀχυρωμάτων καὶ ῥώμης τοῦτο εἶναι.

2. Now, therefore, the king laid the foundations of the temple very deep in the ground, and the materials were strong stones, and such as would resist the force of time; these were to unite themselves with the earth, and become a basis and a sure foundation for that superstructure which was to be erected over it; they were to be so strong, in order to sustain with ease those vast superstructures and precious ornaments, whose own weight was to be not less than the weight of those other high and heavy buildings which the king designed to be very ornamental and magnificent. They erected its entire body, quite up to the roof, of white stone; its height was sixty cubits, and its length was the same, and its breadth twenty. There was another building erected over it, equal to it in its measures; so that the entire altitude of the temple was a hundred and twenty cubits. Its front was to the east. As to the porch, they built it before the temple; its length was twenty cubits, and it was so ordered that it might agree with the breadth of the house; and it had twelve cubits in latitude, and its height was raised as high as a hundred and twenty cubits. He also built round about the temple thirty small rooms, which might include the whole temple, by their closeness one to another, and by their number and outward position round it. He also made passages through them, that they might come into on through another. Every one of these rooms had five cubits in breadth, and the same in length, but in height twenty. Above these there were other rooms, and others above them, equal, both in their measures and number; so that these reached to a height equal to the lower part of the house; for the upper part had no buildings about it. The roof that was over the house was of cedar; and truly every one of these rooms had a roof of their own, that was not connected with the other rooms; but for the other parts, there was a covered roof common to them all, and built with very long beams, that passed through the rest, and rough the whole building, that so the middle walls, being strengthened by the same beams of timber, might be thereby made firmer: but as for that part of the roof that was under the beams, it was made of the same materials, and was all made smooth, and had ornaments proper for roofs, and plates of gold nailed upon them. And as he enclosed the walls with boards of cedar, so he fixed on them plates of gold, which had sculptures upon them; so that the whole temple shined, and dazzled the eyes of such as entered, by the splendor of the gold that was on every side of them, Now the whole structure of the temple was made with great skill of polished stones, and those laid together so very harmoniously and smoothly, that there appeared to the spectators no sign of any hammer, or other instrument of architecture; but as if, without any use of them, the entire materials had naturally united themselves together, that the agreement of one part with another seemed rather to have been natural, than to have arisen from the force of tools upon them. The king also had a fine contrivance for an ascent to the upper room over the temple, and that was by steps in the thickness of its wall; for it had no large door on the east end, as the lower house had, but the entrances were by the sides, through very small doors. He also overlaid the temple, both within and without, with boards of cedar, that were kept close together by thick chains, so that this contrivance was in the nature of a support and a strength to the building.

[III.iii.71] Diuisitque templum in duas partes ut interior quidem domus uiginti cubitorum aditum esset, quadraginta uero cubitis quo templo secernerentur. In pariete uero diuidente aditum a reliquo templo ianuas, de cetero statuit aurum multum et diuersas historiarum caelaturas ornatas. Suspenditque ante eas uela ex magnis colorum floribus. Id est iacincti et purpurae et coccini et bissi mollissimi splendissimique contexta. Recondidit autem in aditum quod erat latitudinem cubitorum uiginti et totidem longitudine duas cherubin totas ex auro purissimo habebatque utraque altitudinem cubitorum quinque. Duae alae uni cherubin quinis cubitis extensae, qua propter non procul a semetipsis fab erant, ita ut alis suis una tangeret parietem australem, alia uero positam ad aquilonem. Aliae uero alae semetipsas coniungentes arcamque in medio eorum posita erat operiebant. Has uero de cherubin nullus quales fuerunt dicere neque conicere potest. Strauit autem pauimentum templi petalis aureis posuitque inporta templi ianuas secundum altitudinem parietis mensuras habentes latitudinem cubitorum uiginti, easque pulcherrime de aurauit. Et ut breuiter dicam nullam partem templi reliquid extrinsecus et intrinsecus quae non esset deaurata. Operuitque similiter etiam has ianuas sicut interioris uelis uariae decoratis. Porta uero uestibuli nihil habuit horum.

[71] Διελὼν δὲ τὸν ναὸν εἰς δύο τὸν μὲν ἔνδοθεν οἶκον εἴκοσι πηχῶν ἐποίησεν ἄδυτον, τὸν δὲ τεσσαράκοντα πηχῶν ἅγιον ναὸν ἀπέδειξεν. ἐκτεμὼν δὲ τὸν μέσον τοῖχον θύρας ἐπέστησε κεδρίνας χρυσὸν πολὺν αὐταῖς ἐνεργασάμενος καὶ τορείαν ποικίλην. [72] κατεπέτασε δὲ ταύτας ὕφεσιν εὐανθεστάτοις ἐξ ὑακίνθου καὶ πορφύρας καὶ κόκκου πεποιημένοις, οὐ μὴν ἀλλὰ καὶ βύσσου λαμπροτάτης καὶ μαλακωτάτης. ἀνέθηκε δὲ εἰς τὸ ἄδυτον εἴκοσι πηχῶν τὸ εὖρος τῶν δ᾽ αὐτῶν καὶ τὸ μῆκος δύο Χερουβεῖς ὁλοχρύσους πηχῶν ἑκατέραν τὸ ὕψος πέντε, δύο δ᾽ ἦσαν ἑκατέρᾳ πτέρυγες ἐπὶ πέντε πήχεις ἐκτεταμέναι. [73] διὸ καὶ οὐ μακρὰν ἀλλήλων αὐτὰς ἀνέστησεν, ἵνα τῶν πτερύγων τῇ μὲν ἅπτωνται τοῦ κατὰ νότον κειμένου τοίχου τοῦ ἀδύτου, τῇ δὲ κατὰ βορέαν, αἱ δ᾽ ἄλλαι πτέρυγες αὑταῖς συνάπτουσαι τεθείσῃ μεταξὺ αὐτῶν τῇ κιβωτῷ σκέπη τυγχάνωσι. τὰς δὲ Χερουβεῖς οὐδεὶς ὁποῖαί τινές εἰσιν εἰπεῖν οὐδ᾽ εἰκάσαι δύναται. [74] κατέστρωσε δὲ καὶ τοῦ ναοῦ τὸ ἔδαφος ἐλάσμασι χρυσοῦ, ἐπέθηκε δὲ καὶ τῷ πυλῶνι τοῦ ναοῦ θύρας πρὸς τὸ ὕψος τοῦ τοίχου συμμεμετρημένας εὖρος ἐχούσας πηχῶν εἴκοσι, καὶ ταύτας κατεκόλλησε χρυσῷ. [75] συνελόντι δ᾽ εἰπεῖν οὐδὲν εἴασε τοῦ ναοῦ μέρος οὔτε ἔξωθεν οὔτε ἔνδοθεν, ὃ μὴ χρυσὸς ἦν. κατεπέτασε δὲ καὶ ταύτας τὰς θύρας ὁμοίως ταῖς ἐνδοτέρω καταπετάσμασιν. ἡ δὲ τοῦ προναΐου πύλη τούτων οὐδὲν εἶχε.

3. Now when the king had divided the temple into two parts, he made the inner house of twenty cubits [every way], to be the most secret chamber, but he appointed that of forty cubits to be the sanctuary; and when he had cut a door-place out of the wall, he put therein doors of Cedar, and overlaid them with a great deal of gold, that had sculptures upon it. He also had veils of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and the brightest and softest linen, with the most curious flowers wrought upon them, which were to be drawn before those doors. He also dedicated for the most secret place, whose breadth was twenty cubits, and length the same, two cherubims of solid gold; the height of each of them was five cubits they had each of them two wings stretched out as far as five cubits; wherefore Solomon set them up not far from each other, that with one wing they might touch the southern wall of the secret place, and with another the northern: their other wings, which joined to each other, were a covering to the ark, which was set between them; but nobody can tell, or even conjecture, what was the shape of these cherubims. He also laid the floor of the temple with plates of gold; and he added doors to the gate of the temple, agreeable to the measure of the height of the wall, but in breadth twenty cubits, and on them he glued gold plates. And, to say all in one word, he left no part of the temple, neither internal nor external, but what was covered with gold. He also had curtains drawn over these doors in like manner as they were drawn over the inner doors of the most holy place; but the porch of the temple had nothing of that sort.

[III.iv.76] Misit ergo rex salomon ad iram et ab eo accepit artificem nomine chiram habentem matrem ex genere neptalim, et patrem uriam generis israehelitici. Totius quidem operis erat e doctus, praecipue tamen artifex ad operandum aurum et argentum et aes per quem scilicet machinationibus ad impleta. Fecit autem his artifex chiram etiam duas columnas aureas cum canalibus cautione quattuor digitorum quarum erat proceritas decem et octo cubitorum, et superposuit utrique columnae capit ella fusilia lilata altitudine cubitorum quinque super quas erant aerea retia facta quae operiebant lilia capitum columnarum, de quo rete pendebant fluuii iordanis mali granatorum ducentorum harum siquidem columnarum. Aliam siquidem constituit in parte dextra ante portam in uestibulo templi. Uocauit eam thalamum iachin. Aliam uero in parte sinistra quam nominauit bez.

[76] Μεταπέμπεται δ᾽ ἐκ Τύρου Σολόμων παρὰ Εἱρώμου τεχνίτην Χείρωμον ὄνομα μητρὸς μὲν ὄντα Νεφθαλίτιδος τὸ γένος, ἐκ γὰρ ταύτης ὑπῆρχε τῆς φυλῆς, πατρὸς δὲ Οὐρίου γένος Ἰσραηλίτου. οὗτος ἅπαντος μὲν ἐπιστημόνως εἶχεν ἔργου, μάλιστα δὲ τεχνίτης ἦν χρυσὸν ἐργάζεσθαι καὶ ἄργυρον καὶ χαλκόν, ὑφ᾽ οὗ δὴ καὶ πάντα κατὰ τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως βούλησιν τὰ περὶ τὸν ναὸν ἐμηχανήθη. [77] κατεσκεύασε δὲ ὁ Χείρωμος οὗτος καὶ στύλους δύο χαλκοῦς ἔσωθεν τὸ πάχος τεσσάρων δακτύλων. ἦν δὲ τὸ μὲν ὕψος τοῖς κίοσιν ὀκτωκαίδεκα πήχεων, ἡ δὲ περίμετρος δέκα καὶ δύο πηχῶν: χωνευτὸν δ᾽ ἐφ᾽ ἑκατέρᾳ κεφαλῇ κρίνον ἐφειστήκει τὸ ὕψος ἐπὶ πέντε πήχεις ἐγηγερμένον, ᾧ περιέκειτο δίκτυον ἐλάτῃ χαλκέᾳ περιπεπλεγμένον καλύπτον τὰ κρίνα. [78] τούτου δὲ ἀπήρτηντο κατὰ διστιχίαν καὶ ῥοιαὶ διακόσιαι. τούτων τῶν κιόνων τὸν μὲν ἕτερον κατὰ τὴν δεξιὰν ἔστησε τοῦ προπυλαίου παραστάδα καλέσας αὐτὸν Ἰαχείν, τὸν δ᾽ ἕτερον κατὰ τὸ ἀριστερὸν ὀνομάσας αὐτὸν Ἀβαίζ.

4. Now Solomon sent for an artificer out of Tyre, whose name was Hiram; he was by birth of the tribe of Naphtali, on the mother's side, [for she was of that tribe,] but his father was Ur, of the stock of the Israelites. This man was skillful in all sorts of work; but his chief skill lay in working in gold, and silver, and brass; by whom were made all the mechanical works about the temple, according to the will of Solomon. Moreover, this Hiram made two [hollow] pillars, whose outsides were of brass, and the thickness of the brass was four fingers' breadth, and the height of the pillars was eighteen cubits and their circumference twelve cubits; but there was cast with each of their chapiters lily-work that stood upon the pillar, and it was elevated five cubits, round about which there was net-work interwoven with small palms, made of brass, and covered the lily-work. To this also were hung two hundred pomegranates, in two rows. The one of these pillars he set at the entrance of the porch on the right hand, and called it Jachin and the other at the left hand, and called it Booz.

[III.v.79] Fudit autem et matre aeneum in schemate semispheri quod opus aereum propter sui magnitudinem mare uocatum est. Erat enim uelut cantarus ingens habebatque eius diametrum id est ab angulo usque ad alium angulum cubitos decem, et crassitudo eius erat fusilis digitorum quattuor. Habebatque fundum in medio [94r] aluei sui loco opere rotundum decem coronis explicitum huius diametrum erat cubiti unius. Circumstabant ineo mare uituli duodecim respicientes singuli ad quattuor uentorum regiones hoc est tres uituli per unam quamque regionem quorum terga inuitus respiciebant et super eos semispherium incumbebat. Cuius semispherii rotunditas ad interiora tendebat. Capiebatque hoc mare batus tria milia.

[79] Ἐχώνευσε δὲ καὶ θάλασσαν χαλκῆν εἰς ἡμισφαίριον ἐσχηματισμένην: ἐκλήθη δὲ τὸ χαλκούργημα θάλασσα διὸ τὸ μέγεθος: ἦν γὰρ ὁ λουτὴρ τὴν διάμετρον πηχῶν δέκα καὶ ἐπὶ παλαιστιαῖον πάχος κεχωνευμένος. ὑπερήρειστο δὲ κατὰ τὸ μεσαίτατον τοῦ κύτους σπείρᾳ περιαγομένῃ εἰς ἕλικας δέκα: [80] ἦν δὲ τὴν διάμετρον πήχεως, περιειστήκεσαν δὲ περὶ αὐτὴν μόσχοι δώδεκα πρὸς τὰ κλίματα τῶν τεσσάρων ἀνέμων ἀποβλέποντες καθ᾽ ἕκαστον αὐτῶν τρεῖς, εἰς τὰ ὀπίσθια νενευκότες, ὥστ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἐπικαθέζεσθαι τὸ ἡμισφαίριον κατὰ περιαγωγὴν ἔνδον ἀπονεῦον. ἐδέχετο δὲ ἡ θάλασσα βάτους τρισχιλίους.

5. Solomon also cast a brazen sea, whose figure was that of a hemisphere. This brazen vessel was called a sea for its largeness, for the laver was ten feet in diameter, and cast of the thickness of a palm. Its middle part rested on a short pillar that had ten spirals round it, and that pillar was ten cubits in diameter. There stood round about it twelve oxen, that looked to the four winds of heaven, three to each wind, having their hinder parts depressed, that so the hemispherical vessel might rest upon them, which itself was also depressed round about inwardly. Now this sea contained three thousand baths.

[] Fecit autem decem cantaris bases aereas quadrangulas, et unius cuiusque latitudo fuit cubitorum quinque latitudo quattuor altitudo sex. Conclusumque opus particulariter, ita ornatum erat columelli quadrangulae per angulos stantes latera basis ex utraque parte in se habentes inserta. Erantque trinae diuisa, et singulus eorum locus habebat caelaeaturas suas, id est alibi erat leo alibiturus, alibi aquila. Et in colomellis similiter per latera erant huiusmodi caelaturae quasi crispantibus peculis factae quarum altitudo fuit cubiti unius et dimidii erant: mirum uide orbis rotarum quem admodum erant caelate et basium iunctae lateribus. Angulos uero superiores concludebant humeris expensis utique manibus animalium super quas redebat fundus canthari reclinatus, id est incumbens super manus aquile et leonis quod erat ista sibimet coaptatum ut naturaliter insertum quod ammodo uideretur. Inter ista autem erant et arbores caelate palmarum, huiusmodi ergo eram decem bases effectae. Fecit autem ad haec et decem chantaros rotundos aereos quorum singuli ferebant quadragenos choros. Eratque altitudo eorum quattuor cubitorum et tantundem ab alterutris eorum labia redecebant. Posuitque horum cantharos super decem bases qui uocabantur melchonuchum quos cantaros statuens a parte sinistre templi quae erant ad aquilonem, et totidem a latere destro ad austri partem respicientes ad orientem. Quod etiam mare constituit aqua plenum deseruitque mare, ut ingredientes sacerdotes templum ineo lauarent manus et pedes ascensuri scilicet ad altare. Cantharos ad animalium in terranea diluenda simul et pedes eorum quae erant holocaustis inponenda.

[81] Ἐποίησε δὲ καὶ λουτήρων δέκα βάσεις χαλκᾶς τετραγώνους. τούτων ἑκάστη μῆκος γεγόνει πηχῶν πέντε πλάτος τεσσάρων ὕψος ἕξ. συνεκέκλειτο δὲ τὸ ἔργον κατὰ μέρος τετορευμένον οὕτως: τέσσαρες ἦσαν κιονίσκοι κατὰ γωνίαν ἑστῶτες τετράγωνοι τὰ πλευρὰ τῆς βάσεως ἐξ ἑκατέρου μέρους ἐν αὑτοῖς ἔχοντες ἐξηρμοσμένα. [82] ἦν δὲ ταῦτα τριχῇ διῃρημένα: ἑκάστην δὲ χώραν ὅρος ἐπεῖχεν εἰς ὑπόβασιν κατεσκευασμένος, ἐφ᾽ οἷς ἐτετόρευτο πῇ μὲν λέων πῇ δὲ ταῦρος καὶ ἀετός, ἐπὶ δὲ τῶν κιονίσκων ὁμοίως ἐξείργαστο τοῖς κατὰ τὰ πλευρὰ τετορευμένοις. [83] τὸ δὲ πᾶν ἔργον ἐπὶ τεσσάρων αἰωρούμενον τροχῶν εἱστήκει. χωνευτοὶ δ᾽ ἦσαν οὗτοι πλήμνας καὶ ἄντυγας πήχεως καὶ ἡμίσους ἔχοντες τὴν διάμετρον. ἐθαύμασεν ἄν τις τὰς ἀψῖδας τῶν τροχῶν θεασάμενος, ὅπως συντετορευμέναι καὶ τοῖς πλευροῖς τῶν βάσεων προσηνωμέναι ἁρμονίως ταῖς ἄντυξιν ἐνέκειντο: ἦσαν δ᾽ ὅμως οὕτως ἔχουσαι. [84] τὰς δὲ γωνίας ἄνωθεν συνέκλειον ὦμοι χειρῶν ἀνατεταμένων, οἷς ἐπεκάθητο σπεῖρα κατὰ κοῖλον ἐπικειμένη τὸν λουτῆρα ταῖς χερσὶν ἐπαναπαυόμενον ἀετοῦ καὶ λέοντος αὐτοῖς ἐφηρμοσμένων, ὡς σύμφυτα ταῦτ᾽ εἶναι δοκεῖν τοῖς ὁρῶσι. μεταξὺ δὲ τούτων φοίνικες ἦσαν τετορευμένοι. τοιαύτη μὲν ἡ κατασκευὴ τῶν δέκα βάσεων ὑπῆρχε. [85] προσεξείργαστο δὲ καὶ χυτρογαύλους δέκα λουτῆρας στρογγύλους χαλκοῦς, ὧν ἕκαστος ἐχώρει τεσσαράκοντα χόας: τὸ γὰρ ὕψος εἶχε τεσσάρων πηχῶν καὶ τοσούτοις ἀλλήλων αὐτοῖς διειστήκει τὰ χείλη. τίθησι δὲ τοὺς λουτῆρας τούτους ἐπὶ τῶν δέκα βάσεων τῶν κληθεισῶν Μεχενώθ. [86] πέντε δὲ λουτῆρας ἵστησιν ἐξ ἀριστεροῦ μέρους τοῦ ναοῦ, τέτραπτο δὲ τοῦτο κατὰ βορέαν ἄνεμον, καὶ τοσούτους ἐκ τοῦ δεξιοῦ πρὸς νότον ἀφορῶντας εἰς τὴν ἀνατολήν: κατὰ δ᾽ αὐτὸ καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν ἔθηκε. [87] πληρώσας δὲ ὕδατος τὴν μὲν θάλασσαν ἀπέδειξεν εἰς τὸ νίπτειν τοὺς εἰς τὸν ναὸν εἰσιόντας ἱερεῖς ἐν αὐτῇ τὰς χεῖρας καὶ τοὺς πόδας μέλλοντας ἀναβαίνειν ἐπὶ τὸν βωμόν, τοὺς δὲ λουτῆρας εἰς τὸ καθαίρειν τὰ ἐντὸς τῶν ὁλοκαυτουμένων ζῴων καὶ τοὺς πόδας αὐτῶν.

6. He also made ten brazen bases for so many quadrangular lavers; the length of every one of these bases was five cubits, and the breadth four cubits, and the height six cubits. This vessel was partly turned, and was thus contrived: There were four small quadrangular pillars that stood one at each corner; these had the sides of the base fitted to them on each quarter; they were parted into three parts; every interval had a border fitted to support [the laver]; upon which was engraven, in one place a lion, and in another place a bull, and an eagle. The small pillars had the same animals engraven that were engraven on the sides. The whole work was elevated, and stood upon four wheels, which were also cast, which had also naves and felloes, and were a foot and a half in diameter. Any one who saw the spokes of the wheels, how exactly they were turned, and united to the sides of the bases, and with what harmony they agreed to the felloes, would wonder at them. However, their structure was this: Certain shoulders of hands stretched out held the corners above, upon which rested a short spiral pillar, that lay under the hollow part of the laver, resting upon the fore part of the eagle and the lion, which were adapted to them, insomuch that those who viewed them would think they were of one piece: between these were engravings of palm trees. This was the construction of the ten bases. He also made ten large round brass vessels, which were the lavers themselves, each of which contained forty baths; for it had its height four cubits, and its edges were as much distant from each other. He also placed these lavers upon the ten bases that were called Mechonoth; and he set five of the lavers on the left side of the temple which was that side towards the north wind, and as many on the right side, towards the south, but looking towards the east; the same [eastern] way he also set the sea Now he appointed the sea to be for washing the hands and the feet of the priests, when they entered into the temple and were to ascend the altar, but the lavers to cleanse the entrails of the beasts that were to be burnt-offerings, with their feet also.

[III.vii.88] Fecit autem et altare aereum cubitorum uiginti longitudinem, et totidem latitudinem. Altitudinem uero decem ad holocausta caelebranda. Fecitque eius uasa aerea omnia, in super et ollas, et candarias et trullas et arpagiones et omnia operatus est exere. Cuius splendor et pulchritudo similis erat auro. Obtulitque rex multitudinem mensarum, et unam quidem ualde praecipua aurea, in super quam ponebant panes dei, et huic proximas decem milia altero modo factas super quas uasa iacebant. Id est phialae et paterae aurea quidem decem milia, argentea uero quadraginta milia. Fecitque candelabra decem milia secundum praecepta moysi ex quibus unum in templo recondidit ut per diem luceret secundum legem. Et mensam unam supra quam positi erant panes ad templum parti respicientem ad aquilonem, e diuerso positam candelabri quod australi parti constituit. Aureum uero altare inter hoc medium erat. Haec enim omnia domus habuit quadraginta cubitorum ante uelum adstitit ubi erat arca recondita.

[88] Κατεσκεύασε δὲ καὶ θυσιαστήριον χάλκεον εἴκοσι πηχῶν τὸ μῆκος καὶ τοσούτων τὸ εὖρος τὸ δὲ ὕψος δέκα πρὸς τὰς ὁλοκαυτώσεις. ἐποίησε δὲ αὐτοῦ καὶ τὰ σκεύη πάντα χάλκεα ποδιστῆρας καὶ ἀναλημπτῆρας: οὐ μὴν ἀλλὰ πρὸς τούτοις Χείρωμος καὶ λέβητας καὶ ἅρπαγας καὶ πᾶν σκεῦος ἐδημιούργησεν ἐκ χαλκοῦ τὴν αὐγὴν ὁμοίου χρυσῷ καὶ τὸ κάλλος: [89] τραπεζῶν τε πλῆθος ἀνέθηκεν ὁ βασιλεύς, καὶ μίαν μὲν μεγάλην χρυσέαν, ἐφ᾽ ἧς ἐτίθεσαν τοὺς ἄρτους τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ ταύτῃ παραπλησίας μυρίας πρὸς αὐταῖς ἑτέρῳ τρόπῳ γεγενημένας, ἐφ᾽ ὧν ἐπέκειτο τὰ σκεύη φιάλαι τε καὶ σπονδεῖα χρύσεα μὲν δισμύρια ἀργύρεα δὲ τετρακισμύρια. [90] καὶ λυχνίας δὲ μυρίας ἐποίησε κατὰ τὴν Μωυσέος προσταγήν, ἐξ ὧν μίαν ἀνέθηκεν εἰς τὸν ναόν, ἵνα καίηται καθ᾽ ἡμέραν ἀκολούθως τῷ νόμῳ, καὶ τράπεζαν μίαν ἐπικειμένην ἄρτους πρὸς τὸ βόρειον τοῦ ναοῦ μέρος ἀντικρὺ τῆς λυχνίας: ταύτην γὰρ κατὰ νότον ἔστησεν, ὁ δὲ χρύσεος βωμὸς μέσος αὐτῶν ἔκειτο. ταῦτα πάντα εἶχεν ὁ τῶν τεσσαράκοντα πηχῶν οἶκος πρὸ τοῦ καταπετάσματος τοῦ ἀδύτου: ἐν τούτῳ δὲ ἡ κιβωτὸς ἔμελλε κεῖσθαι.

7. He also made a brazen altar, whose length was twenty cubits, and its breadth the same, and its height ten, for the burnt-offerings. He also made all its vessels of brass, the pots, and the shovels, and the basons; and besides these, the snuffers and the tongs, and all its other vessels, he made of brass, and such brass as was in splendor and beauty like gold. The king also dedicated a great number of tables, but one that was large and made of gold, upon which they set the loaves of God; and he made ten thousand more that resembled them, but were done after another manner, upon which lay the vials and the cups; those of gold were twenty thousand, those of silver were forty thousand. He also made ten thousand candlesticks, according to the command of Moses, one of which he dedicated for the temple, that it might burn in the day time, according to the law; and one table with loaves upon it, on the north side of the temple, over against the candlestick; for this he set on the south side, but the golden altar stood between them. All these vessels were contained in that part of the holy house, which was forty cubits long, and were before the veil of that most secret place wherein the ark was to be set.

[III.viii.91] Fecit itaque rex uini fusilia, argenteas uero duplici numero. Pateras aureas ad offerendum in eis similam consparsam ad altare octoginta milia et argenteas duplici numero. Crateras autem in quibus similam cum oleo fermentabant aureas quidem sexaginta milia, argenteas uero dupliciter. Mensuram autem similis eius quae mosaycae uocabantur et afferones, aurea quidem uiginti milia, et argentea dupliciter. Turibula uero aurea quibus offertur incensum uiginti milia, similiter et alia turibula in quibus portabant a maiore altare ignem ad non altare quod erat in templo quinquaginta milia. Stolas autem sacerdotales pontificibus cum his quae pendebant ad pedes et super humerales et rationales et gemmis mille. Corona uero in qua deum moyses in scripserat una fuit ad hunc diem usque permansit. Sacerdotales autem stolas ex bysso contextas et zonas purpureas singulis decem milia et tubas secundum praeceptum moysi ducenta milia. Item stolas leuitarum hymnos dicentium ex bysso cc milia. Et instrumenta musica et ad hymnos dicendos ad inuenta quoque uocantur nabla et cinara. Ex electhro constituit quadraginta [94v] milia.

[91] Οἰνοχόας δ᾽ ὁ βασιλεὺς μυριάδας ὀκτὼ κατεσκεύασε καὶ φιαλῶν χρυσέων δέκα ἀργυρέας δὲ διπλασίονας. πινάκων δὲ χρυσέων εἰς τὸ προσφέρειν ἐν αὐτοῖς πεφυραμένην σεμίδαλιν τῷ βωμῷ μυριάδας ὀκτώ, τούτων δ᾽ ἀργυροῦς διπλασίονας. κρατῆρας δ᾽ οἷς ἐνεφύρων τὴν σεμίδαλιν μετ᾽ ἐλαίου χρυσέους μὲν ἑξακισμυρίους, ἀργυρέους δὲ δὶς τοσούτους. [92] τὰ μέτρα δὲ τοῖς Μωυσήου λεγομένοις δὲ ειν καὶ ἐσσάρωνες παραπλήσια, χρυσᾶ μὲν δισμύρια ἀργύρεα δὲ διπλασίονα. θυμιατήρια δὲ χρυσᾶ ἐν οἷς ἐκομίζετο τὸ θυμίαμα εἰς τὸν ναὸν δισμύρια: ὁμοίως ἄλλα θυμιατήρια οἷς ἐκόμιζον ἀπὸ τοῦ μεγάλου βωμοῦ πῦρ ἐπὶ τὸν μικρὸν βωμὸν τὸν ἐν τῷ ναῷ πεντακισμύρια. [93] στολὰς δὲ ἱερατικὰς τοῖς ἀρχιερεῦσι σὺν ποδήρεσιν ἐπωμίσι καὶ λογίῳ καὶ λίθοις χιλίας: ἡ δὲ στεφάνη, εἰς ἣν τὸν θεὸν Μωυσῆς ἔγραψε, μία ἦν καὶ διέμεινεν ἄχρι τῆσδε τῆς ἡμέρας: τὰς δὲ ἱερατικὰς στολὰς ἐκ βύσσου κατεσκεύασε καὶ ζώνας πορφυρᾶς εἰς ἕκαστον μυρίας. [94] καὶ σαλπίγγων κατὰ Μωυσέος ἐντολὴν μυριάδας εἴκοσι, καὶ στολῶν τοῖς ὑμνῳδοῖς Ληουιτῶν ἐκ βύσσου μυριάδας εἴκοσι: καὶ τὰ ὄργανα τὰ μουσικὰ καὶ πρὸς τὴν ὑμνῳδίαν ἐξηυρημένα, ἃ καλεῖται νάβλας καὶ κινύρας, ἐξ ἠλέκτρου κατεσκεύασε τετρακισμύρια.

8. The king also made pouring vessels, in number eighty thousand, and a hundred thousand golden vials, and twice as many silver vials: of golden dishes, in order therein to offer kneaded fine flour at the altar, there were eighty thousand, and twice as many of silver. Of large basons also, wherein they mixed fine flour with oil, sixty thousand of gold, and twice as many of silver. Of the measures like those which Moses called the Hin and the Assaron, [a tenth deal,] there were twenty thousand of gold, and twice as many of silver. The golden censers, in which they carried the incense to the altar, were twenty thousand; the other censers, in which they carried fire from the great altar to the little altar, within the temple, were fifty thousand. The sacerdotal garments which belonged to the high priest, with the long robes, and the oracle, and the precious stones, were a thousand. But the crown upon which Moses wrote [the name of God],]was only one, and hath remained to this very day. He also made ten thousand sacerdotal garments of fine linen, with purple girdles for every priest; and two hundred thousand trumpets, according to the command of Moses; also two hundred thousand garments of fine linen for the singers, that were Levites. And he made musical instruments, and such as were invented for singing of hymns, called Nablee and Cindree, [psalteries and harps,] which were made of electrum, [the finest brass,] forty thousand.

[III.ix.95] Haec omnia ad honorem dei salomon copiosae, et magnifice fabricatus est in nullo parcus existens, si circa ornamenta templu uisus est praecipua largitate quae etiam in thesauris dei recondidit. Circumdedit autem templum per ambitum uniuersum quod propria quidem gison, latine autem materiam seu cancellus nuncupatur. Tribus cubitis eius erigens altitudinem, ut ab ingressu templi ceteros prohiberet et solis sacerdotibus hoc licere significaret. Extrinsecus huius templi aliam aedificauit aulam quadranguli schemate factam erigens maximos porticos atque latos et portas excelsas et amplas per quattuor mundi partes ineo constituens, quarum singulae ad unum quemque uentum quattuor angulis attendebant ubi aureas ianuas collocabit. In hoc ergo sacrario omnis populus quibus purgatio et obseruatio legitimorum in erant. Introibant siquidem mirabilis et omnem praecipua fuit et seditio, potest etiam contemplationem uisionis ipsius excedebat aula quae fortis erat. Magnis enim effodiens profunditates qua propter infinitam celsitudinem non poterat aliquis sine terrore conspicere. Et erigens fabricas in quadri[n]gentis cubitis earum altitudinem aequales eas uertici montis in quo templum aedificabatur efficit. Et propter ea aula quae erat extensus sub diuo facta erat aequalis cum templo circumdedit autem porticibus. Hanc aulam duplicibus columnas eas ex lapide naturale portantibus quarum camera erant de cedro et laquearibus et sculptis. Bases autem in his omnibus fecit argenteas.

[95] Ταῦτα πάντα ὁ Σολόμων εἰς τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ τιμὴν πολυτελῶς καὶ μεγαλοπρεπῶς κατεσκεύασε μηδενὸς φεισάμενος ἀλλὰ πάσῃ φιλοτιμίᾳ περὶ τὸν τοῦ ναοῦ κόσμον χρησάμενος, ἃ καὶ κατέθηκεν ἐν τοῖς θησαυροῖς τοῦ θεοῦ. περιέβαλε δὲ τοῦ ναοῦ κύκλῳ γείσιον μὲν κατὰ τὴν ἐπιχώριον γλῶτταν τριγχὸν δὲ παρ᾽ Ἕλλησι λεγόμενον εἰς τρεῖς πήχεις ἀναγαγὼν τὸ ὕψος, εἴρξοντα μὲν τοὺς πολλοὺς τῆς εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν εἰσόδου, μόνοις δὲ ἀνειμένην αὐτὴν τοῖς ἱερεῦσι σημανοῦντα. [96] τούτου δ᾽ ἔξωθεν ἱερὸν ᾠκοδόμησεν: ἐν τετραγώνου σχήματι στοὰς ἐγείρας μεγάλας καὶ πλατείας καὶ πύλαις ὑψηλαῖς ἀνεῳγμένας, ὧν ἑκάστη πρὸς ἕκαστον τῶν ἀνέμων τέτραπτο χρυσέαις κλειομένη θύραις. εἰς τοῦτο τοῦ λαοῦ πάντες οἱ διαφέροντες ἁγνείᾳ καὶ παρατηρήσει τῶν νομίμων εἰσῄεσαν. [97] θαυμαστὸν δὲ καὶ λόγου παντὸς ἀπέφηνε μεῖζον, ὡς δὲ εἰπεῖν καὶ τῆς ὄψεως, τὸ τούτων ἔξωθεν ἱερόν: μεγάλας γὰρ ἐγχώσας φάραγγας, ἃς διὰ βάθος ἄπειρον οὐδὲ ἀπόνως ἐννεύσαντας ἦν ἰδεῖν, καὶ ἀναβιβάσας εἰς τετρακοσίους πήχεις τὸ ὕψος ἰσοπέδους τῇ κορυφῇ τοῦ ὄρους ἐφ᾽ ἧς ὁ ναὸς ᾠκοδόμητο κατεσκεύασε: καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ὕπαιθρον ὂν τὸ ἔξωθεν ἱερὸν ἴσον ὑπῆρχε τῷ ναῷ. [98] περιλαμβάνει δ᾽ αὐτὸ καὶ στοαῖς διπλαῖς μὲν τὴν κατασκευήν, λίθου δ᾽ αὐτοφυοῦς τὸ ὕψος κίοσιν ἐπερηρεισμέναις: ὀροφαὶ δ᾽ αὐταῖς ἦσαν ἐκ κέδρου φατνώμασιν ἀνεξεσμέναι. τὰς δὲ θύρας τῷ ἱερῷ τούτῳ πάσας ἐπέστησεν ἐξ ἀργύρου.

9. Solomon made all these things for the honor of God, with great variety and magnificence, sparing no cost, but using all possible liberality in adorning the temple; and these things he dedicated to the treasures of God. He also placed a partition round about the temple, which in our tongue we call Gison, but it is called Thrigcos by the Greeks, and he raised it up to the height of three cubits; and it was for the exclusion of the multitude from coming into the temple, and showing that it was a place that was free and open only for the priests. He also built beyond this court a temple, whose figure was that of a quadrangle, and erected for it great and broad cloisters; this was entered into by very high gates, each of which had its front exposed to one of the [four] winds, and were shut by golden doors. Into this temple all the people entered that were distinguished from the rest by being pure and observant of the laws. But he made that temple which was beyond this a wonderful one indeed, and such as exceeds all description in words; nay, if I may so say, is hardly believed upon sight; for when he had filled up great valleys with earth, which, on account of their immense depth, could not be looked on, when you bended down to see them, without pain, and had elevated the ground four hundred cubits, he made it to be on a level with the top of the mountain, on which the temple was built, and by this means the outmost temple, which was exposed to the air, was even with the temple itself. He encompassed this also with a building of a double row of cloisters, which stood on high upon pillars of native stone, while the roofs were of cedar, and were polished in a manner proper for such high roofs; but he made all the doors of this temple of silver.



CHAPTER 4. How Solomon Removed The Ark Into The Temple How He Made Supplication To God, And Offered Public Sacrifices To Him.

[IV.i.99] Cum haec igitur opera et magnitudines et decores aedificorum atque sacracrorum templi ministeriorum rex salomon septis annis explesset diuitarum magna faciens et uelocitatis ostensionem, ut quilibet inspiciens omni tempore putaret explere uix potuisse. Qua sic breuiter uisus est quantum ad operis templi magnitudinem terminasse scripsit principibus et senioribus hebraeorum, iubens omnem populum ab hierosolimam conuenire uisurum simul et templum et dei arcam ibidem portaturum. Cumque nuntiatum fuisset omnibus ut ad hierosolima properarent uix conuenerunt septimo mense, qui lingua propria chesaria machedonibus autem yperueretheus appellatur. Eodem namque tempore etiam festiuitas concurrit schenophegiae, id est positionis tabernaculorum, quae satis apud hebraeos excelsa atque praecipua est. Portantes itaque arcam et tabernaculum quod fixerat moyses et omnia uasa ad ministerium sacrificiorum dei constructa introduxerunt in templum.Praecedebat autem eum hostis et ipse rex et populus uniuersus et leuitae libaminibus et multorum sacrificiorum sanguine totum inter implentes, et incensum infinitum, et hostiarum multitudinem portantes, ita ut omnis undique aer impleretur: et etiam longe consistentibus odor suauitis occurreret, et agnoscentes aduentum dei et habitaculum secundum humanam opinionem crederent innouam domum ei nuper dicata esse faciendum. Nam neque hymnos dicentes neque choros agentes donec peruenirent ad templum aliquo modo quae uenerunt. Hic itaque modo arca migrata est. Cumque eam in adito iam oporteret induci, alia quidem plebs recssit soli uero sacerdotes qui portauerunt inter duos cherubin eam collocauerunt, quae eam suis alis amplexe sunt. Sic enim erant ab artificae fabricatae, ut arcam uelud quondam tabernaculum aut camerationem protegerent. Habuit autem arcam nihil aliud quam duas tabulas lapideas quae decim uerba a deo moyse dicta in monte sina scripta retinebant. Candelabrum uero et mensa altare aureum statuerunt in templo ante aditum in isdem locis in quibus et olim in tabernaculo posita erant et cottidiana sacrificia ministrabant. Altare uero aereum statuit ante templum contra ianuas ita ut eis apertis ad faciem esset uidentium sacrificia, et hostiarum maximas aepulantias. Reliqua uero uasa congregans intus in templo recondidit.

[99] Τὰ μὲν οὖν ἔργα ταῦτα καὶ τὰ μεγέθη καὶ κάλλη τῶν τε οἰκοδομημάτων καὶ τῶν εἰς τὸν ναὸν ἀναθημάτων Σολόμων ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐν ἔτεσιν ἑπτὰ συντελέσας καὶ πλούτου καὶ προθυμίας ἐπίδειξιν ποιησάμενος, ὡς ἄν τις ἰδὼν ἐνόμισεν ὡς ἐν τῷ παντὶ κατασκευασθῆναι χρόνῳ ταῦτα ἐν οὕτως ὀλίγῳ πρὸς τὸ μέγεθος συγκρινόμενα τοῦ ναοῦ συμπερασθῆναι, γράψας τοῖς ἡγεμόσι καὶ τοῖς πρεσβυτέροις τῶν Ἑβραίων ἐκέλευσεν ἅπαντα τὸν λαὸν συναγαγεῖν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα ὀψόμενόν τε τὸν ναὸν καὶ μετακομιοῦντα τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ κιβωτὸν εἰς αὐτόν. [100] καὶ περιαγγελθείσης τῆς εἰς τὰ Ἱεροσόλυμα πᾶσιν ἀφίξεως ἑβδόμῳ μηνὶ μόλις συνίασιν, ὑπὸ μὲν τῶν ἐπιχωρίων Ἀθύρει, ὑπὸ δὲ τῶν Μακεδόνων Ὑπερβερεταίῳ λεγομένῳ. συνέδραμε δ᾽ εἰς τὸν αὐτὸν χρόνον καὶ ὁ τῆς σκηνοπηγίας καιρὸς ἑορτῆς σφόδρα παρὰ τοῖς Ἑβραίοις ἁγιωτάτης καὶ μεγίστης. [101] βαστάσαντες οὖν τὴν κιβωτὸν καὶ τὴν σκηνήν, ἣν Μωυσῆς ἐπήξατο, καὶ πάντα τὰ πρὸς τὴν διακονίαν τῶν θυσιῶν τοῦ θεοῦ σκεύη μετεκόμιζον εἰς τὸν ναόν. προῆγον δὲ μετὰ θυσιῶν αὐτός τε ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ ὁ λαὸς ἅπας καὶ οἱ Λευῖται σπονδαῖς τε καὶ πολλῶν ἱερείων αἵματι τὴν ὁδὸν καταντλοῦντες καὶ θυμιῶντες ἀπειρόν τι θυμιαμάτων πλῆθος, [102] ὡς ἅπαντα τὸν πέριξ ἀέρα πεπληρωμένον καὶ τοῖς πορρωτάτω τυγχάνουσιν ἡδὺν ἀπαντᾶν καὶ γνωρίζειν ἐπιδημίαν θεοῦ καὶ κατοικισμὸν κατ᾽ ἀνθρωπίνην δόξαν εἰς νεοδόμητον αὐτῷ καὶ καθιερωμένον χωρίον: καὶ γὰρ οὐδ᾽ ὑμνοῦντες οὐδὲ χορεύοντες ἕως οὗ πρὸς τὸν ναὸν ἦλθον ἔκαμον. [103] τούτῳ μὲν οὖν τῷ τρόπῳ τὴν κιβωτὸν μετήνεγκαν. ὡς δ᾽ εἰς τὸ ἄδυτον αὐτὴν εἰσενεγκεῖν ἔδει, τὸ μὲν ἄλλο πλῆθος μετέστη, μόνοι δὲ κομίσαντες οἱ ἱερεῖς μεταξὺ τῶν δύο Χερουβὶμ κατέθεσαν: αἱ δὲ τοὺς ταρσοὺς συμπλέξασαι, καὶ γὰρ οὕτως ἦσαν ὑπὸ τοῦ τεχνίτου κατεσκευασμέναι, τὴν κιβωτὸν ὡς ὑπὸ σκηνῇ τινι καὶ θόλῳ κατεσκέπασαν. [104] εἶχε δὲ ἡ κιβωτὸς οὐδὲν ἕτερον ἢ δύο λιθίνας πλάκας, αἳ τοὺς δέκα λόγους το&#8058#8058;ς ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ Μωυσεῖ λαληθέντας ἐν Σιναίῳ ὄρει ἐγγεγραμμένους αὐταῖς ἔσωζον. τὴν δὲ λυχνίαν καὶ τὴν τράπεζαν καὶ τὸν βωμὸν τὸν χρύσεον ἔστησαν ἐν τῷ ναῷ πρὸ τοῦ ἀδύτου κατὰ τοὺς αὐτοὺς τόπους, οὓς καὶ τότε ἐν τῇ σκηνῇ κείμενοι κατεῖχον, καὶ τὰς καθημερινὰς θυσίας ἀνέφερον. [105] τὸ δὲ θυσιαστήριον τὸ χάλκεον ἵστησι πρὸ τοῦ ναοῦ ἀντικρὺ τῆς θύρας, ὡς ἀνοιχθείσης αὐτὸ κατὰ πρόσωπον εἶναι καὶ βλέπεσθαι τὰς ἱερουργίας καὶ τὴν τῶν θυσιῶν πολυτέλειαν. τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ σκεύη πάντα συναλίσας ἔνδον εἰς τὸν ναὸν κατέθετο.

1. When king Solomon had finished these works, these large and beautiful buildings, and had laid up his donations in the temple, and all this in the interval of seven years, and had given a demonstration of his riches and alacrity therein, insomuch that any one who saw it would have thought it must have been an immense time ere it could have been finished; and would be surprised that so much should be finished in so short a time; short, I mean, if compared with the greatness of the work: he also wrote to the rulers and elders of the Hebrews, and ordered all the people to gather themselves together to Jerusalem, both to see the temple which he had built, and to remove the ark of God into it; and when this invitation of the whole body of the people to come to Jerusalem was every where carried abroad, it was the seventh month before they came together; which month is by our countrymen called Thisri, but by the Macedonians Hyperberetoets. The feast of tabernacles happened to fall at the same time, which was celebrated by the Hebrews as a most holy and most eminent feast. So they carried the ark and the tabernacle which Moses had pitched, and all the vessels that were for ministration, to the sacrifices of God, and removed them to the temple. The king himself, and all the people and the Levites, went before, rendering the ground moist with sacrifices, and drink-offerings, and the blood of a great number of oblations, and burning an immense quantity of incense, and this till the very air itself every where round about was so full of these odors, that it met, in a most agreeable manner, persons at a great distance, and was an indication of God's presence; and, as men's opinion was, of his habitation with them in this newly built and consecrated place, for they did not grow weary, either of singing hymns or of dancing, until they came to the temple; and in this manner did they carry the ark. But when they should transfer it into the most secret place, the rest of the multitude went away, and only those priests that carried it set it between the two cherubims, which embracing it with their wings, [for so were they framed by the artificer,] they covered it, as under a tent, or a cupola. Now the ark contained nothing else but those two tables of stone that preserved the ten commandments, which God spake to Moses in Mount Sinai, and which were engraved upon them; but they set the candlestick, and the table, and the golden altar in the temple, before the most secret place, in the very same places wherein they stood till that time in the tabernacle. So they offered up the daily sacrifices; but for the brazen altar, Solomon set it before the temple, over against the door, that when the door was opened, it might be exposed to sight, and the sacred solemnities, and the richness of the sacrifices, might be thence seen; and all the rest of the vessels they gathered together, and put them within the temple.

[IV.ii.106] Cumque omnia sacerdotes circa arcam constituissent, egressi sunt et repente non quidem metuens neque qualis hiemali [95r] tempore imbri plena solet nubis adsistere. Sed diffusa est et temperate effluxit et templum omne compleuit. Et facies quidem sacerdotum obumbrauit ita ut se inuicem uidere non possent. Mentibus autem omnium fantasiam quandam et opinionem praebuit quasi deus descendisset in templum et libenter habitare ineo. Talem quidem hanc habuerunt omnes opinionem. Rex autem salomon de loco ubi sedebat surgens fecit ad deum uerba quae naturae diuinae credidit esse dicentia. Tibi inquid domine perpetuam domum quam ipse fabricatus es esse nouimus caelum et terram simul et mare et cum tibi nequaquam uniuersa sufficient, hoc tuo nomine constitui templum ut ex eo orationes sacrificantes et immolantes emittamus in aera et confidamus quod cum nobis cum praesens sis neque a tuis sedibus procul abes. Ut enim omnia uideas et audias uniuersa neque a loco ubi nunc habitas recedens omnibus uicinus, et uni cuique noctu et die quae cogitant semper adsistis. Cumque haec dixisset ad deum uerba conuertit ad populum manifestans eis dei potentiam et prouidentiam eius quod dauid eius patri omnia futura sicut iam multa prouenerant et forent uentura reliqua praedixisset quod ipse quoque non dum nato imposuit ei nomen, et quod templum ipse aedificaturus est primus post patris obitum regnaturus. Et cum omnia secundum illius fierent prophetiam supplicabat ut deo benedicerent uniuersi, et in nullo eius promissionibus disperarent quas pro eoque felicitate praedixerat, sed crederent haec implenda quae fuerant iam transacta.

[106] Ἐπεὶ δὲ πάντα διακοσμήσαντες οἱ ἱερεῖς τὰ περὶ τὴν κιβωτὸν ἐξῆλθον, ἄφνω πίλημα νεφέλης οὐ σκληρὸν οὐδ᾽ οἷον ὥρᾳ χειμῶνος ὑετοῦ γέμον ἵσταται κεχυμένον δὲ καὶ κεκραμένον εἰς τὸν ναὸν εἰσερρύη, καὶ ταῖς μὲν ὄψεσι τῶν ἱερέων ὡς μὴ καθορᾶν ἀλλήλους ἐπεσκότει, ταῖς δὲ διανοίαις ταῖς ἁπάντων φαντασίαν καὶ δόξαν παρεῖχεν ὡς τοῦ θεοῦ κατεληλυθότος εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ κατεσκηνωκότος ἡδέως ἐν αὐτῷ. [107] καὶ οἱ μὲν ἐπὶ ταύτης εἶχον αὑτοὺς τῆς ἐννοίας ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς Σολόμων ἐξεγερθείς, ἔτυχε γὰρ καθεζόμενος, ἐποιήσατο λόγους πρὸς τὸν θεόν, οὓς τῇ θείᾳ φύσει πρέποντας ὑπελάμβανε καὶ καλῶς εἶχεν αὐτῷ λέγειν: ‘σοὶ γάρ, εἶπεν, οἶκον μὲν αἰώνιον, ὦ δέσποτα, καὶ ἄξιον αὑτῷ εἰργάσω γεγονότα τὸν οὐρανὸν οἴδαμεν καὶ ἀέρα καὶ γῆν καὶ θάλασσαν, δι᾽ ὧν ἁπάντων οὐδὲ τούτοις ἀρκούμενος κεχώρηκας, [108] τοῦτον δέ σοι κατεσκεύακα τὸν ναὸν ἐπώνυμον, ὡς ἂν ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ σοι τὰς εὐχὰς θύοντες καὶ καλλιεροῦντες ἀναπέμπωμεν εἰς τὸν ἀέρα καὶ πεπεισμένοι διατελοίημεν, ὅτι πάρει καὶ μακρὰν οὐκ ἀφέστηκας οὐδὲ σαυτῶ: τῷ μὲν γὰρ πάντ᾽ ἐφορᾶν καὶ πάντ᾽ ἀκούειν οὐδὲ νῦν ὅπου σοι θέμις οἰκῶν ἀπολείπεις τοῦ πᾶσιν ἔγγιστα εἶναι, μᾶλλον δ᾽ ἑκάστῳ καὶ βουλευομένῳ καὶ διὰ νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας συμπάρει.’ [109] ταῦτα ἐπιθειάσας πρὸς τὸν θεὸν ἀπέστρεψεν εἰς τὸ πλῆθος τοὺς λόγους ἐμφανίζων τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν δύναμιν αὐτοῖς καὶ τὴν πρόνοιαν, ὅτι Δαυίδῃ τῷ πατρὶ περὶ τῶν μελλόντων ἅπαντα καθὼς ἀποβέβηκεν ἤδη τὰ πολλὰ καὶ γενήσεται τὰ λείποντα δηλώσειε, καὶ ὡς αὐτὸς ἐπιθείη τὸ ὄνομα μήπω γεγεννημένῳ καὶ [110] τίς μέλλοι καλεῖσθαι προείποι καὶ ὅτι τὸν ναὸν οὗτος οἰκοδομήσει αὐτῷ βασιλεὺς μετὰ τὴν τοῦ πατρὸς τελευτὴν γενόμενος: ἃ βλέποντας κατὰ τὴν ἐκείνου προφητείαν ἐπιτελῆ τὸν θεὸν εὐλογεῖν ἠξίου καὶ περὶ μηδενὸς ἀπογινώσκειν ὧν ὑπέσχηται πρὸς εὐδαιμονίαν ὡς οὐκ ἐσομένου πιστεύοντας ἐκ τῶν ἤδη βλεπομένων.

2. Now as soon as the priests had put all things in order about the ark, and were gone out, there cane down a thick cloud, and stood there, and spread itself, after a gentle manner, into the temple; such a cloud it was as was diffused and temperate, not such a rough one as we see full of rain in the winter season. This cloud so darkened the place, that one priest could not discern another, but it afforded to the minds of all a visible image and glorious appearance of God's having descended into this temple, and of his having gladly pitched his tabernacle therein. So these men were intent upon this thought. But Solomon rose up, [for he was sitting before,] and used such words to God as he thought agreeable to the Divine nature to receive, and fit for him to give; for he said, "Thou hast an eternal house, O Lord, and such a one as thou hast created for thyself out of thine own works; we know it to be the heaven, and the air, and the earth, and the sea, which thou pervadest, nor art thou contained within their limits. I have indeed built this temple to thee, and thy name, that from thence, when we sacrifice, and perform sacred operations, we may send our prayers up into the air, and may constantly believe that thou art present, and art not remote from what is thine own; for neither when thou seest all things, and hearest all things, nor now, when it pleases thee to dwell here, dost thou leave the care of all men, but rather thou art very near to them all, but especially thou art present to those that address themselves to thee, whether by night or by day." When he had thus solemnly addressed himself to God, he converted his discourse to the multitude, and strongly represented the power and providence of God to them;—how he had shown all things that were come to pass to David his father, as many of those things had already come to pass, and the rest would certainly come to pass hereafter; and how he had given him his name, and told to David what he should be called before he was born; and foretold, that when he should be king after his father's death, he should build him a temple, which since they saw accomplished, according to his prediction, he required them to bless God, and by believing him, from the sight of what they had seen accomplished, never to despair of any thing that he had promised for the future, in order to their happiness, or suspect that it would not come to pass.

[IV.iii.111] Cumque haec dixisset ad populum expansis manibus fecit operibus quidem in possibile est ut ualeant homines pro his quae meruerint deo munera debita conpensare. Diuinitas enim nullius egi[e]t et et omnium rerum conpensatione superior est. In quo enim aliis animalibus per te meliores sumus effecti intuo tuam benedicimus maiestatem, et pro his quae stirpe praebuisti pius necessarium est gratias agere populum iudaeorum. Nullum enim magis obtamus habere propitium et ineo circa nos deuotionem per munera quam te est nobis uox quam ex aere habemus et per eum ita[e]rum nouimus ascendentem. Per hanc ergo gratias tibi referimus primitus de hoc templo quod ex inuisibili ad tantam gloriam peruexisti. Deinde pro me ipso cui omnia usque ad praesentem diem sicut ante praedicta sunt condonasti. Supplico ergo de cetero ut mihi ministres quae cumque deum et hominibus honoratis praebere est, nostram domum omnibus bonis augeas sicut dauid meo patri et uiuenti et circa obitum promisisti. Et quando apud nos manebit regnum et genus illius infinit[is] regum successionibus honorabis. Haec ergo nobis largire sufficienter meisque filiis uirtutem quae tibi sit grata concede. Super haec autem et oro et pars aliqua tuis spiritus hoc templum in habitet: Quatenus et in terra circa nos esse uideans, tibi siquidem habitatio paruula est etiam omne caelum et alueus quae sub eo est omnium existentium non dicam hoc paruissimum templum quod praecor ut custodias ab omni uastatione bellorum, et tamquam propriae possessione feras auxilium. Supplico pariter ut si peccauent populus aliquando deinde plaga quadam pessima peccato digna a te terris [u]lla sterilitas aut corruptio famis aut huiusmodi passio quas te iuste transgressoribus solis inferre prouenerit, et congregatus ad hoc confugent templum rogando te ut aperte saluetur ex audibilis eius effectus uelut intus habitans misericordiam praebas ut a malo suae calamitatis euellas. Hoc aut alium sed etiam a totius terrae finibus qui dum aduenerint aut de de quolibet loco et pro aliquo bono praeces effunderint, ex audi clemens, et postulata concede. Sic et enim omnes agnoscant quod tu quidem ipse a nobis tibi domum fieri uoluisti. Nos autem non humani naturaliter sumus quando non eos qui contribuli non sunt, extraneos iudicamus, sed communiter omnibus tuum adiutorium et bonorum affectum ad esse suppliciter exoramus.

[111] Ταῦτα διαλεχθεὶς πρὸς τὸν ὄχλον ὁ βασιλεὺς ἀφορᾷ πάλιν εἰς τὸν ναὸν καὶ τὴν δεξιὰν εἰς τὸν ὄχλον ἀνασχών ‘ἔργοις μέν, εἶπεν, οὐ δυνατὸν ἀνθρώποις ἀποδοῦναι θεῷ χάριν ὑπὲρ ὧν εὖ πεπόνθασιν: ἀπροσδεὲς γὰρ τὸ θεῖον ἁπάντων καὶ κρεῖττον τοιαύτης ἀμοιβῆς: ᾧ δὲ τῶν ἄλλων ζῴων ὑπὸ σοῦ, δέσποτα, κρείττονες γεγόναμεν, τούτῳ τὴν σὴν εὐλογεῖν μεγαλειότητα καὶ περὶ τῶν ὑπηργμένων εἰς τὸν ἡμέτερον οἶκον καὶ τὸν Ἑβραίων εὐχαριστεῖν ἀνάγκη. [112] τίνι γὰρ ἄλλῳ μᾶλλον ἱλάσασθαι μηνίοντα καὶ δυσμεναίνοντα εὐμενῆ δεξιώτερόν ἐστιν ἡμῖν ἢ φωνῇ, ἣν ἐξ ἀέρος τε ἔχομεν καὶ δι᾽ αὐτοῦ πάλιν ἀνιοῦσαν οἴδαμεν; χάριν οὖν ἔχειν δι᾽ αὐτῆς ὁμολογῶ σοι περί τε τοῦ πατρὸς πρῶτον, ὃν ἐξ ἀφανοῦς εἰς τοσαύτην ἀνήγαγες δόξαν, [113] ἔπειθ᾽ ὑπὲρ ἐμαυτοῦ πάντα μέχρι τῆς παρούσης ἡμέρας ἃ προεῖπας πεποιηκότι, δέομαί τε τοῦ λοιποῦ χορηγεῖν ὅσα θεῷ δύναμις ἀνθρώποις ὑπὸ σοῦ τετιμημένοις, καὶ τὸν οἶκον τὸν ἡμέτερον αὔξειν εἰς πᾶν, ὡς καθωμολόγησας Δαυίδῃ τῷ πατρί μου καὶ ζῶντι καὶ παρὰ τὴν τελευτήν, ὅτι παρ᾽ ἡμῖν ἡ βασιλεία μενεῖ καὶ τὸ ἐκείνου γένος αὐτὴν διαδοχαῖς ἀμείψει μυρίαις. ταῦτ᾽ οὖν ἡμῖν ἐπάρκεσον καὶ παισὶ τοῖς ἐμοῖς ἀρετὴν ᾗ σὺ χαίρεις παράσχου. [114] πρὸς δὲ τούτοις ἱκετεύω καὶ μοῖράν τινα τοῦ σοῦ πνεύματος εἰς τὸν ναὸν ἀποικίσαι, ὡς ἂν καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς ἡμῖν εἶναι δοκῇς. σοὶ μὲν γὰρ μικρὸν οἰκητήριον καὶ τὸ πᾶν οὐρανοῦ καὶ τῶν κατὰ τοῦτον ὄντων κύτος, οὐχ ὅτι γε οὗτος ὁ τυχὼν ναός, ἀλλὰ φυλάσσειν τε ἀπόρθητον ἐκ πολεμίων ὡς ἴδιον εἰς ἅπαν καὶ προνοεῖν ὡς οἰκείου κτήματος παρακαλῶ. [115] κἂν ἁμαρτών ποτε ὁ λαὸς ἔπειτα πληγῇ τινι κακῷ διὰ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐκ σοῦ γῆς ἀκαρπίᾳ καὶ φθορᾷ λοιμικῇ ἤ τινι τούτων τῶν παθημάτων, οἷς σὺ τοὺς παραβάντας τι τῶν ὁσίων μετέρχῃ, καὶ καταφεύγῃ πᾶς ἀθροισθεὶς ἐπὶ τὸν ναὸν ἱκετεύων σε καὶ σωθῆναι δ&#949#949;όμενος, ἐπήκοος αὐτοῦ γενόμενος ὡς ἔνδον ὢν ἐλεήσῃς καὶ τῶν συμφορῶν ἀπαλλάξῃς. [116] ταύτην δὲ οὐχ Ἑβραίοις μόνον δέομαι παρὰ σοῦ τὴν βοήθειαν εἶναι σφαλεῖσιν, ἀλλὰ κἂν ἀπὸ περάτων τῆς οἰκουμένης τινὲς ἀφίκωνται κἂν ὁποθενδηποτοῦν προστρεπόμενοι καὶ τυχεῖν τινος ἀγαθοῦ λιπαροῦντες, δὸς αὐτοῖς ἐπήκοος γενόμενος. [117] οὕτως γὰρ ἂν μάθοιεν πάντες, ὅτι σὺ μὲν αὐτὸς ἐβουλήθης παρ᾽ ἡμῖν κατασκευασθῆναί σοι τὸν οἶκον, ἡμεῖς δ᾽ οὐκ ἀπάνθρωποι τὴν φύσιν ἐσμὲν οὐδ᾽ ἀλλοτρίως πρὸς τοὺς οὐχ ὁμοφύλους ἔχομεν, ἀλλὰ πᾶσι κοινὴν τὴν ἀπὸ σοῦ βοήθειαν καὶ τὴν τῶν ἀγαθῶν ὄνησιν ὑπάρχειν ἠθελήσαμεν.’

3. When the king had thus discoursed to the multitude, he looked again towards the temple, and lifting up his right hand to the multitude, he said, "It is not possible by what men can do to return sufficient thanks to God for his benefits bestowed upon them, for the Deity stands in need of nothing, and is above any such requital; but so far as we have been made superior, O Lord, to other animals by thee, it becomes us to bless thy Majesty, and it is necessary for us to return thee thanks for what thou hast bestowed upon our house, and on the Hebrew people; for with what other instrument can we better appease thee when thou art angry at us, or more properly preserve thy favor, than with our voice? which, as we have it from the air, so do we know that by that air it ascends upwards [towards thee]. I therefore ought myself to return thee thanks thereby, in the first place, concerning my father, whom thou hast raised from obscurity unto so great joy; and, in the next place, concerning myself, since thou hast performed all that thou hast promised unto this very day. And I beseech thee for the time to come to afford us whatsoever thou, O God, hast power to bestow on such as thou dost esteem; and to augment our house for all ages, as thou hast promised to David my father to do, both in his lifetime and at his death, that our kingdom shall continue, and that his posterity should successively receive it to ten thousand generations. Do not thou therefore fail to give us these blessings, and to bestow on my children that virtue in which thou delightest. And besides all this, I humbly beseech thee that thou wilt let some portion of thy Spirit come down and inhabit in this temple, that thou mayst appear to be with us upon earth. As to thyself, the entire heavens, and the immensity of the things that are therein, are but a small habitation for thee, much more is this poor temple so; but I entreat thee to keep it as thine own house, from being destroyed by our enemies for ever, and to take care of it as thine own possession: but if this people be found to have sinned, and be thereupon afflicted by thee with any plague, because of their sin, as with dearth or pestilence, or any other affliction which thou usest to inflict on those that transgress any of thy holy laws, and if they fly all of them to this temple, beseeching thee, and begging of time to deliver them, then do thou hear their prayers, as being within thine house, and have mercy upon them, and deliver them from their afflictions. Nay, moreover, this help is what I implore of thee, not for the Hebrews only, when they are in distress, but when any shall come hither from any ends of the world whatsoever, and shall return from their sins and implore thy pardon, do thou then pardon them, and hear their prayer. For hereby all shall learn that thou thyself wast pleased with the building of this house for thee; and that we are not ourselves of an unsociable nature, nor behave ourselves like enemies to such as are not of our own people; but are willing that thy assistance should be communicated by thee to all men in common, and that they may have the enjoyment of thy benefits bestowed upon them."

[IV.iv.118] Haec dicens prostratus in terra et deuotius adorans deum. Post ista surrexit et in templum obtulit hostias et replens illud sacrificiis, manifeste deum uidit [95v] sacrificium grate suscipientem. Ignis enim ex aere descendens omnibus uidentibus ad altare hostias totas abripuit et ad sumpsit. Hac igitur ad paratione monstrata populus quidem manifestationem hanc esse diuinae habitionis in templum conciniens procidens adorauit in terra. Rex autem coepit benedicere et cunctos ut hoc facerent ad hortare[i]. Habentes iam circa se diuini fauoris indicium, et quae orarent semper sibi ab illo tali prouenire, fit ut mentem suam puram ab omni malitia conseruarent, ad iustitiam diuinamque culturam ad seruanda mandata quae per moysen eis elementia diuina contulerat. Quia sic foret felix gens hebraeorum et totius generis humani beatior. Rogabatque pariter ut memoriam haberent quem ad modum bonam praesentia conquissent. Eaque firmiter obtinerent, et maiora et ampliora de cetero sustinerent. Non enim praecepta haec solum modo propter pietatem atque iustitiam, sed etiam obtinenda per haec curarent quod esset apud homines praecipuum non tantum aliquid conquirere, quantum aliquis ita seruare et nihil pro eorum ammissione delinquere.

[118] Εἰπὼν ταῦτα καὶ ῥίψας αὑτὸν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν καὶ ἐπὶ πολλὴν ὥραν προσκυνήσας ἀναστὰς θυσίας τῷ θεῷ προσήνεγκε καὶ γεμίσας τῶν ὁλοκλήρων ἱερείων ἐναργέστατα τὸν θεὸν ἡδέως ἔγνω τὴν θυσίαν προσδεχόμενον: πῦρ γὰρ ἐξ ἀέρος διαδραμὸν καὶ πάντων ὁρώντων ἐπὶ τὸν βωμὸν ᾆξαν ἅπασαν τὴν θυσίαν ἀνήρπασε καὶ κατεδαίσατο. [119] ταύτης δὲ τῆς ἐπιφανείας γενομένης ὁ μὲν λαὸς δήλωσιν εἶναι τοῦτ᾽ εἰκάσας τῆς ἐν τῷ ναῷ τοῦ θεοῦ διατριβῆς ἐσομένης καὶ ἡσθεὶς προσεκύνει πεσὼν ἐπὶ τοὔδαφος, ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς εὐλογεῖν τε ἤρξατο καὶ τὸ πλῆθος ταὐτὸ ποιεῖν παρώρμα δείγματα μὲν ἔχοντας ἤδη τῆς τοῦ θεοῦ πρὸς αὐτοὺς εὐμενείας, [120] εὐχομένους δὲ τοιαῦτα ἀποβαίνειν ἀεὶ τὰ παρ᾽ ἐκείνου, καὶ τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτοῖς καθαρὰν ἀπὸ πάσης φυλάττεσθαι κακίας ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ θρησκείᾳ καὶ τῷ τὰς ἐντολὰς τηρεῖν ἃς διὰ Μωυσέος αὐτοῖς ἔδωκεν ὁ θεὸς διαμενούσας: ἔσεσθαι γὰρ οὕτως εὔδαιμον τὸ Ἑβραίων ἔθνος καὶ παντὸς ἀνθρώπων γένους μακαριώτερον. [121] παρεκάλει τε μνημονεύειν, ὡς οἷς ἐκτήσαντο τὰ παρόντα ἀγαθὰ τούτοις αὐτὰ καὶ βέβαια ἕξειν καὶ μείζω καὶ πλείω καταστήσειν: οὐ γὰρ λαβεῖν αὐτὰ μόνον δι᾽ εὐσέβειαν καὶ δικαιοσύνην, ἀλλὰ καὶ καθέξειν διὰ ταῦτα προσῆκεν ὑπολαμβάνειν: εἶναι δὲ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις οὐχ οὕτως μέγα τὸ κτήσασθαί τι τῶν οὐχ ὑπαρχόντων, ὡς τὸ σῶσαι τὰ πορισθέντα καὶ μηδὲν ἁμαρτεῖν εἰς. βλάβην αὐτῶν.

4. When Solomon had said this, and had cast himself upon the ground, and worshipped a long time, he rose up, and brought sacrifices to the altar; and when he had filled it with unblemished victims, he most evidently discovered that God had with pleasure accepted of all that he had sacrificed to him, for there came a fire running out of the air, and rushed with violence upon the altar, in the sight of all, and caught hold of and consumed the sacrifices. Now when this Divine appearance was seen, the people supposed it to be a demonstration of God's abode in the temple, and were pleased with it, and fell down upon the ground and worshipped. Upon which the king began to bless God, and exhorted the multitude to do the same, as now having sufficient indications of God's favorable disposition to them; and to pray that they might always have the like indications from him, and that he would preserve in them a mind pure from all wickedness, in righteousness and religious worship, and that they might continue in the observation of those precepts which God had given them by Moses, because by that means the Hebrew nation would be happy, and indeed the most blessed of all nations among all mankind. He exhorted them also to be mindful, that by what methods they had attained their present good things, by the same they must preserve them sure to themselves, and make them greater and more than they were at present; for that it was not sufficient for them to suppose they had received them on account of their piety and righteousness, but that they had no other way of preserving them for the time to come; for that it is not so great a thing for men to acquire somewhat which they want, as to preserve what they have acquired, and to be guilty of no sin whereby it may be hurt.

[IV.v.122] Haec ergo locutus ad populum dimisit ecclesiam cum sacrificiis caelebrasset pro se et pro uniuersis hebraeorum. Id est uitulos quidem xx duo milia oues autem centum uiginti milia. Tunc enim prius in templo sacrificia caelebrata et ineo aepulati sunt omnes hebraei cum uxoribus suis et filiis. In super etiam et festiuitatem quae uocatur schenophegia faciens ante templum dare nimis et magnificae quattuor decim [diebus] rex cum omni populo pariter aepulatus est.

[122] Ὁ μὲν οὖν βασιλεὺς διαλεχθεὶς ταῦτα πρὸς τὸ πλῆθος διαλύει τὴν ἐκκλησίαν τελέσας θυσίας ὑπέρ τε αὑτοῦ καὶ πάντων Ἑβραίων, ὡς μόσχους μὲν καταθῦσαι μυρίους καὶ δισχιλίους, προβάτων δὲ μυριάδας δώδεκα. [123] τὸν μὲν γὰρ ναὸν τότε πρῶτον ἔγευσεν ἱερουργημάτων καὶ κατευωχήθησαν ἐν αὐτῷ πάντες σὺν γυναιξὶν Ἑβραῖοι καὶ τέκνοις, ἔτι δὲ καὶ τὴν σκηνοπηγίαν καλουμένην ἑορτὴν πρὸ τοῦ ναοῦ λαμπρῶς καὶ μεγαλοπρεπῶς ἐπὶ δὶς ἑπτὰ ἡμέρας ἤγαγεν ὁ βασιλεὺς σὺν ἅπαντι τῷ λαῷ κατευωχούμενος.

5. So when the king had spoken thus to the multitude, he dissolved the congregation, but not till he had completed his oblations, both for himself and for the Hebrews, insomuch that he sacrificed twenty and two thousand oxen, and a hundred and twenty thousand sheep; for then it was that the temple did first of all taste of the victims, and all the Hebrews, with their wives and children, feasted therein: nay, besides this, the king then observed splendidly and magnificently the feast which is called the Feast of Tabernacles, before the temple, for twice seven days; and he then feasted together with all the people.

[] Cum haec fusset sufficienter exhibita, nihilque de esset circa pietatis diuine culturam, dimittente rege singuli ad propria remearunt agentes gratias regi propter prouidentiam quam habuissent et opera quae fecisset et orantes deum ut eis regem praeberet longaeuo tempore salomonem agebant reuertentes cum gaudio sublimiter: et cum delectatione hymnos decantantes. Ita ut ea iucunditate sine labore ad propria remearent. Sic itaque dum arcam duxisset in templum eiusque magnitudinem qui uidissent sacrificiis maximis et festiuitatibus impertiti ad suas ciuitates singuli sunt regressi. Apparuit igitur regi pro somnium deus significans quod eius ex audisset orationes, et quia conseruaret templum et ineo semper habitaret. Nepotibus scilicet eius et omni multitudine faciente iustitiam, ipsumque primum si in patris sui monitis permaneret, ad excellentiam et felicitatis infinitum cum plurima se uirtute uehendum et regnaturus semper in ea prouincia ex eius genere principes iuda. Si uero mandata contempneret, et obliuione[i] quae mandaret et peregrinos mutatus coleret deos esset radicitus abscidendo[u]s et neque reliquias ex eius genere remansuras. Sed nec in israhel ulterius adflictionibus esset priuandum multis libellis et malis exterminatus a terra quam eorum patribus praebuit iectos in colas alienae terrae esset praeciperit. Templum quoque aedificatum incendendum diripiendumque contradiderit inimicis, sed et ciuitatem hostium manibus subuertendam et eorum aerumnas faceret fabularum relatione dignissimas. Et propter multitudinem nimiae in felicitatis incredulas, ita ut uicini eorum audientes mirarentur calamitates et causas inquirendas pro quibus, ita hebraei odio haberentur a deo qui primitus ab eo fuerant tantae gloriae atque diuitiarum culmen euecti, ab his qui relinquerentur, audirent, quia pro peccatis et praeuaricationibus legum paternarum talia protulissent. Haec enim ei per somnium deum dixisse conscriptum est.

[124] Ἐπεὶ δ᾽ εἶχεν αὐτοῖς ἀποχρώντως ταῦτα καὶ μηδὲν ἐνέδει τῇ περὶ τὸν θεὸν εὐσεβείᾳ πρὸς αὑτοὺς ἕκαστος τοῦ βασιλέως ἀπολύσαντος ἀπῄεσαν εὐχαριστήσαντες τῷ βασιλεῖ τῆς τε περὶ αὐτοὺς προνοίας καὶ ὧν ἐπεδείξατο ἔργων, καὶ εὐξάμενοι τῷ θεῷ παρασχεῖν αὐτοῖς εἰς πολὺν χρόνον Σολόμωνα βασιλέα τὴν πορείαν ἐποιοῦντο μετὰ χαρᾶς καὶ παιδιᾶς ὕμνους εἰς τὸν θεὸν ᾁδοντες, ὡς ὑπὸ τῆς ἡδονῆς ἀπόνως τὴν ὁδὸν τὴν ἐπὶ τὰ οἰκεῖα πάντας ἀνύσαι. [125] καὶ οἱ μὲν τὴν κιβωτὸν εἰς τὸν ναὸν εἰσαγαγόντες καὶ τὸ μέγεθος καὶ τὸ κάλλος ἱστορήσαντες αὐτοῦ καὶ θυσιῶν ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ μεγάλων καὶ ἑορτῶν μεταλαβόντες εἰς τὰς αὑτῶν ἕκαστοι πόλεις ὑπέστρεψαν. ὄναρ δ᾽ ἐπιφανὲν τῷ βασιλεῖ κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους ἐσήμαινεν αὐτῷ τῆς εὐχῆς ἐπήκοον τὸν θεὸν γεγονέναι, [126] καὶ ὅτι φυλάξει τε τὸν ναὸν καὶ διὰ παντὸς ἐν αὐτῷ μενεῖ τῶν ἐκγόνων αὐτοῦ καὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς ἁπάσης πληθύος τὰ δίκαια ποιούσης, αὐτόν τε πρῶτον ἐμμένοντα ταῖς τοῦ πατρὸς ὑποθήκαις ἔλεγεν εἰς ὕψος καὶ μέγεθος εὐδαιμονίας ἀνοίσειν ἄπειρον καὶ βασιλεύσειν ἀεὶ τῆς χώρας τοὺς ἐκ τοῦ γένους αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς Ἰούδα φυλῆς: [127] προδόντα μέντοι τὰ ἐπιτηδεύματα καὶ λήθην αὐτῶν ποιησάμενον καὶ ξενικοὺς θεοὺς θρησκεύειν μεταβαλόμενον πρόρριζον ἐκκόψειν καὶ μήτε τοῦ γένους τι λείψανον αὐτῶν ἐάσειν μήτε τὸν τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν λαὸν ἀπαθῆ παρόψεσθαι, πολέμοις δ᾽ αὐτοὺς καὶ κακοῖς ἐξαφανίσειν μυρίοις κἀκ τῆς γῆς, ἣν τοῖς πατράσιν αὐτῶν ἔδωκεν, [128] ἐκβαλὼν ἐπήλυδας ἀλλοτρίας καταστήσειν, τὸν δὲ ναὸν τὸν νῦν οἰκοδομηθέντα καταπρησθησόμενον τοῖς ἐχθροῖς παραδώσειν καὶ διαρπαγησόμενον, κατασκάψειν δὲ καὶ τὴν πόλιν χερσὶ τῶν πολεμίων καὶ ποιήσειν μύθων ἄξια τὰ παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς κακὰ καὶ πολλῆς δι᾽ ὑπερβολὴν μεγέθους ἀπιστίας, [129] ὡς τοὺς προσοίκους ἀκούοντας τὴν συμφορὰν θαυμάζειν καὶ τὴν αἰτίαν πολυπραγμονεῖν δι᾽ ἣν οὕτως ἐμισήθησαν Ἑβραῖοι τῷ θεῷ πρότερον εἰς δόξαν καὶ πλοῦτον ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ παραχθέντες, καὶ παρὰ τῶν ὑπολειπομένων ἀκούειν ἐξομολογουμένων τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν καὶ τὰς τῶν πατρίων νομίμων παραβάσεις. ταῦτα μὲν αὐτῷ τὸν θεὸν εἰπεῖν κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους ἀναγέγραπται.

6. When all these solemnities were abundantly satisfied, and nothing was omitted that concerned the Divine worship, the king dismissed them; and they every one went to their own homes, giving thanks to the king for the care he had taken of them, and the works he had done for them; and praying to God to preserve Solomon to be their king for a long time. They also took their journey home with rejoicing, and making merry, and singing hymns to God. And indeed the pleasure they enjoyed took away the sense of the pains they all underwent in their journey home. So when they had brought the ark into the temple, and had seen its greatness, and how fine it was, and had been partakers of the many sacrifices that had been offered, and of the festivals that had been solemnized, they every one returned to their own cities. But a dream that appeared to the king in his sleep informed him that God had heard his prayers; and that he would not only preserve the temple, but would always abide in it; that is, in case his posterity and the whole multitude would be righteous. And for himself, it said, that if he continued according to the admonitions of his father, he would advance him to an immense degree of dignity and happiness, and that then his posterity should be kings of that country, of the tribe of Judah, for ever; but that still, if he should be found a betrayer of the ordinances of the law, and forget them, and turn away to the worship of strange gods, he would cut him off by the roots, and would neither suffer any remainder of his family to continue, nor would overlook the people of Israel, or preserve them any longer from afflictions, but would utterly destroy them with ten thousand wars and misfortunes; would cast them out of the land which he had given their fathers, and make them sojourners in strange lands; and deliver that temple which was now built to be burnt and spoiled by their enemies, and that city to be utterly overthrown by the hands of their enemies; and make their miseries deserve to be a proverb, and such as should very hardly be credited for their stupendous magnitude, till their neighbors, when they should hear of them, should wonder at their calamities, and very earnestly inquire for the occasion, why the Hebrews, who had been so far advanced by God to such glory and wealth, should be then so hated by him? and that the answer that should be made by the remainder of the people should be, by confessing their sins, and their transgression of the laws of their country. Accordingly we have it transmitted to us in writing, that thus did God speak to Solomon in his sleep.



CHAPTER 5. How Solomon Built Himself A Royal Palace, Very Costly And Splendid; And How He Solved The Riddles Which Were Sent Him By Hiram.

[V.i.130] Post templi uero fabricam quam septem annis praediximus fuisse perfectam aedificium domum regalium construere coepit quod tredecim annis impleuit. Non enim huius modi erat feruens studium sicut in templum. Sed illud quidem licet esset grande et operatione mirabile et cunctis simul inopinabile cooperante docui fiebat terminum praedictis annis accepit. Rege uero domus multum templi dignitatem minores erant, cum neque materia tanto tempore aut largitatis fuissent opulentia praeparata, et eo quod regum habitatio et non est dei futura tardius esset effecta. Haec quidem secundum felicitatem hebraicae regionis ac merito regis aedificata sunt, quorum totam expositionem [96r] et ordinem dicere necessarium est, ut ex hoc omnes coniiciant magnitudinem cum legentes uiderint huius rei discriptionem.

[130] Μετὰ δὲ τὴν τοῦ ναοῦ κατασκευὴν ἐν ἔτεσιν ἑπτὰ καθὼς προειρήκαμεν γενομένην τὴν τῶν βασιλείων οἰκοδομὴν κατεβάλετο, ἣν ἔτεσι τρισὶ καὶ δέκα μόγις ἀπήρτισεν: οὐ γὰρ τὸν αὐτὸν ἐσπουδάζετο τρόπον ὅνπερ καὶ τὸ ἱερόν, ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν καίπερ ὂν μέγα καὶ θαυμαστῆς ἐργασίας καὶ παραδόξου τετυχηκὸς ἔτι καὶ θεοῦ συνεργοῦντος, εἰς ὃν ἐγίνετο, τοῖς προειρημένοις ἔτεσιν ἔλαβε πέρας: [131] τὰ δὲ βασίλεια πολὺ τῆς ἀξίας τοῦ ναοῦ καταδεέστερα τυγχάνοντα τῷ μήτε τὴν ὕλην ἐκ τοσούτου χρόνου καὶ τῆς αὐτῆς ἡτοιμάσθαι φιλοτιμίας καὶ βασιλεῦσιν οἰκητήριον ἀλλ᾽ οὐ θεῷ γίνεσθαι, βράδιον ἠνύσθη. [132] καὶ αὐτὰ μὲν οὖν ἄξια λόγου καὶ κατὰ τὴν εὐδαιμονίαν τῆς Ἑβραίων χώρας καὶ τοῦ βασιλέως ᾠκοδομήθη, τὴν δὲ ὅλην αὐτῶν διάταξιν καὶ τὴν διάθεσιν εἰπεῖν ἀναγκαῖον, ἵν᾽ οὕτως ἐκ τούτου στοχάζεσθαι καὶ συνορᾶν ἔχωσι τὸ μέγεθος οἱ τῇ γραφῇ μέλλοντες ἐντυγχάνειν.

1. After the building of the temple, which, as we have before said, was finished in seven years, the king laid the foundation of his palace, which he did not finish under thirteen years, for he was not equally zealous in the building of this palace as he had been about the temple; for as to that, though it was a great work, and required wonderful and surprising application, yet God, for whom it was made, so far co-operated therewith, that it was finished in the forementioned number of years: but the palace, which was a building much inferior in dignity to the temple, both on account that its materials had not been so long beforehand gotten ready, nor had been so zealously prepared, and on account that this was only a habitation for kings, and not for God, it was longer in finishing. However, this building was raised so magnificently, as suited the happy state of the Hebrews, and of the king thereof. But it is necessary that I describe the entire structure and disposition of the parts, that so those that light upon this book may thereby make a conjecture, and, as it were, have a prospect of its magnitude.

[V.ii.133] Erat magna basilica nimis et pulchra, haec in numera columnarum multitudine portabatur ad iudicia rerumque cognitiones distribuit ut possint sapere populi magnitudinem ad iudicia uenientem. Cuius longitudinis magnitudo cubitorum erat centum latitudinis quinquaginta. Altitudinis uero triginta. Columnas quadrangulatas omnes habebat, tegebatur cedro opere corinthio, phialis aequalibus et scutolis mira arte caelatis, eratque robusta et uariis decoribus ex ornata. Item alia basilica in medio totius amplitudinis constituta habens latitudinem cubitorum triginta et contra templum ualidis columnis extensum. Eratque in ea solium ualde decorum in quo sedens rex iudicia pro ferebat. Huic erat iuncta alia quoque reginae basilica et reliqua habitacula et sedilia ubi post causas explicatas residebant strata omnia tabulis cedrinis. Et alia quidem aedificauit ex marmoribus decem cubitorum. Alia uero tabuli[s] uestita sectilibus et praetiosissimis exornauit secundum decus templorum et miraculum habitationem regalium cuius pulchritudo tribus ordinibus opere intexta aursorium. Quarta uero pars caelaturis ornata miraculum artis uidentibus offerebat. Erantque illic sca[u]lptae arbores et uniuersa poma quasi ramis et ex eis pendentibus foliis obumbrata, ita ut propter miraculum subtilitatis agitari quodammodo putarentur. Alia uero pars dealbata erat et uariis picta coloribus. Aedificauit autem super haec domus alias fecit omnino praeclara ad regum conuiuia necessaria, et undique de aurata nec non et alia uasa quae cumque sunt aepulis oportuna omnia fecit ex auro. Difficile namque est enumerare magnitudinem et uarietatem domum. Aulas namque regalium quanta erant maxima et quanta horum inferiora, et quanta sub terra quae uidere non poterant, nec non et pulchritudinem solarium et uiridariorum quae erant facta delectabiliter ad aspectum quo exusta corpora possint ab aestus ardore refugere. Et ut breuiter dicam totum regiam domum ex albo lapide et cedro et auro et argento splendide nimis et opulentissimae instruxit. Cameras et parietes uestium auro quomodo dei templum resplendentes exhibuit. Fecit autem ex hebore solium magnitudine nimis eximium atque caelatum schemate tribunalis habebatque sex grado[u]s, et singulis eorum ex utraque parte duo leones stabant, et in superioribus gradibus alii totidem in reclinatione uero manus erant portantes regem. Eratque ipsa reclinatio in uitulo respiciente postergum et omni parte tribunal auro circum datum.

[133] Οἶκος ἦν μέγας καὶ καλὸς πολλοῖς στύλοις ἐρηρεισμένος, ὃν εἰς τὰς κρίσεις καὶ τὴν τῶν πραγμάτων διάγνωσιν πλῆθος ὑποδέξασθαι καὶ χωρῆσαι σύνοδον ἀνθρώπων ἐπὶ δίκας συνεληλυθότων κατεσκεύασεν ἑκατὸν μὲν πηχῶν τὸ μῆκος εὖρος δὲ πεντήκοντα τὸ δ᾽ ὕψος τριάκοντα, κίοσι μὲν τετραγώνοις ἀνειλημμένον ἐκ κέδρου πᾶσιν, ἐστεγασμένον δὲ Κορινθίως, ἰσομέτροις δὲ φλιαῖς καὶ θυρώμασι τριγλύφοις ἀσφαλῆ τε ὁμοῦ καὶ κεκαλλωπισμένον. [134] ἕτερος δὲ οἶκος ἦν ἐν μέσῳ κατὰ ὅλου τοῦ πλάτους τεταγμένος τετράγωνος εὖρος πηχῶν τριάκοντα, ἄντικρυς ἔχων ναὸν παχέσι στύλοις ἀνατεταμένον: ἦν δὲ ἐν αὐτῷ ἐξέδρα διαπρεπής, ἐν ᾗ καθεζόμενος ὁ βασιλεὺς ἔκρινεν, ᾗ παρέζευκτο κατεσκευασμένος ἄλλος οἶκος τῇ βασιλίσσῃ καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τὰ πρὸς τὴν δίαιταν καὶ τὰς ἀναπαύσεις οἰκήματα μετὰ τὴν τῶν πραγμάτων ἀπόλυσιν, ἐστρωμένα πάντα σανίσι τετμημέναις ἐκ κέδρου. [135] καὶ τὰ μὲν ᾠκοδομήσατο λίθοις δεκαπήχεσιν, ἑτέρῳ δὲ πριστῷ τοὺς τοίχους καὶ πολυτελεῖ κατημφίεσεν, ὃν εἰς κόσμον ἱερῶν καὶ βασιλείων οἴκων θεωρίων γῆ μεταλλεύεται τοῖς φέρουσιν αὐτὸν τόποις ἐπαινουμένη. [136] καὶ τὸ μὲν ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ κάλλος ἐπὶ τριστιχίαν ἦν ἐνυφασμένον, τετάρτη δὲ μοῖρα γλυφέων παρεῖχε θαυμάζειν ἐπιστήμην, ὑφ᾽ ὧν πεποίητο δένδρα καὶ φυτὰ παντοῖα σύσκια τοῖς κλάδοις καὶ τοῖς ἐκκρεμαμένοις αὐτῶν πετάλοις, ὡς ὑπονοεῖν αὐτὰ καὶ σαλεύεσθαι δι᾽ ὑπερβολὴν λεπτότητος καλύπτοντα τὸν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῖς λίθον. [137] τὸ δὲ ἄλλο μέχρι τῆς στέγης χριστὸν ἦν καὶ καταπεποικιλμένον χρώμασι καὶ βαφαῖς. προσκατεσκεύασε δὲ τούτοις ἄλλα τε πρὸς τρυφὴν οἰκήματα καὶ δὴ καὶ στοὰς μηκίστας καὶ ἐν καλῷ τῶν βασιλείων κειμένας, ἐν αἷς λαμπρότατον οἶκον εἰς ἑστίασιν καὶ συμπόσια χρυσοῦ περίπλεων: καὶ τἆλλα δὲ ὅσα τοῦτον ἔχειν ἔδει πρὸς τὴν τῶν ἑστιωμένων ὑπηρεσίαν σκεύη πάντ᾽ ἐκ χρυσοῦ κατεσκεύαστο. [138] δύσκολον δ᾽ ἐστὶν καταριθμήσασθαι τὸ μέγεθος καὶ τὴν ποικιλίαν τῶν βασιλείων, ὅσα μὲν ἦν αὐτοῖς τὰ μέγιστα οἰκήματα, πόσα δὲ τὰ τούτων ὑποδεέστερα καὶ πόσα ὑπόγεια καὶ ἀφανῆ, τά τε τῶν ἀνειμένων εἰς ἀέρα κάλλη καὶ τὰ ἄλση πρὸς θεωρίαν ἐπιτερπεστάτην καὶ θέρους ὑποφυγὴν καὶ σκέπην εἶναι τοῖς σώμασιν. [139] ἐν κεφαλαίῳ δ᾽ εἰπεῖν τὴν ὅλην οἰκοδομίαν ἐκ λίθου λευκοῦ καὶ κέδρου καὶ χρυσοῦ καὶ ἀργύρου πᾶσαν ἐποιήσατο τοὺς ὀρόφους καὶ τοὺς τοίχους τοῖς ἐγκλειομένοις χρυσῷ λίθοις διανθίσας τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον, ὡς καὶ τὸν τοῦ θεοῦ ναὸν τούτοις κατηγλάισεν. [140] εἰργάσατο δὲ καὶ ἐξ ἐλέφαντος θρόνον παμμεγεθέστατον ἐν κατασκευῇ βήματος ἔχοντα μὲν ἓξ βαθμούς, ἑκάστῳ δὲ τούτων ἐξ ἑκατέρου μέρους δύο λέοντες ἐφειστήκεσαν τοσούτων ἄνωθεν ἄλλων παρεστώτων. τὸ δ᾽ ἐνήλατον τοῦ θρόνου χεῖρες ἦσαν δεχόμεναι τὸν βασιλέα, ἀνακέκλιτο δ᾽ εἰς μόσχου προτομὴν τὰ κατόπιν αὐτοῦ βλέποντος, χρυσῷ δὲ ἅπας ἦν δεδεμένος.

2. This house was a large and curious building, and was supported by many pillars, which Solomon built to contain a multitnde for hearing causes, and taking cognizance of suits. It was sufficiently capacious to contain a great body of men, who would come together to have their causes determined. It was a hundred cubits long, and fifty broad, and thirty high, supported by quadrangular pillars, which were all of cedar; but its roof was according to the Corinthian order, with folding doors, and their adjoining pillars of equal magnitude, each fluted with three cavities; which building as at once firm, and very ornamental. There was also another house so ordered, that its entire breadth was placed in the middle; it was quadrangular, and its breadth was thirty cubits, having a temple over against it, raised upon massy pillars; in which temple there was a large and very glorious room, wherein the king sat in judgment. To this was joined another house that was built for his queen. There were other smaller edifices for diet, and for sleep, after public matters were over; and these were all floored with boards of cedar. Some of these Solomon built with stones of ten cubits, and wainscoted the walls with other stones that were sawed, and were of great value, such as are dug out of the earth for the ornaments of temples, and to make fine prospects in royal palaces, and which make the mines whence they are dug famous. Now the contexture of the curious workmanship of these stones was in three rows, but the fourth row would make one admire its sculptures, whereby were represented trees, and all sorts of plants; with the shades that arose from their branches, and leaves that hung down from them. Those trees anti plants covered the stone that was beneath them, and their leaves were wrought so prodigious thin and subtile, that you would think they were in motion; but the other part up to the roof, was plastered over, and, as it were, embroidered with colors and pictures. He, moreover, built other edifices for pleasure; as also very long cloisters, and those situate in an agreeable place of the palace; and among them a most glorious dining room, for feastings and compotations, and full of gold, and such other furniture as so fine a room ought to have for the conveniency of the guests, and where all the vessels were made of gold. Now it is very hard to reckon up the magnitude and the variety of the royal apartments; how many rooms there were of the largest sort, how many of a bigness inferior to those, and how many that were subterraneous and invisible; the curiosity of those that enjoyed the fresh air; and the groves for the most delightful prospect, for the avoiding the heat, and covering of their bodies. And, to say all in brief, Solomon made the whole building entirely of white stone, and cedar wood, and gold, and silver. He also adorned the roofs and walls with stones set in gold, and beautified them thereby in the same manner as he had beautified the temple of God with the like stones. He also made himself a throne of prodigious bigness, of ivory, constructed as a seat of justice, and having six steps to it; on every one of which stood, on each end of the step two lions, two other lions standing above also; but at the sitting place of the throne hands came out and received the king; and when he sat backward, he rested on half a bullock, that looked towards his back; but still all was fastened together with gold.

[V.iii.141] Haec salomon uiginti annis aedificauit. Cui multum aurum et argentum tyri rex iram ad aedificium contulit in super et ligna cedrina et cipressina quem salomon quoque magnis conpensationibus redonauit, mittens ei per annos singulos triticum uinum et oleum quibus maximae rebus eo quod habitaret in insula sicut praediximus indigebat. Ad haec autem et ciuitates galileae regionis uiginti numero non procul a tyro positas condonauit, quas dum circuisset atque considerasset, displicuissetque ei domum mittens ad salomonem dixit se ciuitatibus non egere, et ex tunchaec appellate sunt terra gabalon, et enim interpraetatum lingua phoenica displicere significat. Misit itaque praedictus rex iram ad regem salomonem rogans eum ut quaedam sophismata et uerba parabulorum quae ei dixerat aperiret, et quaestionum difficultates absolueret. Qui cum esset astutior et intellegens nihil horum ignorans, sed in omnibus rationem praeualens et eorum causas agnoscens omnes obscuritates eorum praeduxit ad lumen.

Meminit autem horum duorum regum, et menander qui ex phoenica lingua antiquitates syriorum in uocem conuertit hella dicam ita dicens. Moriente autem abibalo successit in eius regnum filius eius iram. Quidum uixisset annis quinquaginta tres regnauit triginta quattuor. Hic effodit ampla[u]m terrae spatium et auream columnam quae est in iouis templo aedificauit, in super et lignorum materiam a monte incidit ad tecta templorum, et destruens antiqua sacraria. Templum aedificauit herculis et astar se et primum herculi hoc erexit mense piritio et contra [96v] eucheos tributa non reddentes egit exercitum eisque sibi subditis denuo remearet. Huius temporibus erat ab daemonis filius iuuenculus qui semper propositionibus quas imperas et hiersolimorum rex euincebat. Meminit autem etiam dion historiographus ita dicens abibalo moriente filius eius iram regnauit. Hic partem ciuitatis positam ad orientem diruit et maiorem urbem efficit, et olymphi iouis templum destruens medium locum ciuitati coniunxit et aureis anethematibus exornauit. Ascendensque in montem libanum siluam maximam ad sacrorum secuit aedificia adiecti haec regem hierosolimorum salomonem misisse ad yram tyri regem, figuras quasdam expetisse ab eo solutionem, ita ut si non possit discernere soluenti pecunias dare. Cumque fateretur yram non posse se illa dissoluere multa foret pecuniarum detrimenta passurus per abdimum quendam tyrium quae posita fuerant sunt soluta et alia ab eo proposita quasi salomon non soluent iram regi pecunias multas darent, et hoc quidem dio sic dixit.

[141] Ταῦτα Σολόμων εἰκοσαετίᾳ κατασκευάσας, ἐπεὶ πολὺν μὲν αὐτῷ χρυσὸν πλείω δ᾽ ἄργυρον ὁ τῶν Τυρίων βασιλεὺς Εἴρωμος εἰς τὴν οἰκοδομίαν συνήνεγκεν ἔτι δὲ καὶ ξύλα κέδρου καὶ πίτυος, ἀντεδωρήσατο καὶ αὐτὸς μεγάλαις δωρεαῖς τὸν Εἴρωμον σῖτόν τε κατ᾽ ἔτος πέμπων αὐτῷ καὶ οἶνον καὶ ἔλαιον, ὧν μάλιστα διὰ τὸ νῆσον οἰκεῖν, ὡς καὶ προειρήκαμεν ἤδη, χρῄζων διετέλει. [142] πρὸς τούτοις δὲ καὶ πόλεις αὐτῷ τῆς Γαλιλαίας εἴκοσι μὲν τὸν ἀριθμὸν οὐ πόρρω δὲ τῆς Τύρου κειμένας ἐχαρίσατο, ἃς ἐπελθὼν καὶ κατανοήσας Εἴρωμος καὶ δυσαρεστήσας τῇ δωρεᾷ πέμψας πρὸς Σολόμωνα μὴ δεῖσθαι τῶν πόλεων ἔλεγε κἄκτοτε προσηγορεύθησαν Χαβαλὼν γῆ: μεθερμηνευόμενον δὲ τὸ χάβαλον κατὰ Φοινίκων γλῶτταν οὐκ ἀρέσκον σημαίνει. [143] καὶ σοφίσματα δὲ καὶ λόγους αἰνιγματώδεις διεπέμψατο πρὸς Σολόμωνα ὁ τῶν Τυρίων βασιλεὺς παρακαλῶν, ὅπως αὐτῷ σαφηνίσῃ τούτους καὶ τῆς ἀπορίας τῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς ζητουμένων ἀπαλλάξῃ. τὸν δὲ δεινὸν ὄντα καὶ συνετὸν οὐδὲν τούτων παρῆλθεν, ἀλλὰ πάντα νικήσας τῷ λογισμῷ καὶ μαθὼν αὐτῶν τὴν διάνοιαν ἐφώτισε.

[144] Μέμνηται τούτων τῶν δύο βασιλέων καὶ Μένανδρος ὁ μεταφράσας ἀπὸ τῆς Φοινίκων διαλέκτου τὰ Τυρίων ἀρχεῖα εἰς τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν φωνὴν λέγων οὕτως: ‘τελευτήσαντος δὲ Ἀβιβάλου διεδέξατο τὴν βασιλείαν παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ υἱὸς Εἴρωμος, ὃς βιώσας ἔτη πεντηκοντατρία ἐβασίλευσε τριάκοντα καὶ τέσσαρα. [145] οὗτος ἔχωσε τὸ Εὐρύχωρον τόν τε χρυσοῦν κίονα τὸν ἐν τοῖς τοῦ Διὸς ἀνέθηκεν: ἔτι τε ὕλην ξύλων ἀπελθὼν ἔκοψεν ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄρους τοῦ λεγομένου Λιβάνου εἰς τὰς τῶν ἱερῶν στέγας: [146] καθελών τε τὰ ἀρχαῖα ἱερὰ καὶ ναὸν ᾠκοδόμησε τοῦ Ἡρακλέους καὶ τῆς Ἀστάρτης, πρῶτός τε τοῦ Ἡρακλέους ἔγερσιν ἐποιήσατο ἐν τῷ Περιτίῳ μηνί: τοῖς τε Ἰτυκαίοις ἐπεστρατεύσατο μὴ ἀποδιδοῦσι τοὺς φόρους καὶ ὑποτάξας πάλιν αὑτῷ ἀνέστρεψεν. ἐπὶ τούτου ἦν Ἀβδήμονος παῖς νεώτερος, ὃς ἀεὶ ἐνίκα τὰ προβλήματα, ἃ ἐπέτασσε Σολόμων ὁ Ἱεροσολύμων βασιλεύς.’ [147] μνημονεύει δὲ καὶ Δῖος λέγων οὕτως: ‘Ἀβιβάλου τελευτήσαντος ὁ υἱὸς αὐτοῦ Εἴρωμος ἐβασίλευσεν. οὗτος τὰ πρὸς ἀνατολὰς μέρη τῆς πόλεως προσέχωσε καὶ μεῖζον τὸ ἄστυ ἐποίησε καὶ τοῦ Ὀλυμπίου Διὸς τὸ ἱερὸν καθ᾽ ἑαυτὸ ὂν ἐγχώσας τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον συνῆψε τῇ πόλει καὶ χρυσοῖς ἀναθήμασιν ἐκόσμησεν: ἀναβὰς δὲ εἰς τὸν Λίβανον ὑλοτόμησε πρὸς τὴν τῶν ἱερῶν κατασκευήν. [148] τὸν δὲ τυραννοῦντα Ἱεροσολύμων Σολόμωνα πέμψαι φησὶ πρὸς Εἴρωμον αἰνίγματα καὶ παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ λαβεῖν ἀξιοῦντα, τὸν δὲ μὴ δυνηθέντα διακρῖναι τῷ λύσαντι χρήματα ἀποτίνειν. [149] ὁμολογήσαντα δὲ τὸν Εἴρωμον καὶ μὴ δυνηθέντα λῦσαι τὰ αἰνίγματα πολλὰ τῶν χρημάτων εἰς τὸ ἐπιζήμιον ἀναλῶσαι: εἶτα δὲ Ἀβδήμονά τινα Τύριον ἄνδρα τὰ προτεθέντα λῦσαι καὶ αὐτὸν ἄλλα προβαλεῖν, ἃ μὴ λύσαντα τὸν Σολόμωνα πολλὰ τῷ Εἰρώμῳ προσαποτῖσαι χρήματα.’ καὶ Δῖος μὲν οὕτως εἴρηκεν.

3. When Solomon had completed all this in twenty years' time, because Hiram king of Tyre had contributed a great deal of gold, and more silver to these buildings, as also cedar wood and pine wood, he also rewarded Hiram with rich presents; corn he sent him also year by year, and wine and oil, which were the principal things that he stood in need of, because he inhabited an island, as we have already said. And besides these, he granted him certain cities of Galilee, twenty in number, that lay not far from Tyre; which, when Hiram went to, and viewed, and did not like the gift, he sent word to Solomon that he did not want such cities as they were; and after that time these cities were called the land of Cabul; which name, if it be interpreted according to the language of the Phoenicians, denotes what does not please. Moreover, the king of Tyre sent sophisms and enigmatical sayings to Solomon, and desired he would solve them, and free them from the ambiguity that was in them. Now so sagacious and understanding was Solomon, that none of these problems were too hard for him; but he conquered them all by his reasonings, and discovered their hidden meaning, and brought it to light. Menander also, one who translated the Tyrian archives out of the dialect of the Phoenicians into the Greek language, makes mention of these two kings, where he says thus: "When Abibalus was dead, his son Hiram received the kingdom from him, who, when he had lived fifty-three years, reigned thirty-four. He raised a bank in the large place, and dedicated the golden pillar which is in Jupiter's temple. He also went and cut down materials of timber out of the mountain called Libanus, for the roof of temples; and when he had pulled down the ancient temples, he both built the temple of Hercules and that of Astarte; and he first set up the temple of Hercules in the month Peritius; he also made an expedition against the Euchii, or Titii, who did not pay their tribute, and when he had subdued them to himself he returned. Under this king there was Abdemon, a very youth in age, who always conquered the difficult problems which Solomon, king of Jerusalem, commanded him to explain. Dius also makes mention of him, where he says thus: 'When Abibalus was dead, his son Hiram reigned. He raised the eastern parts of the city higher, and made the city itself larger. He also joined the temple of Jupiter, which before stood by itself, to the city, by raising a bank in the middle between them; and he adorned it with donations of gold. Moreover, he went up to Mount Libanus, and cut down materials of wood for the building of the temples.' He says also, that Solomon, who was then king of Jerusalem, sent riddles to Hiram, and desired to receive the like from him, but that he who could not solve them should pay money to them that did solve them, and that Hiram accepted the conditions; and when he was not able to solve the riddles proposed by Solomon, he paid a great deal of money for his fine; but that he afterward did solve the proposed riddles by means of Abdemon, a man of Tyre; and that Hiram proposed other riddles, which, when Solomon could not solve, he paid back a great deal of money to Hiram." This it is which Dius wrote.



CHAPTER 6. How Solomon Fortified The City Of Jerusalem, And Built Great Cities; And How He Brought Some Of The Canaanites Into Subjection, And Entertained The Queen Of Egypt And Of Ethiopia.

[VI.i.150] Cumque rex salomon uideret muros pro munimine turribus indigere alioque tuitione. Nam secundum ciuitatis mentum oportebat etiam copiosam esset murorum, haec efficit et turribus ciuitatem praecipuis ualde circumdedit. Construxit autem et ciuitates inter praecipuas urbes ad numerandas asor et magedon et tertiam zazarum quicum fuisset in regione palaestinorum pharao rex aegypti castrametatus et obsedens eam coepit et omnes eius habitatores occidit eamque subuertit. Deditque eam postea dono suae filiae salomonis uxori qua propter aedificauit eam rex cum esset natura monita, et ad bella temporumque motus utiliter oportuna non procul ab hac duas alias aedificauit urbes quarum alter a bitthora, altera uero uocabatur baleth. Ultra has autem fecit et alias ad uoluntatem et aepulas oportunas, et rerum temperamentis pomorumque fertilitate et aquarum frigidissimorum poculis abundantes. Pergens enim et in desertum superioris syriae eamque capiens constituit ibi maximam ciuitatem duorum dierum itinere a syriae superiore distante. Ab eustrate uero unius et maximae babylone sex mansionibus procul extante. Ut autem haec ciuitas a partibus habitabilibus syriae ita destitit haec causa eo quod in inferiori terra aquanus quam inuenitur. In illo autem loco solum modo fontes et putei nimis habundarent. Hanc itaque aedificans ciuitatem et muris eminentibus eam circum tegens thadamus apellauit, et actenus apud syrios, ita dicebatur quam graeci palmiram uocant.

[150] Ἐπεὶ δ᾽ ἑώρα τὰ τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων τείχη ὁ βασιλεὺς πύργων πρὸς ἀσφάλειαν δεόμενα καὶ τῆς ἄλλης ὀχυρότητος, πρὸς γὰρ τἀξίωμα τῆς πόλεως ἡγεῖτο δεῖν καὶ τοὺς περιβόλους εἶναι, ταῦτά τε προσεπεσκεύαζε καὶ πύργοις αὐτὰ μεγάλοις προσεξῇρεν. [151] ᾠκοδόμησε δὲ καὶ πόλεις ταῖς βαρυτάταις ἐναρίθμους Ἄσωρόν τε καὶ Μαγέδω, τὴν τρίτην δὲ Γάζαρα, ἣν τῆς Παλαιστίνων χώρας ὑπάρχουσαν Φαραώνης ὁ τῶν Αἰγυπτίων βασιλεὺς στρατευσάμενος καὶ πολιορκήσας αἱρεῖ κατὰ κράτος: ἀποκτείνας δὲ πάντας τοὺς ἐνοικοῦντας αὐτὴν κατέσκαψεν, εἶτα δωρεὰν ἔδωκεν τῇ θυγατρὶ Σολόμωνι γεγαμημένῃ. [152] διὸ καὶ ἀνήγειρεν αὐτὴν ὁ βασιλεὺς οὖσαν ὀχυρὰν φύσει καὶ πρὸς πολέμους καὶ τὰς τῶν καιρῶν μεταβολὰς χρησίμην εἶναι δυναμένην. οὐ πόρρω δ᾽ αὐτῆς ἄλλας ᾠκοδόμησε δύο πόλεις: Βητχώρα τῇ ἑτέρᾳ ὄνομα ἦν, ἡ δ᾽ ἑτέρα Βελὲθ ἐκαλεῖτο. [153] προσκατεσκεύασε δὲ ταύταις καὶ ἄλλας εἰς ἀπόλαυσιν καὶ τρυφὴν ἐπιτηδείως ἐχούσας τῇ τε τῶν ἀέρων εὐκρασίᾳ καὶ τοῖς ὡραίοις εὐφυεῖς καὶ νάμασιν ὑδάτων ἐνδρόσους. ἐμβαλὼν δὲ καὶ εἰς τὴν ἔρημον τῆς ἐπάνω Συρίας καὶ κατασχὼν αὐτὴν ἔκτισεν ἐκεῖ πόλιν μεγίστην δύο μὲν ἡμερῶν ὁδὸν ἀπὸ τῆς ἄνω Συρίας διεστῶσαν, ἀπὸ δ᾽ Εὐφράτου μιᾶς, ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς μεγάλης Βαβυλῶνος ἓξ ἡμερῶν ἦν τὸ μῆκος. [154] αἴτιον δὲ τοῦ τὴν πόλιν οὕτως ἀπὸ τῶν οἰκουμένων μερῶν τῆς Συρίας ἀπῳκίσθαι τὸ κατωτέρω μὲν μηδαμοῦ τῆς γῆς ὕδωρ εἶναι, πηγὰς δ᾽ ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ τόπῳ μόνον εὑρεθῆναι καὶ φρέατα. ταύτην οὖν τὴν πόλιν οἰκοδομήσας καὶ τείχεσιν ὀχυρωτάτοις περιβαλὼν Θαδάμοραν ὠνόμασε καὶ τοῦτ᾽ ἔτι νῦν καλεῖται παρὰ τοῖς Σύροις, οἱ δ᾽ Ἕλληνες αὐτὴν προσαγορεύουσι Πάλμυραν.

1. Now when the king saw that the walls of Jerusalem stood in need of being better secured, and made stronger, [for he thought the wails that encompassed Jerusalem ought to correspond to the dignity of the city,] he both repaired them, and made them higher, with great towers upon them; he also built cities which might be counted among the strongest, Hazor and Megiddo, and the third Gezer, which had indeed belonged to the Philistines; but Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, had made an expedition against it, and besieged it, and taken it by force; and when he had slain all its inhabitants, he utterly overthrew it, and gave it as a present to his daughter, who had been married to Solomon; for which reason the king rebuilt it, as a city that was naturally strong, and might be useful in wars, and the mutations of affairs that sometimes happen. Moreover, he built two other cities not far from it, Beth-horon was the name of one of them, and Baalath of the other. He also built other cities that lay conveniently for these, in order to the enjoyment of pleasures and delicacies in them, such as were naturally of a good temperature of the air, and agreeable for fruits ripe in their proper seasons, and well watered with springs. Nay, Solomon went as far as the desert above Syria, and possessed himself of it, and built there a very great city, which was distant two days' journey from Upper Syria, and one day's journey from Euphrates, and six long days' journey from Babylon the Great. Now the reason why this city lay so remote from the parts of Syria that are inhabited is this, that below there is no water to be had, and that it is in that place only that there are springs and pits of water. When he had therefore built this city, and encompassed it with very strong walls, he gave it the name of Tadmor, and that is the name it is still called by at this day among the Syrians, but the Greeks name it Palmyra.

[VI.ii.155] Haec itaque salomon illo tempore rex agebat. Propter ea autem qui quaerunt quando omnes aegyptiorum a mineo qui memphis aedificauit et ante multos annos fuit quam noster progenitor abraham, dum inter haec usque ad salomonem mille et triginta anni transierunt faraones uocati sunt quodam rege pharaone qui post priores his temporibus imperauit pharaonem uocabulum ad sumentes explanare hoc necessarium iudacui, ut et calignem eorum ignorationis auferam et causam huius nominis declarare contendam. Pharao nomen secundum aegyptios significat regem. Reor autem eos ab instantia quidem aliis nominibus appellari. Uenientes autem ad regnum hoc quod lingua patria significaret imperium eos fuisse participatus. Nam alexandriae reges cum primitus aliis nominibus uocarentur uenientes ad regnum nuncupati sunt tholomei, et romanorum imperatores a natiuitate aliis uocati nominibus caesares appellantur. Cum potestas et principatus eis nomen inponit, et non in hisdem permaneant appellationibus quas a genitoribus susceperint. Puto siquidem et herodotum alicarnaseum propter ea post mineum qui menphin aedificauit dixisse trecenti triginta fuisse reges aegyptiorum et nequaquam eorum nomina declarasset quia pharaoth omnes communiter uocabantur. Nam post horum obitum regnantis mulieris uocabulum posuit mine nicaulum eam uocitatam fuisse [97r] declarans quam masculi quidem reges pharaoth appellationem habere poterant. Foeminae uero nequaquam et propter ea naturale huius nomine dixit. Ego autem et in libris nostrae prouinciae repperi quia post pharaoth socrum salomonis nullus rex aegyptiorum hoc uocabulo nuncupatus est et quia postea uenit ad salomonem mulier quam per dixi aegyptia, aethiopiaeque reginae de qua non post multum denuo referimus horum uero id eo nunc memini ut ostenderem quia nostri libri et aegyptiorum de multis rebus concordare noscuntur.

[155] Σολόμων μὲν οὖν ὁ βασιλεὺς ταῦτα κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρὸν πράττων διετέλει. πρὸς δὲ τοὺς ἐπιζητήσαντας, ὅτι πάντες οἱ Αἰγυπτίων βασιλεῖς ἀπὸ Μιναίου τοῦ Μέμφιν οἰκοδομήσαντος, ὃς ἔτεσι πολλοῖς ἔμπροσθεν ἐγένετο τοῦ πάππου ἡμῶν Ἁβράμου, μέχρι Σολόμωνος πλειόνων ἐτῶν τριακοσίων καὶ χιλίων μεταξὺ διεληλυθότων Φαραῶθαι ἐκλήθησαν ἀπὸ τοῦ μετ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἐν τοῖς μεταξὺ χρόνοις ἄρξαντος βασιλέως Φαραώθου τὴν προσηγορίαν λαβόντες, ἀναγκαῖον ἡγησάμην εἰπεῖν, ἵνα τὴν ἄγνοιαν αὐτῶν ἀφέλω καὶ ποιήσω τοῦ ὀνόματος φανερὰν τὴν αἰτίαν, ὅτι Φαραὼ κατ᾽ Αἰγυπτίους βασιλέα σημαίνει. [156] οἶμαι δ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἐκπαίδων ἄλλοις χρωμένους ὀνόμασιν ἐπειδὰν βασιλεῖς γένωνται τὸ σημαῖνον αὐτῶν τὴν ἐξουσίαν κατὰ τὴν πάτριον γλῶτταν μετονομάζεσθαι: καὶ γὰρ οἱ τῆς Ἀλεξανδρείας βασιλεῖς ἄλλοις ὀνόμασι καλούμενοι πρότερον ὅτε τὴν βασιλείαν ἔλαβον Πτολεμαῖοι προσηγορεύθησαν ἀπὸ τοῦ πρώτου βασιλέως. [157] καὶ οἱ Ῥωμαίων δὲ αὐτοκράτορες ἐκ γενετῆς ἀπ᾽ ἄλλων χρηματίσαντες ὀνομάτων Καίσαρες καλοῦνται τῆς ἡγεμονίας καὶ τῆς τιμῆς τὴν προσηγορίαν αὐτοῖς θεμένης ἀλλ᾽ οὐχ οἷς ὑπὸ τῶν πατέρων ἐκλήθησαν τούτοις ἐπιμένοντες. νομίζω δὲ καὶ Ἡρόδοτον τὸν Ἁλικαρνασέα διὰ τοῦτο μετὰ Μιναίαν τὸν οἰκοδομήσαντα Μέμφιν τριάκοντα καὶ τριακοσίους βασιλεῖς Αἰγυπτίων γενέσθαι λέγοντα μὴ δηλῶσαι αὐτῶν τὰ ὀνόματα, ὅτι κοινῶς Φαραῶθ᾽ ἐκαλοῦντο: [158] καὶ γὰρ μετὰ τὴν τούτων τελευτὴν γυναικὸς βασιλευσάσης λέγει τοὔνομα Νικαύλην καλῶν δηλῶν, ὡς τῶν μὲν ἀρρένων βασιλέων τὴν αὐτὴν προσηγορίαν ἔχειν δυναμένων, τῆς δὲ γυναικὸς οὐκέτι κοινωνεῖν ἐκείνης, καὶ διὰ τοῦτ᾽ εἶπεν αὐτῆς τὸ φύσει δεῆσαν ὄνομα. [159] ἐγὼ δὲ καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἐπιχωρίοις ἡμῶν βιβλίοις εὗρον, ὅτι μετὰ Φαραώθην τὸν Σολόμωνος πενθερὸν οὐκέτ᾽ οὐδεὶς τοῦτο τὸ ὄνομα βασιλεὺς Αἰγυπτίων ἐκλήθη, καὶ ὅτι ὕστερον ἧκε πρὸς Σολόμωνα ἡ προειρημένη γυνὴ βασιλεύουσα τῆς Αἰγύπτου καὶ τῆς Αἰθιοπίας. περὶ μὲν οὖν ταύτης μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺ δηλώσομεν: νῦν δὲ τούτων ἐπεμνήσθην, ἵνα παραστήσω τὰ ἡμέτερα βιβλία καὶ τὰ παρ᾽ Αἰγυπτίοις περὶ πολλῶν ὁμολογοῦντα.

2. Now Solomon the king was at this time engaged in building these cities. But if any inquire why all the kings of Egypt from Menes, who built Memphis, and was many years earlier than our forefather Abraham, until Solomon, where the interval was more than one thousand three hundred years, were called Pharaohs, and took it from one Pharaoh that lived after the kings of that interval, I think it necessary to inform them of it, and this in order to cure their ignorance, and to make the occasion of that name manifest. Pharaoh, in the Egyptian tongue, signifies a king but I suppose they made use of other names from their childhood; but when they were made kings, they changed them into the name which in their own tongue denoted their authority; for thus it was also that the kings of Alexandria, who were called formerly by other names, when they took the kingdom, were named Ptolemies, from their first king. The Roman emperors also were from their nativity called by other names, but are styled Caesars, their empire and their dignity imposing that name upon them, and not suffering them to continue in those names which their fathers gave them. I suppose also that Herodotus of Halicarnassus, when he said there were three hundred and thirty kings of Egypt after Menes, who built Memphis, did therefore not tell us their names, because they were in common called Pharaohs; for when after their death there was a queen reigned, he calls her by her name Nicaule, as thereby declaring, that while the kings were of the male line, and so admitted of the same nature, while a woman did not admit the same, he did therefore set down that her name, which she could not naturally have. As for myself, I have discovered from our own books, that after Pharaoh, the father-in-law of Solomon, no other king of Egypt did any longer use that name; and that it was after that time when the forenamed queen of Egypt and Ethiopia came to Solomon, concerning whom we shall inform the reader presently; but I have now made mention of these things, that I may prove that our books and those of the Egyptians agree together in many things.

[VI.iii.160] Rex itaque salomon chananaeos qui in monte libano morabaritur usque ad ciuitatem amathi non oboedientes subdidit, et tributa eis inposuit, et ut ei ministrarent a seruile opus efficerent agri culturam exhiberent ex his quosdam annis singulis eligebat quia nullus tunc seruiebat hebraeorum. Non enim erat rationabile ut deus multa milia gentium subdidisset, et his oporteret eos habere seruita ipsi in hoc scismate permanerent quando omnes armati aequis et curribus militabant potius quam seruitia peragebant. Chananaeis autem quos ad sua ministeria tulerat constituit principes qui gentos et quinquaginta qui super eos omnem a rege potestatem perciperant ut eos docerent opera seu negotia in quiobus necessaria [esset] uiderentur.

[160] Ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς Σολόμων τοὺς ἔτι τῶν Χαναναίων οὐχ ὑπακούοντας, οἳ ἐν τῷ Λιβάνῳ διέτριβον ὄρει καὶ μέχρι πόλεως Ἀμάθης, ὑποχειρίους ποιησάμενος φόρον αὐτοῖς προσέταξε καὶ πρὸς τὸ θητεύειν αὐτῷ καὶ τὰς οἰκετικὰς χρείας ἐκτελεῖν καὶ πρὸς γεωργίαν κατ᾽ ἔτος ἐξ αὐτῶν ἐπελέγετο. [161] τῶν γὰρ Ἑβραίων οὐδεὶς ἐδούλευεν οὐδ᾽ ἦν εὔλογον ἔθνη πολλὰ τοῦ θεοῦ δεδωκότος αὐτοῖς ὑποχείρια, δέον ἐκ τούτων ποιεῖσθαι τὸ θητικόν, αὐτοὺς κατάγειν εἰς τοῦτο τὸ σχῆμα, ἀλλὰ πάντες ἐν ὅπλοις ἐφ᾽ ἁρμάτων καὶ ἵππων στρατευόμενοι μᾶλλον ἢ δουλεύοντες διῆγον. [162] τῶν δὲ Χαναναίων, οὓς εἰς τὴν οἰκετείαν ἀπήγαγεν. ἄρχοντας ἀπέδειξε πεντακοσίους καὶ πεντήκοντα τὸν ἀριθμόν, οἳ τὴν ὅλην αὐτῶν ἐπιτροπὴν εἰλήφεσαν παρὰ τοῦ βασιλέως, ὥστε διδάσκειν αὐτοὺς τὰ ἔργα καὶ τὰς πραγματείας, ἐφ᾽ ἃς ἂν αὐτῶν ἔχρῃζεν.

3. But king Solomon subdued to himself the remnant of the Canaanites that had not before submitted to him; those I mean that dwelt in Mount Lebanon, and as far as the city Hamath; and ordered them to pay tribute. He also chose out of them every year such as were to serve him in the meanest offices, and to do his domestic works, and to follow husbandry; for none of the Hebrews were servants [in such low employments]: nor was it reasonable, that when God had brought so many nations under their power, they should depress their own people to such mean offices of life, rather than those nations; while all the Israelites were concerned in warlike affairs, and were in armor; and were set over the chariots and the horses, rather than leading the life of slaves. He appointed also five hundred and fifty rulers over those Canaanites who were reduced to such domestic slavery, who received the entire care of them from the king, and instructed them in those labors and operations wherein he wanted their assistance.

[VI.iv.163] Fecit autem rex etiam multas naues in signo aegyptiaco maris rubri in quodam loco qui gassion gabel appellatur, non procul a ciuitate hellana quae nunc berenece uocatur. Haec enim regio fuit primitus iudaeorum. Habuit autem ad aedificandas naues beneficia regis iram. Ipse namque et multos uiros gubernatores et in marinis rebus e doctos misit quos iussit nauigare cum dispensatoribus suis ad locum qui olim quidem ephira nunc autem terra aurea nuncupatur. Est autem in india ut aurum deferent et colligentes quadraginta talenta ad regem denuo sint reuersi.

[163] Ἐναυπηγήσατο δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐν τῷ Αἰγυπτιακῷ κόλπῳ σκάφη πολλὰ τῆς Ἐρυθρᾶς θαλάσσης ἔν τινι τόπῳ λεγομένῳ Γασίων Γάβελος οὐ πόρρω Ἰλάνεως πόλεως, ἣ νῦν Βερενίκη καλεῖται: αὕτη γὰρ ἡ χώρα τὸ πρὶν Ἰουδαίων ἦν. ἔτυχε δὲ καὶ τῆς ἁρμοζούσης εἰς τὰς ναῦς δωρεᾶς παρ᾽ Εἰρώμου τοῦ Τυρίων βασιλέως: [164] ἄνδρας γὰρ αὐτῷ κυβερνήτας καὶ τῶν θαλασσίων ἐπιστήμονας ἔπεμψεν ἱκανούς, οἷς ἐκέλευσε πλεύσαντας μετὰ τῶν ἰδίων οἰκονόμων εἰς τὴν πάλαι μὲν Σώφειραν νῦν δὲ χρυσῆν γῆν καλουμένην, τῆς Ἰνδικῆς ἐστιν αὕτη, χρυσὸν αὐτῷ κομίσαι. καὶ συναθροίσαντες ὡς τετρακόσια τάλαντα πάλιν ἀνεχώρησαν πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα.

4. Moreover, the king built many ships in the Egyptian Bay of the Red Sea, in a certain place called Ezion-geber: it is now called Berenice, and is not far from the city Eloth. This country belonged formerly to the Jews, and became useful for shipping from the donations of Hiram king of Tyre; for he sent a sufficient number of men thither for pilots, and such as were skillful in navigation, to whom Solomon gave this command: That they should go along with his own stewards to the land that was of old called Ophir, but now the Aurea Chersonesus, which belongs to India, to fetch him gold. And when they had gathered four hundred talents together, they returned to the king again.

[VI.v.165] Igitur regina aegypti et aethiopiae sapientiae plena, et aliis ualde miranda audientem crebro salomonis uirtutem atque prudentiam et habentem desiderium eius multum, et eorum quae illi de rege cottidiae dicebantur ad semetipsum ad duxit et experimento et non audito potius satisfacere potuisset quando mendax saepius inuenitur et preferentis narratione suscipitur. Cum ergo ad eum uenire uoluisset ut in praesenti sapientiae eius experimenta perciperet studuit etiam quaestiones proferre et eorum solutiones exigere. Uenit ergo hierosolima cum magna gloria et ad parato multo diuitiarum cum auro et aromatibus et lapidibus praeciosis eamque rex grate suscepit, et circa eam in omnibus extitit ualde largissimis et propositiones sophismatum intellectu suo cito conspitiens uelocius quam sperare poterat ex soluebat. Cum illa se sapientiam ita se transcendentem et potiorem quam audiebat agnoscens uehementer obstupescebat et maxime culmine regalium mirabatur, eorumque pulchritudine mira et magnitudine delectabatur egregia nihil hominus et dispensatione uaria fabricarum in qua multam regis prudentiam astutiamque cernebat. Plus tamen eam obstupescere faciebat domus quae silua libani uocabatur, et cotidianarum opulentia caenarum et apparatus eius et ministerium et uestes ministrantium quae decens circa suum officium disciplina. Praecipue tamen sacrificia quae cotidie deo caelebrantur et sacerdotum. Circa haec nec non et maximam diligentiam leuitarum. Haec uidens diebus omnibus nimis ad miratur et cum non posset tacere, miracula quae uidebat uerbis uoluntatem sui cordis aperuit dicens ad regem quibus suam mentem uictam monstrabat. Cuncta inquit o rex quae per auditum ueniunt ad notitiam, cum quadam in crudelitate seu dubitatione suscipiuntur. Tuorum uero bonorum et ipse inte possides. Hoc [est] sapientiam et prudentiam, et quae tibi praestantur ex regno non est mendax fama sed uera. Licet multorum minor quam in praesenti conspicio, nam opinio [97v] auribus quidem aliquid suadere nititur. Dignitas uero rerum monita fieri nota sicut aspectu et ipsa praesentia conprobatur. Ego siquidem neque his quae nuntiabantur propter multitudinem et magnitudinem credens potiora multa conspexi, et beatum dico populo[um] hebraeorum seruosque tuos pariter et amicos qui cotidie tuo uultu fruuntur et sapientiam audire promerentur quis etiam non benedicat deo sic hanc diligentem prounciam et eius habitatores ut te ad regni culm[e]in eueherit.

[165] Τὴν δὲ τῆς Αἰγύπτου καὶ τῆς Αἰθιοπίας τότε βασιλεύουσαν γυναῖκα σοφίᾳ διαπεπονημένην καὶ τἆλλα θαυμαστὴν ἀκούουσαν τὴν Σολόμωνος ἀρετὴν καὶ φρόνησιν ἐπιθυμία τῆς ὄψεως αὐτοῦ ἐκ τῶν ὁσημέραι περὶ τῶν ἐκεῖ λεγομένων πρὸς αὐτὸν ἤγαγε: [166] πεισθῆναι γὰρ ὑπὸ τῆς πείρας ἀλλ᾽ οὐχ ὑπὸ τῆς ἀκοῆς, ἣν εἰκός ἐστι καὶ ψευδεῖ δόξῃ συγκατατίθεσθαι καὶ μεταπεῖσαι πάλιν, ὅλη γὰρ ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀπαγγέλλουσι κεῖται, θέλουσα πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐλθεῖν διέγνω, μάλιστα καὶ τῆς σοφίας αὐτοῦ βουλομένη λαβεῖν πεῖραν αὐτὴ προτείνασα καὶ λῦσαι τὸ ἄπορον τῆς διανοίας δεηθεῖσα ἧκεν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα μετὰ πολλῆς δόξης καὶ πλούτου παρασκευῆς: [167] ἐπηγάγετο γὰρ καμήλους χρυσίου μεστὰς καὶ ἀρωμάτων ποικίλων καὶ λίθων πολυτελῶν. ὡς δ᾽ ἀφικομένην αὐτὴν ἡδέως ὁ βασιλεὺς προσεδέξατο. τά τε ἄλλα περὶ αὐτὴν φιλότιμος ἦν καὶ τὰ προβαλλόμενα σοφίσματα ῥᾳδίως τῇ συνέσει καταλαμβανόμενος θᾶττον ἢ προσεδόκα τις ἐπελύετο. [168] ἡ δ᾽ ἐξεπλήσσετο μὲν καὶ τὴν σοφίαν τοῦ Σολόμωνος οὕτως ὑπερβάλλουσαν αὐτὴν καὶ τῆς ἀκουομένης τῇ πείρᾳ κρείττω καταμαθοῦσα, μάλιστα δ᾽ ἐθαύμαζε τὰ βασίλεια τοῦ τε κάλλους καὶ τοῦ μεγέθους οὐχ ἧττον δὲ τῆς διατάξεως τῶν οἰκοδομημάτων: [169] καὶ γὰρ ἐν ταύτῃ πολλὴν τοῦ βασιλέως καθεώρα φρόνησιν. ὑπερεξέπληττε δ᾽ αὐτὴν ὅ τε οἶκος ὁ δρυμὼν ἐπικαλούμενος Λιβάνου καὶ ἡ τῶν καθ᾽ ἡμέραν δείπνων πολυτέλεια καὶ τὰ τῆς παρασκευῆς αὐτοῦ καὶ διακονίας ἥ τε τῶν ὑπηρετούντων ἐσθὴς καὶ τὸ μετ᾽ ἐπιστήμης αὐτῶν περὶ τὴν διακονίαν εὐπρεπές, οὐχ ἥκιστα δὲ καὶ αἱ καθ᾽ ἡμέραν ἐπιτελούμεναι τῷ θεῷ θυσίαι καὶ τὸ τῶν ἱερέων καὶ Λευιτῶν περὶ αὐτὰς ἐπιμελές. [170] ταῦθ᾽ ὁρῶσα καθ᾽ ἡμέραν ὑπερεθαύμαζε, καὶ κατασχεῖν οὐ δυνηθεῖσα τὴν ἔκπληξιν τῶν βλεπομένων φανερὰν ἐποίησεν αὑτὴν θαυμαστικῶς διακειμένην: πρὸς γὰρ τὸν βασιλέα προήχθη λόγους εἰπεῖν, ὑφ᾽ ὧν ἠλέγχθη σφόδρα τὴν διάνοιαν ἐπὶ τοῖς προειρημένοις ἡττημένη: [171] ‘πάντα μὲν γάρ, εἶπεν, ὦ βασιλεῦ, τὰ δι᾽ ἀκοῆς εἰς γνῶσιν ἐρχόμενα μετ᾽ ἀπιστίας παραγίνεται, τῶν δὲ σῶν ἀγαθῶν, ὧν αὐτός τε ἔχεις ἐν αὑτῷ, λέγω δὲ τὴν σοφίαν καὶ τὴν φρόνησιν, καὶ ὧν ἡ βασιλεία σοι δίδωσιν, οὐ ψευδὴς ἄρα ἡ φήμη πρὸς ἡμᾶς διῆλθεν, ἀλλ᾽ οὖσα ἀληθὴς πολὺ [172] καταδεεστέραν τὴν εὐδαιμονίαν ἀπέφηνεν ἧς ὁρῶ νῦν παροῦσα τὰς μὲν γὰρ ἀκοὰς πείθειν ἐπεχείρει μόνον, τὸ δὲ ἀξίωμα τῶν πραγμάτων οὐχ οὕτως ἐποίει γνώριμον, ὡς ἡ ὄψις αὐτὸ καὶ τὸ παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς εἶναι συνίστησιν. ἐγὼ γοῦν οὐδὲ τοῖς ἀπαγγελλομένοις διὰ πλῆθος καὶ μέγεθος ὧν ἐπυνθανόμην πιστεύουσα πολλῷ πλείω τούτων ἱστόρηκα. [173] καὶ μακάριόν τε τὸν Ἑβραίων λαὸν εἶναι κρίνω δούλους τε τοὺς σοὺς καὶ φίλους, οἳ καθ᾽ ἡμέραν τῆς σῆς ἀπολαύουσιν ὄψεως καὶ τῆς σῆς σοφίας ἀκροώμενοι διατελοῦσιν. εὐλογήσειεν ἄν τις τὸν θεὸν ἀγαπήσαντα τήνδε τὴν χώραν καὶ τοὺς ἐν αὐτῇ κατοικοῦντας οὕτως, ὥστε σὲ ποιῆσαι βασιλέα.’

5. There was then a woman queen of Egypt and Ethiopia; she was inquisitive into philosophy, and one that on other accounts also was to be admired. When this queen heard of the virtue and prudence of Solomon, she had a great mind to see him; and the reports that went every day abroad induced her to come to him, she being desirous to be satisfied by her own experience, and not by a bare hearing; [for reports thus heard are likely enough to comply with a false opinion, while they wholly depend on the credit of the relators;] so she resolved to come to him, and that especially in order to have a trial of his wisdom, while she proposed questions of very great difficulty, and entreated that he would solve their hidden meaning. Accordingly she came to Jerusalem with great splendor and rich furniture; for she brought with her camels laden with gold, with several sorts of sweet spices, and with precious stones. Now, upon the king's kind reception of her, he both showed a great desire to please her, and easily comprehending in his mind the meaning of the curious questions she propounded to him, he resolved them sooner than any body could have expected. So she was amazed at the wisdom of Solomon, and discovered that it was more excellent upon trial than what she had heard by report beforehand; and especially she was surprised at the fineness and largeness of his royal palace, and not less so at the good order of the apartments, for she observed that the king had therein shown great wisdom; but she was beyond measure astonished at the house which was called the Forest of Lebanon, as also at the magnificence of his daily table, and the circumstances of its preparation and ministration, with the apparel of his servants that waited, and the skillful and decent management of their attendance: nor was she less affected with those daily sacrifices which were offered to God, and the careful management which the priests and Levites used about them. When she saw this done every day, she was in the greatest admiration imaginable, insomuch that she was not able to contain the surprise she was in, but openly confessed how wonderfully she was affected; for she proceeded to discourse with the king, and thereby owned that she was overcome with admiration at the things before related; and said, "All things indeed, O king, that came to our knowledge by report, came with uncertainty as to our belief of them; but as to those good things that to thee appertain, both such as thou thyself possessest, I mean wisdom and prudence, and the happiness thou hast from thy kingdom, certainly the same that came to us was no falsity; it was not only a true report, but it related thy happiness after a much lower manner than I now see it to be before my eyes. For as for the report, it only attempted to persuade our hearing, but did not so make known the dignity of the things themselves as does the sight of them, and being present among them. I indeed, who did not believe what was reported, by reason of the multitude and grandeur of the things I inquired about, do see them to be much more numerous than they were reported to be. Accordingly I esteem the Hebrew people, as well as thy servants and friends, to be happy, who enjoy thy presence and hear thy wisdom every day continually. One would therefore bless God, who hath so loved this country, and those that inhabit therein, as to make thee king over them."

[] Ostendens autem post uerba quemadmodum eius regis habuisset affectum, etiam muneribus aperuit suae mentis indicium. Uiginti namque auri talenta regi dedit et aromatum innumeram multitudinem et lapides praetiosos. Dicunt autem quod et radicem balsami quam actenus fert nostra prouincia ipsa dederit regi cui etiam e diuerso salomon multa donauit, et maxime quae ipsa desideranter eligeret. Nihilque fuit quod postulanti in praeberet pronusque dabat quae ab illa petere quamque ipsi magis offeret, eamque suae largitatis munere praecurrebat. Regina siquidem aegpyptiorum aethiopiae dona rursumque recpiens praediximus ad propria remeauit.

[174] Παραστήσασα δὲ καὶ διὰ τῶν λόγων, πῶς αὐτὴν διέθηκεν ὁ βασιλεύς, ἔτι καὶ ταῖς δωρεαῖς τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῆς ἐποίησε φανεράν: εἴκοσι μὲν γὰρ αὐτῷ τάλαντα ἔδωκε χρυσίου ἀρωμάτων τε πλῆθος ἀσυλλόγιστον καὶ λίθον πολυτελῆ: λέγουσι δ᾽ ὅτι καὶ τὴν τοῦ ὀποβαλσάμου ῥίζαν, ἣν ἔτι νῦν ἡμῶν ἡ χώρα φέρει, δούσης ταύτης τῆς γυναικὸς ἔχομεν. [175] ἀντεδωρήσατο δ᾽ αὐτὴν καὶ Σολόμων πολλοῖς ἀγαθοῖς καὶ μάλισθ᾽ ὧν κατ᾽ ἐπιθυμίαν ἐξελέξατο: οὐδὲν γὰρ ἦν, ὅ τι δεηθείσῃ λαβεῖν οὐ παρέσχεν, ἀλλ᾽ ἑτοιμότερον ὧν αὐτὸς κατὰ τὴν οἰκείαν ἐχαρίζετο προαίρεσιν ἅπερ ἐκείνη τυχεῖν ἠξίου προϊέμενος τὴν μεγαλοφροσύνην ἐπεδείκνυτο. καὶ ἡ μὲν τῶν Αἰγυπτίων καὶ τῆς Αἰθιοπίας βασίλισσα ὧν προειρήκαμεν τυχοῦσα καὶ μεταδοῦσα πάλιν τῷ βασιλεῖ τῶν παρ᾽ αὐτῆς εἰς τὴν οἰκείαν ὑπέστρεψε.

6. Now when the queen had thus demonstrated in words how deeply the king had affected her, her disposition was known by certain presents, for she gave him twenty talents of gold, and an immense quantity of spices and precious stones. (They say also that we possess the root of that balsam which our country still bears by this woman's gift.) Solomon also repaid her with many good things, and principally by bestowing upon her what she chose of her own inclination, for there was nothing that she desired which he denied her; and as he was very generous and liberal in his own temper, so did he show the greatness of his soul in bestowing on her what she herself desired of him. So when this queen of Ethiopia had obtained what we have already given an account of, and had again communicated to the king what she brought with her, she returned to her own kingdom.



CHAPTER 7. How Solomon Grew Rich, And Fell Desperately In Love With Women And How God, Being Incensed At It, Raised Up Ader And Jeroboam Against Him. Concerning The Death Of Solomon.

[VII.i.176] Eodem uero tempore delati sunt regi a terra quae uocatur aurea lapides praetiosi et ligna pinea quibus usus est ad fortitudinem templi domumque regalium et ad instrumenta musicorum. Fecitque ex eis cytharas et nablas ut dicerent hymnum deo. Leuitae uero omnium rerum quae fuerant, quocumque tempore regi delata eaque illo die deuecta sunt: magnitudinem et pulchritudinem praecellebant. Nullus igitur arbiretur quod ligna pinea quae nunc propter praetia uendentium sic appellantur illis uicina sunt. Illa siquidem uisione rotunda quasi pinea sunt sed multo candidiora et ualde fulgentia. Hoc autem dixi ut nullus naturam uere pinus ignoret. Quod uero propter utilitatem regis eius memoriam fecimus oportunum etiam iudicamus significare.

[176] Κατὰ δὲ τὸν αὐτὸν καιρὸν κομισθέντων ἀπὸ τῆς χρυσῆς καλουμένης γῆς λίθου πολυτελοῦς τῷ βασιλεῖ καὶ ξύλων πευκίνων, τοῖς ξύλοις εἰς ὑποστήριγμα τοῦ τε ναοῦ καὶ τῶν βασιλείων κατεχρήσατο καὶ πρὸς τὴν τῶν μουσικῶν ὀργάνων κατασκευὴν κινύρας τε καὶ νάβλας, ὅπως ὑμνῶσιν οἱ Ληουῖται τὸν θεόν: πάντων δὲ τῶν ποτε κομισθέντων αὐτῷ τὰ κατ᾽ ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν ἐνεχθέντα καὶ μεγέθει καὶ κάλλει διέφερεν. [177] ὑπολάβῃ δὲ μηδείς, ὅτι τὰ τῆς πεύκης ξύλα τοῖς νῦν εἶναι λεγομένοις καὶ ταύτην ὑπὸ τῶν πιπρασκόντων τὴν προσηγορίαν ἐπὶ καταπλήξει τῶν ὠνουμένων λαμβάνουσίν ἐστι παραπλήσια. ἐκεῖνα γὰρ τὴν μὲν ἰδέαν ἐμφερῆ τοῖς συκίνοις γίνεται, λευκότερα δέ ἐστι καὶ στίλβει πλέον. [178] τοῦτο μὲν πρὸς τὸ μηδένα τὴν διαφορὰν ἀγνοῆσαι μηδὲ τὴν φύσιν τῆς ἀληθοῦς πεύκης, ἐπεὶ διὰ τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως χρείαν ἐμνήσθημεν αὐτῆς, εὔκαιρον εἶναι καὶ φιλάνθρωπον δηλῶσαι νομίσαντες εἰρήκαμεν.

1. About the same time there were brought to the king from the Aurea Chersonesus, a country so called, precious stones, and pine trees, and these trees he made use of for supporting the temple and the palace, as also for the materials of musical instruments, the harps and the psalteries, that the Levites might make use of them in their hymns to God. The wood which was brought to him at this time was larger and finer than any that had ever been brought before; but let no one imagine that these pine trees were like those which are now so named, and which take that their denomination from the merchants, who so call them, that they may procure them to be admired by those that purchase them; for those we speak of were to the sight like the wood of the fig tree, but were whiter, and more shining. Now we have said thus much, that nobody may be ignorant of the difference between these sorts of wood, nor unacquainted with the nature of the genuine pine tree; and we thought it both a seasonable and humane thing, when we mentioned it, and the uses the king made of it, to explain this difference so far as we have done.

[VII.ii.179] Allati auro illo tempore quantitatem quod fuit pondere talenta sexcenti sexaginta sex non reputatis eis quae negotiatores emerant, neque quod dono arabiae toparchae regis quae mittebant. Conflauit ergo aurum ut ducenta[s] lance[a]s faceret quae siclos sexcentos habere[n]t. Fecitque scuta trecenti[a] uno quoque ha[ben]te auri minas tres. Posuitque eos in domum quae silua libani uocatur, nec non et coopercula ex auro et lapidibus praetiosis ad conuiuia necessaria praeparauit. Dumque uno praecipuo artifice haec fecisset, etiam alia uasorum opera largitate auri ut faceret exquisiuit. Non enim argentum aut aurum uendebatur aut emebatur, sed multe fueret naues quas rex in mare[i] tarsico constituerat ut interiora gentium penetrarent, et conparatum aurum argentum regi defer[r]ent, nec non et elephantes aethiopias et simias. Nauigium uero euntes et redeuntes tribus annis implebant.

[179] Ὁ δὲ τοῦ χρυσοῦ σταθμὸς τοῦ κομισθέντος αὐτῷ τάλαντα ἑξακόσια καὶ ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἕξ, μὴ συγκαταριθμουμένου καὶ τοῦ ὑπὸ τῶν ἐμπόρων ὠνηθέντος μηδ᾽ ὧν οἱ τῆς Ἀραβίας τοπάρχαι καὶ βασιλεῖς ἔπεμπον αὐτῷ δωρεῶν. ἐχώνευσε δὲ τὸν χρυσὸν εἰς διακοσίων κατασκευὴν θυρεῶν ἀνὰ σίκλους ἀγόντων ἑξακοσίους. [180] ἐποίησε δὲ καὶ ἀσπίδας τριακοσίας ἀγούσης ἑκάστης χρυσίου μνᾶς τρεῖς: ἀνέθηκε δὲ ταύτας φέρων εἰς τὸν οἶκον τὸν δρυμῶνα Λιβάνου καλούμενον. οὐ μὴν ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ ἐκπώματα διὰ χρυσοῦ καὶ λίθου τὰ πρὸς τὴν ἑστίασιν ὡς ἔνι μάλιστα φιλοτεχνῶν κατεσκεύασε καὶ τὴν ἄλλην τῶν σκευῶν δαψίλειαν χρυσέαν ἅπασαν ἐμηχανήσατο: [181] οὐδὲν γὰρ ἦν ὅ τις ἀργύρῳ ἐπίπρασκεν ἢ πάλιν ἐωνεῖτο, ἀλλὰ πολλαὶ γὰρ ἦσαν ναῦς, ἃς ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐν τῇ Ταρσικῇ λεγομένῃ θαλάττῃ καταστήσας παραγαγεῖν εἰς τὰ ἐνδοτέρω τῶν ἐθνῶν παντοίαν ἐμπορίαν προσέταξεν, ὧν ἐξεμπολουμένων ἄργυρός τε καὶ χρυσὸς ἐκομίζετο τῷ βασιλεῖ καὶ πολὺς ἐλέφας Αἰθίοπές τε καὶ πίθηκοι. τὸν δὲ πλοῦν ἀπιοῦσαί τε καὶ ἐπανερχόμεναι τρισὶν ἔτεσιν ἤνυον.

2. Now the weight of gold that was brought him was six hundred and sixty-six talents, not including in that sum what was brought by the merchants, nor what the toparchs and kings of Arabia gave him in presents. He also cast two hundred targets of gold, each of them weighing six hundred shekels. He also made three hundred shields, every one weighing three pounds of gold, and he had them carried and put into that house which was called The Forest of Lebanon. He also made cups of gold, and of [precious] stones, for the entertainment of his guests, and had them adorned in the most artificial manner; and he contrived that all his other furniture of vessels should be of gold, for there was nothing then to be sold or bought for silver; for the king had many ships which lay upon the sea of Tarsus, these he commanded to carry out all sorts of merchandise unto the remotest nations, by the sale of which silver and gold were brought to the king, and a great quantity of ivory, and Ethiopians, and apes; and they finished their voyage, going and returning, in three years' time.

[VII.iii.182] Tunc enim regis in lustris opinio omnes in circuitu prouincias circuibat uirtutem eius sapientiam ubique diuulgans, ita ut omnes undique reges desiderarent eius aspectum, propter increde[u]litatem rerum quae de eo auferebantur magnisque muneribus suum circa eum studium demonstrabant. Mittenbant ei itaque uasa aurea et argentea uestesque purpureas et aromatum genera multa, et curros et aequos et oneri genera mulas quae uirtute et pulchritudine regi placuerint, ita ut curribus et aequis pristinis ex his qui dirigebantur ad cresceret curruum numerus quadringentarum. Erant enim primitus mille et item aequi duo milia cum primitus fuissent uiginti milia. Nutriebantur autem ut essent pulchri pariter et curraces et conparatione facta nec decentiores alii nec uelociores inuenirentur. Exornabantur autem et ascensores eorum primum decora iuuentute florentes habentes magnam proceritatem et satis alios extendentes longamque diffundentes in aequo asessione caesariem ex purpura tyria ueste circum amici, aurique cincturam cotidie in suis comis adicientes ut eorum capita percussos ole auro radiante fulgerent. His circa eum armatis existentibus arcosque ferentibus rex uectus in curru, et alia ueste circum amictus solitus erat exire ad quendam locum qui ab hierosolimis duo funiculis abest. Uocatusque ita in hortis et aquarum rigationibus [98r] gratus et locuplex.

[182] Φήμη δὲ λαμπρὰ πᾶσαν ἐν κύκλῳ τὴν χώραν περιήρχετο διαβοῶσα τὴν Σολόμωνος ἀρετὴν καὶ σοφίαν, ὡς τούς τε πανταχοῦ βασιλεῖς ἐπιθυμεῖν εἰς ὄψιν αὐτῷ παραγενέσθαι τοῖς λεγομένοις δι᾽ ὑπερβολὴν ἀπιστοῦντας, καὶ δωρεαῖς μεγάλαις προσεμφανίζειν τὴν περὶ αὐτὸν σπουδήν: [183] ἔπεμπον γὰρ αὐτῷ σκεύη χρυσᾶ καὶ ἀργυρᾶ καὶ ἁλουργεῖς ἐσθῆτας καὶ ἀρωμάτων γένη πολλὰ καὶ ἵππους καὶ ἅρματα καὶ τῶν ἀχθοφόρων ἡμιόνων ὅσους καὶ ῥώμῃ καὶ κάλλει τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως ὄψιν εὖ διαθήσειν ἐπελέγοντο, ὥστε τοῖς οὖσιν αὐτῷ πρότερον ἅρμασι καὶ ἵπποις ἐκ τῶν πεμπομένων προσθέντα ποιῆσαι τὸν μὲν τῶν ἁρμάτων ἀριθμὸν τετρακοσίοις περισσότερον, ἦν γὰρ αὐτῷ πρότερον χίλια, τὸν δὲ τῶν ἵππων δισχιλίοις, ὑπῆρχον γὰρ αὐτῷ δισμύριοι ἵπποι. [184] ἤσκηντο δ᾽ οὗτοι πρὸς εὐμορφίαν καὶ τάχος, ὡς μήτ᾽ εὐπρεπεστέρους ἄλλους εἶναι συμβαλεῖν αὐτοῖς μήτε ὠκυτέρους, ἀλλὰ καλλίστους τε πάντων ὁρᾶσθαι καὶ ἀπαραμίλλητον αὐτῶν εἶναι τὴν ὀξύτητα. [185] ἐπεκόσμουν δὲ αὐτοὺς καὶ οἱ ἀναβαίνοντες νεότητι μὲν πρῶτον ἀνθοῦντες ἐπιτερπεστάτῃ τὸ δὲ ὕψος ὄντες περίοπτοι καὶ πολὺ τῶν ἄλλων ὑπερέχοντες, μηκίστας μὲν καθειμένοι χαίτας ἐνδεδυμένοι δὲ χιτῶνας τῆς Τυρίας πορφύρας. ψῆγμα δὲ χρυσοῦ καθ᾽ ἡμέραν αὐτῶν ἐπέσηθον ταῖς κόμαις, ὡς στίλβειν αὐτῶν τὰς κεφαλὰς τῆς αὐγῆς τοῦ χρυσοῦ πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον ἀντανακλωμένης. [186] τούτων περὶ αὐτὸν ὄντων ὁ βασιλεὺς καθωπλισμένων καὶ τόξα ἐξηρτημένων ἐφ᾽ ἅρματος αὐτὸς ὀχούμενος καὶ λευκὴν ἠμφιεσμένος ἐσθῆτα πρὸς αἰώραν ἔθος εἶχεν ἐξορμᾶν. ἦν δέ τι χωρίον ἀπὸ δύο σχοίνων Ἱεροσολύμων, ὃ καλεῖται μὲν Ἠτάν, παραδείσοις δὲ καὶ ναμάτων ἐπιρροαῖς ἐπιτερπὲς ὁμοῦ καὶ πλούσιον: εἰς τοῦτο τὰς ἐξόδους αἰωρούμενος ἐποιεῖτο.

3. Accordingly there went a great fame all around the neighboring countries, which proclaimed the virtue and wisdom of Solomon, insomuch that all the kings every where were desirous to see him, as not giving credit to what was reported, on account of its being almost incredible: they also demonstrated the regard they had for him by the presents they made him; for they sent him vessels of gold, and silver, and purple garments, and many sorts of spices, and horses, and chariots, and as many mules for his carriages as they could find proper to please the king's eyes, by their strength and beauty. This addition that he made to those chariots and horses which he had before from those that were sent him, augmented the number of his chariots by above four hundred, for he had a thousand before, and augmented the number of his horses by two thousand, for he had twenty thousand before. These horses also were so much exercised, in order to their making a fine appearance, and running swiftly, that no others could, upon the comparison, appear either finer or swifter; but they were at once the most beautiful of all others, and their swiftness was incomparable also. Their riders also were a further ornament to them, being, in the first place, young men in the most delightful flower of their age, and being eminent for their largeness, and far taller than other men. They had also very long heads of hair hanging down, and were clothed in garments of Tyrian purple. They had also dust of gold every day sprinkled on their hair, so that their heads sparkled with the reflection of the sun-beams from the gold. The king himself rode upon a chariot in the midst of these men, who were still in armor, and had their bows fitted to them. He had on a white garment, and used to take his progress out of the city in the morning. There was a certain place about fifty furlongs distant from Jerusalem, which is called Etham, very pleasant it is in fine gardens, and abounding in rivulets of water; thither did he use to go out in the morning, sitting on high [in his chariot.]

[VII.iv.187] Huc ergo causa delectationis egrediebatur maxima[s] res omni prouidentia et studio semper utens, et ubique cultus ac decoris et existens. Neque uiarum desidiam habuit, sed regias quae ad hierosolima ducerent. Lapide nigrostrauit ut etiam ambulantibus non possent esset difficiles et ostenderent diuitiarum et imperii dignitatem. Diuidens autem currus et disponens ut singulis ciuitatibus certus eorum numerus esset, paucos circa se quidem retinuit. Urbes autem ubi dispersi sunt ciuitates curruum nominauit. Argenti uero tantam multitudinem, fecit rex in hierosolimis habundare quanti erant et lapides. Sed et lignis cerdrinis quae primo non fuerant sicut arboribus campos iudeae ita compleuit. Iussit autem et negotiatoribus commertia ex aegypto de ferentibus ut uenderent ei currum cum duobus aequis dragmis argenti sexcentis quos ipse regibus syriae et trans eufraten habitantibus destinabat.

[187] Θείᾳ τε περὶ πάντα χρώμενος ἐπινοίᾳ τε καὶ σπουδῇ καὶ λίαν ὢν φιλόκαλος οὐδὲ τῶν ὁδῶν ἠμέλησεν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τούτων τὰς ἀγούσας εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα βασίλειον οὖσαν λίθῳ κατέστρωσε μέλανι, πρός τε τὸ ῥᾳστώνην εἶναι τοῖς βαδίζουσι, καὶ πρὸς τὸ δηλοῦν τὸ ἀξίωμα τοῦ πλούτου καὶ τῆς ἡγεμονίας. [188] διαμερίσας δὲ τὰ ἅρματα καὶ διατάξας, ὥστε ἐν ἑκάστῃ πόλει τούτων ἀριθμὸν ὡρισμένον ὑπάρχειν, αὐτὸς μὲν περὶ αὑτὸν ἐτήρησεν ὀλίγα, τὰς δὲ πόλεις ταύτας ἁρμάτων προσηγόρευσε. τοῦ δ᾽ ἀργυρίου τοσοῦτον ἐποιήσατο πλῆθος ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις ὁ βασιλεύς, ὅσον ἦν καὶ τῶν λίθων, καὶ τῶν κεδρίνων ξύλων οὐ πρότερον ὄντων, ὥσπερ καὶ τῶν δένδρων τῶν συκαμινίνων, ὧν πληθύει τὰ τῆς Ἰουδαίας πεδία. [189] προσέταξε δὲ καὶ τοῖς ἐμπόροις Αἰγύπτου κομίζουσιν αὐτῷ πιπράσκειν τὸ μὲν ἅρμα σὺν ἵπποις δυσὶν ἑξακοσίων δραχμῶν ἀργυρίου, αὐτὸς δὲ τοῖς τῆς Συρίας βασιλεῦσι καὶ τοῖς πέραν Εὐφράτου διέπεμπεν αὐτούς.

4. Now Solomon had a divine sagacity in all things, and was very diligent and studious to have things done after an elegant manner; so he did not neglect the care of the ways, but he laid a causeway of black stone along the roads that led to Jerusalem, which was the royal city, both to render them easy for travelers, and to manifest the grandeur of his riches and government. He also parted his chariots, and set them in a regular order, that a certain number of them should be in every city, still keeping a few about him; and those cities he called the cities of his chariots. And the king made silver as plentiful in Jerusalem as stones in the street; and so multiplied cedar trees in the plains of Judea, which did not grow there before, that they were like the multitude of common sycamore trees. He also ordained the Egyptian merchants that brought him their merchandise to sell him a chariot, with a pair of horses, for six hundred drachmae of silver, and he sent them to the kings of Syria, and to those kings that were beyond Euphrates.

[VII.v.190] Quidum fuisset omnium rerum gloriossimus et prudentia et diuitus excelleret uniuersos qui ante eum hebraeorum tenuerunt principatum non in his usque ad terminum uitae suae permansit quando relinquens sollemnium custodiam paternorum. Non fine simil iterum quas dauid conuersatus est, sed circa mulieres. Et ueneriam in temperantiam turpiter ex ardescens non prouincialium solum modo delectationem habuit foeminarum, sed etiam multas ex alienis gentibus duxit uxores sydonias et syrias et ammanitidas et idumaeas, et leges est praeuaricatus mosaytas quibus ille contradixit alienigenis mulieribus hebraeos debere miscere, et deos illarum coepit colere, e[u]t mulieribus earumque amori placuisset. Cum legislator praedixisset ne hebraeus alienae regionis uxores duceret, ne forte illarum solemnitatibus mixtus et deos earum colleret, et a ueneratione proprii dei pariter abstineret. Sed haec quidem dispexit salomon in rationabili amore constrictus, et ducens uxores principum insignium uirorum filias numero septuaginta, et trecenti concubinas: super has autem et filiam regis aegyptiorum, et repente captus ab eis est, ita ut earum sectaretur quoque culturas. Et ideo cogebatur fauoris sui eis praebere et delectationis indicia, ut more earum patria uiueret, et quae illis essent grata conpletere aetate, siquidem procedente, et ratione propter tempus pariter infirmante: cum iam non posse studia patria retinere deum quidem proprium duabus licite uxorum iugiter honorabat, sed etiam ante haec peccauerat et circa custodiam legum fuerat iam deceptus quando bouum aeneorum similitudines fecit quos in mare subiecit, et leonum quos in suo solio regali causa disposuit. Non enim haec facere fas erat, dum optimum et familiare paternae gloriae et uirtutis habuisset exemplum quod ei propter dei pietatem fuerat relictum. Hoc ergo non imitatus cum secundo eum deus per somnium patrem monuisset, sed qui in gloriam huius expers. Uenit ergo propheta missus a deo dicens, quia neque iniquitas eius lateret eum neque diu in his esset laetaturus, interminatus simul, quia ei quidem non auferret imperium quoniam dauid patri eius fuerat promissurus. Moriente uero citius filium hoc amittere non tamen omnem ab eo populo recessurum, sed quidem tribus eius traderet seruo. Duas autem nepoti dauid huius filio reseruaret, et propter illum qui diligit deum et propter hierosolimorum urbem in qua templum habere decreuit.

[190] Γενόμενος δὲ πάντων βασιλέων ἐνδοξότατος καὶ θεοφιλέστατος καὶ φρονήσει καὶ πλούτῳ διενεγκὼν τῶν πρὸ αὐτοῦ τὴν Ἑβραίων ἀρχὴν ἐσχηκότων οὐκ ἐπέμεινε τούτοις ἄχρι τελευτῆς, ἀλλὰ καταλιπὼν τὴν τῶν πατρίων ἐθισμῶν φυλακὴν οὐκ εἰς ὅμοιον οἷς προειρήκαμεν αὐτοῦ τέλος κατέστρεψεν, [191] εἰς δὲ γυναῖκας ἐκμανεὶς καὶ τὴν τῶν ἀφροδισίων ἀκρασίαν οὐ ταῖς ἐπιχωρίαις μόνον ἠρέσκετο, πολλὰς δὲ καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἀλλοτρίων ἐθνῶν γήμας Σιδωνίας καὶ Τυρίας καὶ Ἀμμανίτιδας καὶ Ἰδουμαίας παρέβη μὲν τοὺς Μωσήους νόμους, ὃς ἀπηγόρευσε συνοικεῖν ταῖς οὐχ ὁμοφύλοις, [192] τοὺς δ᾽ ἐκείνων ἤρξατο θρησκεύειν θεοὺς ταῖς γυναιξὶ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτὰς ἔρωτι χαριζόμενος, τοῦτ᾽ αὐτὸ ὑπιδομένου τοῦ νομοθέτου προειπόντος μὴ γαμεῖν τὰς ἀλλοτριοχώρους, ἵνα μὴ τοῖς ξένοις ἐπιπλακέντες ἔθεσι τῶν πατρίων ἀποστῶσι, μηδὲ τοὺς ἐκείνων σέβωνται θεοὺς παρέντες τιμᾶν τὸν ἴδιον. [193] ἀλλὰ τούτων μὲν κατημέλησεν ὑπενεχθεὶς εἰς ἡδονὴν ἀλόγιστον Σολόμων, ἀγαγόμενος δὲ γυναῖκας ἀρχόντων καὶ διασήμων θυγατέρας ἑπτακοσίας τὸν ἀριθμὸν καὶ παλλακὰς τριακοσίας, πρὸς δὲ ταύταις καὶ τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως τῶν Αἰγυπτίων θυγατέρα, εὐθὺς μὲν ἐκρατεῖτο πρὸς αὐτῶν, ὥστε μιμεῖσθαι τὰ παρ᾽ ἐκείναις, καὶ τῆς εὐνοίας καὶ φιλοστοργίας ἠναγκάζετο παρέχειν αὐταῖς δεῖγμα τὸ βιοῦν ὡς αὐταῖς πάτριον ἦν: [194] προβαινούσης δὲ τῆς ἡλικίας καὶ τοῦ λογισμοῦ διὰ τὸν χρόνον ἀσθενοῦντος ἀντέχειν πρὸς τὴν μνήμην τῶν ἐπιχωρίων ἐπιτηδευμάτων ἔτι μᾶλλον τοῦ μὲν ἰδίου θεοῦ κατωλιγώρησε, τοὺς δὲ τῶν γάμων τῶν ἐπεισάκτων τιμῶν διετέλει. [195] καὶ πρὸ τούτων δὲ ἁμαρτεῖν αὐτὸν ἔτυχε καὶ σφαλῆναι περὶ τὴν φυλακὴν τῶν νομίμων, ὅτε τὰ τῶν χαλκῶν βοῶν ὁμοιώματα κατεσκεύασε τῶν ὑπὸ τῇ θαλάττῃ τῷ ἀναθήματι καὶ τῶν λεόντων τῶν περὶ τὸν θρόνον τὸν ἴδιον: οὐδὲ γὰρ ταῦτα ποιεῖν ὅσιον εἰργάσατο. [196] κάλλιστον δ᾽ ἔχων καὶ οἰκεῖον παράδειγμα τῆς ἀρετῆς τὸν πατέρα καὶ τὴν ἐκείνου δόξαν, ἣν αὐτῷ συνέβη καταλιπεῖν διὰ τὴν πρὸς τὸν θεὸν εὐσέβειαν, οὐ μιμησάμενος αὐτὸν καὶ ταῦτα δὶς αὐτῷ τοῦ θεοῦ κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους φανέντος καὶ τὸν πατέρα μιμεῖσθαι παραινέσαντος ἀκλεῶς ἀπέθανεν. [197] ἧκεν οὖν εὐθὺς ὁ προφήτης ὑπὸ θεοῦ πεμφθεὶς οὔτε λανθάνειν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τοῖς παρανομήμασι λέγων οὔτ᾽ ἐπὶ πολὺ χαιρήσειν τοῖς πραττομένοις ἀπειλῶν, ἀλλὰ ζῶντος μὲν οὐκ ἀφαιρεθήσεσθαι τὴν βασιλείαν ἐπεὶ τῷ πατρὶ Δαυίδῃ τὸ θεῖον ὑπέσχετο διάδοχον αὐτὸν ποιήσειν ἐκείνου, [198] τελευτήσαντος δὲ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ταῦτα διαθήσειν οὐχ ἅπαντα μὲν τὸν λαὸν ἀποστήσας αὐτοῦ, δέκα δὲ φυλὰς παραδοὺς αὐτοῦ τῷ δούλῳ, δύο δὲ μόνας καταλιπὼν τῷ υἱωνῷ τῷ Δαυίδου δι᾽ αὐτὸν ἐκεῖνον, ὅτι τὸν θεὸν ἠγάπησε, καὶ διὰ τὴν πόλιν Ἱεροσόλυμα, ἐν ᾗ ναὸν ἔχειν ἠβουλήθη.

5. But although Solomon was become the most glorious of kings, and the best beloved by God, and had exceeded in wisdom and riches those that had been rulers of the Hebrews before him, yet did not he persevere in this happy state till he died. Nay, he forsook the observation of the laws of his fathers, and came to an end no way suitable to our foregoing history of him. He grew mad in his love of women, and laid no restraint on himself in his lusts; nor was he satisfied with the women of his country alone, but he married many wives out of foreign nations; Sidontans, and Tyrians, and Ammonites, and Edomites; and he transgressed the laws of Moses, which forbade Jews to marry any but those that were of their own people. He also began to worship their gods, which he did in order to the gratification of his wives, and out of his affection for them. This very thing our legislator suspected, and so admonished us beforehand, that we should not marry women of other countries, lest we should be entangled with foreign customs, and apostatize from our own; lest we should leave off to honor our own God, and should worship their gods. But Solomon was Gllen headlong into unreasonable pleasures, and regarded not those admonitions; for when he had married seven hundred wives, the daughters of princes and of eminent persons, and three hundred concubines, and those besides the king of Egypt's daughter, he soon was governed by them, till he came to imitate their practices. He was forced to give them this demonstration of his kindness and affection to them, to live according to the laws of their countries. And as he grew into years, and his reason became weaker by length of time, it was not sufficient to recall to his mind the institutions of his own country; so he still more and more contemned his own God, and continued to regard the gods that his marriages had introduced nay, before this happened, he sinned, and fell into an error about the observation of the laws, when he made the images of brazen oxen that supported the brazen sea, and the images of lions about his own throne; for these he made, although it was not agreeable to piety so to do; and this he did, notwithstanding that he had his father as a most excellent and domestic pattern of virtue, and knew what a glorious character he had left behind him, because of his piety towards God. Nor did he imitate David, although God had twice appeared to him in his sleep, and exhorted him to imitate his father. So he died ingloriously. There came therefore a prophet to him, who was sent by God, and told him that his wicked actions were not concealed from God; and threatened him that he should not long rejoice in what he had done; that, indeed, the kingdom should not be taken from him while he was alive, because God had promised to his father David that he would make him his successor, but that he would take care that this should befall his son when he was dead; not that he would withdraw all the people from him, but that he would give ten tribes to a servant of his, and leave only two tribes to David's grandson for his sake, because he loved God, and for the sake of the city of Jerusalem, wherein he should have a temple.

[] Haec audiens salomon contremuit et ualde turbatus est ex omnibus pene bonis in quibus erat repente mutatus non multo tempore trans eunte ex quo haec ei ipso uenire praedicta fuerant a propheta. Mox suscitauit super eum deus inmicum adherae nomine quarum inimicitiarum causa fuit huius modi, hic adher. Puer erat genere idum eus de semine regio natus, qui dum ioab princeps militiae dauid idumeam uastasset, et omnes qui armis uti poterant sex mensibus perimisset. Fugiens uenit ad pharaonem aegyptiorum regem qui eum magna largitate suscipiens deditque ei et domum et prouinciam habitandum. Et cum creuisset dilexit eum ita ut ei uxoris suae sororem nomine talphin daret uxorem ex qua natus ei filius inter filios regis est nutritus. Audiens ergo in aegypto dauid mortem pariter et ioab accedens faraonem ut eum ad propria remeare promitteret. Cumque requireret rex [98v] cur hoc peteret aut qui[d] passus eum relinquere festinaret, cum saepius ei inportunae et nimis insisteret atque rogabi[a]t. Tunc quidem dimissus non est, sed tempore quo iam salomon in malis erat propter praeuaricationes praedictas et dei pariter iram dimissus adher a pharaone uenit in idumeam. Et cum iam non potuisset eum salomon recollegeret quod multis praesidiis seruabatur recessit, facies eius inuasio surgens inde uenit in syriam. Iunctus autem illic cuidam raaz nomine qui regem sophenae ad raazarum dominum suum fugerat et prouinciam lacromiis deuastabat, eiusque amicitus maximam multitudinem ascendens et tendens syriam rex eius effectus est. Tunc quoque discurrens israhelitarum prounciam affligebat, et ad huc salomon uastabat, et haec quidem hebraeis prouenerunt adher.

[199] Ταῦτ᾽ ἀκούσας Σολόμων ἤλγησε καὶ σφοδρῶς συνεχύθη πάντων αὐτῷ σχεδὸν τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἐφ᾽ οἷς ζηλωτὸς ἦν εἰς μεταβολὴν ἐρχομένων πονηράν. οὐ πολὺς δὲ διῆλθε χρόνος ἀφ᾽ οὗ κατήγγειλεν ὁ προφήτης αὐτῷ τὰ συμβησόμενα καὶ πολέμιον εὐθὺς ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν ἤγειρεν ὁ θεὸς Ἄδερον μὲν ὄνομα τὴν δ᾽ αἰτίαν τῆς ἔχθρας λαβόντα τοιαύτην: [200] παῖς οὗτος ἦν Ἰδουμαῖος γένος ἐκ βασιλικῶν σπερμάτων. καταστρεψαμένου δὲ τὴν Ἰδουμαίαν Ἰωάβου τοῦ Δαυίδου στρατηγοῦ καὶ πάντας τοὺς ἐν ἀκμῇ καὶ φέρειν ὅπλα δυναμένους διαφθείραντος μησὶν ἕξ, φυγὼν ἧκε πρὸς Φαραῶνα τὸν Αἰγυπτίων βασιλέα. [201] ὁ δὲ φιλοφρόνως αὐτὸν δεξάμενος οἶκόν τε αὐτῷ δίδωσι καὶ χώραν εἰς διατροφὴν καὶ γενόμενον ἐν ἡλικίᾳ λίαν ἠγάπα, ὡς καὶ τῆς αὑτοῦ γυναικὸς αὐτῷ δοῦναι πρὸς γάμον τὴν ἀδελφὴν ὄνομα Θαφίνην, ἐξ ἧς αὐτῷ υἱὸς γενόμενος τοῖς τοῦ βασιλέως παισὶ συνετράφη. [202] ἀκούσας οὖν τὸν Δαυίδου θάνατον ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ καὶ τὸν Ἰωάβου προσελθὼν ἐδεῖτο τοῦ Φαραῶνος ἐπιτρέπειν αὐτῷ βαδίζειν εἰς τὴν πατρίδα. τοῦ δὲ βασιλέως ἀνακρίναντος, τίνος ἐνδεὴς ὢν ἢ τί παθὼν ἐσπούδακε καταλιπεῖν αὐτόν, ἐνοχλῶν πολλάκις καὶ παρακαλῶν τότε μὲν οὐκ ἀφείθη: [203] κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον δὲ τὸν καιρόν, καθ᾽ ὃν ἤδη Σολόμωνι τὰ πράγματα κακῶς ἔχειν ἤρχετο διὰ τὰς προειρημένας παρανομίας καὶ τὴν ὀργὴν τὴν ἐπ᾽ αὐτοῖς τοῦ θεοῦ, συγχωρήσαντος τοῦ Φαραῶνος ὁ Ἄδερος ἧκεν εἰς τὴν Ἰδουμαίαν: καὶ μὴ δυνηθεὶς αὐτὴν ἀποστῆσαι τοῦ Σολόμωνος, κατείχετο γὰρ φρουραῖς πολλαῖς καὶ οὐκ ἦν ἐλεύθερος δι᾽ αὐτὰς οὐδ᾽ ἐπ᾽ ἀδείας ὁ νεωτερισμός, ἄρας ἐκεῖθεν εἰς τὴν Συρίαν ἀφίκετο. [204] συμβαλὼν δὲ ἐκεῖ τινι Ῥάζῳ μὲν τοὔνομα τὸν δὲ τῆς Σωφηνῆς ἀποδεδρακότι βασιλέα Ἀδραάζαρον δεσπότην ὄντα καὶ λῃστεύοντι τὴν χώραν εἰς φιλίαν αὐτῷ συνάψας ἔχοντι περὶ αὑτὸν στῖφος λῃστρικὸν ἀναβαίνει, καὶ κατασχὼν τὴν ἐκεῖ Συρίαν βασιλεὺς αὐτῆς ἀποδείκνυται καὶ κατατρέχων τὴν τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν γῆν ἐποίει κακῶς καὶ διήρπαζε Σολόμωνος ζῶντος ἔτι. καὶ ταῦτα μὲν ἐκ τοῦ Ἀδέρου συνέβαινε πάσχειν τοῖς Ἑβραίοις.

6. When Solomon heard this he was grieved, and greatly confounded, upon this change of almost all that happiness which had made him to be admired, into so bad a state; nor had there much time passed after the prophet had foretold what was coming before God raised up an enemy against him, whose name was Ader, who took the following occasion of his enmity to him. He was a child of the stock of the Edomites, and of the blood royal; and when Joab, the captain of David's host, laid waste the land of Edom, and destroyed all that were men grown, and able to bear arms, for six months' time, this Hadad fled away, and came to Pharaoh the king of Egypt, who received him kindly, and assigned him a house to dwell in, and a country to supply him with food; and when he was grown up he loved him exceedingly, insomuch that he gave him his wife's sister, whose name was Tahpenes, to wife, by whom he had a son; who was brought up with the king's children. When Hadad heard in Egypt that both David and Joab were dead, he came to Pharaoh, and desired that he would permit him to go to his own country; upon which the king asked what it was that he wanted, and what hardship he had met with, that he was so desirous to leave him. And when he was often troublesome to him, and entreated him to dismiss him, he did not then do it; but at the time when Solomon's affairs began to grow worse, on account of his forementioned transgressions and God's anger against him for the same, Hadad, by Pharaoh's permission, came to Edom; and when he was not able to make the people forsake Solomon, for it was kept under by many garrisons, and an innovation was not to be made with safety, he removed thence, and came into Syria; there he lighted upon one Rezon, who had run away from Hadadezer, king of Zobah, his master, and was become a robber in that country, and joined friendship with him, who had already a band of robbers about him. So he went up, and seized upon that part of Syria, and was made king thereof. He also made incursions into the land of Israel, and did it no small mischief, and spoiled it, and that in the lifetime of Solomon. And this was the calamity which the Hebrews suffered by Hadad.

[VII.vii.205] Inter haec autem hieroboam filius nabathei surrexit contra salomonem, et quosdam contribulos suos secundum propebetiam olim sibimet dictam. His cum esset puer a patre de relictus et erudiretur a matre, uidens salomon robustum et nimis strenuum, eum super aedificium murorum esse construxit: quando munitione pro pugna culorum in hierosolimis fecit, qui ita in hoc opere laborauit ut rex eum ad probaret eique principatum militiae super tribus ioseph conferret. Illo siquidem tempore cum hieroboam uene[i]ri[e]t ierosolimis, occurrit et propheta de ciuitate silo nomine achia, quae[m] dum salutaret deflexit eum paulum extinere ad quendam locum ubi nullus alius interesset, et diuidens suum pallium quo erat indutus in duodecim partes iussit ut hieroboam decim ex his sumeret precedens quos deus haec uelit ut scisso principatu salomonis. Filium quidem eius propter promissionem dauid duas reliquerit tribus et illi decem quando salomon ineo peccasset ex mulieribus earumque diis se in prouise subdidisset. Sciens inquid causam pro qua deus suam dilectionem a salomone subtraxit. Esto iustus et eius custodi praecepta propositam habens palmam de pietate et honore dei praecipua. Talis utique futurus qualem nosti fuisse dauid.

[205] Ἐπιτίθεται δὲ Σολόμωνι καὶ τῶν ὁμοφύλων τις Ἱεροβόαμος υἱὸς Ναβαταίου κατὰ προφητείαν πάλαι γενομένην αὐτῷ τοῖς πράγμασιν ἐπελπίσας: παῖδα γὰρ αὐτὸν ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς καταλειφθέντα καὶ ὑπὸ τῇ μητρὶ παιδευόμενον ὡς εἶδε γενναῖον καὶ τολμηρὸν Σολόμων ὄντα τὸ φρόνημα τῆς τῶν τειχῶν οἰκοδομίας ἐπιμελητὴν κατέστησεν, ὅτε τοῖς Ἱεροσολύμοις τὸν κύκλον περιέβαλεν. [206] οὕτως δὲ τῶν ἔργων προενόησεν, ὥστε ὁ βασιλεὺς αὐτὸν ἀπεδέξατο καὶ γέρας αὐτῷ στρατηγίαν ἐπὶ τῆς Ἰωσήπου φυλῆς ἔδωκεν. ἀπερχομένῳ δὲ τῷ Ἱεροβοάμῳ κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρὸν ἐκ τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων συνεβόλησε προφήτης ἐκ πόλεως μὲν Σιλὼ Ἀχίας δὲ ὄνομα. καὶ προσαγορεύσας αὐτὸν ἀπήγαγεν ἐκ τῆς ὁδοῦ μικρὸν ἀπονεύσας εἴς τι χωρίον, εἰς ὃ παρῆν μηδὲ εἷς ἄλλος. [207] σχίσας δὲ εἰς δώδεκα φάρση τὸ ἱμάτιον, ὅπερ ἦν αὐτὸς περιβεβλημένος, ἐκέλευσε τὸν Ἱεροβόαμον λαβεῖν τὰ δέκα προσειπών, ὅτι ταῦτα ὁ θεὸς βούλεται καὶ σχίσας τὴν Σολόμωνος ἀρχὴν τῷ παιδὶ μὲν τῷ τούτου διὰ τὴν πρὸς Δαυίδην γεγενημένην ὁμολογίαν αὐτῷ μίαν φυλὴν καὶ τὴν ἑξῆς αὐτῇ δίδωσι, ‘σοὶ δὲ τὰς δέκα Σολόμωνος εἰς αὐτὸν ἐξαμαρτόντος καὶ ταῖς γυναιξὶ καὶ τοῖς ἐκείνων θεοῖς αὑτὸν ἐκδεδωκότος. [208] εἰδὼς οὖν τὴν αἰτίαν δι᾽ ἣν μετατίθησι τὴν αὑτοῦ γνώμην ἀπὸ Σολόμωνος ὁ θεὸς δίκαιος εἶναι πειρῶ καὶ φύλαττε τὰ νόμιμα, προκειμένου σοι τῆς εὐσεβείας καὶ τῆς πρὸς τὸν θεὸν τιμῆς ἄθλου μεγίστου τῶν ἁπάντων, γενήσεσθαι τηλικούτῳ ἡλίκον οἶσθα Δαυίδην γενόμενον.’

7. There was also one of Solomon's own nation that made an attempt against him, Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who had an expectation of rising, from a prophecy that had been made to him long before. He was left a child by his father, and brought up by his mother; and when Solomon saw that he was of an active and bold disposition, he made him the curator of the walls which he built round about Jerusalem; and he took such care of those works, that the king approved of his behavior, and gave him, as a reward for the same, the charge of the tribe of Joseph. And when about that time Jeroboam was once going out of Jerusalem, a prophet of the city Shilo, whose name was Ahijah, met him and saluted him; and when he had taken him a little aside to a place out of the way, where there was not one other person present, he rent the garment he had on into twelve pieces, and bid Jeroboam take ten of them; and told him beforehand, that "this is the will of God; he will part the dominion of Solomon, and give one tribe, with that which is next it, to his son, because of the promise made to David for his succession, and will have ten tribes to thee, because Solomon hath sinned against him, and delivered up himself to women, and to their gods. Seeing therefore thou knowest the cause for which God hath changed his mind, and is alienated from Solomon, be thou righteous and keep the laws, because he hath proposed to thee the greatest of all rewards for thy piety, and the honor thou shalt pay to God, namely, to be as greatly exalted as thou knowest David to have been."

[VII.viii.209] Elatus itaque hieroboam prophetae sermonibus cum esset natura iuuenis feruentis simus et rerum grandium petitus in mensus non quiescebat. Sed cum uenisset ad exercitum habens memoriam eorum quae ei dixerat achias repente missus est populo suadere ut salomone recederet, et regnum ei contradideri[e]t. Cognoscens salomon eius uoluntatem et dolum quaerebat ut eum conpraehendens uelociter interimeret. Quod dum cognouisset hieroboam fugit adirach aegyptiorum regem usque ad salomonis obitum, ubi moratus est nec quid peteretur lucratus et futuro seruandus imperio. Mortuus est itaque salomon ualde longeuus qui regnauit quidem annis octoginta. Uixit autem quattuor et nonaginta. Et sepultus est in hierosolimis cunctos felicitate et prudentia et diuitiis reges excellens praeter illa in quibus circa senectutem deceptus mulierum ardorem praeuaricatus est de quibus et de malis quae propter ea prouenerunt hebraeis oportunius explanabo.

[209] Ἐπαρθεὶς οὖν τοῖς τοῦ προφήτου λόγοις Ἱεροβόαμος φύσει θερμὸς ἂν νεανίας καὶ μεγάλων ἐπιθυμητὴς πραγμάτων οὐκ ἠρέμει. γενόμενος δ᾽ ἐν τῇ στρατηγίᾳ καὶ μεμνημένος τῶν ὑπὸ Ἀχία δεδηλωμένων εὐθὺς ἀναπείθειν ἐπεχείρει τὸν λαὸν ἀφίστασθαι Σολόμωνος καὶ κινεῖν καὶ παράγειν εἰς αὑτὸν τὴν ἡγεμονίαν. [210] μαθὼν δὲ τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν ἐπιβολὴν Σολόμων ἐζήτει συλλαβὼν αὐτὸν ἀνελεῖν. φθάσας δὲ γνῶναι τοῦτο Ἱεροβόαμος πρὸς Ἴσακον φεύγει τὸν Αἰγυπτίων βασιλέα, καὶ μέχρι τῆς Σολόμωνος τελευτῆς ἐκεῖ μείνας τό τε μηδὲν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ παθεῖν ἐκέρδησε καὶ τὸ τῇ βασιλείᾳ φυλαχθῆναι. [211] ἀποθνήσκει δὲ Σολόμων ἤδη γηραιὸς ὢν βασιλεύσας μὲν ὀγδοήκοντα ἔτη, ζήσας δὲ ἐνενήκοντα καὶ τέσσαρα: θάπτεται δὲ ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις ἅπαντας ὑπερβαλὼν εὐδαιμονίᾳ τε καὶ πλούτῳ καὶ φρονήσει τοὺς βασιλεύσαντας, εἰ μὴ ὅσα γε πρὸς τὸ γῆρας ὑπὸ τῶν γυναικῶν ἀπατηθεὶς παρηνόμησε: περὶ ὧν καὶ τῶν δι᾽ αὐτὰς κακῶν συμπεσόντων Ἑβραίοις εὐκαιρότερον ἕξομεν διασαφῆσαι.

8. So Jeroboam was elevated by these words of the prophet; and being a young man, of a warm temper, and ambitious of greatness, he could not be quiet; and when he had so great a charge in the government, and called to mind what had been revealed to him by Ahijah, he endeavored to persuade the people to forsake Solomon, to make a disturbance, and to bring the government over to himself. But when Solomon understood his intention and treachery, he sought to catch him and kill him; but Jeroboam was informed of it beforehand, and fled to Shishak, the king of Egypt, and there abode till the death of Solomon; by which means he gained these two advantages to suffer no harm from Solomon, and to be preserved for the kingdom. So Solomon died when he was already an old man, having reigned eighty years, and lived ninety-four. He was buried in Jerusalem, having been superior to all other kings in happiness, and riches, and wisdom, excepting that when he was growing into years he was deluded by women, and transgressed the law; concerning which transgressions, and the miseries which befell the Hebrews thereby, I think proper to discourse at another opportunity.



CHAPTER 8. How, Upon The Death Of Solomon The People Forsook His Son Rehoboam, And Ordained Jeroboam King Over The Ten Tribes.

[VIII.i.212] Post mortem uero salomonis in eius regno filio succedente roboam ex muliere ammanitide, noomas nomine procreato repente miserunt in aegyptum principes populi, et euocauerunt hieroboam, qui dum uenisset ad eos in ciuitate sicimorum etiam hieroboam uenit in eam. Placuerat enim ut illic uenientes israhelitae eum constituerent regem. Ad euntes ergo eum principes populi simul et hieroboam rogabant dicentes ut aliquid eis deseruitione relaxaret et melior esset appatre cuius fuerant praegrauati, ut ipsi deuitiores essent, et propter mansuetudinem potius quam timore ei seruire diligerent. Qui dum post tres dies responsurum se eorum petitionibus dixisset, mox quidem eos suspectos fecit. Cur non repente quae petebatur annuerit nam rem bonam et humanam esset iudicabant et magis in iuuene. Tamen et ineo quod cogitare se dixerat, et non repente negauerat spem aliquam faciebat.

[212] Μετὰ δὲ τὴν Σολόμωνος τελευτὴν διαδεξαμένου τοῦ παιδὸς αὐτοῦ τὴν βασιλείαν Ῥοβοάμου, ὃς ἐκ γυναικὸς Ἀμμανίτιδος ὑπῆρχεν αὐτῷ γεγονὼς Νοομᾶς τοὔνομα, πέμψαντες εὐθὺς εἰς τὴν Αἴγυπτον οἱ τῶν ὄχλων ἄρχοντες ἐκάλουν τὸν Ἱεροβόαμον. ἀφικομένου δὲ πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἰς Σίκιμα πόλιν καὶ Ῥοβόαμος εἰς αὐτὴν παραγίνεται: δέδοκτο γὰρ αὐτὸν ἐκεῖσε συνελθοῦσι τοῖς Ἰσραηλίταις ἀποδεῖξαι βασιλέα. [213] προσελθόντες οὖν οἵ τε ἄρχοντες αὐτῷ τοῦ λαοῦ καὶ Ἱεροβόαμος παρεκάλουν λέγοντες ἀνεῖναί τι τῆς δουλείας αὐτοῖς καὶ γενέσθαι χρηστότερον τοῦ πατρός: βαρὺν γὰρ ὑπ᾽ ἐκείνῳ ζυγὸν αὐτοὺς ὑπενεγκεῖν: εὐνούστεροι δὲ ἔσεσθαι πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ ἀγαπήσειν τὴν δουλείαν διὰ τὴν ἐπιείκειαν ἢ διὰ τὸν φόβον. [214] ὁ δὲ μετὰ τρεῖς ἡμέρας εἰπὼν αὐτοῖς ἀποκρινεῖσθαι περὶ ὧν ἀξιοῦσιν ὕποπτος μὲν εὐθὺς γίνεται μὴ παραχρῆμα ἐπινεύσας αὐτοῖς τὰ πρὸς ἡδονήν, πρόχειρον γὰρ ἠξίουν εἶναι τὸ χρηστὸν καὶ φιλάνθρωπον καὶ ταῦτ᾽ ἐν νέῳ, ἐδόκει δ᾽ ὅμως καὶ τὸ βουλεύσασθαι τοῦ μὴ παραυτίκα ἀπειπεῖν ἀγαθῆς ἐλπίδος ἔχεσθαι.

1. Now when Solomon was dead, and his son Rehoboam [who was born of an Amntonite wife; whose name was Naamah] had succeeded him in the kingdom, the rulers of the multitude sent immediately into Egypt, and called back Jeroboam; and when he was come to them, to the city Shethem, Rehoboam came to it also, for he had resolved to declare himself king to the Israelites while they were there gathered together. So the rulers of the people, as well as Jeroboam, came to him, and besought him, and said that he ought to relax, and to be gentler than his father, in the servitude he had imposed on them, because they had borne a heavy yoke, and that then they should be better affected to him, and be well contented to serve him under his moderate government, and should do it more out of love than fear. But Rehoboam told them they should come to him again in three days' time, when he would give an answer to their request. This delay gave occasion to a present suspicion, since he had not given them a favorable answer to their mind immediately; for they thought that he should have given them a humane answer off-hand, especially since he was but young. However, they thought that this consultation about it, and that he did not presently give them a denial, afforded them some good hope of success.

[VIII.ii.215] Quicum uocatis paternis amicis tractabat cum eis [99r] qualem deberet populo praebere responsum. Illi uero quae deuoti facerent naturam utique uulgi scientes monebant ut mansuete loqueretur ad populum et communius quam regius exigeret fastus. Ut ita faborem sibimet obligaret deum naturaliter diligebant subiecti mansuetudinem regum quam communionem. Tunc ille optimo consilio seniorum relicto quid oporteret fieri iuuenes exquisiuit. Illi uero cum neque iuuentus neque deus meliora eos tractare permitteret, monuerunt ut asperius responderet ad populum, et inferiorem suum digitum lumbis paternis diceret uastiorem, et seueritatem quam fuerant in illo conperti in se multo potiorem agnosceret. In his delectatus rex et credens dignitate regiae conuenire responsum, dum die tertio plebs auditurua uenisset, et omnis populus uideretur suspensus esse et uerba regis audiret. Credens aliquid fore clementius, relinquens ille consilium seniorum respondit adulescentium. Haec autem dei uoluntatem gerebantur et quae praedixerat achias perducerentur ad terminum.

[215] Συγκαλέσας δὲ τοὺς πατρῴους φίλους ἐσκοπεῖτο μετ᾽ αὐτῶν, ποδαπὴν δεῖ ποιήσασθαι τὴν ἀπόκρισιν πρὸς τὸ πλῆθος. οἱ δ᾽ ἅπερ εἰκὸς τοὺς εὔνους καὶ φύσιν ὄχλων εἰδότας παρῄνουν αὐτῷ φιλοφρόνως ὁμιλῆσαι τῷ λαῷ καὶ δημοτικώτερον ἢ κατὰ βασιλείας ὄγκον: χειρώσεσθαι γὰρ οὕτως εἰς εὔνοιαν αὐτὸν φύσει τῶν ὑπηκόων ἀγαπώντων τὸ προσηνὲς καὶ παρὰ μικρὸν ἰσότιμον τῶν βασιλέων. [216] ὁ δ᾽ ἀγαθὴν οὕτως καὶ συμφέρουσαν ἴσως πρὸς τὸ πᾶν, εἰ δὲ μή, πρός γε τὸν τότε καιρὸν ὅτ᾽ ἔδει γενέσθαι βασιλέα γνώμην ἀπεστράφη τοῦ θεοῦ ποιήσαντος οἶμαι κατακριθῆναι τὸ συμφέρον ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ: καλέσας δὲ μειράκια τὰ συντεθραμμένα καὶ τὴ&##957; τῶν πρεσβυτέρων αὐτοῖς συμβουλίαν εἰπών, τί δοκεῖ ποιεῖν αὐτοῖς ἐκέλευσε λέγειν. [217] τὰ δέ, οὔτε γὰρ ἡ νεότης οὔτε ὁ θεὸς ἠφίει νοεῖν τὰ κρείττω, παρῄνεσαν ἀποκρίνασθαι τῷ λαῷ τὸν βραχύτατον αὐτοῦ δάκτυλον τῆς τοῦ πατρὸς ὀσφύος εἶναι παχύτερον καί, εἰ σκληροῦ λίαν ἐπειράθησαν ἐκείνου, πολὺ μᾶλλον αὐτοῦ λήψεσθαι πεῖραν δυσκόλου: καὶ εἰ μάστιξιν αὐτοὺς ἐκεῖνος ἐνουθέτει, σκορπίοις τοῦτο ποιήσειν αὐτὸν προσδοκᾶν. [218] τούτοις ἡσθεὶς ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ δόξας προσήκειν τῷ τῆς ἀρχῆς ἀξιώματι τὴν ἀπόκρισιν, ὡς συνῆλθεν ἀκουσόμενον τὸ πλῆθος τῇ τρίτῃ τῶν ἡμερῶν, μετεώρου τοῦ λαοῦ παντὸς ὄντος καὶ λέγοντος ἀκοῦσαί τι τοῦ βασιλέως ἐσπουδακότος, οἰομένου δέ τι καὶ φιλάνθρωπον, τὴν τῶν μειρακίων αὐτοῖς συμβουλίαν παρεὶς τὴν τῶν φίλων ἀπεκρίνατο. ταῦτα δ᾽ ἐπράττετο κατὰ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ βούλησιν, ἵνα λάβῃ τέλος ἃ προεφήτευσεν Ἀχίας.

2. Rehoboam now called his father's friends, and advised with them what sort of answer he ought to give to the multitude; upon which they gave him the advice which became friends, and those that knew the temper of such a multitude. They advised him to speak in a way more popular than suited the grandeur of a king, because he would thereby oblige them to submit to him with goodwill, it being most agreeable to subjects that their kings should be almost upon the level with them. But Rehoboam rejected this so good, and in general so profitable, advice, [it was such, at least, at that time when he was to be made king,] God himself, I suppose, causing what was most advantageous to be condemned by him. So he called for the young men who were brought up with him, and told them what advice the elders had given him, and bade them speak what they thought he ought to do. They advised him to give the following answer to the people [for neither their youth nor God himself suffered them to discern what was best]: That his little finger should be thicker than his father's loins; and if they had met with hard usage from his father, they should experience much rougher treatment from him; and if his father had chastised them with whips, they must expect that he would do it with scorpions. The king was pleased with this advice, and thought it agreeable to the dignity of his government to give them such an answer. Accordingly, when the multitude was come together to hear his answer on the third day, all the people were in great expectation, and very intent to hear what the king would say to them, and supposed they should hear somewhat of a kind nature; but he passed by his friends, and answered as the young men had given him counsel. Now this was done according to the will of God, that what Ahijah had foretold might come to pass.

[VIII.iii.219] Tunc ergo cuncti eius sermonibus uelud opere percussi et dolentes quasi iam experimento ipsarum rerum quae dicebantur afficerentur indignati sunt. Et omnes pariter uoce magna clamaerunt nihil sibi post illum diem esse commune ad genus dauid uel qui erant ex eo progeniti, sed solum templum ei credere quod pater eius aedificasset eumque se interminati sunt relicturum, et sic amari iracundia seruauerunt ut dum misisset rex roboam quendam nomine adoram super tributa constitutum qui eos aliquo modo mitigaret, et sermones qui petulantes ab aetate iuuenili prolati fuerant ad concordiam reuori passi non sunt sed eum lapidantes interimerunt. Quod dum uenisset ad roboam credens quoque se lapidandum metuens ne et ipse te aliquid sustineret, ascendens in curru fugiens mox uenit in hierosolima, et tribus quidem iuda simul et beniamin eum constituerunt regem. Reliqua uero plebs illa die recedens a filiis dauid dominum uero hieroboam constituit. Roboam uero filius salomonis conuentum factum duarum tribum inquit regnabat sumens ex eis electos milites centum et octoginta milia uirorum contra hieroboam et contra populum dimicare cogitabat quatenus eum subdiderit sibi bellum seruitium, prohibitus est a deo per prophetam rameum ut bellum inferret eisque dicebat, non esse iustum aduersus contribulos dimicarent, eum ab eo dei uoluntate populus recessisset. Quo facto nequaquam est egressus ad praelium. Diuisos quidem regno potius quidem narrabo quaecumque hieroboam israhelitarum rex egit. Deinde quae ad roboam duarum tribuum rege gesta sunt explanabo. Sic et enim totius historiae ordo seruabitur.

[219] Πληγέντες δ᾽ ὑπὸ τῶν λόγων καὶ ἀλγήσαντες ὡς ἐπὶ πείρᾳ τοῖς εἰρημένοις ἠγανάκτησαν καὶ μέγα πάντες ἐκβοήσαντες οὐκέτι οὐδὲν αὐτοῖς οὐδὲ συγγενὲς πρὸς Δαυίδην καὶ τοὺς ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ μετ᾽ ἐκείνην ἔφασαν τὴν ἡμέραν: παραχωρεῖν δ᾽ αὐτῷ μόνον τὸν ναὸν ὃν ὁ πάππος αὐτοῦ κατεσκεύασεν εἰπόντες καταλείψειν ἠπείλησαν. [220] οὕτως δ᾽ ἔσχον πικρῶς καὶ τὴν ὀργὴν ἐτήρησαν, ὡς πέμψαντος αὐτοῦ τὸν ἐπὶ τῶν φόρων Ἀδώραμον, ἵνα καταπραΰνῃ καὶ συγγνόντας τοῖς εἰρημένοις, εἴ τι προπετὲς καὶ δύσκολον ἦν ἐν αὐτοῖς, ποιήσῃ μαλακωτέρους, οὐχ ὑπέμειναν, ἀλλὰ βάλλοντες αὐτὸν λίθοις ἀπέκτειναν. [221] ταῦτ᾽ ἰδὼν Ῥοβόαμος καὶ νομίσας αὑτὸν βεβλῆσθαι τοῖς λίθοις, οἷς τὸν ὑπηρέτην ἀπέκτεινεν αὐτοῦ τὸ πλῆθος, δείσας μὴ καὶ ἔργῳ πάθῃ τὸ δεινὸν ἐπιβὰς εὐθὺς ἐπὶ ἅρματος ἔφυγεν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα. καὶ ἡ μὲν Ἰούδα φυλὴ καὶ ἡ Βενιαμίδος χειροτονοῦσιν αὐτὸν βασιλέα, τὸ δὲ ἄλλο πλῆθος ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνης τῆς ἡμέρας τῶν Δαυίδου παίδων ἀποστὰν τὸν Ἱεροβόαμον ἀπέδειξε τῶν πραγμάτων κύριον. [222] Ῥοβόαμος δὲ ὁ Σολόμωνος παῖς ἐκκλησίαν ποιήσας τῶν δύο φυλῶν, ἃς εἶχεν ὑπηκόους, οἷός τε ἦν λαβὰν ὀκτωκαίδεκα παρ᾽ αὐτῶν στρατοῦ μυριάδας ἐπιλέκτους ἐξελθεῖν ἐπὶ τὸν Ἱεροβόαμον καὶ τὸν λαόν, ὅπως πολεμήσας ἀναγκάσῃ δουλεύειν αὐτῷ. [223] κωλυθεὶς δ᾽ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ διὰ τοῦ προφήτου ποιήσασθαι τὴν στρατείαν, οὐ γὰρ εἶναι δίκαιον τοὺς ὁμοφύλους πολεμεῖν οὗτος ἔλεγε καὶ ταῦτα κατὰ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ προαίρεσιν τῆς τοῦ πλήθους ἀποστάσεως γεγενημένης, οὐκέτ᾽ ἐξῆλθε. [224] διηγήσομαι δὲ πρῶτον ὅσα Ἱεροβόαμος ὁ τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν βασιλεὺς ἔπραξεν, εἶτα δὲ τούτων ἐχόμενα τὰ ὑπὸ Ῥοβοάμου τοῦ τῶν δύο φυλῶν βασιλέως γεγενημένα δηλώσομεν: φυλαχθείη γὰρ ἂν οὕτως ἄχρι παντὸς τῆς ἱστορίας τὸ εὔτακτον.

3. By these words the people were struck as it were by all iron hammer, and were so grieved at the words, as if they had already felt the effects of them; and they had great indignation at the king; and all cried out aloud, and said, "We will have no longer any relation to David or his posterity after this day." And they said further, "We only leave to Rehoboam the temple which his father built;" and they threatened to forsake him. Nay, they were so bitter, and retained their wrath so long, that when he sent Adoram, which was over the tribute, that he might pacify them, and render them milder, and persuade them to forgive him, if he had said any thing that was rash or grievous to them in his youth, they would not hear it, but threw stones at him, and killed him. When Rehoboam saw this, he thought himself aimed at by those stones with which they had killed his servant, and feared lest he should undergo the last of punishments in earnest; so he got immediately into his chariot, and fled to Jerusalem, where the tribe of Judah and that of Benjamin ordained him king; but the rest of the multitude forsook the sons of David from that day, and appointed Jeroboam to be the ruler of their public affairs. Upon this Rehoboam, Solomon's son, assembled a great congregation of those two tribes that submitted to him, and was ready to take a hundred and eighty thousand chosen men out of the army, to make an expedition against Jeroboam and his people, that he might force them by war to be his servants; but he was forbidden of God by the prophet [Shemaiah] to go to war, for that it was not just that brethren of the same country should fight one against another. He also said that this defection of the multitude was according to the purpose of God. So he did not proceed in this expedition. And now I will relate first the actions of Jeroboam the king of Israel, after which we will relate what are therewith connected, the actions of Rehoboam, the king of the two tribes; by this means we shall preserve the good order of the history entire.

[VIII.iv.225] Igitur hieroboam constitus in sicimorum ciuitate: fecit non multum post scenophegiae festiuitatis immineret: cogitans hieroboam quia si promitteret populo ut dominum in hierosolimis adorare pergens et festiuitatem illic sollempniter agens penitentia duceretur, et propter templum et propter dei religionem, forsitan et metuens ne eum quidem relinqueret, ad regem uero pristinum remearet, et ob hoc mortis pericula sibimet in mineret, opus hoc malignum sua cogitatione molitus est. Fecitque duas uitulas aureas et totidem templa construxit. Unum quidem in ciuitate bethleem, alium uero circa dadan, quae ad fontes iordanis minoris uidetur existere. Posuitque uitulas in templis quas praediximus ciuitatum, ex inuocans decem tribus quibus ipse regnabat, his uerbis cognitionem fecit ad populum. Uere contribulibus nosse uos puto quod omnis locus habeat deum, et non ostendetur locus in quo propriae praesens est, sed ubique semper exaudit et cultores suos intendit. Unde non mihi uidetur necessitatem uos pati ad hierosolima properandi, ad hostium itaque ciuitatem et ut adoretis deum longo itinere fatigare. Homo enim illi aedificauit templum et ego feci duas uitulas [99v] aureas deo aequi uocans, quarum unam quidem in bethleem ciuitatem dedicaui alia uero in dan urbem constitui, quatenus qui cumque uestrum eis urbibus sunt uicinia adorent in eis deum. Constituamque ex uobis ipsis sacerdotes earum atque leuitis, ut tribu leui nequaquam neque aaron filiis egeatis. Sed qui uoluerit uester esse sacerdos offeret uitulum deo et arietem unum, quod et primum pontificem aaron fecisse dicunt. Quod dum dixisset sed uxit populum ut a patria religione recedens praeuaricaretur leges. Hoc itaque hebraeis malorum fuit initium et qui iuncta deficerant proeliis in alienigenarum sunt dicione subiecti, sed quidem oportune narrabimus.

[225] Ὁ τοίνυν Ἱεροβόαμος οἰκοδομήσας βασίλειον ἐν Σικίμῃ πόλει ἐν ταύτῃ τὴν δίαιταν εἶχε, κατεσκεύασε δὲ καὶ ἐν Φανουὴλ πόλει λεγομένῃ. μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺ δὲ τῆς σκηνοπηγίας ἑορτῆς ἐνίστασθαι μελλούσης λογισάμενος, ὡς ἐὰν ἐπιτρέψῃ τῷ πλήθει προσκυνῆσαι τὸν θεὸν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα πορευθέντι καὶ ἐκεῖ τὴν ἑορτὴν διαγαγεῖν, μετανοῆσαν ἴσως καὶ δελεασθὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ ναοῦ καὶ τῆς θρησκείας τῆς ἐν αὐτῷ τοῦ θεοῦ καταλείψει μὲν αὐτόν, προσχωρήσει δὲ τῷ πρώτῳ βασιλεῖ, καὶ κινδυνεύσει τούτου γενομένου τὴν ψυχὴν ἀποβαλεῖν, ἐπιτεχνᾶταί τι τοιοῦτον: [226] δύο ποιήσας δαμάλεις χρυσᾶς καὶ οἰκοδομήσας ναΐσκους τοσούτους ἕνα μὲν ἐν Βηθήλῃ πόλει, τὸν ἕτερον δὲ ἐν Δάνῃ, ἡ δ᾽ ἐστὶ πρὸς ταῖς πηγαῖς τοῦ μικροῦ Ἰορδάνου, τίθησι τὰς δαμάλεις ἐν ἑκατέρῳ τῶν ἐν ταῖς προειρημέναις πόλεσι ναΐσκων, καὶ συγκαλέσας τὰς δέκα φυλὰς ὧν αὐτὸς ἦρχεν ἐδημηγόρησε τούτους ποιησάμενος τοὺς λόγους: [227] ‘ἄνδρες ὁμόφυλοι, γινώσκειν ὑμᾶς νομίζω τοῦτο, ὅτι πᾶς τόπος ἔχει τὸν θεὸν καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἓν ἀποδεδειγμένον χωρίον ἐν ᾧ πάρεστιν, ἀλλὰ πανταχοῦ τε ἀκούει καὶ τοὺς θρησκεύοντας ἐφορᾷ. ὅθεν οὔ μοι δοκεῖ νῦν ἐπείγειν ὑμᾶς εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα πορευθέντας εἰς τὴν τῶν ἐχθρῶν πόλιν μακρὰν οὕτως ὁδὸν προσκυνεῖν: [228] ἄνθρωπος γὰρ κατεσκεύακε τὸν ναόν, πεποίηκα δὲ κἀγὼ δύο χρυσᾶς δαμάλεις ἐπωνύμους τῷ θεῷ καὶ τὴν μὲν ἐν Βηθήλῃ πόλει καθιέρωσα τὴν δ᾽ ἐν Δάνῃ, ὅπως ὑμῶν οἱ τούτων ἔγγιστα τῶν πόλεων κατῳκημένοι προσκυνῶσιν εἰς αὐτὰς ἀπερχόμενοι τὸν θεόν. ἀποδείξω δέ τινας ὑμῖν καὶ ἱερεῖς ἐξ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν καὶ Ληουίτας, ἵνα μὴ χρείαν ἔχητε τῆς Ληουίτιδος φυλῆς καὶ τῶν υἱῶν Ἀαρῶνος, ἀλλ᾽ ὁ βουλόμενος ὑμῶν ἱερεὺς εἶναι προσενεγκάτω μόσχον τῷ θεῷ καὶ κριόν, ὃ καὶ τὸν πρῶτον ἱερέα φασὶν Ἀαρῶνα πεποιηκέναι.’ [229] ταῦτ᾽ εἰπὼν ἐξηπάτησε τὸν λαὸν καὶ τῆς πατρίου θρησκείας ἀποστάντας ἐποίησε παραβῆναι τοὺς νόμους. ἀρχὴ κακῶν ἐγένετο τοῦτο τοῖς Ἑβραίοις καὶ τοῦ πολέμῳ κρατηθέντας ὑπὸ τῶν ἀλλοφύλων αἰχμαλωσίᾳ περιπεσεῖν. ἀλλὰ ταῦτα μὲν κατὰ χώραν δηλώσομεν.

4. When therefore Jeroboam had built him a palace in the city Shechem, he dwelt there. He also built him another at Penuel, a city so called. And now the feast of tabernacles was approaching in a little time, Jeroboam considered, that if he should permit the multitude to go to worship God at Jerusalem, and there to celebrate the festival, they would probably repent of what they had done, and be enticed by the temple, and by the worship of God there performed, and would leave him, and return to their first kings; and if so, he should run the risk of losing his own life; so he invented this contrivance; He made two golden heifers, and built two little temples for them, the one in the city Bethel, and the other in Dan, which last was at the fountains of the Lesser Jordan and he put the heifers into both the little temples, in the forementioned cities. And when he had called those ten tribes together over whom he ruled, he made a speech to the people in these words: "I suppose, my countrymen, that you know this, that every place hath God in it; nor is there any one determinate place in which he is, but he every where hears and sees those that worship him; on which account I do not think it right for you to go so long a journey to Jerusalem, which is an enemy's city, to worship him. It was a man that built the temple: I have also made two golden heifers, dedicated to the same God; and the one of them I have consecrated in the city Bethel, and the other in Dan, to the end that those of you that dwell nearest those cities may go to them, and worship God there; and I will ordain for you certain priests and Levites from among yourselves, that you may have no want of the tribe of Levi, or of the sons of Aaron; but let him that is desirous among you of being a priest, bring to God a bullock and a ram, which they say Aaron the first priest brought also." When Jeroboam had said this, he deluded the people, and made them to revolt from the worship of their forefathers, and to transgress their laws. This was the beginning of miseries to the Hebrews, and the cause why they were overcome in war by foreigners, and so fell into captivity. But we shall relate those things in their proper places hereafter.

[VIII.v.230] Igitur dum instaret septimo mense festiuitas uolens ipse eam ita in bethleem agere secutae duae tribus in hierosolimis caelebrant. Ante uitulum quidem aedificauit altare, et ipse pontifex factus cum sacerdotibus ad altare conscendit. Cumque esset hostias et holocausta coram populis ablaturus, uenit ad eum ex hierosolimis propheta nomine ladan missus a deo qui stans in medio multitudine suadente etiam rege faciens ad altare sermones. Dum inquit futurum quendam esse perdicit ex genere dauid nomine iosiam qui temporis supra te falsos perimat sacerdotes, sed etiam osso horum populorum seducentiam et errorum eorum et impiorum super te tunc simul exurat, ut tamen isti hoc futurum signum eis hoc praedico faciendum. Subito enim rumpitur hoc altare et omnis pinguedo sacrificiorum super posita fundetur in terra. Haec dicente propheta indignatus hieroboam manum extendit praecipiens eum continuo conpraehendi. Cuius manus mox affecta est, nec ualuit eam ad se denuo reuocare, sed habuit marci dam et solutam. Ruptumque est repente sacrarium, et sicut propheta praedixerat cuncta diffusa sunt. Cumque uideret ueracem hominem et prasentiam diuinam habere cognosceret, rogabit ut supplicaret deo quatenus eius dextera curaretur. Quo rogante deum manum sibi naturaliter restitutam gaudebat, prophetamque rogabat enixe ut eius conuiuiis inter esset. Iadan uero dixit non se pati ut ingrederetur ad eum nec panem antea quam in ciuitate gustaret hoc sibi praeceptum a deo dicens, ut etiam et alio quam unde uenerat itinere remearet. Huius igitur abstinentiam rex miratus erat in timore positus, et per mutationem rerum ex his quae dicta fuerant non prospera sibimet inminere credebat.

[230] Ἐνστάσης δὲ τῆς ἑορτῆς ἑβδόμῳ μηνὶ βουλόμενος καὶ αὐτὸς ἐν Βηθήλῃ ταύτην ἀγαγεῖν, ὥσπερ ἑώρταζον καὶ αἱ δύο φυλαὶ ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις, οἰκοδομεῖ μὲν θυσιαστήριον πρὸ τῆς δαμάλεως, γενόμενος δὲ αὐτὸς ἀρχιερεὺς ἐπὶ τὸν βωμὸν ἀναβαίνει σὺν τοῖς ἰδίοις ἱερεῦσι. [231] μέλλοντος δ᾽ ἐπιφέρειν τὰς θυσίας καὶ τὰς ὁλοκαυτώσεις ἐν ὄψει τοῦ λαοῦ παντὸς παραγίνεται πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐξ Ἱεροσολύμων προφήτης Ἰάδων ὄνομα τοῦ θεοῦ πέμψαντος, ὃς σταθεὶς ἐν μέσῳ τῷ πλήθει τοῦ βασιλέως ἀκούοντος εἶπε τάδε πρὸς τὸ θυσιαστήριον ποιούμενος τοὺς λόγους: [232] ‘ὁ θεὸς ἔσεσθαί τινα προλέγει ἐκ τοῦ Δαυίδου γένους Ἰωσίαν ὄνομα, ὃς ἐπὶ σοῦ θύσει τοὺς ψευδιερεῖς τοὺς κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρὸν γενησομένους καὶ τὰ ὀστᾶ τῶν λαοπλάνων τούτων καὶ ἀπατεώνων καὶ ἀσεβῶν ἐπὶ σοῦ καύσει. ἵνα μέντοι γε πιστεύσωσιν οὗτοι τοῦθ᾽ οὕτως ἕξειν, σημεῖον αὐτοῖς προερῶ γενησόμενον: ῥαγήσεται τὸ θυσιαστήριον παραχρῆμα καὶ πᾶσα ἡ ἐπ᾽ αὐτοῦ πιμελὴ τῶν ἱερείων ἐπὶ γῆν χυθήσεται.’ [233] ταῦτ᾽ εἰπόντος τοῦ προφήτου παροξυνθεὶς ὁ Ἱεροβόαμος ἐξέτεινε τὴν χεῖρα κελεύων συλλαβεῖν αὐτόν. ἐκτεταμένη δ᾽ ἡ χεὶρ εὐθέως παρείθη καὶ οὐκέτ᾽ ἴσχυε ταύτην πρὸς αὑτὸν ἀναγαγεῖν, ἀλλὰ νεναρκηκυῖαν καὶ νεκρὰν εἶχεν ἀπηρτημένην. ἐρράγη δὲ καὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον καὶ κατηνέχθη πάντα ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ, καθὼς προεῖπεν ὁ προφήτης. [234] μαθὼν δὲ ἀληθῆ τὸν ἄνθρωπον καὶ θείαν ἔχοντα πρόγνωσιν παρεκάλεσεν αὐτὸν δεηθῆναι τοῦ θεοῦ ἀναζωπυρῆσαι τὴν δεξιὰν αὐτῷ. καὶ ὁ μὲν ἱκέτευσε τὸν θεὸν τοῦτ᾽ αὐτῷ παρασχεῖν, ὁ δὲ τῆς χειρὸς τὸ κατὰ φύσιν ἀπολαβούσης χαίρων ἐπ᾽ αὐτῇ τὸν προφήτην παρεκάλει δειπνῆσαι παρ᾽ αὐτῷ. [235] Ἰάδων δέ φησιν οὐχ ὑπομένειν εἰσελθεῖν πρὸς αὐτὸν οὐδὲ γεύσασθαι ἄρτου καὶ ὕδατος ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ πόλει: τοῦτο γὰρ αὐτῷ τὸν θεὸν ἀπειρηκέναι καὶ τὴν ὁδὸν ἣν ἦλθεν ὅπως μὴ δι᾽ αὐτῆς ποιήσηται τὴν ἐπιστροφήν, ἀλλὰ δι᾽ ἄλλης ἔφασκεν: τοῦτον μὲν οὖν ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐθαύμαζεν τῆς ἐγκρατείας, αὐτὸς δ᾽ ἦν ἐν φόβῳ μεταβολὴν αὐτοῦ τῶν πραγμάτων ἐκ τῶν προειρημένων οὐκ ἀγαθὴν ὑπονοῶν.

5. When the feast [of tabernacles] was just approaching, Jeroboam was desirous to celebrate it himself in Bethel, as did the two tribes celebrate it in Jerusalem. Accordingly he built an altar before the heifer, and undertook to be high priest himself. So he went up to the altar, with his own priests about him; but when he was going to offer the sacrifices and the burnt-offerings, in the sight of all the people, a prophet, whose name was Jadon, was sent by God, and came to him from Jerusalem, who stood in the midst of the multitude, and in the 'hearing of' the king, and directing his discourse to the altar, said thus: "God foretells that there shall be a certain man of the family of David, Josiah by name, who shall slay upon thee those false priests that shall live at that time, and upon thee shall burn the bones of those deceivers of the people, those impostors' and wicked wretches. However, that this people may believe that these things shall so come to pass, I foretell a sign to them that shall also come to pass. This altar shall be broken to pieces immediately, and all the fat of the sacrifices that is upon it shall be poured upon the ground." When the prophet had said this, Jeroboam fell into a passion, and stretched out his hand, and bid them lay hold of him; but that hand which he stretched out was enfeebled, and he was not able to pull it in again to him, for it was become withered, and hung down, as if it were a dead hand. The altar also was broken to pieces, and all that was upon it was poured out, as the prophet had foretold should come to pass. So the king understood that he was a man of veracity, and had a Divine foreknowledge; and entreated him to pray to God that he would restore his right hand. Accordingly the prophet did pray to God to grant him that request. So the king, having his hand recovered to its natural state, rejoiced at it, and invited the prophet to sup with him; but Jadon said that he could not endure to come into his house, nor to taste of bread or water in this city, for that was a thing God had forbidden him to do; as also to go back by the same way which he came, but he said he was to return by another way. So the king wondered at the abstinence of the man, but was himself in fear, as suspecting a change of his affairs for the worse, from what had been said to him.



CHAPTER 9. How Jadon The Prophet Was Persuaded By Another Lying Prophet And Returned [To Bethel,] And Was Afterwards Slain By A Lion. As Also What Words The Wicked Prophet Made Use Of To Persuade The King, And Thereby Alienated His Mind From God.

[IX.236] Erat autem quidam in ciuitate senior malignus homo falsusque propheta quem hieroboam magnis studiis honorabat: cum eo dicente quae illi grata forent crebro deciperet. Iste quoque tunc erat in lectulo propter senectutis infirmitatem, filiis autem iudicantibus ei prophetam quo de hierosolimis huc uenerat, et de signis effectus et quomodo arefacta manus dextera hieroboam illo orante fuerat restituta: Metuens ne peregrinus esset melior apud regem et potiori honore frueretur: prae coepit filiis ut eis repente ad iter asinum praepararent. Quibus praeceptum festinanter implentibus ascendens prosecutus est prophetam et inueniens eum sub alta et umbrosa elicis arbore quiescentem salutauit primum deinde culpauit culpauit. Cur apud eum non intrasset et esset eius ospilitate participatus. Quo dicente se a deo prohibitum ut apud quemquam in illa ciuitate gustaret. Non inquit prohibuit diuinitas ut meam mensulam deuitares, nam et ego propheta sum et in ea tecum religione communis, et ad sum nunc missus a deo quatenus te commessurum ad me deducam. Ille uero credens mentienti reuersus est. Quibus ad huc prandentibus et pariter epulantibus deus aperuit iadan eiusque mandata praeuaricantem dixit supplicia sustinere, et qualitatem poenae continuo declarauit. Leonem enim occursurum itinere quo laceraretur factus est. Et sepultura patria priuaretur dixit. Haec autem facta reor uoluntate diuina ut hieroboam nequaquam adon uerba metueret quasi fallacis et ita defuncti remeantes siquidem iado rursus in hierosolima occurrit leo et deiciens eum de asino perimit [100r] et asinum quidem in nullo nocuit, sed cum eo sedens et illum et corpus prophetae magna tutitione seruabit, donec aliqui iter agentium uidentes. Hoc est uenientes in ciuitatem falsae prophetae denuntiarent, qui missis filiis eius corpus pro deuexit, in ciuitate splendida pompa eius caelebrauit ex equias, praecipiens filiis ut ipsum mortuum cum illo sepelirent dicens quod omnia quidem uera essent, quae cumque ille prophetasset aduersus illam urbem, et altare et sacerdotes, necnon et contra falsos prophetas, et quod ipse post mortem non pateretur iniuriam si cum eos sepulturus ex eius ossibus copulatus propter societatem ossium prophetae. Sep[el]iens ergo prophetam et filiis ista praecipiens cum esset malignus et impius accessit ad hieroboam eique dixit. Quare turbatus es uerbis fatui uiri, cumque ille rex de sacrario et manu sua narrauit sanctum uere et prophetam egregium eum uocans, coepit destruere eius opinionem, et uere similibus utens rerum gesto[a]rum creditam in minuerit ueritatem. Nitebatur enim suadere quia pro labore portandi multa sacrificia eius manus ostipuisse, et deinde cum requieuisset ad naturam propriam denuo remeasset; Altare autem cum prius fuisset uacuum susceptis multis hostiis et ingentibus propter onus in positorum fuisse ruptum et cecidisse dicebat. Significauitque ei simul ita mortem eius quia haec signa praedixerat, eo quod fuisset a leone discerptus et nihil quod esset propheta locutus. Haec ergo dicens regi satisfecit eiusque mentem penitus auertit a deo et a sanctis operibus, et ad actos impios euocauit. Qui rex tantam deinceps contumeliam diuinati fecit et ita contra leges atrociter insiluit ut nihil aliud cotidiae quaereret quam utali quid noui super ea quae iam perpetrauerat scelera cumularet. Igitur de hieroboam haec in praesenti dixisse sufficient.

[236] Ἦν δέ τις ἐν τῇ πόλει πρεσβύτης πονηρὸς ψευδοπροφήτης, ὃν εἶχεν ἐν τιμῇ Ἱεροβόαμος ἀπατώμενος ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ τὰ πρὸς ἡδονὴν λέγοντος. οὗτος τότε μὲν κλινήρης ἦν διὰ τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ γήρως ἀσθένειαν, τῶν δὲ παίδων αὐτῷ δηλωσάντων τὰ περὶ τοῦ παρόντος ἐξ Ἱεροσολύμων προφήτου καὶ τῶν σημείων τῶν γενομένων, [237] καὶ ὡς παρεθεῖσαν αὐτῷ τὴν δεξιὰν Ἱεροβόαμος εὐξαμένου πάλιν ἐκείνου ζῶσαν ἀπολάβοι, δείσας μὴ παρευδοκιμήσειεν αὐτὸν ὁ ξένος παρὰ τῷ βασιλεῖ καὶ πλείονος ἀπολαύοι τιμῆς προσέταξε τοῖς παισὶν εὐθὺς ἐπιστρώσασι τὸν ὄνον ἕτοιμον πρὸς ἔξοδον αὐτῷ παρασκευάσαι. [238] τῶν δὲ σπευσάντων ὃ προσετάγησαν ἐπιβὰς ἐδίωξε τὸν προφήτην καὶ καταλαβὼν ἀναπαυόμενον ὑπὸ δένδρῳ δασεῖ καὶ σκιὰν ἔχοντι δρυὸς εὐμεγέθους ἠσπάσατο πρῶτον, εἶτ᾽ ἐμέμφετο μὴ παρ᾽ αὐτὸν εἰσελθόντα καὶ ξενίων μεταλαβόντα. [239] τοῦ δὲ φήσαντος κεκωλῦσθαι πρὸς τοῦ θεοῦ γεύσασθαι παρά τινι τῶν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ πόλει, ‘ἀλλ᾽ οὐχὶ παρ᾽ ἐμοὶ πάντως, εἶπεν, ἀπηγόρευκέ σοι τὸ θεῖον παραθέσθαι τράπεζαν: προφήτης γάρ εἰμι κἀγὼ καὶ τῆς αὐτῆς σοι κοινωνὸς πρὸς αὐτὸν θρησκείας, καὶ πάρειμι νῦν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ πεμφθείς. ὅπως ἀγάγω σε πρὸς ἐμαυτὸν ἑστιασόμενον.’ [240] ὁ δὲ ψευσαμένῳ πεισθεὶς ἀνέστρεψεν: ἀριστώντων δ᾽ ἔτι καὶ φιλοφρονουμένων ὁ θεὸς ἐπιφαίνεται τῷ Ἰάδωνι καὶ παραβάντα τὰς ἐντολὰς αὐτοῦ τιμωρίαν ὑφέξειν ἔλεγεν καὶ ποδαπὴν ἐδήλου: λέοντα γὰρ αὐτῷ κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν ἀπερχομένῳ συμβαλεῖν ἔφραζεν, ὑφ᾽ οὗ διαφθαρήσεσθαι καὶ τῆς ἐν τοῖς πατρῴοις μνήμασι ταφῆς ἀμοιρήσειν. [241] ταῦτα δ᾽ ἐγένετο οἶμαι κατὰ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ βούλησιν, ὅπως μὴ προσέχοι τοῖς τοῦ Ἰάδωνος λόγοις Ἱεροβόαμος ἐληλεγμένῳ ψευδεῖ. πορευομένῳ τοίνυν τῷ Ἰάδωνι πάλιν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα συμβάλλει λέων καὶ κατασπάσας αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τοῦ κτήνους ἀπέκτεινε, καὶ τὸν μὲν ὄνον οὐδὲν ὅλως ἔβλαψε, παρακαθεζόμενος δ᾽ ἐφύλαττε κἀκεῖνον καὶ τὸ τοῦ προφήτου σῶμα, μέχρις οὗ τινες τῶν ὁδοιπόρων ἰδόντες ἀπήγγειλαν ἐλθόντες εἰς τὴν πόλιν τῷ ψευδοπροφήτῃ. [242] ὁ δὲ τοὺς υἱοὺς πέμψας ἐκόμισε τὸ σῶμα εἰς τὴν πόλιν καὶ πολυτελ&##959;ῦς κηδείας ἠξίωσεν ἐντειλάμενος τοῖς παισὶ καὶ αὐτὸν ἀποθανόντα σὺν ἐκείνῳ θάψαι, λέγων ἀληθῆ μὲν εἶναι πάνθ᾽ ὅσα προεφήτευσε κατὰ τῆς πόλεως ἐκείνης καὶ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου καὶ τῶν ἱερέων καὶ τῶν ψευδοπροφητῶν, ὑβρισθήσεσθαι δ᾽ αὐτὸς μετὰ τὴν τελευτὴν οὐδὲν σὺν ἐκείνῳ ταφεὶς τῶν ὀστῶν οὐ γνωρισθησομένων. [243] κηδεύσας οὖν τὸν προφήτην καὶ ταῦτα τοῖς υἱοῖς ἐντειλάμενος πονηρὸς ὢν καὶ ἀσεβὴς πρόσεισι τῷ Ἱεροβοάμῳ καὶ ‘τί δήποτ᾽ ἐταράχθης, εἰπών, ὑπὸ τῶν τοῦ ἀνοήτου λόγων;’ ὡς τὰ περὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν αὑτοῦ χεῖρα διηγήσαθ᾽ ὁ βασιλεὺς θεῖον ἀληθῶς καὶ προφήτην ἄριστον ἀποκαλῶν, ἤρξατο ταύτην αὐτοῦ τὴν δόξαν ἀναλύειν κακουργῶν καὶ πιθανοῖς περὶ τῶν γεγενημένων χρώμενος λόγοις βλάπτειν αὐτῶν τὴν ἀλήθειαν. [244] ἐπεχείρει γὰρ πείθειν αὐτόν, ὡς ὑπὸ κόπου μὲν ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ ναρκήσειε βαστάζουσα τὰς θυσίας, εἶτ᾽ ἀνεθεῖσα πάλιν εἰς τὴν αὑτῆς ἐπανέλθοι φύσιν, τὸ δὲ θυσιαστήριον καινὸν ὂν καὶ δεξάμενον θυσίας πολλὰς καὶ μεγάλας ῥαγείη καὶ πέσοι διὰ βάρος τῶν ἐπενηνεγμένων. ἐδήλου δ᾽ αὐτῷ καὶ τὸν θάνατον τοῦ τὰ σημεῖα ταῦτα προειρηκότος ὡς ὑπὸ λέοντος ἀπώλετο: οὕτως οὐδὲ ἓν οὔτ᾽ εἶχεν [245] οὔτ᾽ ἐφθέγξατο προφήτου. ταῦτα εἰπὼν πείθει τὸν βασιλέα καὶ τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτοῦ τελέως ἀποστρέψας ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τῶν ὁσίων ἔργων καὶ δικαίων ἐπὶ τὰς ἀσεβεῖς πράξεις παρώρμησεν. οὕτως δ᾽ ἐξύβρισεν εἰς τὸ θεῖον καὶ παρηνόμησεν, ὡς οὐδὲν ἄλλο καθ᾽ ἡμέραν ζητεῖν ἢ τί καινὸν καὶ μιαρώτερον τῶν ἤδη τετολμημένων ἐργάσηται. καὶ τὰ μὲν περὶ Ἱεροβόαμον ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος ἐν τούτοις ἡμῖν δεδηλώσθω.

1. Now there was a certain wicked man in that city, who was a false prophet, whom Jeroboam had in great esteem, but was deceived by him and his flattering words. This man was bedrid, by reason or the infirmities of old age: however, he was informed by his sons concerning the prophet that was come from Jerusalem, and concerning the signs done by him; and how, when Jeroboam's right hand had been enfeebled, at the prophet's prayer he had it revived again. Whereupon he was afraid that this stranger and prophet should be in better esteem with the king than himself, and obtain greater honor from him: and he gave orders to his sons to saddle his ass presently, and make all ready that he might go out. Accordingly they made haste to do what they were commanded, and he got upon the ass and followed after the prophet; and when he had overtaken him, as he was resting himself under a very large oak tree that was thick and shady, he at first saluted him, but presently he complained of him, because he had not come into his house, and partaken of his hospitality. And when the other said that God had forbidden him to taste of any one's provision in that city, he replied, that "for certain God had not forbidden that I should set food before thee, for I am a prophet as thou art, and worship God in the same manner that thou dost; and I am now come as sent by him, in order to bring thee into my house, and make thee my guest." Now Jadon gave credit to this lying prophet, and returned back with him. But when they were at dinner, and merry together, God appeared to Jadon, and said that he should suffer punishment for transgressing his commands,—and he told him what that punishment should be for he said that he should meet with a lion as he was going on his way, by which lion he should be torn in pieces, and be deprived of burial in the sepulchers of his fathers; which things came to pass, as I suppose, according to the will of God, that so Jeroboam might not give heed to the words of Jadon as of one that had been convicted of lying. However, as Jadon was again going to Jerusalem, a lion assaulted him, and pulled him off the beast he rode on, and slew him; yet did he not at all hurt the ass, but sat by him, and kept him, as also the prophet's body. This continued till some travelers that saw it came and told it in the city to the false prophet, who sent his sons, and brought the body unto the city, and made a funeral for him at great expense. He also charged his sons to bury himself with him and said that all which he had foretold against that city, and the altar, and priests, and false prophets, would prove true; and that if he were buried with him, he should receive no injurious treatment after his death, the bones not being then to be distinguished asunder. But now, when he had performed those funeral rites to the prophet, and had given that charge to his sons, as he was a wicked and an impious man, he goes to Jeroboam, and says to him, "And wherefore is it now that thou art disturbed at the words of this silly fellow?" And when the king had related to him what had happened about the altar, and about his own hand, and gave him the names of divine man, and an excellent prophet, he endeavored by a wicked trick to weaken that his opinion; and by using plausible words concerning what had happened, he aimed to injure the truth that was in them; for he attempted to persuade him that his hand was enfeebled by the labor it had undergone in supporting the sacrifices, and that upon its resting awhile it returned to its former nature again; and that as to the altar, it was but new, and had borne abundance of sacrifices, and those large ones too, and was accordingly broken to pieces, and fallen down by the weight of what had been laid upon it. He also informed him of the death of him that had foretold those things, and how he perished; [whence he concluded that] he had not any thing in him of a prophet, nor spake any thing like one. When he had thus spoken, he persuaded the king, and entirely alienated his mind from God, and from doing works that were righteous and holy, and encouraged him to go on in his impious practices and accordingly he was to that degree injurious to God, and so great a transgressor, that he sought for nothing else every day but how he might be guilty of some new instances of wickedness, and such as should be more detestable than what he had been so insolent as to do before. And so much shall at present suffice to have said concerning Jeroboam.



CHAPTER 10. Concerning Rehoboam, And How God Inflicted Punishment Upon Him For His Impiety By Shishak [King Of Egypt].

[X.i.246] Filiis autem salomonis roboam qui sicut praediximus nuper duas regnauit tribus aedificauit munitissimas ciuitates et magnas bethleem et itam et tecos et bitsura et socho et odollam et hippam et marissam et typha et adoraim lachis et zeteteram et helum et chebrom. Has quidem in sorte iuda primas aedificauit. Fecitque et alias praecipuas in sorte beniamin murisque circum dans custodes instuit uniuersiset et principes multumque frumentum simul et uinum et oleum, et alia quae singulis ciuitatibus procibariis essent necessaria la[r]gissima ubertate contradidit. In super autem et scuta et tacula a nimis in numera. Conuenerunt autem ex omnibus israhelitissa cerdotes ad eum in hierosolimam pariter et leuitae. Et qui cumque alii de populo erant boni ueliusti relinquentes proprias ciuitates et culturam dei in hierosolimis exhiberent minime libenter habebant, dum conpellerentur uitulas adorare quas fecerat hieroboam per tres annos imperium, qui dum cognatam quandam duxisset uxorem, et tres ex ea filios suscepisset. Post ea quoque duxit nomine machan natam de thamar filia absalon quae et ipsa uidebatur esse cognata, de qua natus est ei filius masculus quem auiu[bia] appellauit, habuitque filios et ex aliis coniungibus, sed super omnes potius diligebat machan. Habuit autem lege sibi coniunctas uxores decem et octo concubinas uero triginta. Et filii quidem sunt nati octo concubinas uero triginta. Et filii quidem sunt nati octo et inginti filiae uero sexaginta. Successorem sui regni constituit abian ex macha procreatum, cui et thesaurum et munitissimas credidit ciuitates.

[246] Ὁ δὲ Σολόμωνος υἱὸς Ῥοβόαμος ὁ τῶν δύο φυλῶν βασιλεύς, ὡς προειρήκαμεν, ᾠκοδόμησε πόλεις ὀχυράς τε καὶ μεγάλας Βηθλεὲμ καὶ Ἠταμὲ καὶ Θεκωὲ καὶ Βηθσοὺρ καὶ Σωχὼ καὶ Ὀδολλὰμ καὶ Εἰπὰν καὶ Μάρισαν καὶ τὴν Ζιφὰ καὶ Ἀδωραὶμ καὶ Λάχεις καὶ Ἀζηκὰ καὶ Σαρὰμ καὶ Ἠλὼμ καὶ Χεβρῶνα. [247] ταύτας μὲν ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ φυλῇ καὶ κληρουχίᾳ πρώτας ᾠκοδόμησε, κατεσκεύασε δὲ καὶ ἄλλας μεγάλας ἐν τῇ Βενιαμίδι κληρουχίᾳ, καὶ τειχίσας φρουράς τε κατέστησεν ἐν ἁπάσαις καὶ ἡγεμόνας σῖτόν τε πολὺν καὶ οἶνον καὶ ἔλαιον τά τε ἄλλα πρὸς διατροφὴν ἐν ἑκάστῃ τῶν πόλεων δαψιλῶς ἀπέθετο, πρὸς δὲ τούτοις θυρεοὺς καὶ σιρομάστας εἰς πολλὰς μυριάδας. [248] συνῆλθον δὲ οἱ παρὰ πᾶσι τοῖς Ἰσραηλίταις ἱερεῖς πρὸς αὐτὸν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα καὶ Ληουῖται καὶ εἴ τινες ἄλλοι τοῦ πλήθους ἦσαν ἀγαθοὶ καὶ δίκαιοι καταλιπόντες αὑτῶν τὰς πόλεις, ἵνα θρησκεύσωσιν ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις τὸν θεόν: οὐ γὰρ ἡδέως εἶχον προσκυνεῖν ἀναγκαζόμενοι τὰς δαμάλεις, ἃς Ἱεροβόαμος κατεσκεύασε: καὶ ηὔξησαν τὴν Ῥοβοάμου βασιλείαν ἐπ᾽ ἔτη τρία. [249] γήμας δὲ συγγενῆ τινα καὶ τρεῖς ποιησάμενος ἐξ αὐτῆς παῖδας ἤγετο ὕστερον καὶ τὴν ἐκ τῆς Ἀψαλώμου θυγατρὸς Θαμάρης Μαχάνην ὄνομα καὶ αὐτὴν οὖσαν συγγενῆ: καὶ παῖς ἐξ αὐτῆς ἄρρην αὐτῷ γίνεται, ὃν Ἀβίαν προσηγόρευσεν. τεκνοῖ δὲ καὶ ἐξ ἄλλων γυναικῶν πλειόνων, ἁπασῶν δὲ μᾶλλον ἔστερξε τὴν Μαχάνην. [250] εἶχε δὲ τὰς μὲν νόμῳ συνοικούσας αὐτῷ γυναῖκας ὀκτωκαίδεκα παλλακὰς δὲ τριάκοντα, καὶ υἱοὶ μὲν αὐτῷ γεγόνεισαν ὀκτὼ καὶ εἴκοσι θυγατέρες δ᾽ ἑξήκοντα. διάδοχον δὲ ἀπέδειξε τῆς βασιλείας τὸν ἐκ τῆς Μαχάνης Ἀβίαν καὶ τοὺς θησαυροὺς αὐτῷ καὶ τὰς ὀχυρωτάτας πόλεις ἐπίστευσεν.

1. Now Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, who, as we said before, was king of the two tribes, built strong and large cities, Bethlehem, and Etare, and Tekoa, and Bethzur, and Shoco, and Adullam, and Ipan, and Maresha, and Ziph, and Adorlam, and Lachlsh, and Azekah, and Zorah, and Aijalon, and Hebron; these he built first of all in the tribe of Judah. He also built other large cities in the tribe of Benjamin, and walled them about, and put garrisons in them all, and captains, and a great deal of corn, and wine, and oil, and he furnished every one of them plentifully with other provisions that were necessary for sustenance; moreover, he put therein shields and spears for many ten thousand men. The priests also that were in all Israel, and the Levites, and if there were any of the multitude that were good and righteous men, they gathered themselves together to him, having left their own cities, that they might worship God in Jerusalem; for they were not willing to be forced to worship the heifers which Jeroboam had made; and they augmented the kingdom of Rehoboam for three years. And after he had married a woman of his own kindred, and had by her three children born to him, he married also another of his own kindred, who was daughter of Absalom by Tamar, whose name was Maachah, and by her he had a son, whom he named Abijah. He had moreover many other children by other wives, but he loved Maachah above them all. Now he had eighteen legitimate wives, and thirty concubines; and he had born to him twenty-eight sons and threescore daughters; but he appointed Abijah, whom he had by Maachah, to be his successor in the kingdom, and intrusted him already with the treasures and the strongest cities.

[X.ii.251] Reor enim quia saepius causa malorum et iniquitas existat hominibus magnitudo rerum earumque ad potiora conuersio. Uidens namque roboam regnum suum his crementis augeri ad impias et iniustas conuersus est actiones et spreuit dei religionem ita ut et populus eius imitaret iniquitatem. Cum moribus namque principum corrupiter conuersio subiectorum. Et cum uideret illorum luxurias suae castitatis merita repuentes, quasi uirtutem eorum imitare nituntur in lecebras. Non enim oportebat principum aprobari uiderentur nisi etiam similiter haec aguntur. Hoc igitur accedat subiectis roboam. Nam cum ille ageret impie et iniqui studebant et illi non esse iusti ne rex uideretur offendi. Qua propter uindicem super hebraeos misit deus regem aegyptiorum nomine sisoch de quo narrans heroditus actus eius se postremo eis ad iunxit. Hic enim sisoch quinto anno regni roboam cum multis militibus [100v] exercituum castrametatus est. Sequebantur enim eum currus mille et ducenti. Aequitum uero sexaginta milia et quadraginta milia peditum quorum plurimos habebat libeas et aethiopices. Inuadens itaque hebraeorum regionem munitissimas roboam ciuitates sine dimicatione detenuit et nouissimum armatus ad ierosolimam uenit

[251] Αἴτιον δ᾽ οἶμαι πολλάκις γίνεται κακῶν καὶ παρανομίας τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τὸ τῶν πραγμάτων μέγεθος καὶ ἡ πρὸς τὸ βέλτιον αὐτῶν τροπή: τὴν γὰρ βασιλείαν αὐξανομένην οὕτω βλέπων Ῥοβόαμος εἰς ἀδίκους καὶ ἀσεβεῖς ἐξετράπη πράξεις καὶ τῆς τοῦ θεοῦ θρησκείας κατεφρόνησεν, ὡς καὶ τὸν ὑπ᾽ αὐτῷ λαὸν μιμητὴν γενέσθαι τῶν ἀνομημάτων. [252] συνδιαφθείρεται γὰρ τὰ τῶν ἀρχομένων ἤθη τοῖς τῶν ἡγουμένων τρόποις, καὶ ὡς ἔλεγχον τῆς ἐκείνων ἀσελγείας τὴν αὑτῶν σωφροσύνην παραπέμποντες ὡς ἀρετῇ ταῖς κακίαις αὐτῶν ἕπονται: οὐ γὰρ ἔνεστιν ἀποδέχεσθαι δοκεῖν τὰ τῶν βασιλέων ἔργα μὴ ταὐτὰ πράττοντας. [253] τοῦτο τοίνυν συνέβαινε καὶ τοῖς ὑπὸ Ῥοβοάμῳ τεταγμένοις ἀσεβοῦντος αὐτοῦ καὶ παρανομοῦντος σπουδάζειν, μὴ προσκρούσωσι τῷ βασιλεῖ θέλοντες εἶναι δίκαιοι. τιμωρὸν δὲ τῶν εἰς αὐτὸν ὕβρεων ὁ θεὸς ἐπιπέμπει τὸν Αἰγυπτίων βασιλέα Ἴσωκον, περὶ οὗ πλανηθεὶς Ἡρόδοτος τὰς πράξεις αὐτοῦ Σεσώστρει προ&##963;άπτει. [254] οὗτος γὰρ ὁ Ἴσωκος πέμπτῳ ἔτει τῆς Ῥοβοάμου βασιλείας ἐπιστρατεύεται μετὰ πολλῶν αὐτῷ μυριάδων: ἅρματα μὲν γὰρ αὐτῷ χίλια καὶ διακόσια τὸν ἀριθμὸν ἠκολούθει, ἱππέων δὲ μυριάδες ἕξ, πεζῶν δὲ μυριάδες τεσσαράκοντα. τούτων τοὺς πλείστους Λίβυας ἐπήγετο καὶ Αἰθίοπας. [255] ἐμβαλὼν οὖν εἰς τὴν χώραν τῶν Ἑβραίων καταλαμβάνει τε τὰς ὀχυρωτάτας τῆς Ῥοβοάμου βασιλείας πόλεις ἀμαχητὶ καὶ ταύτας ἀσφαλισάμενος ἔσχατον ἐπῆλθε τοῖς Ἱεροσολύμοις

2. Now I cannot but think that the greatness of a kingdom, and its change into prosperity, often become the occasion of mischief and of transgression to men; for when Rehoboam saw that his kingdom was so much increased, he went out of the right way unto unrighteous and irreligious practices, and he despised the worship of God, till the people themselves imitated his wicked actions: for so it usually happens, that the manners of subjects are corrupted at the same time with those of their governors, which subjects then lay aside their own sober way of living, as a reproof of their governors' intemperate courses, and follow their wickedness as if it were virtue; for it is not possible to show that men approve of the actions of their kings, unless they do the same actions with them. Agreeable whereto it now happened to the subjects of Rehoboam; for when he was grown impious, and a transgressor himself, they endeavored not to offend him by resolving still to be righteous. But God sent Shishak, king of Egypt, to punish them for their unjust behavior towards him, concerning whom Herodotus was mistaken, and applied his actions to Sesostris; for this Shishak, in the fifth year of the reign of Rehoboam, made an expedition [into Judea] with many ten thousand men; for he had one thousand two hundred chariots in number that followed him, and threescore thousand horsemen, and four hundred thousand footmen. These he brought with him, and they were the greatest part of them Libyans and Ethiopians. Now therefore when he fell upon the country of the Hebrews, he took the strongest cities of Rehoboam's kingdom without fighting; and when he had put garrisons in them, he came last of all to Jerusalem.

[X.iii.255] ubi roboam et eius exercitus propter militiam sisoch tenebatur inclausus, dominumque rogabant ut eis uictoriam salutemque conferret. Quos tamen non ex audiuit deus nec eis pugnaturis spem uictoriae promisit. Propheta enim semeas ait, deum eis interminari eosque relicturum sicut ipse uidebantur deseruisse culturam. Haec audientes animo sunt soluti. Et dum nullam uiderint in se salutem confitebantur omnes quod eos iuste dispexent, cum ipsi circa eum impie crudeliterque gessissent et eius legitima. Quos uidens deus ita deiectos et ad penitentiam fuisse per ductos non se perditurum eos prophetae dixit, sed aegyptiis tantum fore subdendos ut agnoscerent utrum hominibus seruire esse infatigabilius ancerte deo. Capiens ergo sisoch non lege bellica ciuitatem, sed pactis procedentibus roboam eum suscipientem propter timorem ingressus foedera conseruabit, sed et templum expoliauit, et thesauros dominicos et regios ex aurium auri et argenti multa milia et innumerabilia secum deuehens ornamenta et nihil omnino illic derelinquens. Abstulit autem et aureas lanceas et scutas quae rex fecerat salomon, sed neque pharetras aureas dimisit quas dauid sumptus a rege sophenae deo dicauerat. Quos cum idem sisoch fecisset ad propriam remeauit. Meminit huius praelii et eruditis alicarnaseos, qui solum modo circa regis nomen errauit, sed et quia gentes alias multas inuasit et palestinam syriam subiugauit. Capiens sine proelio cunctos in ea regiones degentes quod nostram gentem subditam aegyptiis indicare uult. Ait enim quomodo et statuas eorum qui se sine proelio tradiderunt reliquerit, et mulierum genitalia in eis caelauerit. Roboam et enim rex noster ei tradidit sine proelio ciuitatem. Dixit autem et aethiopas ab aegyptiis didicisse genitalium circumcisionem. Phoenices et syri in palestina fatentur hoc ab aegyptiis didicisse et palum est quando alii nulli circumcidantur syrorum in palestina habitantium praeter nostros, sed de his sentiat quisque uoluerit.

ἐγκεκλεισμένου τοῦ Ῥοβοάμου καὶ τοῦ πλήθους ἐν αὐτοῖς διὰ τὴν Ἰσώκου στρατείαν καὶ τὸν θεὸν ἱκετευόντων δοῦναι νίκην καὶ σωτηρίαν: [256] ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἔπεισαν τὸν θεὸν ταχθῆναι μετ᾽ αὐτῶν: ὁ δὲ προφήτης Σαμαίας ἔφησεν αὐτοῖς τὸν θεὸν ἀπειλεῖν ἐγκαταλείψειν αὐτούς, ὡς καὶ αὐτοὶ τὴν θρησκείαν αὐτοῦ κατέλιπον. ταῦτ᾽ ἀκούσαντες εὐθὺς ταῖς ψυχαῖς ἀνέπεσον καὶ μηδὲν ἔτι σωτήριον ὁρῶντες ἐξομολογεῖσθαι πάντες ὥρμησαν, ὅτι δικαίως αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς ὑπερόψεται γενομένους περὶ αὐτὸν ἀσεβεῖς καὶ συγχέοντας τὰ νόμιμα. [257] κατιδὼν δ᾽ αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς οὕτω διακειμένους καὶ τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἀνθομολογουμένους οὐκ ἀπολέσειν αὐτοὺς εἶπε πρὸς τὸν προφήτην, ποιήσειν μέντοι γε τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις ὑποχειρίους, ἵνα μάθωσι πότερον ἀνθρώπῳ δουλεύειν ἐστὶν ἀπονώτερον ἢ θεῷ. [258] παραλαβὼν δὲ Ἴσωκος ἀμαχητὶ τὴν πόλιν δεξαμένου Ῥοβοάμου διὰ τὸν φόβον οὐκ ἐνέμεινε ταῖς γενομέναις συνθήκαις, ἀλλ᾽ ἐσύλησε τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ τοὺς θησαυροὺς ἐξεκένωσε τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τοὺς βασιλικοὺς χρυσοῦ καὶ ἀργύρου μυριάδας ἀναριθμήτους βαστάσας καὶ μηδὲν ὅλως ὑπολιπών. [259] περιεῖλε δὲ καὶ τοὺς χρυσοῦς θυρεοὺς καὶ τὰς ἀσπίδας, ἃς κατεσκεύασε Σολόμων ὁ βασιλεύς, οὐκ εἴασε δὲ οὐδὲ τὰς χρυσᾶς φαρέτρας, ἃς ἀνέθηκε Δαυίδης τῷ θεῷ λαβὼν παρὰ τοῦ τῆς Σωφηνῆς βασιλέως, καὶ τοῦτο ποιήσας ἀνέστρεψεν εἰς τὰ οἰκεῖα. [260] μέμνηται δὲ ταύτης τῆς στρατείας καὶ ὁ Ἁλικαρνασεὺς Ἡρόδοτος περὶ μόνον τὸ τοῦ βασιλέως πλανηθεὶς ὄνομα, καὶ ὅτι ἄλλοις τε πολλοῖς ἐπῆλθεν ἔθνεσι καὶ τὴν Παλαιστίνην Συρίαν ἐδουλώσατο λαβὼν ἀμαχητὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τοὺς ἐν αὐτῇ. [261] φανερὸν δ᾽ ἐστίν, ὅτι τὸ ἡμέτερον ἔθνος βούλεται δηλοῦν κεχειρωμένον ὑπὸ τοῦ Αἰγυπτίου: ἐπάγει γάρ, ὅτι στήλας κατέλιπεν ἐν τῇ τῶν ἀμαχητὶ παραδόντων ἑαυτοὺς αἰδοῖα γυναικῶν ἐγγράψας: Ῥοβόαμος δ᾽ αὐτῷ παρέδωκεν ὁ ἡμέτερος βασιλεὺς ἀμαχητὶ τὴν πόλιν. [262] φησὶ δὲ καὶ Αἰθίοπας παρ᾽ Αἰγυπτίων μεμαθηκέναι τὴν τῶν αἰδοίων περιτομήν: ‘Φοίνικες γὰρ καὶ Σύροι οἱ ἐν τῇ Παλαιστίνῃ ὁμολογοῦσι παρ᾽ Αἰγυπτίων μεμαθηκέναι.’ δῆλον οὖν ἐστιν, ὅτι μηδένες ἄλλοι περιτέμνονται τῶν ἐν τῇ Παλαιστίνῃ Σύρων ἢ μόνοι ἡμεῖς. ἀλλὰ περὶ μὲν τούτων ἕκαστοι λεγέτωσαν ὅ τι ἂν αὐτοῖς δοκῇ.

3. Now when Rehoboam, and the multitude with him, were shut up in Jerusalem by the means of the army of Shishak, and when they besought God to give them victory and deliverance, they could not persuade God to be on their side. But Shemaiah the prophet told them, that God threatened to forsake them, as they had themselves forsaken his worship. When they heard this, they were immediately in a consternation of mind; and seeing no way of deliverance, they all earnestly set themselves to confess that God might justly overlook them, since they had been guilty of impiety towards him, and had let his laws lie in confusion. So when God saw them in that disposition, and that they acknowledge their sins, he told the prophet that he would not destroy them, but that he would, however, make them servants to the Egyptians, that they may learn whether they will suffer less by serving men or God. So when Shishak had taken the city without fighting, because Rehoboam was afraid, and received him into it, yet did not Shishak stand to the covenants he had made, but he spoiled the temple, and emptied the treasures of God, and those of the king, and carried off innumerable ten thousands of gold and silver, and left nothing at all behind him. He also took away the bucklers of gold, and the shields, which Solomon the king had made; nay, he did not leave the golden quivers which David had taken from the king of Zobah, and had dedicated to God; and when he had thus done, he returned to his own kingdom. Now Herodotus of Halicarnassus mentions this expedition, having only mistaken the king's name; and [in saying that] he made war upon many other nations also, and brought Syria of Palestine into subjection, and took the men that were therein prisoners without fighting. Now it is manifest that he intended to declare that our nation was subdued by him; for he saith that he left behind him pillars in the land of those that delivered themselves up to him without fighting, and engraved upon them the secret parts of women. Now our king Rehoboam delivered up our city without fighting. He says withal that the Ethiopians learned to circumcise their privy parts from the Egyptians, with this addition, that the Phoenicians and Syrians that live in Palestine confess that they learned it of the Egyptians. Yet it is evident that no other of the Syrians that live in Palestine, besides us alone, are circumcised. But as to such matters, let every one speak what is agreeable to his own opinion.

[X.iv.263] Igitur descendenti sisoch roboam rex per aureis lanceis et clipeis aerea eiusdem numeri fecit, et custodibus regalibus seruanda tradidit. Et quicum splendendo principatu et claritate rerum debuerit imperare, sub multo silentio et timore regnauit Fuitque hieroboam regi cunctis temporibus inimicus. Mortuus est autem cum uixisset quinquaginta et septem in quibus regnauit annis decem et septem. Uir superbus et fatuus et nolens paternis amicis credere perdiderat principatum, sepultus est in hierosolimis in tumulis regum. Roboam itaque successit in regnum filicis abias, cum hieroboam octo et decem annum haberet in regno, et haec quidem huiusmodi fine consumpta sunt. Con sequens est nunc uit de hieroboam dicamus quemadmodum et ipse fuerit conuersatus. Is enim non quieuit iniquitates facere coram deo, sed cotidie in excelsis montibus erigebat aras, et sacerdotes de populo faciebat

[263] Ἀναχωρήσαντος δὲ Ἰσώκου Ῥοβόαμος ὁ βασιλεὺς ἀντὶ μὲν τῶν χρυσέων θυρεῶν καὶ τῶν ἀσπίδων χάλκεα ποιήσας τὸν αὐτὸν ἀριθμὸν παρέδωκε τοῖς τῶν βασιλείων φύλαξιν. ἀντὶ δὲ τοῦ μετὰ στρατηγίας ἐπιφανοῦς καὶ τῆς ἐν τοῖς πράγμασι λαμπρότητος διάγειν ἐβασίλευσεν ἐν ἡσυχίᾳ πολλῇ καὶ δέει πάντα τὸν χρόνον ἐχθρὸς ὢν Ἱεροβοάμῳ. [264] ἐτελεύτησε δὲ βιώσας ἔτη πεντήκοντα καὶ ἑπτὰ βασιλεύσας δ᾽ αὐτῶν ἑπτακαίδεκα, τὸν τρόπον ἀλαζὼν ἀνὴρ καὶ ἀνόητος καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ προσέχειν τοῖς πατρῴοις φίλοις τὴν ἀρχὴν ἀπολέσας: ἐτάφη δ᾽ ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις ἐν ταῖς θήκαις τῶν βασιλέων. διεδέξατο δ᾽ αὐτοῦ τὴν βασιλείαν ὁ υἱὸς Ἀβίας ὄγδοον ἤδη καὶ δέκατον ἔτος Ἱεροβοάμου τῶν δέκα φυλῶν βασιλεύοντος. [265] καὶ ταῦτα μὲν τοιοῦτον ἔσχε τὸ τέλος: τὰ δὲ περὶ Ἱεροβόαμον ἀκόλουθα τούτων ἔχομεν πῶς κατέστρεψε τὸν βίον διεξελθεῖν: οὗτος γὰρ οὐ διέλιπεν οὐδ᾽ ἠρέμησεν εἰς τὸν θεὸν ἐξυβρίζων, ἀλλὰ καθ᾽ ἑκάστην ἐπὶ τῶν ὑψηλῶν ὀρῶν βωμοὺς ἀνιστὰς καὶ ἱερεῖς ἐκ τοῦ πλήθους ἀποδεικνὺς διετέλει.

4. When Shishak was gone away, king Rehoboam made bucklers and shields of brass, instead of those of gold, and delivered the same number of them to the keepers of the king's palace. So, instead of warlike expeditions, and that glory which results from those public actions, he reigned in great quietness, though not without fear, as being always an enemy to Jeroboam, and he died when he had lived fifty-seven years, and reigned seventeen. He was in his disposition a proud and a foolish man, and lost [part of his] dominions by not hearkening to his father's friends. He was buried in Jerusalem, in the sepulchers of the kings; and his son Abijah succeeded him in the kingdom, and this in the eighteenth year of Jeroboam's reign over the ten tribes; and this was the conclusion of these affairs. It must be now our business to relate the affairs of Jeroboam, and how he ended his life; for he ceased not nor rested to be injurious to God, but every day raised up altars upon high mountains, and went on making priests out of the multitude.



CHAPTER 11. Concerning The Death Of A Son Of Jeroboam. How Jeroboam Was Beaten By Abijah Who Died A Little Afterward And Was Succeeded In His Kingdom By Asa. And Also How, After The Death Of Jeroboam Baasha Destroyed His Son Nadab And All The House Of Jeroboam.

[XI.i.266] contra quas impietates supplicia, non post longum tempus in eius caput et totius generationis ipsius erat relatura diuinitas illa siquidem tempestate cum eius filius nomine abimem egrotaret dixit uxori suae, ut mutata ueste priuatum scema suscipiens iret ad alchiam prophetam afferens eum uirum esse mirabilem et futura praedicere, qui etiam de regno ei significasset et abeo quasi peregrina requireret si puer langorem possit euadere, quae mutata ueste sicut maritus eius praeceperat uenit in silo ciuitatem ubi morabatur achias. Cumque foret domum illius ingressura cum esset iam prophetae uisus senectute grauatus, apparuit deus utrumque denuntians, et quia hieroboam regis ad eum ueniret uxor, et quid deberet pro quibus ad erat respondere, quia in eius domo ueniente ueluti priua- [101r] -ta simul simul et peregrina, ille clamauit. Ingredere uxor hieroboam, quid te caelas, deum latere non potes qui mihi et te uenturam esse denuntiatum et imperauit quae tibi dicam. Reuertere igitur ad maritum et dic ei haec praecepisse deum, quando te magnum ex paruulo et nihil existente constitui regem, et ascendens regnum a genere dauid tibi contradidi tuque horum non recordatus meaque religionem deserens fusibilesque daeos efficiens illos potius honorasti. Deiciam te denuo et omne tuum genus exterminabo, et canum uoracitati uolatiliumque praebo. Et quidam a me suscitabitur rex totius populi qui de gente hieroboam nullum penitus remanere permittat. Participabitur autem isto supplicio etiam populus hac terra copiosa priuabitur: et trans eufraten ulterius dispargitur, quando cuncti regis impietatem secuti deos abeo factos adorauerunt et meam religionem uenerabilem relinquerunt. Tu uero mulier haec marito festinare nuntiare. Filium uero tuum in uenies esse defunctum. Te namque ingrediente ciuitatem spiritum mox amittit sepelietur planctu populi communiter honoratus. Hic namque solus ex genere hieroboam bonus fuisse uidebatur. Hoc namque propheta dicente exiliens turbata mulier de monte fili lamentans per uiam festinanter ibat, lugens et ingemescens filium, utique quem in spe reliquerat uiuum ulterius non uisura, quem continuo moriturum esse crederet. Quae dum uenisset in ciuitatem filium quidem sicut propheta dixerat inuenit extinctum regi uero cuncta narrauit.

[266] Ταῦτα δ᾽ ἔμελλεν οὐκ εἰς μακρὰν τἀσεβήματα καὶ τὴν ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν δίκην εἰς &#964#964;ὴν αὐτοῦ κεφαλὴν καὶ πάσης αὐτοῦ τῆς γενεᾶς τρέψειν τὸ θεῖον. κάμνοντος δ᾽ αὐτῷ κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρὸν τοῦ παιδός, ὃν Ὀβίμην ἐκάλουν, τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ προσέταξε τὴν στολὴν ἀποθεμένην καὶ σχῆμα λαβοῦσαν ἰδιωτικὸν πορευθῆναι πρὸς Ἀχίαν τὸν προφήτην: [267] εἶναι γὰρ θαυμαστὸν ἄνδρα περὶ τῶν μελλόντων προειπεῖν: καὶ γὰρ περὶ τῆς βασιλείας αὐτῷ τοῦτον δεδηλωκέναι: παραγενομένην δ᾽ ἐκέλευσε περὶ τοῦ παιδὸς ἀνακρίνειν ὡς ξένην, εἰ διαφεύξεται τὴν νόσον. ἡ δὲ μετασχηματισαμένη, καθὼς αὐτῇ προσέταξεν ὁ ἀνήρ, ἧκεν εἰς Σιλὼ πόλιν: ἐκεῖ γὰρ διέτριβεν ὁ Ἀχίας. [268] καὶ μελλούσης εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν αὐτοῦ εἰσιέναι τὰς ὄψεις ἠμαυρωμένου διὰ τὸ γῆρας ἐπιφανεὶς ὁ θεὸς ἀμφότερα αὐτῷ μηνύει τήν τε Ἱεροβοάμου γυναῖκα πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀφιγμένην καὶ τί δεῖ περὶ ὧν πάρεστιν ἀποκρίνασθαι. [269] παριούσης δὲ τῆς γυναικὸς εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν ὡς ἰδιώτιδος καὶ ξένης ἀνεβόησεν ‘εἴσελθε, ὦ γύναι Ἱεροβοάμου: τί κρύπτεις σαυτήν; τὸν γὰρ θεὸν οὐ λανθάνεις, ὃς ἀφιξομένην τέ μοι ἐδήλωσε καὶ προσέταξε τίνας ποιήσομαι τοὺς λόγους. ἀπελθοῦσα οὖν πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα φράζε αὐτῷ ταῦτα λέγειν: [270] ἐπεί σε μέγαν ἐκ μικροῦ καὶ μηδενὸς ὄντος ἐποίησα καὶ ἀποσχίσας τὴν βασιλείαν ἀπὸ τοῦ Δαυίδου γένους σοὶ ταύτην ἔδωκα, σὺ δὲ τούτων ἠμνημόνησας καὶ τὴν ἐμὴν θρησκείαν καταλιπὼν χωνευτοὺς θεοὺς κατασκευάσας ἐκείνους τιμᾷς, οὕτω σε πάλιν καθαιρήσω καὶ πᾶν ἐξολέσω σου τὸ γένος καὶ κυσὶ καὶ ὄρνισι βορὰν ποιήσω γενέσθαι. [271] βασιλεὺς γὰρ ἐξεγείρεθ᾽ ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ τοῦ λαοῦ παντός, ὃς οὐδένα ὑπολείψει τοῦ Ἱεροβοάμου γένους: μεθέξει δὲ τῆς τιμωρίας καὶ τὸ πλῆθος ἐκπεσὸν τῆς ἀγαθῆς γῆς καὶ διασπαρὲν εἰς τοὺς πέραν Εὐφράτου τόπους, ὅτι τοῖς τοῦ βασιλέως ἀσεβήμασι κατηκολούθησε καὶ τοὺς ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ γενομένους προσκυνεῖ θεοὺς τὴν ἐμὴν θυσίαν ἐγκαταλιπόν. [272] σὺ δέ, ὦ γύναι, ταῦτα ἀπαγγέλλουσα σπεῦδε πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα. τὸν δὲ υἱὸν καταλήψῃ τεθνηκότα: σοῦ γὰρ εἰσιούσης εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἀπολείψει τὸ ζῆν αὐτόν. ταφήσεται δὲ κλαυθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ πλήθους παντὸς κοινῷ τιμηθεὶς πένθει: καὶ γὰρ μόνος τῶν ἐκ τοῦ Ἱεροβοάμου γένους ἀγαθὸς οὗτος ἦν.’ [273] ταῦτ᾽ αὐτοῦ προφητεύσαντος ἐκπηδήσασα ἡ γυνὴ τεταραγμένη καὶ τῷ τοῦ προειρημένου παιδὸς θανάτῳ περιαλγής, θρηνοῦσα διὰ τῆς ὁδοῦ καὶ τὴν μέλλουσαν τοῦ τέκνου κοπτομένη τελευτὴν ἀθλία τοῦ πάθους ἠπείγετο κακοῖς ἀμηχάνοις καὶ σπουδῇ μὲν ἀτυχεῖ χρωμένη διὰ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς, ἔμελλε γὰρ αὐτὸν ἐπειχθεῖσα θᾶττον ὄψεσθαι νεκρόν, ἀναγκαίᾳ δὲ διὰ τὸν ἄνδρα. καὶ παραγενομένη τὸν μὲν ἐκπεπνευκότα καθὼς εἶπεν ὁ προφήτης εὗρε, τῷ δὲ βασιλεῖ πάντα ἀπήγγειλεν.

1. However, God was in no long time ready to return Jeroboam's wicked actions, and the punishment they deserved, upon his own head, and upon the heads of all his house. And whereas a soil of his lay sick at that time, who was called Abijah, he enjoined his wife to lay aside her robes, and to take the garments belonging to a private person, and to go to Ahijah the prophet, for that he was a wonderful man in foretelling futurities, it having been he who told me that I should be king. He also enjoined her, when she came to him, to inquire concerning the child, as if she were a stranger, whether he should escape this distemper. So she did as her husband bade her, and changed her habit, and came to the city Shiloh, for there did Ahijah live. And as she was going into his house, his eyes being then dim with age, God appeared to him, and informed him of two things; that the wife of Jeroboam was come to him, and what answer he should make to her inquiry. Accordingly, as the woman was coming into the house like a private person and a stranger, he cried out, "Come in, O thou wife of Jeroboam! Why concealest thou thyself? Thou art not concealed from God, who hath appeared to me, and informed me that thou wast coming, and hath given me in command what I shall say to thee." So he said that she should go away to her husband, and speak to him thus: "Since I made thee a great man when thou wast little, or rather wast nothing, and rent the kingdom from the house of David, and gave it to thee, and thou hast been unmindful of these benefits, hast left off my worship, hast made thee molten gods and honored them, I will in like manner cast thee down again, and will destroy all thy house, and make them food for the dogs and the fowls; for a certain king is rising up, by appointment, over all this people, who shall leave none of the family of Jeroboam remaining. The multitude also shall themselves partake of the same punishment, and shall be cast out of this good land, and shall be scattered into the places beyond Euphrates, because they have followed the wicked practices of their king, and have worshipped the gods that he made, and forsaken my sacrifices. But do thou, O woman, make haste back to thy husband, and tell him this message; but thou shalt then find thy son dead, for as thou enterest the city he shall depart this life; yet shall he be buried with the lamentation of all the multitude, and honored with a general mourning, for he was the only person of goodness of Jeroboam's family." When the prophet had foretold these events, the woman went hastily away with a disordered mind, and greatly grieved at the death of the forenamed child. So she was in lamentation as she went along the road, and mourned for the death of her son, that was just at hand. She was indeed in a miserable condition at the unavoidable misery of his death, and went apace, but in circumstances very unfortunate, because of her son: for the greater haste she made, she would the sooner see her son dead, yet was she forced to make such haste on account of her husband. Accordingly, when she was come back, she found that the child had given up the ghost, as the prophet had said; and she related all the circumstances to the king.

[XI.ii.274] Hieroboam itaque nihil horum cogitans multo exercitu congregato contra abiam filium roboam inuiophiem. Quod cum audisset obstupe factus est. Ueruntatem ultra prudentiam iuuentutis et spem bellandi roboratus electo ex tribubus duabus exercitum occurrit hieroboam ad quendam locum qui uocatur mons amorreorum et castra circum sigens bello necessaria praeparabat. Erat enim eius exercitus quadraginta milia uirorum. Hieroboam uero manus duplex erat. Cumque exercitus ex utroque ad opus bellicum et certamina committenda esset, iam inaciae constitutus instans in loco excelsione rex abias manu silentium imperauit et hieroboam petit ut cum quiete prius audiret facto silentio coepit haec dicere. Nec uos aequidem ignoratis quod principatum deus dauid et eius soboli in tempore uniuerso concesserit. Miror autem quomodo recedentes a meo patre seruo hieroboam indecenter ad haesitiris et cum eo nunc pugnaturi contra eos qui a deo regnare decreti sunt, an ad uenistis ut eorum regnum his praeliis auferatis. Aetenus itaque regnum hieroboam iniuste detenuit quod non reor maiore eo tempore possessurum, qui ideo poenas etiam de praeterito nunc soluens ab inquitatibus, iurisque cessauit, quas ei actenus inferre praesumpsit. Sed et uos talia perpetrare coegit, qui nullam a meo patre passi contumeliam, et tamen quia quae uobis placuerit in coetu locutus est malignis hominibus credens illum quidem ut putatis ira faciente reliquisti. Quod autem uerius est a deo uos et eius legibus abstraxistis, cum potius ignoscendum fuerat non uerbis solum modo dunoribus uiro iuuenculo et contentionis ignaro sed etiam qui ad aliquam difficultatem operis per iuuentutem fuisse insipientem quia per ducendos propter salomonem patrem illius beneficia uobis saepe collata, quae danda utique peccatis filiorum pro beneficiis et affectu parentum. Uos autem nihil eorum cogitatis neque nunc [neque] modo sed uenit super nos tantus exercitus uel in quo deuictoria confidentes: an inutilis aureis et aris in muneribus constitutis quae uestrae sunt impietatis et non religionis indicia. An certe spem uobis multitudo praebuit: quia castra nostra transcendit sed nulla uirtus illi est ubi licet eum multis milibus aliquis pugnat iniuste. Solum modo enim iustitia et pietate diuina spes uictoriae instituit immotaque scilicet et apud nos est seruantes a principio leges et deum proprium uenerantes quem in manus de putriscibili silua fecerunt nec ex cogitatio mali regis populi seductione construxit, sed cuius est opus principiumque finisque cunctorum unde sua deo cito eorum nunc uobis ut poenitentiam praeteritorum habeatis et meliora cogitantes dimicare cessetis paternasque leges recolatis. Et quicquid ad magnitudinem tantae felicitatis euexit.

[274] Ἱεροβόαμος δ᾽ οὐδενὸς τούτων φροντίσας πολλὴν ἀθροίσας στρατιὰν ἐπὶ τὸν Ῥοβοάμου παῖδα τῶν δύο φυλῶν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ πατρὸς διαδεξάμενον Ἀβίαν ἐξεστράτευσε πολεμήσων: κατεφρόνει γὰρ αὐτοῦ διὰ τὴν ἡλικίαν. ὁ δὲ ἀκούσας τὴν ἔφοδον τὴν Ἱεροβοάμου πρὸς αὐτὴν οὐ κατεπλάγη, γενόμενος δ᾽ ἐπάνω καὶ τῆς νεότητος τῷ φρονήματι καὶ τῆς ἐλπίδος τοῦ πολεμίου στρατιὰν ἐπιλέξας ἐκ τῶν δύο φυλῶν ἀπήντησε τῷ Ἱεροβοάμῳ εἰς τόπον τινὰ καλούμενον ὄρος Σαμαρῶν καὶ στρατοπεδευσάμενος ἐγγὺς αὐτοῦ τὰ πρὸς τὴν μάχην εὐτρέπιζεν. [275] ἦν δ᾽ ἡ δύναμις αὐτοῦ μυριάδες τεσσαράκοντα, ἡ δὲ τοῦ Ἱεροβοάμου στρατιὰ διπλασίων ἐκείνης. ὡς δὲ τὰ στρατεύματα πρὸς τὰ ἔργα καὶ τοὺς κινδύνους ἀντιπαρετάσσετο καὶ συμβαλεῖν ἔμελλε, στὰς ἐφ᾽ ὑψηλοῦ τινος Ἀβίας τόπου καὶ τῇ χειρὶ κατασείσας τὸ πλῆθος καὶ τὸν Ἱεροβόαμον ἀκοῦσαι πρῶτον αὐτοῦ μεθ᾽ ἡσυχίας ἠξίωσε. [276] γενομένης δὲ σιωπῆς ἤρξατο λέγειν: ‘ὅτι μὲν τὴν ἡγεμονίαν ὁ θεὸς Δαυίδῃ καὶ τοῖς ἐκγόνοις αὐτοῦ κατένευσεν εἰς ἅπαντα χρόνον, οὐδ᾽ ὑμεῖς ἀγνοεῖτε, θαυμάζω δέ, πῶς ἀποστάντες τοὐμοῦ πατρὸς τῷ δούλῳ Ἱεροβοάμῳ προσέθεσθε καὶ μετ᾽ ἐκείνου πάρεστε νῦν ἐπὶ τοὺς ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ βασιλεύειν κεκριμένους πολεμήσοντες καὶ τὴν ἀρχὴν ἀφαιρησόμενοι τὴν ὑπάρχουσαν: τὴν μὲν γὰρ πλείω μέχρι νῦν Ἱεροβόαμος ἀδίκως ἔχει. [277] ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ οἶμαι καὶ ταύτης αὐτὸν ἀπολαύσειν ἐπὶ πλείονα χρόνον, ἀλλὰ δοὺς καὶ τοῦ παρεληλυθότος δίκην τῷ θεῷ παύσεται τῆς παρανομίας καὶ τῶν ὕβρεων, ἃς οὐ διαλέλοιπεν εἰς αὐτὸν ὑβρίζων καὶ ταὐτὰ ποιεῖν ὑμᾶς ἀναπεπεικώς, οἳ μηδὲν ἀδικηθέντες ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρός, ἀλλ᾽ ὅτι μὴ πρὸς ἡδονὴν ἐκκλησιάζων ὡμίλησεν ἀνθρώπων πονηρῶν συμβουλίᾳ πεισθείς, ἐγκατελίπετε τῷ δοκεῖν ὑπ᾽ ὀργῆς ἐκεῖνον, ταῖς δ᾽ ἀληθείαις αὑτοὺς ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τῶν ἐκείνου νόμων ἀπεσπάσατε. [278] καίτοι συνεγνωκέναι καλῶς εἶχεν ὑμᾶς οὐ λόγων μόνον δυσκόλων ἀνδρὶ νέῳ καὶ δημαγωγίας ἀπείρῳ, ἀλλ᾽ εἰ καὶ πρός τι δυσχερὲς ἡ νεότης αὐτὸν καὶ ἡ ἀμαθία τῶν πραττομένων ἐξῆγεν ἔργον, διά τε Σολόμωνα τὸν πατέρα καὶ τὰς εὐεργεσίας τὰς ἐκείνου: παραίτησιν γὰρ εἶναι δεῖ τῆς τῶν ἐγγόνων ἁμαρτίας τὰς τῶν πατέρων εὐποιίας. [279] ὑμεῖς δ᾽ οὐδὲν τούτων ἐλογίσασθε οὔτε τότ᾽ οὔτε νῦν, ἀλλ᾽ ἧκε στρατὸς ἐφ᾽ ἡμᾶς τοσοῦτος: τίνι καὶ πεπιστευκὼς περὶ τῆς νίκης; ἦ ταῖς χρυσαῖς δαμάλεσι καὶ τοῖς ἐπὶ τῶν ὀρῶν βωμοῖς, ἃ δείγματα τῆς ἀσεβείας ἐστὶν ὑμῶν ἀλλ᾽ οὐχὶ τῆς θρησκείας; ἢ τὸ πλῆθος ὑμᾶς εὐέλπιδας ἀπεργάζεται τὴν ἡμετέραν στρατιὰν ὑπερβάλλον; [280] ἀλλ᾽ οὐδ᾽ ἥτις ἰσχὺς μυριάδων στρατοῦ μετ᾽ ἀδικημάτων πολεμοῦντος: ἐν γὰρ μόνῳ τῷ δικαίῳ καὶ πρὸς τὸ θεῖον εὐσεβεῖ τὴν βεβαιοτάτην ἐλπίδα τοῦ κρατεῖν τῶν ἐναντίων ἀποκεῖσθαι συμβέβηκεν, ἥτις ἐστὶ παρ᾽ ἡμῖν τετηρηκόσιν ἀπ᾽ ἀρχῆς τὰ νόμιμα καὶ τὸν ἴδιον θεὸν σεβομένοις, ὃν οὐ χεῖρες ἐποίησαν ἐξ ὕλης φθαρτῆς οὐδ᾽ ἐπίνοια πονηροῦ βασιλέως ἐπὶ τῇ τῶν ὄχλων ἀπάτῃ κατεσκεύασεν, ἀλλ᾽ ὃς ἔργον ἐστὶν αὑτοῦ καὶ ἀρχὴ καὶ τέλος τῶν ἁπάντων. [281] συμβουλεύω τοιγαροῦν ὑμῖν ἔτι καὶ νῦν μεταγνῶναι καὶ λαβόντας ἀμείνω λογισμὸν παύσασθαι τοῦ πολεμεῖν καὶ τὰ πάτρια καὶ τὸ προαγαγὸν ὑμᾶς ἐπὶ τοσοῦτον μέγεθος εὐδαιμονίας γνωρίσαι.’

2. Yet did not Jeroboam lay any of these things to heart, but he brought together a very numerous army, and made a warlike expedition against Abijah, the son of Rehoboam, who had succeeded his father in the kingdom of the two tribes; for he despised him because of his age. But when he heard of the expedition of Jeroboam, he was not affrighted at it, but proved of a courageous temper of mind, superior both to his youth and to the hopes of his enemy; so he chose him an army out of the two tribes, and met Jeroboam at a place called Mount Zemaraim, and pitched his camp near the other, and prepared everything necessary for the fight. His army consisted of four hundred thousand, but the army of Jeroboam was double to it. Now as the armies stood in array, ready for action and dangers, and were just going to fight, Abijah stood upon an elevated place, and beckoning with his hand, he desired the multitude and Jeroboam himself to hear first with silence what he had to say. And when silence was made, he began to speak, and told them,—"God had consented that David and his posterity should be their rulers for all time to come, and this you yourselves are not unacquainted with; but I cannot but wonder how you should forsake my father, and join yourselves to his servant Jeroboam, and are now here with him to fight against those who, by God's own determination, are to reign, and to deprive them of that dominion which they have still retained; for as to the greater part of it, Jeroboam is unjustly in possession of it. However, I do not suppose he will enjoy it any longer; but when he hath suffered that punishment which God thinks due to him for what is past, he will leave off the transgressions he hath been guilty of, and the injuries he hath offered to him, and which he hath still continued to offer and hath persuaded you to do the same: yet when you were not any further unjustly treated by my father, than that he did not speak to you so as to please you, and this only in compliance with the advice of wicked men, you in anger forsook him, as you pretended, but, in reality, you withdrew yourselves from God, and from his laws, although it had been right for you to have forgiven a man that was young in age, and not used to govern people, not only some disagreeable words, but if his youth and unskilfulness in affairs had led him into some unfortunate actions, and that for the sake of his father Solomon, and the benefits you received from him; for men ought to excuse the sins of posterity on account of the benefactions of parent; but you considered nothing of all this then, neither do you consider it now, but come with so great an army against us. And what is it you depend upon for victory? Is it upon these golden heifers, and the altars that you have on high places, which are demonstrations of your impiety, and not of religious worship? Or is it the exceeding multitude of your army which gives you such good hopes? Yet certainly there is no strength at all in an army of many ten thousands, when the war is unjust; for we ought to place our surest hopes of success against our enemies in righteousness alone, and in piety towards God; which hope we justly have, since we have kept the laws from the beginning, and have worshipped our own God, who was not made by hands out of corruptible matter; nor was he formed by a wicked king, in order to deceive the multitude; but who is his own workmanship, and the beginning and end of all things. I therefore give you counsel even now to repent, and to take better advice, and to leave off the prosecution of the war; to call to mind the laws of your country, and to reflect what it hath been that hath advanced you to so happy a state as you are now in."

[XI.iii.282] Haec aequidem abias est locutus ad populum. Ad huc autem eo loquen quosdam militum hieroboam latenter inmisit ut abian [101v] ex aliquibus partibus circumdarent quas exercitus non uidere[n]t. Qui cum inter hostes apparuissent exercitus quidem eius conturbatus expauit. Abias autem confortabit eos et in domino spem habere poscebat. Tunc illi pariter inuocantes dei solatium sacerdotibus tuba mittentibus cum clamore hostes adgressi sunt. Et illi enim audacia ac iuuentute dissoluit deus. Exercitum autem abia fecit exelsiorem. Nam quanta in illo bello refertur caedis fuisse conmissa neque graecorum neque barborum interimentes de exercitu hieroboam mirabilem et famosissimam perceperunt deo conferente uictoriam. Quingenti milia enim hostium bello prostrata sunt: eorumque munitissimas ciuitates diripuerunt, in super bethuliam eiusque regionem forti dimicatione tenuerunt. Hieroboam itaque hac perditione fatigatus nequaquam uirtutes habuit: quanto cumque tempore post haec abias uixit, qui tamen post hanc uictoriam paruo tempore super ueniens obiit cum regnasset annis tribus et sepultus est in hierosolimis in paternis monumentis. Relquid autem filios quidem duos et uiginti filias autem decem et septem, quos omnes de uxoribus uiginti septem procreauit. Huic successit in regno filius asa, cuius iuuenculi fuit mater nomine nach, quo regnante omnis prouincia israhelitarum pace potita est annis decem.

[282] Ταῦτα μὲν Ἀβίας διελέχθη πρὸς τὸ πλῆθος: ἔτι δὲ αὐτοῦ λέγοντος λάθρα τινὰς τῶν στρατιωτῶν Ἱεροβόαμος ἔπεμψε περικυκλωσομένους τὸν Ἀβίαν ἔκ τινων οὐ φανερῶν τοῦ στρατοπέδου μερῶν. μέσου δ᾽ αὐτοῦ περιληφθέντος τῶν πολεμίων ἡ μὲν στρατιὰ κατέδεισε καὶ ταῖς ψυχαῖς ἀνέπεσεν, ὁ δ᾽ Ἀβίας παρεθάρρυνε καὶ τὰς ἐλπίδας ἔχειν ἐν τῷ θεῷ παρεκάλει: τοῦτον γὰρ οὐ κεκυκλῶσθαι πρὸς τῶν πολεμίων. [283] οἱ δὲ ὁμοῦ πάντες ἐπικαλεσάμενοι τὴν παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ συμμαχίαν τῶν ἱερέων τῇ σάλπιγγι σημανάντων ἀλαλάξαντες ἐχώρησαν ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους: καὶ τῶν μὲν ἔθραυσε τὰ φρονήματα καὶ τὰς ἀκμὰς αὐτῶν ἐξέλυσεν ὁ θεός, τὴν δὲ Ἀβία στρατιὰν ὑπερτέραν ἐποίησεν: [284] ὅσος γὰρ οὐδέποτ᾽ ἐμνημονεύθη φόνος ἐν πολέμῳ γεγονέναι οὔθ᾽ Ἑλλήνων οὔτε βαρβάρων, τοσούτους ἀποκτείναντες τῆς Ἱεροβοάμου δυνάμεως θαυμαστὴν καὶ διαβόητον νίκην παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ λαβεῖν ἠξιώθησαν: πεντήκοντα γὰρ μυριάδας τῶν ἐχθρῶν κατέβαλον καὶ τὰς πόλεις αὐτῶν διήρπασαν τὰς ὀχυρωτάτας ἑλόντες κατὰ κράτος, τήν τε Βηθήλην καὶ τὴν τοπαρχίαν αὐτῆς καὶ τὴν Ἰσανὰν καὶ τὴν τοπαρχίαν αὐτῆς. [285] καὶ Ἱεροβόαμος μὲν οὐκέτι μετὰ ταύτην τὴν ἧτταν ἴσχυσεν ἐφ᾽ ὅσον Ἀβίας περιῆν χρόνον. τελευτᾷ δ᾽ οὗτος ὀλίγον τῇ νίκῃ χρόνον ἐπιζήσας ἔτη βασιλεύσας τρία, καὶ θάπτεται μὲν ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις ἐν ταῖς προγονικαῖς θήκαις, ἀπολείπει δὲ υἱοὺς μὲν δύο καὶ εἴκοσι θυγατέρας δὲ ἓξ καὶ δέκα. πάντας τούτους ἐκ γυναικῶν δεκατεσσάρων ἐτεκνώσατο. [286] διεδέξατο δ᾽ αὐτοῦ τὴν βασιλείαν ὁ υἱὸς αὐτοῦ Ἄσανος: καὶ ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ νεανίσκου Μαχαία τοὔνομα. τούτου κρατοῦντος εἰρήνης ἀπέλαυεν ἡ χώρα τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν ἐπὶ ἔτη δέκα.

3. This was the speech which Abijah made to the multitude. But while he was still speaking Jeroboam sent some of his soldiers privately to encompass Abijab round about, on certain parts of the camp that were not taken notice of; and when he was thus within the compass of the enemy, his army was affrighted, and their courage failed them; but Abijah encouraged them, and exhorted them to place their hopes on God, for that he was not encompassed by the enemy. So they all at once implored the Divine assistance, while the priests sounded with the trumpet, and they made a shout, and fell upon their enemies, and God brake the courage and cast down the force of their enemies, and made Ahijah's army superior to them; for God vouchsafed to grant them a wonderful and very famous victory; and such a slaughter was now made of Jeroboam's army as is never recorded to have happened in any other war, whether it were of the Greeks or of the Barbarians, for they overthrew [and slew] five hundred thousand of their enemies, and they took their strongest cities by force, and spoiled them; and besides those, they did the same to Bethel and her towns, and Jeshanah and her towns. And after this defeat Jeroboam never recovered himself during the life of Abijah, who yet did not long survive, for he reigned but three years, and was buried in Jerusalem in the sepulchers of his forefathers. He left behind him twenty-two sons, and sixteen daughters; and he had also those children by fourteen wives; and Asa his son succeeded in the kingdom; and the young man's mother was Michaiah. Under his reign the country of the Israelites enjoyed peace for ten years.

[XI.iv.287] Hoc ergo modo abian fili roboam nobis grata sunt tradita. Mortuus autem hieroboam rex decem tribuum, cum uiginti et duobus annis tenuisset imperium successitque ei filius nadabus. Secundo iam anno regis asa transacto regnauit hieroboam filius annis duobus patris impietati militiaeque concordans. In his autem duobus annis castrametatus est contra gabatho ciuitatem palaestinorum. Cumque eam foret obscessione capturus dolum passus a quodam amico nomine boas amehili filio mortuus est, qui post eius obitum positus imperio omne genus hieroboam interemit. Et reuenit ut secundum prophetiam dei alii quidem cognatorum hieroboam in ciuitate lacerturentur a canibus atque consumerentur. Alii uero in agris a uolatilibus deuorarentur. Et domus quidem hieroboam pro eius impietate atque iniquitatibus hac uice digna est.

[287] Καὶ τὰ μὲν περὶ Ἀβίαν τὸν Ῥοβοάμου τοῦ Σολόμωνος οὕτως παρειλήφαμεν. ἐτελεύτησε δὲ καὶ Ἱεροβόαμος ὁ τῶν δέκα φυλῶν βασιλεὺς ἄρξας ἔτη δύο καὶ εἴκοσι. διαδέχεται δ᾽ αὐτὸν ὁ παῖς Νάβαδος δευτέρου ἔτους ἤδη τῆς βασιλείας Ἀσάνου διεληλυθότος. ἦρξε δὲ ὁ τοῦ Ἱεροβοάμου παῖς ἔτη δύο τῷ πατρὶ τὴν ἀσέβειαν καὶ τὴν πονηρίαν ἐμφερὴς ὤν. [288] ἐν δὲ τούτοις τοῖς δυσὶν ἔτεσι στρατευσάμενος ἐπὶ Γαβαθῶνα πόλιν Παλαιστίνων οὖσαν πολιορκίᾳ λαβεῖν αὐτὴν προσέμενεν: ἐπιβουλευθεὶς δ᾽ ἐκεῖ ὑπὸ φίλου τινὸς Βασάνου ὄνομα Σειδοῦ δὲ παιδὸς ἀποθνήσκει, ὃς μετὰ τὴν τελευτὴν αὐτοῦ τὴν βασιλείαν παραλαβὼν ἅπαν τὸ Ἱεροβοάμου γένος διέφθειρε. [289] καὶ συνέβη κατὰ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ προφητείαν τοὺς μὲν ἐν τῇ πόλει τῶν Ἱεροβοάμου συγγενῶν ἀποθανόντας ὑπὸ κυνῶν σπαραχθῆναι καὶ δαπανηθῆναι, τοὺς δ᾽ ἐν τοῖς ἀγροῖς ὑπ᾽ ὀρνίθων. ὁ μὲν οὖν Ἱεροβοάμου οἶκος τῆς ἀσεβείας αὐτοῦ καὶ τῶν ἀνομημάτων ἀξίαν ὑπέσχε δίκην.

4. And so far concerning Abijah, the son of Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, as his history hath come down to us. But Jeroboam, the king of the ten tribes, died when he had governed them two and twenty years; whose son Nadab succeeded him, in the second year of the reign of Asa. Now Jeroboam's son governed two years, and resembled his father in impiety and wickedness. In these two years he made an expedition against Gibbethon, a city of the Philistines, and continued the siege in order to take it; but he was conspired against while he was there by a friend of his, whose name was Baasha, the son of Ahijah, and was slain; which Baasha took the kingdom after the other's death, and destroyed the whole house of Jeroboam. It also came to pass, according as God had foretold, that some of Jeroboam's kindred that died in the city were torn to pieces and devoured by dogs, and that others of them that died in the fields were torn and devoured by the fowls. So the house of Jeroboam suffered the just punishment of his impiety, and of his wicked actions.



CHAPTER 12. How Zerah, King Of The Ethiopians, Was Beaten By Asa; And How Asa, Upon Baasha's Making War Against Him, Invited The King Of The Damascens To Assist Him; And How, On The Destruction Of The House Of Baasha Zimri Got The Kingdom As Did His Son Ahab After Him.

[XII.i.290] Rex autem hierosolimorum asa dum moribus esset egregius semper ad diuinam respexerit nihilque gereret neque cogitaret quod non esset pietati conueniens, aut ad legum custodiam pertineret suum conposuit regnum, abscidens cunctam abeo nequitiam et ab omni macula mundans. Habuit autem exercitum electorum uirorum arma gerentium scuta et lanceas de tribu quidem iuda trecenti milia. De beniamin autem scuta arcusque portantium ducenti quinquaginta milia. Cumque iam decem regnasset annis castra contra eum mouet cum maximo nimis exercitu ianas rex aethiopiae ducens pedestrium quidem nonaginta milia. Equestrium uero decem milia currusque trecenti. Quidum usque ciuitatem morisan quae est in tribu iuda cum exercitu suo uenisset, occurrit ei asa, et castris contra eum positis in quandam con ualle nomine sabatha non procul a ciuitate. Cum uidisset aethiopium multitudinem poscebat a deo cum clamore uictoriam, et ut multa milia hostium perimeret. Neque enim in alio confidendum esse dicebat, quam ineo qui possit etiam paucos multorum potiores ostendere: et facere infirmos praeualere.

[290] Ὁ δὲ τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων βασιλεὺς Ἄσανος ἦν τὸν τρόπον ἄριστος καὶ πρὸς τὸ θεῖον ἀφορῶν καὶ μηδὲν μήτε πράττων μήτ᾽ ἐννοούμενος, ὃ μὴ πρὸς τὴν εὐσέβειαν εἶχε καὶ τὴν τῶν νομίμων φυλακὴν τὴν ἀναφοράν. κατώρθωσε δὲ τὴν αὑτοῦ βασιλείαν ἐκκόψας εἴ τι πονηρὸν ἦν ἐν αὐτῇ καὶ καθαρεύσας ἁπάσης κηλῖδος. [291] στρατοῦ δ᾽ εἶχεν ἐπιλέκτων ἀνδρῶν ὡπλισμένων θυρεὸν καὶ σιρομάστην ἐκ μὲν τῆς Ἰούδα φυλῆς μυριάδας τριάκοντα, ἐκ δὲ τῆς Βενιαμίτιδος ἀσπίδας φορούντων καὶ τοξοτῶν μυριάδας πέντε καὶ εἴκοσι. [292] ἤδη δὲ αὐτοῦ δέκα ἔτη βασιλεύοντος στρατεύει μεγάλῃ δυνάμει Ζαραῖος ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν ὁ τῆς Αἰθιοπίας βασιλεὺς ἐνενήκοντα μὲν πεζῶν μυριάσιν ἱππέων δὲ δέκα τριακοσίοις δ᾽ ἅρμασι. καὶ μέχρι πόλεως Μαρήσας, ἔστι δ᾽ αὕτη τῆς Ἰούδα φυλῆς, ἐλάσαντος αὐτοῦ μετὰ τῆς οἰκείας δυνάμεως ἀπήντησεν Ἄσανος, [293] καὶ ἀντιπαρατάξας αὐτῷ τὴν στρατιὰν ἔν τινι φάραγγι Σαβαθὰ λεγομένῃ τῆς πόλεως οὐκ ἄπωθεν, ὡς κατεῖδε τὸ τῶν Αἰθιόπων πλῆθος ἀναβοήσας νίκην ᾔτει παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὰς πολλὰς ἑλεῖν μυριάδας τῶν πολεμίων: οὐδὲ γὰρ ἄλλῳ τινὶ θαρσήσας ἔλεγεν ἢ τῇ παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ βοηθείᾳ δυναμένῃ καὶ τοὺς ὀλίγους ἀπεργάσασθαι κρείττους τῶν πλειόνων καὶ τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς τῶν ὑπερεχόντων ἀπαντῆσαι πρὸς μάχην τῷ Ζαραίῳ.

1. Now Asa, the king of Jerusalem, was of an excellent character, and had a regard to God, and neither did nor designed any thing but what had relation to the observation of the laws. He made a reformation of his kingdom, and cut off whatsoever was wicked therein, and purified it from every impurity. Now he had an army of chosen men that were armed with targets and spears; out of the tribe of Judah three hundred thousand; and out of the tribe of Benjamin, that bore shields and drew bows, two hundred and fifty thousand. But when he had already reigned ten years, Zerah, king of Ethiopia, made an expedition against him, with a great army, of nine hundred thousand footmen, and one hundred thousand horsemen, and three hundred chariots, and came as far as Mareshah, a city that belonged to the tribe of Judah. Now when Zerah had passed so far with his own army, Asa met him, and put his army in array over against him, in a valley called Zephathah, not far from the city; and when he saw the multitude of the Ethiopians, he cried out, and besought God to give him the victory, and that he might kill many ten thousands of the enemy: "For," said he, "I depend on nothing else but that assistance which I expect from thee, which is able to make the fewer superior to the more numerous, and the weaker to the stronger; and thence it is alone that I venture to meet Zerah, and fight him."

[XII.ii.294] Haec orante asa signum uictoria deus ostendit, et cum gaudio diuinitatis auxilio bello congressus multos aethiopium perculit et conuersos infugam persecutus est usque ad geraritidem regionem. Relinquentes autem occisionem hostium ad direptionem ciuitatis geraret ne quam coeperant eorumque castrorum protinus accesserant, ita ut tollerent aurum multum nimis argentum praedamque deueherens ualde mirabilem camelos et subiugali et pecodum greges innumeros. Asa igitur et eius exercitus sumpta huius modi a deo uictoria atque praeda in hierosolimis remeauit, quibus uenientibus occurrit in uia azarias nomine propheta, et praecipiens ut paululum agressu itineris abstineret coepit ad eos dicere quia illum uictoria fuisset eis a deo concessa, eo quod iustos se sanctosque seruassent et omnia dei uoluntate fecissent, quos in eius mandatis permanentes dixit, semper hostibus praeualere et habituros diuina uirtute felictatem. Relinquentes autem eius religionem in contraria deuenire futurumque tempus in quo nullas inueniret uerax propheta in eo populo neque sacerdos qui iuste aliquid responderet. Ob quam rem ciuitates subuertendas et gentem in omni terra deseminandam et uitam mirabilem et inopem habituros, suasitque eis ut dum hoc haberent bene agerent et nequaquam [102r] a diuina deuotione recederent. Hoc audiens rex et pupulus sunt gauisi, multumque studium et omnes in commune et singuli circa iustitiam ex hibebant. Misitque rex et omnem prouiciam praecipiens ut legitima diligenter ubique seruarent.

[294] Ταῦτα λέγοντος Ἀσάνου νίκην ἐσήμαινεν ὁ θεός, καὶ συμβαλὼν μετὰ χαρᾶς τῶν προδεδηλωμένων ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ πολλοὺς ἀποκτείνει τῶν Αἰθιόπων καὶ τραπέντας εἰς φυγὴν ἐδίωξεν ἄχρι τῆς Γεραρίτιδος χώρας. ἀφέμενοι δὲ τῆς ἀναιρέσεως ἐπὶ τὴν διαρπαγὴν τῶν πόλεων, ἥλω γὰρ ἡ Γεράρων, ἐχώρησαν καὶ τῆς παρεμβολῆς αὐτῶν, ὡς πολὺν μὲν ἐκφορῆσαι χρυσὸν πολὺν δὲ ἄργυρον λείαν τε ἀπαγαγεῖν καμήλους τε καὶ ὑποζύγια καὶ βοσκημάτων ἀγέλας. [295] Ἄσανος μὲν οὖν καὶ ἡ παρ᾽ αὐτῷ στρατιὰ τοιαύτην παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ νίκην λαβόντες καὶ ὠφέλειαν ἀνέστρεφον εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα, παραγενομένοις δὲ αὐτοῖς ἀπήντησε κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν προφήτης Ἀζαρίας ὄνομα. οὗτος ἐπισχεῖν κελεύσας τῆς ὁδοιπορίας ἤρξατο λέγειν πρὸς αὐτούς, ὅτι ταύτης εἶεν τῆς νίκης παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ τετυχηκότες, ὅτι δικαίους καὶ ὁσίους ἑαυτοὺς παρέσχον καὶ πάντα κατὰ βούλησιν θεοῦ πεποιηκότας. [296] ἐπιμένουσι μὲν οὖν ἔφασκεν ἀεὶ κρατεῖν αὐτοὺς τῶν ἐχθρῶν καὶ τὸ ζῆν μετ᾽ εὐδαιμονίας παρέξειν τὸν θεόν, ἀπολιποῦσι δὲ τὴν θρησκείαν ἅπαντα τούτων ἐναντία συμβήσεσθαι καὶ γενήσεσθαι χρόνον ἐκεῖνον, ἐν ᾧ μηδεὶς ἀληθὴς εὑρεθήσεται προφήτης ἐν τῷ ὑμετέρῳ ὄχλῳ οὐδὲ ἱερεὺς τὰ δίκαια χρηματίζων, [297] ἀλλὰ καὶ αἱ πόλεις ἀνάστατοι γενήσονται καὶ τὸ ἔθνος κατὰ πάσης σπαρήσεται γῆς ἔπηλυν βίον καὶ ἀλήτην βιωσόμενον. καιρὸν δ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἔχουσι συνεβούλευεν ἀγαθοῖς γίνεσθαι καὶ μὴ φθονῆσαι τῆς εὐμενείας αὑτοῖς τοῦ θεοῦ. ταῦτ᾽ ἀκούσας ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ ὁ λαὸς ἐχάρησαν καὶ πολλὴν πρόνοιαν ἐποιοῦντο κοινῇ τε πάντες καὶ κατ᾽ ἰδίαν τοῦ δικαίου: διέπεμψε δ᾽ ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ τοὺς ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ τῶν νομίμων ἐπιμελησομένους.

2. While Asa was saying this, God gave him a signal of victory, and joining battle cheerfully on account of what God had foretold about it, he slew a great many of the Ethiopians; and when he had put them to flight, he pursued them to the country of Gerar; and when they left off killing their enemies, they betook themselves to spoiling them, [for the city Gerar was already taken,] and to spoiling their camp, so that they carried off much gold, and much silver, and a great deal of [other] prey, and camels, and great cattle, and flocks of sheep. Accordingly, when Asa and his army had obtained such a victory, and such wealth from God, they returned to Jerusalem. Now as they were coming, a prophet, whose name was Azariah, met them on the road, and bade them stop their journey a little; and began to say to them thus: That the reason why they had obtained this victory from God was this, that they had showed themselves righteous and religious men, and had done every thing according to the will of God; that therefore, he said, if they persevered therein, God would grant that they should always overcome their enemies, and live happily; but that if they left off his worship, all things shall fall out on the contrary; and a time should come, wherein no true prophet shall be left in your whole multitude, nor a priest who shall deliver you a true answer from the oracle; but your cities shall be overthrown, and your nation scattered over the whole earth, and live the life of strangers and wanderers. So he advised them, while they had time, to be good, and not to deprive themselves of the favor of God. When the king and the people heard this, they rejoiced; and all in common, and every one in particular, took great care to behave themselves righteously. The king also sent some to take care that those in the country should observe the laws also.

[XII.iii.298] Sic igitur asar regis duarum tribuum actio gerebatur. Reuertar autem ad regem basam, qui israhelitico populo possidebat. Occideratque adab filium hieroboam et eius tenuerat principatum. Is enim inter sal in ciuitatem degens et habitaculum ibi constituens. Regnauit quidem annis uiginti et quattuor, sed fuit malignus et impius ultra hieroboam et filium eius, et populum multis malis adflixit, et deo fecit iniuriam qui mittens ad eum gimun prophetam praedixit et se et omne genus eius exterminaturum, et hisdem malis quibus domum hieroboam prasens erat proditurum quod rex abeo constitutus beneificium non repensauit aut iuste et pie populo praesederet prae primitus ipsis prodissent, sed inde deo gratissima semper forent sed magis imitatus est pessimum hieroboam. Cuius dum perisset anima uenerit tamen eius inisto malignitas dicebatque supplicium malorum illius, hunc habitaturum qui ei similis extitisse uidebat. Baasan autem quam uis prophetam audisset futuram sibi suo genere pro commissis sceleribus ultionem tamen dereliquo non quieuit neque respexit quod male agendo deperiret in glorio se penitendo pro malis praeteritis a deo ueniam mereretur. Sed tamquam illi quibus praemium proponitur laborare non cessant donec ad proposita dona ueniant. Sic et baasan propheta dicente sibi futuram tamquam si ad magna bona concurreret in pernicies sui generis et totius domus interitum peior fieri contidie non cessabat. Namque uelud athleta nequitiae in his agebatur malis. Nouissime exercitus sumptu quadraginta stadiis ab hierosolimis aberat eamque capiens cogitauit ut in eam exercitum derelinqueret, quatenus ex inde procedens terram asaph regis inuaderet.

[298] Καὶ τὰ μὲν Ἀσάνου τοῦ βασιλέως τῶν δύο φυλῶν ἐν τούτοις ὑπῆρχεν. ἐπάνειμι δ᾽ ἐπὶ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν καὶ τὸν βασιλέα αὐτῶν Βασάνην τὸν ἀποκτείναντα τὸν Ἱεροβοάμου υἱὸν Νάβαδον καὶ κατασχόντα τὴν ἀρχήν. [299] οὗτος γὰρ ἐν Θαρσάλῃ πόλει διατρίβων καὶ ταύτην οἰκητήριον πεποιηκὼς εἴκοσι μὲν ἐβασίλευσεν ἔτη καὶ τέσσαρα, πονηρὸς δὲ καὶ ἀσεβὴς ὑπὲρ Ἱεροβόαμον καὶ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ γενόμενος πολλὰ καὶ τὸ πλῆθος κακὰ διέθηκε καὶ τὸν θεὸν ἐξύβρισεν: ὃς αὐτῷ πέμψας Ἰηοῦν τὸν προφήτην προεῖπε διαφθερεῖν αὐτοῦ πᾶν τὸ γένος καὶ τοῖς αὐτοῖς οἷς καὶ τὸν Ἱεροβοάμου κακοῖς περιέβαλεν οἶκον ἐξολέσειν, [300] ὅτι βασιλεὺς ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ γενόμενος οὐκ ἠμείψατο τὴν εὐεργεσίαν τῷ δικαίως προστῆναι τοῦ πλήθους καὶ εὐσεβῶς, ἅπερ αὐτοῖς πρῶτον τοῖς οὖσι τοιούτοις ἀγαθὰ ἔπειτα τῷ θεῷ φίλα, τὸν δὲ κάκιστον Ἱεροβόαμον ἐμιμήσατο καὶ τῆς ψυχῆς ἀπολομένης τῆς ἐκείνου ζῶσαν αὐτοῦ τὴν πονηρίαν ἐνεδείξατο: πεῖραν οὖν ἕξειν εἰκότως τῆς ὁμοίας συμφορᾶς αὐτὸν ἔλεγεν ὅμοιον αὐτῷ γενόμενον. [301] Βασάνης δὲ προακηκοὼς τὰ μέλλοντα αὐτῷ συμβήσεσθαι κακὰ μεθ᾽ ὅλης τῆς γενεᾶς ἐπὶ τοῖς τετολμημένοις οὐ πρὸς τὸ λοιπὸν ἡσύχασεν, ἵνα μὴ μᾶλλον πονηρὸς δόξας ἀποθάνῃ καὶ περὶ τῶν παρῳχημένων ἔκτοτε γοῦν μετανοήσας συγγνώμης τύχῃ, [302] ἀλλ᾽ ὥσπερ οἱ προκειμένων αὐτοῖς ἄθλων ἐπὰν περί τι σπουδάσωσιν οὐ διαλείπουσι περὶ τοῦτο ἐνεργοῦντες, οὕτω καὶ Βασάνης προειρηκότος αὐτῷ τοῦ προφήτου τὰ μέλλοντα ὡς ἐπ᾽ ἀγαθοῖς τοῖς μεγίστοις κακοῖς ὀλέθρῳ γένους καὶ οἰκίας ἀπωλείᾳ χείρων ἐγένετο, καὶ καθ᾽ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν ὥσπερ ἀθλητὴς κακίας τοῖς περὶ ταύτην πόνοις προσετίθει. [303] καὶ τελευταῖον τὴν στρατιὰν παραλαβὼν πάλιν ἐπῆλθε πόλει τινὶ τῶν οὐκ ἀφανῶν Ἀρμαθῶνι τοὔνομα σταδίους ἀπεχούσῃ Ἱεροσολύμων τεσσαράκοντα, καὶ καταλαβόμενος αὐτὴν ὠχύρου προδιεγνωκὼς καταλιπεῖν ἐν αὐτῇ δύναμιν, ἵν᾽ ἐκεῖθεν ὡρμημένοι τὴν Ἀσάνου βασιλείαν κακώσωσι.

3. And this was the state of Asa, king of the two tribes. I now return to Baasha, the king of the multitude of the Israelites, who slew Nadab, the son of Jeroboam, and retained the government. He dwelt in the city Tirzah, having made that his habitation, and reigned twenty-four years. He became more wicked and impious than Jeroboam or his son. He did a great deal of mischief to the multitude, and was injurious to God, who sent the prophet Jehu, and told him beforehand that his whole family should be destroyed, and that he would bring the same miseries on his house which had brought that of Jeroboam to ruin; because when he had been made king by him, he had not requited his kindness, by governing the multitude righteously and religiously; which things, in the first place, tended to their own happiness, and, in the next place, were pleasing to God: that he had imitated this very wicked king Jeroboam; and although that man's soul had perished, yet did he express to the life his wickedness; and he said that he should therefore justly experience the like calamity with him, since he had been guilty of the like wickedness. But Baasha, though he heard beforehand what miseries would befall him and his whole family for their insolent behavior, yet did not he leave off his wicked practices for the time to come, nor did he care to appear other than worse and worse till he died; nor did he then repent of his past actions, nor endeavor to obtain pardon of God for them, but did as those do who have rewards proposed to them, when they have once in earnest set about their work, they do not leave off their labors; for thus did Baasha, when the prophet foretold to him what would come to pass, grow worse, as if what were threatened, the perdition of his family, and the destruction of his house, [which are really among the greatest of evils,] were good things; and, as if he were a combatant for wickedness, he every day took more and more pains for it: and at last he took his army and assaulted a certain considerable city called Ramah, which was forty furlongs distant from Jerusalem; and when he had taken it, he fortified it, having determined beforehand to leave a garrison in it, that they might thence make excursions, and do mischief to the kingdom of Asa.

[XII.iv.304] Metuens etiam asa conamen hostis et cogitans qua posset exercitus quia ramath coeperat eius uiolare prouinciam, misit ad regem damascenorum legatos simul et aurum et argentum petens abeo solatium, et commemorans quia amicitiam antiquitis habuissent. Ille uero et pecuniarum opulentiam grate suscepit et solatia praebuit. Soluens amititiam quam habuerat cum basan misitque ad ciuitates quae basan uidebantur imperio subiacere ut eas affugeret. Quia alias quidem incdenderunt alias populati sunt, id est elon et a bellans et alias multas, haec audiens rex israhelitarum aedificare quidem a ramatham atque munire cessauit. Ueuem uero cum studio festinauit ut propriis ferret auxilium. Igitur asa apparatu aedificiorum quae basan congregauerat, construxit ineo loco duas fortissimas ciuitates quarum altera gabaa, altera uero masphas uocabatur. Et post haec tempus non habuit iam basan pugnandi aduersus asa peremptus est enim acreone et sepultus quidem in ciuitate thersa cui successit filius belan. Hic cum regnasset duobus annis defunctus est quem occidit zamarias aequorum iordanis dimidiis princeps. Nam dum aepularetur apud dispensatiorem suum nomine osa suasit quibusdam equitibus ut subito discurrentes eum armigeris et principibus desolatum reperientes occiderent. Illi namque cuncti circa obsesssionem gabatanae ciuitatis in palaestina positae occupati uidebant.

[304] Φοβηθεὶς δὲ Ἄσανος τὴν ἐπιχείρησιν τοῦ πολεμίου καὶ λογισάμενος, ὡς πολλὰ διαθήσει κακὰ τὴν ὑπ᾽ αὐτῷ βασιλευομένην ἅπασαν ὁ καταλειφθεὶς ἐν Ἀρμαθῶνι στρατός, ἔπεμψε πρὸς τὸν Δαμασκηνῶν βασιλέα πρέσβεις καὶ χρυσὸν καὶ ἄργυρον παρακαλῶν συμμαχίαν καὶ ὑπομιμνήσκων, ὅτι καὶ πατρῴα φιλία πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἐστὶν αὐτοῖς. [305] ὁ δὲ τῶν χρημάτων τὸ πλῆθος ἀσμένως ἐδέξατο καὶ συμμαχίαν ἐποιήσατο πρὸς αὐτὸν διαλύσας τὴν πρὸς τὸν Βασάνην φιλίαν, καὶ πέμψας εἰς τὰς ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ βασιλευομένας πόλεις τοὺς ἡγεμόνας τῆς ἰδίας δυνάμεως ἐκέλευσε κακοῦν αὐτάς. οἱ δὲ τὰς μὲν ἐνεπίμπρασαν τὰς δὲ διήρπασαν πορευθέντες, τήν τε Ἰωάνου λεγομένην καὶ Δάνα καὶ Ἀβελάνην καὶ ἄλλας πολλάς. [306] ταῦτ᾽ ἀκούσας ὁ τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν βασιλεὺς τοῦ μὲν οἰκοδομεῖν καὶ ὀχυροῦν τὸν Ἀραμαθῶνα ἐπαύσατο καὶ μετὰ σπουδῆς ὡς βοηθήσων τοῖς οἰκείοις κακουμένοις ἀνέστρεψεν, ὁ δ᾽ Ἄσανος ἐκ τῆς παρεσκευασμένης ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ πρὸς οἰκοδομίαν ὕλης πόλεις ἀνήγειρεν ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ τόπῳ δύο καρτεράς, ἡ μὲν Γαβαὰ ἐκαλεῖτο, ἡ δὲ Μασταφάς. [307] καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα καιρὸν οὐκ ἔσχεν ὁ Βασάνης τῆς ἐπὶ τὸν Ἄσανον στρατείας: ἐφθάσθη γὰρ ὑπὸ τοῦ χρεὼν καὶ θάπτεται μὲν ἐν Θαρσῇ πόλει, παραλαμβάνει δ᾽ αὐτοῦ τὴν ἀρχὴν παῖς Ἤλανος. οὗτος ἄρξας ἐπ᾽ ἔτη δύο τελευτᾷ φονεύσαντος αὐτὸν ἐξ ἐπιβουλῆς Ζαμβρίου τοῦ ἱππάρχου τῆς ἡμισείας τάξεως: [308] κατευωχηθέντα γὰρ αὐτὸν παρὰ τῷ οἰκονόμῳ αὐτοῦ Ὠσᾶ τοὔνομα πείσας ἐπιδραμεῖν τῶν ὑφ᾽ αὑτὸν ἱππέων τινὰς ἀπέκτεινε δι᾽ αὐτῶν μεμονωμένον τῶν περὶ αὐτὸν ὁπλιτῶν καὶ ἡγεμόνων: οὗτοι γὰρ ἅπαντες περὶ τὴν πολιορκίαν τῆς Γαβαθώνης ἐγίνοντο τῆς Παλαιστίνων.

4. Whereupon Asa was afraid of the attempts the enemy might make upon him; and considering with himself how many mischiefs this army that was left in Ramah might do to the country over which he reigned, he sent ambassadors to the king of the Damascenes, with gold and silver, desiring his assistance, and putting him in mind that we have had a friendship together from the times of our forefathers. So he gladly received that sum of money, and made a league with him, and broke the friendship he had with Baasha, and sent the commanders of his own forces unto the cities that were under Baasha's dominion, and ordered them to do them mischief. So they went and burnt some of them, and spoiled others; Ijon, and Dan, and Abelmain and many others. Now when the king of Israel heard this, he left off building and fortifying Ramah, and returned presently to assist his own people under the distresses they were in; but Asa made use of the materials that were prepared for building that city, for building in the same place two strong cities, the one of which was called Geba, and the other Mizpah; so that after this Baasha had no leisure to make expeditions against Asa, for he was prevented by death, and was buried in the city Tirzah; and Elah his son took the kingdom, who, when he had reigned two years, died, being treacherously slain by Zimri, the captain of half his army; for when he was at Arza, his steward's house, he persuaded some of the horsemen that were under him to assault Elah, and by that means he slew him when he was without his armed men and his captains, for they were all busied in the siege of Gibbethon, a city of the Philistines.

[XII.v.309] Perimens itaque helan regem princeps aequorum zamarias ipse regnauit, et omne basan genus secundum prophetiam gimon interimit. Eodem namque modo eius domus propter impietatem radicitus est euulsa, sicut hieroboam perisse descripsimus exercitus qui gabathon obsedebat. Audiens quod de rege contigerat et quod zamarias occidens eum inuasisset imperium et ipse principem suum omann constituere regem quod gabathena urbe mouens exercitum uenit in thersa. Et accedens ad ciuitatem manu bellica eam coepit. Zambrias autem uidens ciuitatem fuisse detentam fugit ad locum aulae regiae secretiorem, et succdens eam semetipsum pariter concremauit, cum regnasset diebus septem moxque. Israhelitarum diuisus est populus, et alii quidem theman regnare uolebant alii autem amarin. Cumque uicisset pars amarin, et interemptus est thaman. Et in toto exercitu regnauit amarin. Incesimo autem anno regis asa arin suscepit imperium et tenuit annis duodecim. Quorum sex quidem annis in tersa fecit reliquos aut in ciuitate quae mareon appellatur a graecis uero samarian. Hic autem nominauit eam samarion a somaro quodam qui ei montem uenundauerat in quo constituerat ciuitatem. In nullo [102v] autem deferebat priorum regum nisi quod peior erat. Omnes enim quaerebant quatenus suis impietatibus cotidiae populum facerent a deo recedere. Et propter eam scripsit eos et nullum promisit eorum genere super esse. Et his ergo defunctus est in samana. Successitque ei filius acab.

[309] Φονεύσας δὲ τὸν Ἤλανον ὁ ἵππαρχος Ζαμβρίας αὐτὸς βασιλεύει καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν Βασάνου γενεὰν κατὰ τὴν Ἰηοῦς προφητείαν διαφθείρει: τῷ γὰρ αὐτῷ τρόπῳ συνέβη τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ πρόρριζον ἀπολέσθαι διὰ τὴν ἀσέβειαν, ὡς καὶ τὸν Ἱεροβοάμου διαφθαρέντα γεγράφαμεν. [310] ἡ δὲ πολιορκοῦσα τὴν Γαβαθώνην στρατιὰ πυθομένη τὰ περὶ τὸν βασιλέα καὶ ὅτι Ζαμβρίας ἀποκτείνας αὐτὸν ἔχει τὴν βασιλείαν καὶ αὐτὴ τὸν ἡγούμενον αὐτῆς Ἀμαρῖνον ἀπέδειξε βασιλέα, ὃς ἀπὸ τῆς Γαβαθώνης ἀναστήσας τὸν στρατὸν εἰς Θαρσὴν παραγίνεται τὸ βασίλειον καὶ προσβαλὼν τῇ πόλει κατὰ κράτος αἱρεῖ. [311] Ζαμβρίας δὲ τὴν πόλιν ἰδὼν ἠρημωμένην συνέφυγεν εἰς τὸ μυχαίτατον τῶν βασιλείων καὶ ὑποπρήσας αὐτὸ συγκατέκαυσεν ἑαυτὸν βασιλεύσας ἡμέρας ἑπτά. διέστη δ᾽ εὐθὺς ὁ τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν λαὸς καὶ οἱ μὲν αὐτῶν Θαμαναῖον βασιλεύειν ἤθελον, οἱ δὲ τὸν Ἀμαρῖνον. νικήσαντες δ᾽ οἱ τοῦτον ἄρχειν ἀξιοῦντες ἀποκτείνουσι τὸν Θαμαναῖον, καὶ παντὸς βασιλεύει ὁ Ἀμαρῖνος τοῦ ὄχλου. [312] τριακοστῷ δὲ ἔτει τῆς Ἀσάνου βασιλείας ἦρξεν ὁ Ἀμαρῖνος ἔτη δώδεκα: τούτων τὰ μὲν ἓξ ἐν Θάρσῳ πόλει, τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ ἐν Σωμαρεῶνι λεγομένῃ πόλει ὑπὸ δὲ Ἑλλήνων Σαμαρείᾳ καλουμένῃ. προσηγόρευσε δ᾽ αὐτὴν αὐτὸς Σωμαραῖος ἀπὸ τοῦ τὸ ὄρος ἀποδομένου αὐτῷ ἐφ᾽ ᾧ κατεσκεύασε τὴν πόλιν Σωμάρου. [313] διέφερε δ᾽ οὐδὲν τῶν πρὸ αὐτοῦ βασιλευσάντων ἢ τῷ χείρων αὐτῶν εἶναι: ἅπαντες γὰρ ἐζήτουν πῶς ἀποστήσουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ τὸν λαὸν τοῖς καθ᾽ ἡμέραν ἀσεβήμασι καὶ διὰ τοῦτο δι᾽ ἀλλήλων αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς ἐποίησεν ἐλθεῖν καὶ μηδένα τοῦ γένους ὑπολιπεῖν. ἐτελεύτησε δὲ καὶ οὗτος ἐν Σαμαρείᾳ, διαδέχεται δ᾽ αὐτὸν ὁ παῖς Ἄχαβος.

5. When Zimri, the captain of the army, had killed Elah, he took the kingdom himself, and, according to Jehu's prophecy, slew all the house of Baasha; for it came to pass that Baasha's house utterly perished, on account of his impiety, in the same manner as we have already described the destruction of the house of Jeroboam. But the army that was besieging. Gibbethon, when they heard what had befallen the king, and that when Zimri had killed him, he had gained the kingdom, they made Omri their general king, who drew off his army from Gibbethon, and came to Tirzah, where the royal palace was, and assaulted the city, and took it by force. But when Zimri saw that the city had none to defend it, he fled into the inmost part of the palace, and set it on fire, and burnt himself with it, when he had reigned only seven days. Upon which the people of Israel were presently divided, and part of them would have Tibni to be king, and part Omri; but when those that were for Omri's ruling had beaten Tibni, Omri reigned over all the multitude. Now it was in the thirtieth year of the reign of Asa that Omri reigned for twelve years; six of these years he reigned in the city Tirzah, and the rest in the city called Semareon, but named by the Greeks Samaria; but he himself called it Semareon, from Semer, who sold him the mountain whereon he built it. Now Omri was no way different from those kings that reigned before him, but that he grew worse than they, for they all sought how they might turn the people away from God by their daily wicked practices; and oil that account it was that God made one of them to be slain by another, and that no one person of their families should remain. This Omri also died in Samaria and Ahab his son succeeded him.

[] Ex his namque cognoscitur quantam prouidentiam humanarum rerum probat habere diuinitas et quomodo bonos quidem malos autem abhorret et a radice disperset. Israhelitarum denique reges propter suam iniquitatem et iniustiam alter super alium in ruentes multi paruo tempore perierunt et eorum genus exterminatus est. Asa autem rex hierosolimorum qui duabus tribubus praesedebat propter pietatem atque iustitiam ad longam felicemque a deo productus est senectutem. Et cum regnasset quadraginta et uno annis bona more defunctus est. Quo moriente successit ei filius iosaphat de abida matre procreatus est. Hunc autem imitatorem pro auisui dauid pietate atque fortitude cuncti ipsis operibus crediderunt. Sed de hoc re non est modo referendi necessitas.

[314] Μαθεῖν δ᾽ ἔστιν ἐκ τούτων, ὅσην τὸ θεῖον ἐπιστροφὴν ἔχει τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων πραγμάτων, καὶ πῶς μὲν ἀγαπᾷ τοὺς ἀγαθούς, μισεῖ δὲ τοὺς πονηροὺς καὶ προρρίζους ἀπόλλυσιν: οἱ μὲν γὰρ τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν βασιλεῖς ἄλλος ἐπ᾽ ἄλλῳ διὰ τὴν παρανομίαν καὶ τὰς ἀδικίας ἐν ὀλίγῳ χρόνῳ πολλοὶ κακῶς διαφθαρέντες ἐγνώσθησαν καὶ τὸ γένος αὐτῶν, ὁ δὲ τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων καὶ τῶν δύο φυλῶν βασιλεὺς Ἄσανος δι᾽ εὐσέβειαν καὶ δικαιοσύνην εἰς μακρὸν καὶ εὔδαιμον ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ προήχθη γῆρας καὶ τεσσαράκοντα καὶ ἓν ἄρξας ἔτος εὐμοίρως ἀπέθανε. [315] τελευτήσαντος δ᾽ αὐτοῦ διεδέξατο τὴν ἡγεμονίαν ὁ υἱὸς Ἰωσαφάτης ἐκ γυναικὸς Ἀβιδᾶς τοὔνομα γεγενημένος. τοῦτον μιμητὴν Δαυίδου τοῦ προπάππου κατά τε ἀνδρείαν καὶ εὐσέβειαν ἅπαντες ἐν τοῖς ἔργοις ὑπέλαβον. ἀλλὰ περὶ μὲν τούτου τοῦ βασιλέως οὐ κατεπείγει νῦν λέγειν.

6. Now by these events we may learn what concern God hath for the affairs of mankind, and how he loves good men, and hates the wicked, and destroys them root and branch; for many of these kings of Israel, they and their families, were miserably destroyed, and taken away one by another, in a short time, for their transgression and wickedness; but Asa, who was king of Jerusalem, and of the two tribes, attained, by God's blessing, a long and a blessed old age, for his piety and righteousness, and died happily, when he had reigned forty and one years; and when he was dead, his son Jehoshaphat succeeded him in the government. He was born of Asa's wife Azubah. And all men allowed that he followed the works of David his forefather, and this both in courage and piety; but we are not obliged now to speak any more of the affairs of this king.



CHAPTER 13. How Ahab When He Had Taken Jezebel To Wife Became More Wicked Than All The Kings That Had Been Before Him; Of The Actions Of The Prophet Elijah, And What Befell Naboth.

[XIII.i.316] Igitur achab israhelitarum rex habitabat in samaria, tenuitque principatum annis uiginti et mensibus duo. Nihil amplius innouans quam prisci fecerant reges, nisi quod mali magnitudine tenderet ad peiora omnem eorum nequitiam et quod ad diuinam pertineret iniuriam uiuaciter imitatus et praecipue constructas adorauit aras et super haec alia potiora melitus est. Duxit uxorem filiam iona bal regis tyri et sydonis nomine zezabel per quam eis deos didicit adorare. Erat enim mulier nimis accerrima simul et audax, qui ad tantam uenit luxuriam, atque uesaniam, ut etiam deo tyri quem bal appellabant aedificaret et plantaret omnium arborum lucus. Constituit autem et sacerdotes falsosque prophetas huic deo tradituros, sed et ipse rex multos huius modi circa se fouebat stultitia atque nequitatem omnes priores suos excellens.

[316] Ὁ δὲ Ἄχαβος ὁ τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν βασιλεὺς κατῴκει μὲν ἐν Σαμαρείᾳ, τὴν δ᾽ ἀρχὴν κατέσχεν ἕως ἐτῶν εἴκοσι καὶ δύο μηδὲν καινίσας τῶν πρὸ αὐτοῦ βασιλέων, εἰ μὴ ὅσα γε πρὸς τὸ χεῖρον καθ᾽ ὑπερβολὴν πονηρίας ἐπενόησεν, ἅπαντα δ᾽ αὐτῶν τὰ κακουργήματα καὶ τὴν πρὸς τὸ θεῖον ὕβριν ἐκμιμησάμενος καὶ μάλιστα τὴν Ἱεροβοάμου ζηλώσας παρανομίαν: [317] καὶ γὰρ οὗτος δαμάλεις τὰς ὑπ᾽ ἐκείνου κατασκευασθείσας προσεκύνησε καὶ τούτοις ἄλλα παράδοξα προσεμηχανήσατο. ἔγημε δὲ γυναῖκα θυγατέρα μὲν Εἰθωβάλου τοῦ Τυρίων καὶ Σιδωνίων βασιλέως Ἰεζαβέλην δὲ ὄνομα, ἀφ᾽ ἧς τοὺς ἰδίους αὐτῆς θεοὺς προσκυνεῖν ἔμαθεν. [318] ἦν δὲ τὸ γύναιον δραστήριόν τε καὶ τολμηρόν, εἰς τοσαύτην δὲ ἀσέλγειαν καὶ μανίαν προύπεσεν, ὥστε καὶ ναὸν τῷ Τυρίων θεῷ ὃν Βελίαν προσαγορεύουσιν ᾠκοδόμησε καὶ ἄλσος παντοίων δένδρων κατεφύτευσε: κατέστησε δὲ καὶ ἱερεῖς καὶ ψευδοπροφήτας τούτῳ τῷ θεῷ: καὶ αὐτὸς δ᾽ ὁ βασιλεὺς πολλοὺς τοιούτους περὶ αὑτὸν εἶχεν ἀνοίᾳ καὶ πονηρίᾳ πάντας ὑπερβεβληκὼς τοὺς πρὸ αὐτοῦ.

1. Now Ahab the king of Israel dwelt in Samaria, and held the government for twenty-two years; and made no alteration in the conduct of the kings that were his predecessors, but only in such things as were of his own invention for the worse, and in his most gross wickedness. He imitated them in their wicked courses, and in their injurious behavior towards God, and more especially he imitated the transgression of Jeroboam; for he worshipped the heifers that he had made; and he contrived other absurd objects of worship besides those heifers: he also took to wife the daughter of Ethbaal, king of the Tyrians and Sidonians, whose name was Jezebel, of whom he learned to worship her own gods. This woman was active and bold, and fell into so great a degree of impurity and madness, that she built a temple to the god of the Tyrians, Which they call Belus, and planted a grove of all sorts of trees; she also appointed priests and false prophets to this god. The king also himself had many such about him, and so exceeded in madness and wickedness all [the kings] that went before him.

[XIII.ii.319] Quadam igitur propheta summi dei de ciuitate thesebon galaditis regionis ueniens ad achab dixit ei, quia diceret deus neque imbrem neque ros illis annis in ea prouintia semissurum nisi rursus ipse apparuisset. Et in his dictis cum iurasset abscessit ad partes australes, et habitauit circa torrentem quendam unde poculi habebat auxilium. Nam corzui cibum ei cotidie deferebant. Cumque fluuius siccitate nimia defecisset in ciuitate sareptham non procul a sydone tyroque deuenit ciuitas in harum medio constituta est. Deus enim praeceperat cuidam illic mulieri uiduae ut cibum ei praeberet. Cum non procul esset a porta uidit mulierem uiduam sibimet colligentem ligna cui cum deus significasset hanc esse quae ei cibum ministratura foret, accedens salutauit eam, et ad bibendum aquam sibi tribui postulauit. Quae cumque procederet denuo uocans eam etiam panem poscit adferri. Illacum iurauit nihil se intus habere nisi modicum farine et paululum olei, et propterea perrexisse ad colligenda ligna, ut consparsa farina faceret sibi suoque filio panes, cum aliud nihil super esset ut fame morirentur. Ait propheta, Confidens perge et spe meliore consiste faciens primitus mihi paululum defer. Praedico namque quod non tibi deficiet hydria farinae neque uas olei donec dei gratia imbrem pandat in terras, haec ei dicente propheta ueniens ea quae dixerat fecit et ipsa habuit paululum et filio minstrauit pariter et propheta. Nihilque horum defuit ei donec siccitas defecerat. Meminit etiam siccitatis, et menander ingestis, itauali thiorum regis ita dicens et siccitas super eos factam est. A mense hiperueritheon usque ad alium annum hiperuerithei, quicum deo supplicaret multa flumina se missa. Namque ciuitatem botrum aedificauit in phoeniciae et aazonibliphsa. Et haec quidem ait sub achab factam significans siccitatem. Hoc enim tempore etiam itabalus cuius fecit menander mentionem rogauit in tyro.

[319] Προφήτης δέ τις τοῦ μεγάλου θεοῦ ἐκ πόλεως Θεσσεβώνης τῆς Γαλααδίτιδος χώρας προσελθὼν Ἀχάβῳ προλέγειν αὐτῷ τὸν θεὸν ἔφασκε μήθ᾽ ὕσειν αὐτὸν ἐν ἐκείνοις τοῖς ἔτεσι μήτε δρόσον καταπέμψειν εἰς τὴν χώραν, εἰ μὴ φανέντος αὐτοῦ. καὶ τούτοις ἐπομόσας ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς τὰ πρὸς νότον μέρη ποιούμενος παρὰ χειμάρρῳ τινὶ τὴν διατριβήν, ἐξ οὗ καὶ τὸ ποτὸν εἶχε: τὴν γὰρ τροφὴν αὐτῷ καθ᾽ ἡμέραν κόρακες προσέφερον. [320] ἀναξηρανθέντος δὲ τοῦ ποταμοῦ δι᾽ ἀνομβρίαν εἰς Σαριφθὰν πόλιν οὐκ ἄπωθεν τῆς Σιδῶνος καὶ Τύρου, μεταξὺ γὰρ κεῖται, παραγίνεται τοῦ θεοῦ κελεύσαντος: εὑρήσειν γὰρ ἐκεῖ γυναῖκα χήραν, ἥτις αὐτῷ παρέξει τροφάς. [321] ὢν δ᾽ οὐ πόρρω τῆς πύλης ὁρᾷ γυναῖκα χερνῆτιν ξυλιζομένην: τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ δηλώσαντος ταύτην εἶναι τὴν μέλλουσαν αὐτὸν διατρέφειν προσελθὼν ἠσπάσατο καὶ κομίσαι ὕδωρ παρεκάλεσεν, ὅπως πίῃ, καὶ πορευομένης μετακαλεσάμενος καὶ ἄρτον ἐνεγκεῖν ἐκέλευσε. [322] τῆς δ᾽ ὀμοσάσης μηδὲν ἔχειν ἢ μίαν ἀλεύρου δράκα καὶ ὀλίγον ἐλαίου, πορεύεσθαι δὲ συνειλεχυῖαν τὰ ξύλα, ἵνα φυράσασα ποιήσῃ αὑτῇ καὶ τῷ τέκνῳ ἄρτον, μεθ᾽ ὃν ἀπολεῖσθαι λιμῷ δαπανηθέντα μηκέτι μηδενὸς ὄντος ἔλεγεν, ‘ἀλλὰ θαρσοῦσα, εἶπεν, ἄπιθι καὶ τὰ κρείττω προσδοκῶσα, καὶ ποιήσασα πρῶτον ἐμοὶ βραχὺ κόμισον: προλέγω γάρ σοι μηδέποτ᾽ ἐπιλείψειν ἀλεύρων ἐκεῖνο τὸ ἄγγος μηδ᾽ ἐλαίου τὸ κεράμιον, μέχρις οὗ ἂν ὕσῃ ὁ θεός.’ [323] ταῦτ᾽ εἰπόντος τοῦ προφήτου παραγενομένη πρὸς αὑτὴν ἐποίησε τὰ εἰρημένα καὶ αὐτή τε ἔσχε καὶ τῷ τέκνῳ χορηγεῖ τὴν διατροφὴν καὶ τῷ προφήτῃ, ἐπέλιπε δ᾽ οὐδὲν αὐτοὺς τούτων, ἄχρις οὗ καὶ ὁ αὐχμὸς ἐπαύσατο. [324] μέμνηται δὲ τῆς ἀνομβρίας ταύτης καὶ Μένανδρος ἐν ταῖς Ἰθωβάλου τοῦ Τυρίων βασιλέως πράξεσι λέγων οὕτως: ‘ἀβροχία τ᾽ ἐπ᾽ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο ἀπὸ τοῦ Ὑπερβερεταίου μηνὸς ἕως τοῦ ἐχομένου ἔτους Ὑπερβερεταίου, * ἱκετείαν δ᾽ αὐτοῦ ποιησαμένου κεραυνοὺς ἱκανοὺς βεβληκέναι. οὗτος πόλιν Βότρυν ἔκτισε τὴν ἐπὶ Φοινίκῃ καὶ Αὖζαν τὴν ἐν Λιβύῃ.’ καὶ ταῦτα μὲν δηλῶν τὴν ἐπ᾽ Ἀχάβου γενομένην ἀνομβρίαν, κατὰ γὰρ τοῦτον καὶ Ἰθώβαλος ἐβασίλευε Τυρίων, ὁ Μένανδρος ἀναγέγραφεν.

2. There was now a prophet of God Almighty, of Thesbon, a country in Gilead, that came to Ahab, and said to him, that God foretold he would not send rain nor dew in those years upon the country but when he should appear. And when he had confirmed this by an oath, he departed into the southern parts, and made his abode by a brook, out of which he had water to drink; for as for his food, ravens brought it to him every day: but when that river was dried up for want of rain, he came to Zarephath, a city not far from Sidon and Tyre, for it lay between them, and this at the command of God, for [God told him] that he should there find a woman who was a widow that should give him sustenance. So when he was not far off the city, he saw a woman that labored with her own hands, gathering of sticks: so God informed him that this was the woman who was to give him sustenance. So he came and saluted her, and desired her to bring him some water to drink; but as she was going so to do, he called to her, and would have her to bring him a loaf of bread also; whereupon she affirmed upon oath that she had at home nothing more than one handful of meal, and a little oil, and that she was going to gather some sticks, that she might knead it, and make bread for herself and her son; after which, she said, they must perish, and be consumed by the famine, for they had nothing for themselves any longer. Hereupon he said, "Go on with good courage, and hope for better things; and first of all make me a little cake, and bring it to me, for I foretell to thee that this vessel of meal and this cruse of oil shall not fail until God send rain." When the prophet had said this, she came to him, and made him the before-named cake; of which she had part for herself, and gave the rest to her son, and to the prophet also; nor did any thing of this fall until the drought ceased. Now Menander mentions this drought in his account of the acts of Ethbaal, king of the Tyrians; where he says thus: "Under him there was a want of rain from the month Hyperberetmus till the month Hyperberetmus of the year following; but when he made supplications, there came great thunders. This Ethbaal built the city Botrys in Phoenicia, and the city Auza in Libya." By these words he designed the want of rain that was in the days of Ahab, for at that time it was that Ethbaal also reigned over the Tyrians, as Menander informs us.

[XIII.iii.325] Mulier itaque quam paulo ante diximus paululum praebuisse prophetae cum cecidisset eius filius in langorem ita ut animam dimitteret et mortuus esse uideretur, defluens et manibus semetipsa ualde decerpens, uocesque quas dictabat luctus emittens accusabat. Apud se factam prophetae praesentiam quasi ipse peccata eius argueret et ideo peruenisset extinctus. Ille uero eam aequo animo esse praecipiens, et sibi filium contra dicens uiuum secum restituere promisit. Qua tradente portans eum ad locum in quo ipse degebat et in lectulo conlocans clamabat ad dominum dicens: Quod [103r] non fuisset bene mulieri repensatum quae illum susciperat et nutrierat cum eius filius ablatus rogabatque ut denuo animam puer reciperet atque uidendi copia praeberetur. Cumque deus et matris habuisset misericordiam et uelit praecibus prophetae rogantis adnuere neuideretur ad eam pro laesione uenisse continuo ultra omnem opinionem reuixit puer. Illa uero gratias prophetae referens tunc aperte se cognouisse dicebat, quod loqueretur ei uere diuinitus.

[325] Ἡ δὲ γυνὴ περὶ ἧς πρὸ τούτων εἴπομεν, ἡ τὸν προφήτην διατρέφουσα, τοῦ παιδὸς αὐτῇ καταπεσόντος εἰς νόσον, ὡς καὶ τὴν ψυχὴν ἀφεῖναι καὶ δόξαι νεκρόν, ἀνακλαιομένη καὶ ταῖς τε χερσὶν αὑτὴν αἰκιζομένη καὶ φωνὰς οἵας ὑπηγόρευε τὸ πάθος ἀφιεῖσα κατῃτιᾶτο τῆς παρ᾽ αὐτῇ παρουσίας τὸν προφήτην ὡς ἐλέγξαντα τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῆς καὶ διὰ τοῦτο τοῦ παιδὸς τετελευτηκότος. [326] ὁ δὲ παρεκελεύετο θαρρεῖν καὶ παραδοῦναι τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῷ: ζῶντα γὰρ αὐτὸν ἀποδώσειν. παραδούσης οὖν βαστάσας εἰς τὸ δωμάτιον, ἐν ᾧ διέτριβεν αὐτός, καὶ καταθεὶς ἐπὶ τῆς κλίνης ἀνεβόησε πρὸς τὸν θεὸν οὐ καλῶς ἀμείψασθαι τὴν ὑποδεξαμένην καὶ θρέψασαν τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς ἀφαιρησόμενον, ἐδεῖτό τε τὴν ψυχὴν εἰσπέμψαι πάλιν τῷ παιδὶ καὶ παρασχεῖν αὐτῷ τὸν βίον. [327] τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ κατοικτείραντος μὲν τὴν μητέρα, βουληθέντος δὲ καὶ τῷ προφήτῃ χαρίσασθαι τὸ μὴ δόξαι πρὸς αὐτὴν ἐπὶ κακῷ παρεῖναι, παρὰ πᾶσαν τὴν προσδοκίαν ἀνεβίωσεν. ἡ δ᾽ εὐχαρίστει τῷ προφήτῃ καὶ τότε σαφῶς ἔλεγε μεμαθηκέναι, ὅτι τὸ θεῖον αὐτῷ διαλέγεται.

3. Now this woman, of whom we spake before, that sustained the prophet, when her son was fallen into a distemper till he gave up the ghost, and appeared to be dead, came to the prophet weeping, and beating her breasts with her hands, and sending out such expressions as her passions dictated to her, and complained to him that he had come to her to reproach her for her sins, and that on this account it was that her son was dead. But he bid her be of good cheer, and deliver her son to him, for that he would deliver him again to her alive. So when she had delivered her son up to him, he carried him into an upper room, where he himself lodged, and laid him down upon the bed, and cried unto God, and said, that God had not done well, in rewarding the woman who had entertained him and sustained him, by taking away her son; and he prayed that he would send again the soul of the child into him, and bring him to life again. Accordingly God took pity on the mother, and was willing to gratify the prophet, that he might not seem to have come to her to do her a mischief, and the child, beyond all expectation, came to life again. So the mother returned the prophet thanks, and said she was then clearly satisfied that God did converse with him.

[XIII.iv.328] Transacto siquidem paruo tempore uoluntate dei pergebat ad regem achab. Futurum ei nuntiaturus imbrem. Aerumna enim et necessariorum inopia prounciam nimis inuaserat, ita ut non solum homines propter siccitatem sed etiam cetera animalia famis adficerit. Rex igitur euocans oboedian qui erat super eius iumenta dixit ei, ut adfontes aquarum et torrentes pergeret quatenus pascua animalibus inueniret quidum misisset in cuncto orbe terrarum ad quaerendum prophetam heliam nec inuenisset praecepit ut eum etiam ipse requireret. Quod dum fieri placuisset et rex et oboedian per singula itenera pe[r]rexerunt. Contigerat itaque tempore quo zezabel regina prophetas occiderat, ut centum prophetas iste in speluncis absconderet eosque solum modo pane et aqua nutriret. Cum igitur oboedias recississet a rege, propheta ei helias occurrit aquo requisitus quis esset et cognoscens esse prophetam protinus adorauit. Cui propheta: Perge inquid ad regem et dic quoniam ad sum. Cui ille respondit. Quid mali passus a me illic me dirigis quo possim indubitanter occidi. An ignorans quoniam nullum relinquid locum quod non dixerit ut te repertum ad casum necis adducat, praecabat enim ne dum regi nuntiaret, et alio alibi ducente mentire uideretur morte subcumbere. Commemorabatque ei quemadmodum cum zezabel prophetas occiderit centum ipse absconsos et multos alios in speleo liberasset. Cui propheta nihil metuens inquit ad regem festinus accedere praebuitque ei iure iurandi religionem quoniam illa die ad achab ipse quoque ueniret

[328] Χρόνου δ᾽ ὀλίγου διελθόντος παραγίνεται πρὸς Ἄχαβον τὸν βασιλέα κατὰ βούλησιν τοῦ θεοῦ δηλώσων αὐτῷ τ&#8056#8056;ν γενησόμενον ὑετόν. λιμὸς δὲ τότε κατεῖχε τὴν χώραν ἅπασαν καὶ πολλὴ τῶν ἀναγκαίων ἀπορία, ὡς μὴ μόνον ἀνθρώπους αὐτῶν σπανίζειν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν γῆν μηδ᾽ ὅσα τοῖς ἵπποις καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις κτήνεσι πρὸς νομήν ἐστι χρήσιμα διὰ τὴν ἀνομβρίαν ἀναδιδόναι. [329] τὸν οὖν ἐπιμελόμενον αὐτοῦ τῶν κτημάτων ὁ βασιλεὺς καλέσας Ὠβεδίαν ἀπιέναι βούλεσθαι πρὸς αὐτὸν εἶπεν ἐπὶ τὰς πηγὰς τῶν ὑδάτων καὶ τοὺς χειμάρρους, ἵν᾽ εἴ που παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς εὑρεθείη πόα ταύτην εἰς τροφὴν ἀμησάμενοι τοῖς κτήνεσιν ἔχωσι. καὶ περιπέμψαντα κατὰ πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην τοὺς ζητήσοντας τὸν προφήτην Ἠλίαν οὐχ εὑρηκέναι: συνέπεσθαι δ᾽ ἐκέλευσε κἀκεῖνον αὐτῷ. [330] δόξαν οὖν ἐξορμᾶν αὐτοῖς μερισάμενοι τὰς ὁδοὺς ὅ τε Ὠβεδίας καὶ ὁ βασιλεὺς ἀπῄεσαν ἕτερος ἑτέραν τῶν ὁδῶν. συνεβεβήκει δὲ καθ᾽ ὃν Ἰεζαβέλη ἡ βασίλισσα καιρὸν τοὺς προφήτας ἀπέκτεινε τοῦτον ἑκατὸν ἐν τοῖς ὑπὸ Γάρις σπηλαίοις κρύψαι προφήτας καὶ τρέφειν αὐτοὺς ἄρτον χορηγοῦντα μόνον καὶ ὕδωρ. [331] μονωθέντι δ᾽ ἀπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως Ὠβεδίᾳ συνήντησεν ὁ προφήτης Ἠλίας: καὶ πυθόμενος παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ τίς εἴη καὶ μαθὼν προσεκύνησεν αὐτόν: ὁ δὲ πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα βαδίζειν ἐκέλευσε καὶ λέγειν, ὅτι παρείη πρὸς αὐτόν. [332] ὁ δὲ τί κακὸν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ πεπονθότα πρὸς τὸν ἀποκτεῖναι ζητοῦντα καὶ πᾶσαν ἐρευνήσαντα γῆν πέμπειν αὐτὸν ἔλεγεν: ἢ τοῦτ᾽ ἀγνοεῖν αὐτόν, ὅτι μηδένα τόπον κατέλιπεν, εἰς ὃν οὐκ ἀπέστειλε τοὺς ἀνάξοντας εἰ λάβοιεν ἐπὶ θανάτῳ; [333] καὶ γὰρ εὐλαβεῖσθαι πρὸς αὐτὸν ἔφασκε, μὴ τοῦ θεοῦ φανέντος αὐτῷ πάλιν εἰς ἄλλον ἀπέλθῃ τόπον, εἶτα διαμαρτὼν αὐτοῦ πέμψαντος τοῦ βασιλέως μὴ δυνάμενος εὑρεῖν ὅπου ποτ᾽ εἴη γῆς ἀποθάνῃ. [334] προνοεῖν οὖν αὐτοῦ τῆς σωτηρίας παρακαλεῖ τὴν περὶ τοὺς ὁμοτέχνους αὐτοῦ σπουδὴν λέγων, ὅτι σώσειεν ἑκατὸν προφήτας Ἱεζαβέλης πάντας τοὺς ἄλλους ἀνῃρηκυίας καὶ ἔχοι κεκρυμμένους αὐτοὺς καὶ τρεφομένους ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ. ὁ δὲ μηδὲν δεδιότα βαδίζειν ἐκέλευε πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα δοὺς αὐτῷ πίστεις ἐνόρκους, ὅτι πάντως κατ᾽ ἐκείνην Ἀχάβῳ φανήσεται τὴν ἡμέραν.

4. After a little while Elijah came to king Ahab, according to God's will, to inform him that rain was coming. Now the famine had seized upon the whole country, and there was a great want of what was necessary for sustenance, insomuch that it was after the recovery of the widow's son of Sarepta, God sent not only men that wanted it, but the earth itself also, which did not produce enough for the horse and the other beasts of what was useful for them to feed on, by reason of the drought. So the king called for Obadiah, who was steward over his cattle, and said to him, that he would have him go to the fountains of water, and to the brooks, that if any herbs could be found for them, they might mow it down, and reserve it for the beasts. And when he had sent persons all over the habitable earth to discover the prophet Elijah, and they could not find him, he bade Obadiah accompany him. So it was resolved they should make a progress, and divide the ways between them; and Obadiah took one road, and the king another. Now it happened that the same time when queen Jezebel slew the prophets, that this Obadiah had hidden a hundred prophets, and had fed them with nothing but bread and water. But when Obadiah was alone, and absent from the king, the prophet Elijah met him; and Obadiah asked him who he was; and when he had learned it from him, he worshipped him. Elijah then bid him go to the king, and tell him that I am here ready to wait on him. But Obadiah replied, "What evil have I done to thee, that thou sendest me to one who seeketh to kill thee, and hath sought over all the earth for thee? Or was he so ignorant as not to know that the king had left no place untouched unto which he had not sent persons to bring him back, in order, if they could take him, to have him put to death?" For he told him he was afraid lest God should appear to him again, and he should go away into another place; and that when the king should send him for Elijah, and he should miss of him, and not be able to find him any where upon earth, he should be put to death. He desired him therefore to take care of his preservation; and told him how diligently he had provided for those of his own profession, and had saved a hundred prophets, when Jezebel slew the rest of them, and had kept them concealed, and that they had been sustained by him. But Elijah bade him fear nothing, but go to the king; and he assured him upon oath that he would certainly show himself to Ahab that very day.

[XIII.v.335] Dumque rei quod uidisset heliam et mox occurrit achab requirens cum ira grande si ipse esset qui in populo hebraeorum impiae auctor existeret. Tunc propheta in nullo formidans ait eum potius mala omnia perpetrasse eius genus in illa prouncia deos alienos introduxisse et deum qui solus est reliquisse. Sed nunc inquit omnem populum ad montes carmellum praecipe congregari populum ad montes carmellum praecipe congregari. Nec non prophetas tuos pariter et uxores quo cumque sunt numero prophetasque lucorum quasi quadrigentos. Qui dum omnes ad praedictum montem achab euocante uenissent stans in medio eorum helias ait quo usque diuisam mentem et uoluntates habentes in hac conuersatione constitutis siquidem putatis uestrae prouinciae deum uerum et solum eum sequimini eiusque mandata seruate. Si uero hoc non existimatis sed peregrinos creditis et illis exhibendam etiam putatis esse curam eis nihil ominus oboedite. Cumque populus nihil ad talia responderet, petit helias pro experimento fortitudinis alienigenarum deorum et sicui cuius remanserat solus ipse propheta cum illorum essent numero quadringenti ut summeret bouem et eum occisum et super altare poneret nequaquam igne subposita similiter etiam illos facientes inuocari proprios deos quatenus eorum hostias concremarent, hoc inquit facto cognoscentis ueram dei praeualere naturam. Quod dum placuisset ait helias, et eligentes bouem illli prius occiderent et deos proprios inuocarent. Quorum dum non audiretur oratio deridens helias magna eos uoce deos suos clamare monebat. Qui aut perfecti fuissent aut forte dormirent. Illis autem amatutino usque ad diem mediam hoc facientibus et semetipsos more patrio cultris et gladiis incidentibus et nihil agentibus cum ipse esset iam hostias oblaturus. Illos quidem abire praecepit populum uero in proximo iussit accedere ut uiderent et custodirent eum ne lignis ignem latenter immiteret. Cumque populus accessisset, sumens duodecim lapides secundum tribus hebraeicae populi constituit ex eis altare et circa eum fecit foueam ualde profundam, et inposuit ligna super [103v] altare et in eis super posuit hostias, praecepit ut quattuor hydriae de fonte conpletae deferent super altare donec fouea illa quae aquam sparsam ex altare suscipiebat impleta manaret. Quo facto coepit orare deum atque clamare ut eranti populo multo iam tempore suam manifestam faceret potestatem. Cumque dixisset haec repente ignis de caelo uidente populo cecidit super aram et consumpsit hostias uniuersas. Ita ut etiam aqua ipsa concremaretur et locus actenus usque perducerentur.

[335] Μηνύσαντος δὲ τῷ βασιλεῖ Ὠβεδίου τὸν Ἠλίαν ὑπήντησεν ὁ Ἄχαβος καὶ ἤρετο μετ᾽ ὀργῆς, εἰ αὐτὸς εἴη ὁ τὸν Ἑβραίων λαὸν κακώσας καὶ τῆς ἀκαρπίας αἴτιος γεγενημένος. ὁ δ᾽ οὐδὲν ὑποθωπεύσας αὐτὸν εἶπεν ἅπαντα τὰ δεινὰ πεποιηκέναι καὶ τὸ γένος αὐτοῦ ξενικοὺς ἐπεισενηνοχότας τῇ χώρᾳ θεοὺς καὶ τούτους σέβοντας, τὸν δ᾽ ἴδιον αὐτῶν, ὃς μόνος ἐστὶ θεός, ἀπολελοιπότας καὶ μηδεμίαν ἔτι πρόνοιαν αὐτοῦ ποιουμένους. [336] νῦν μέντοι γε ἀνελθόντα ἐκέλευε πάντα τὸν λαὸν εἰς τὸ Καρμήλιον ὄρος ἀθροῖσαι πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ τοὺς προφήτας αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς γυναικός, εἰπὼν ὅσοι τὸν ἀριθμὸν εἴησαν, καὶ τοὺς τῶν ἀλσῶν προφήτας ὡς τετρακοσίους τὸ πλῆθος ὄντας. [337] ὡς δὲ συνέδραμον πάντες εἰς τὸ προειρημένον ὄρος Ἀχάβου διαπέμψαντος, σταθεὶς αὐτῶν ὁ προφήτης Ἠλίας μεταξύ, μέχρι πότε διῃρημένους αὐτοὺς τῇ διανοίᾳ καὶ ταῖς δόξαις οὕτως βιώσειν ἔφασκε: νομίσαντας μὲν γὰρ τὸν ἐγχώριον θεὸν ἀληθῆ καὶ μόνον ἕπεσθαι τούτῳ καὶ ταῖς ἐντολαῖς αὐτοῦ παρῄνει, μηδὲν δὲ τοῦτον ἡγουμένους ἀλλὰ περὶ τῶν ξενικῶν ὑπειληφότας ὡς ἐκείνους δεῖ θρησκεύειν αὐτοῖς συνεβούλευε κατακολουθεῖν. [338] τοῦ δὲ πλήθους μηδὲν πρὸς ταῦτ᾽ ἀποκριναμένου ἠξίωσεν Ἠλίας πρὸς διάπειραν τῆς τε τῶν ξενικῶν θεῶν ἰσχύος καὶ τῆς τοῦ ἰδίου, μόνος ὢν αὐτοῦ προφήτης ἐκείνων δὲ τετρακοσίους ἐχόντων, λαβεῖν αὐτός τε βοῦν καὶ ταύτην θύσας ἐπιθεῖναι ξύλοις πυρὸς οὐχ ὑπαφθέντος, κἀκείνους ταὐτὸ ποιήσαντας ἐπικαλέσασθαι τοὺς ἰδίους θεοὺς ἀνακαῦσαι τὰ ξύλα: γενομένου γὰρ τούτου μαθήσεσθαι αὐτοὺς τὴν ἀληθῆ φύσιν τοῦ θεοῦ. [339] ἀρεσάσης δὲ τῆς γνώμης ἐκέλευσεν Ἠλίας τοὺς προφήτας ἐκλεξαμένους βοῦν πρώτους θῦσαι καὶ τοὺς αὑτῶν ἐπικαλέσασθαι θεούς. ἐπεὶ δ᾽ οὐδὲν ἀπήντα παρὰ τῆς εὐχῆς καὶ τῆς ἐπικλήσεως θύσασι τοῖς προφήταις, σκώπτων ὁ Ἠλίας μεγάλῃ βοῇ καλεῖν αὐτοὺς ἐκέλευε τοὺς θεούς: ἢ γὰρ ἀποδημεῖν αὐτοὺς ἢ καθεύδειν. [340] τῶν δ᾽ ἀπ᾽ ὄρθρου τοῦτο ποιούντων μέχρι μέσης ἡμέρας καὶ τεμνόντων αὑτοὺς μαχαίραις καὶ σιρομάσταις κατὰ τὸ πάτριον ἔθος, μέλλων αὐτὸς ἐπιτελεῖν ἐκέλευσε τοὺς μὲν ἀναχωρῆσαι, τοὺς δ᾽ ἐγγὺς προσελθόντας τηρεῖν αὐτόν, μὴ πῦρ λάθρα τοῖς ξύλοις ἐμβάλῃ. [341] τοῦ δὲ ὄχλου προσελθόντος λαβὼν δώδεκα λίθους κατὰ φυλὴν τοῦ λαοῦ τῶν Ἑβραίων ἀνέστησεν ἐξ αὐτῶν θυσιαστήριον καὶ περὶ αὐτὸ δεξαμενὴν ὤρυξε βαθυτάτην, καὶ συνθεὶς τὰς σχίζας ἐπὶ τοῦ βωμοῦ καὶ κατ᾽ αὐτῶν ἐπιθεὶς τὰ ἱερεῖα τέσσαρας ἀπὸ τῆς κρήνης ἐκέλευσεν ὑδρίας ὕδατος κατασκεδάσαι τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου, ὡς ὑπερβαλεῖν αὐτὸ καὶ τὴν δεξαμενὴν ἅπασαν γεμισθῆναι ὕδατος πηγῆς ἀναδοθείσης. [342] ταῦτα δὲ ποιήσας ἤρξατο εὔχεσθαι τῷ θεῷ καὶ καλεῖν αὐτὸν καὶ ποιεῖν τῷ πεπλανημένῳ πολὺν ἤδη χρόνον λαῷ φανερὰν τὴν αὑτοῦ δύναμιν. καὶ ταῦτα λέγοντος ἄφνω πῦρ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ τοῦ πλήθους ὁρῶντος ἐπὶ τὸν βωμὸν ἔπεσε καὶ τὴν θυσίαν ἐδαπάνησεν, ὡς ἀνακαῆναι καὶ τὸ ὕδωρ καὶ ψαφαρὸν γενέσθαι τὸν τόπον.

5. So when Obadiah had informed the king that Elijah was there, Ahab met him, and asked him, in anger, if he were the man that afflicted the people of the Hebrews, and was the occasion of the drought they lay under? But Elijah, without any flattery, said that he was himself the man, he and his house, which brought such sad afflictions upon them, and that by introducing strange gods into their country, and worshipping them, and by leaving their own, who was the only true God, and having no manner of regard to him. However, he bade him go his way, and gather together all the people to him to Mount Carmel, with his own prophets, and those of his wife, telling him how many there were of them, as also the prophets of the groves, about four hundred in number. And as all the men whom Ahab sent for ran away to the forenamed mountain, the prophet Elijah stood in the midst of them, and said, "How long will you live thus in uncertainty of mind and opinion?" He also exhorted them, that in case they esteemed their own country God to be the true and the only God, they would follow him and his commandments; but in case they esteemed him to be nothing, but had an opinion of the strange gods, and that they ought to worship them, his counsel was, that they should follow them. And when the multitude made no answer to what he said, Elijah desired that, for a trial of the power of the strange gods, and of their own God, he, who was his only prophet, while they had four hundred, might take a heifer and kill it as a sacrifice, and lay it upon pieces of wood, and not kindle any fire, and that they should do the same things, and call upon their own gods to set the wood on fire; for if that were done, they would thence learn the nature of the true God. This proposal pleased the people. So Elijah bade the prophets to choose out a heifer first, and kill it, and to call on their gods. But when there appeared no effect of the prayer or invocation of the prophets upon their sacrifice, Elijah derided them, and bade them call upon their gods with a loud voice, for they might either be on a journey, or asleep; and when these prophets had done so from morning till noon, and cut themselves with swords and lances, according to the customs of their country, and he was about to offer his sacrifice, he bade [the prophets] go away, but bade [the people] come near and observe what he did, lest he should privately hide fire among the pieces of wood. So, upon the approach of the multitude, he took twelve stones, one for each tribe of the people of the Hebrews, and built an altar with them, and dug a very deep trench; and when he had laid the pieces of wood upon the altar, and upon them had laid the pieces of the sacrifices, he ordered them to fill four barrels with the water of the fountain, and to pour it upon the altar, till it ran over it, and till the trench was filled with the water poured into it. When he had done this, he began to pray to God, and to invocate him to make manifest his power to a people that had already been in an error a long time; upon which words a fire came on a sudden from heaven in the sight of the multitude, and fell upon the altar, and consumed the sacrifice, till the very water was set on fire, and the place was become dry.

[] Hoc uidentes israhelitae ceciderunt in terram, et adorauerunt unum deum solum maximum uerumque clamantes. Tunc conpraehendentes prophetas suos cunctos helia praecipiente perimerunt. Dixitque propheta regi, Perge ad conuiuium tuum nihil de cetero cogitabis. Post paululum namque a deo imbrem largissimum uidebis effundi. Igitur achab post haec uerba discessit. Helias autem in culmen carmelli montis ascendens, positis in terra genibus coniungens caput orauit. Quo facto iussit ut eius minister pergens in quendam scopulum ad mare respiceret ut si ali unde nubem suscitare uideret. Tunc et enim erat aer ualde purissimus et serenitate perspicuus, qui ascendente saepius nihilque se uidere dicente, dum septies hoc fecisset ait se uidere aerem ali quomodo non tamen amplius quam unius hominis uestigio crescentem. Quod dum audisset helias misit ad achab, iubens ad ciuitatem citius habiret ante quam imber dirumperet, qui mox in urbem iezrahel festinus aduenit. Tunc repente siquidem aer et ob ducto caligine et nubibus ad operto spiritus uehemens ortus est et uberrimus imber effusus. Propheta uero diuinitus in spiratus ante currum regis ad ciuitatem hiezrahel usque perrexit.

[343] Οἱ δ᾽ Ἰσραηλῖται τοῦτ᾽ ἰδόντες ἔπεσον ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς καὶ προσεκύνουν ἕνα θεὸν καὶ μέγιστον καὶ ἀληθῆ μόνον ἀποκαλοῦντες, τοὺς δ᾽ ἄλλους ὀνόματι ὑπὸ φαύλης καὶ ἀνοήτου δόξης πεποιημένους: συλλαβόντες δ᾽ αὐτῶν καὶ τοὺς προφήτας ἀπέκτειναν Ἠλία παραινέσαντος. ἔφη δὲ καὶ τῷ βασιλεῖ πορεύεσθαι πρὸς ἄριστον μηδὲν ἔτι φροντίσαντα: μετ᾽ ὀλίγον γὰρ ὄψεσθαι τὸν θεὸν ὕοντα. [344] καὶ ὁ μὲν Ἄχαβος ἀπηλλάγη, Ἠλίας δ᾽ ἐπὶ τὸ ἀκρωτήριον τοῦ Καρμηλίου ἀναβὰς ὄρους καὶ καθίσας ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς προσηρείσατο τοῖς γόνασι τὴν κεφαλήν, τὸν δὲ θεράποντα ἐκέλευσεν ἀνελθόντα ἐπί τινα σκοπὴν εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν ἀποβλέπειν, κἂν ἴδῃ νεφέλην ἐγειρομένην ποθέν, φράζειν αὐτῷ: μέχρι γὰρ τότε καθαρῷ συνέβαινε τῷ ἀέρι εἶναι. [345] τοῦ δὲ ἀναβάντος καὶ μηδὲν πολλάκις ὁρᾶν φήσαντος, ἕβδομον ἤδη βαδίσας ἑωρακέναι μελαινόμενον εἶπέ τι τοῦ ἀέρος οὐ πλέον ἴχνους ἀνθρωπίνου. ὁ δὲ Ἠλίας ταῦτ᾽ ἀκούσας πέμπει πρὸς τὸν Ἄχαβον κελεύων αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἀπέρχεσθαι πρὶν ἢ καταρραγῆναι τὸν ὄμβρον. [346] καὶ ὁ μὲν εἰς Ἱερέζηλα πόλιν παραγίνεται: μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺ δὲ τοῦ ἀέρος ἀχλύσαντος καὶ νέφεσι καλυφθέντος πνεῦμά τε λάβρον ἐπιγίνεται καὶ πολὺς ὄμβρος. ὁ δὲ προφήτης ἔνθεος γενόμενος τῷ τοῦ βασιλέως ἅρματι μέχρι τῆς Ἱερέζηλας πόλεως συνέδραμε.

6. Now when the Israelites saw this, they fell down upon the ground, and worshipped one God, and called him The great and the only true God; but they called the others mere names, framed by the evil and vile opinions of men. So they caught their prophets, and, at the command of Elijah, slew them. Elijah also said to the king, that he should go to dinner without any further concern, for that in a little time he would see God send them rain. Accordingly Ahab went his way. But Elijah went up to the highest top of Mount Carmel, and sat down upon the ground, and leaned his head upon his knees, and bade his servant go up to a certain elevated place, and look towards the sea, and when he should see a cloud rising any where, he should give him notice of it, for till that time the air had been clear. When the Servant had gone up, and had said many times that he saw nothing, at the seventh time of his going up, he said that he saw a small black thing in the sky, not larger than a man's foot. When Elijah heard that, he sent to Ahab, and desired him to go away to the city before the rain came down. So he came to the city Jezreel; and in a little time the air was all obscured, and covered with clouds, and a vehement storm of wind came upon the earth, and with it a great deal of rain; and the prophet was under a Divine fury, and ran along with the king's chariot unto Jezreel a city of Izar [Issaachar].

[XIII.vii.347] Audiens itaque uxor achab zezabel et signa quae fuerant ab helia caelebrata, et quod prophetas eius interimeret indignata misit ad eum nuntios et per eos interminata est se eum ita inter fecturum sicut perdiderat illi eius prophetas. Tunc formidatus helias fugit in ciuitatem nomine bersabe. Haec autem est in ultimo sortis iudae in terra idum eorum quo relinquens suum ministrum abscessit in heremum et orauit ut moriretur. Non enim se meliorem esse patrum dicens ut illis perditis ipse uiueret aliqua tenus ex optaret. Quo facto circa quandam arborem ob dormiuit, et cum aliquis excitasset surgens inuenit cibum et aquam. Commendans autem et praecipiens ex illius cibi refectione uirtutem uenit ad montem sina ubi moyses leges a deo dicitur accepisse inuenien in eo speluncam quandam ingressus in ea commorabatur. Cumque eum uox quaedam ex incerto requireret quod illic ad esset et cur relinquerit, ciuitatem ciuitatem ait, Quod eo quod occidisset prophetas alienigenarum deorum et populum con probasset quia unus sit deus quem ab initio coluissent, et ob hoc ad suplicium quaereretur a regis uxore. Rursus aut audiens ut subsidium procederet et quod oporteret fieri altera die cognosceret ex spelunca digressus est, et facto subito terrae motus splendorem fulgentis ignis inspexit. Factoque silentio uox diuina nequaquam eum timere praecepit quem detinere possit inimicus. Iussitque ut domi reuertens ungueret populi regem beunam esse filium, in damasco uero syriae azahel. Pro se autem prophetam constituerit helis eum de ciuitate abela ut totius impii populi perimeret. Alius quidem azahel alius autem heus. Haec audiens helias ad regionem reuersus est hebraeorum et in ueniens helis eum filium saphat arantem, et cum eodem alios usque ad iuga duodecim accedens proiecit super eum pallium suum. Helis eus autem coepit prophetare et relictis bubus secutus est eum, rogans ut ei promitteret quatenus quatenus parentes proximos salutaret, quo iubente ut faceret ualedicens eis secutus est. Et fuit heliae cuncto tempore eius uitae discipulus et minister. De hoc itaque propheta haec dixisse sufficiat.

[347] Μαθοῦσα δὲ ἡ τοῦ Ἀχάβου γυνὴ Ἰεζάβηλα τά τε σημεῖα τὰ ὑπὸ Ἠλία γενόμενα καὶ ὅτι τοὺς προφήτας αὐτῶν ἀπέκτεινεν, ὀργισθεῖσα πέμπει πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀγγέλους ἀπειλοῦσα δι᾽ αὐτῶν ἀποκτείνειν αὐτόν, ὡς κἀκεῖνος τοὺς προφήτας αὐτῆς ἀπολέσειε. [348] φοβηθεὶς δ᾽ ὁ Ἠλίας φεύγει εἰς πόλιν Βερσουβεὲ λεγομένην, ἐπ᾽ ἐσχάτης δ᾽ ἔστιν αὕτη τῆς χώρας τῶν τῆς Ἰούδα φυλῆς ἐχόντων κατὰ τὴν Ἰδουμαίων γῆν, καταλιπὼν δ᾽ ἐκεῖ τὸν θεράποντα εἰς τὴν ἔρημον ἀνεχώρησεν εὐξάμενος ἀποθανεῖν: οὐ γὰρ δὴ κρείττων εἶναι τῶν πατέρων, ἵνα ἐκείνων ἀπολωλότων αὐτὸς ζῆν γλίχηται: [349] κατακοιμηθεὶς δὲ πρός τινι δένδρῳ διεγείραντος αὐτόν τινος ἀναστὰς εὑρίσκει παρακειμένην αὑτῷ τροφὴν καὶ ὕδωρ: φαγὼν δὲ καὶ συλλεξάμενος ἐκ τῆς τροφῆς ἐκείνης τὴν δύναμιν εἰς τὸ Σιναῖον καλούμενον ὄρος παραγίνεται, οὗ Μωυσῆς τοὺς νόμους παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ λέγεται λαβεῖν. [350] εὑρὼν δ᾽ ἐν αὐτῷ σπήλαιόν τι κοῖλον εἴσεισι καὶ διετέλει ποιούμενος ἐν αὐτῷ τὴν μονήν. ἐρομένης δέ τινος αὐτὸν φωνῆς ἐξ ἀδήλου, τί παρείη καταλελοιπὼς τὴν πόλιν ἐκεῖσε, διὰ τὸ κτεῖναι μὲν τοὺς προφήτας τῶν ξενικῶν θεῶν, πεῖσαι δὲ τὸν λαὸν ὅτι μόνος εἴη θεὸς ὁ ὤν, ὃν ἀπ᾽ ἀρχῆς ἐθρήσκευσαν, ἔφησε: ζητεῖσθαι γὰρ ἐπὶ τούτῳ πρὸς τιμωρίαν ὑπὸ τῆς γυναικὸς τοῦ βασιλέως. [351] πάλιν δὲ ἀκούσας προελθεῖν εἰς τὸ ὕπαιθρον τῇ ἐπιούσῃ, γνώσεσθαι γὰρ οὕτως τί δεῖ ποιεῖν, προῆλθεν ἐκ τοῦ σπηλαίου μεθ᾽ ἡμέραν καὶ σεισμοῦ τε ἐπακούει καὶ λαμπρὰν πυρὸς αὐγὴν ὁρᾷ. [352] καὶ γενομένης ἡσυχίας φωνὴ θεία μὴ ταράττεσθαι τοῖς γινομένοις αὐτὸν παρακελεύεται, κρατήσειν γὰρ οὐδένα τῶν ἐχθρῶν αὐτοῦ, προσέταξέ τε ὑποστρέψαντα εἰς τὴν οἰκείαν ἀποδεῖξαι τοῦ πλήθους βασιλέα Ἰηοῦν τὸν Νεμεσαίου παῖδα, ἐκ Δαμασκοῦ δὲ τῶν Σύρων Ἀζάηλον: ἀντ᾽ αὐτοῦ δὲ προφήτην Ἐλισσαῖον ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ γενήσεσθαι ἐκ πόλεως Ἀβέλας: [353] διαφθερεῖ δὲ τοῦ ἀσεβοῦς ὄχλου τοὺς μὲν Ἀζάηλος τοὺς δὲ Ἰηοῦς. ὁ δ᾽ Ἠλίας ὑποστρέφει ταῦτ᾽ ἀκούσας εἰς τὴν Ἑβραίων χώραν καὶ τὸν Σαφάτου παῖδα Ἐλισσαῖον καταλαβὼν ἀροῦντα καὶ μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ τινας ἄλλους ἐλαύνοντας ζεύγη δώδεκα προσελθὼν ἐπέρριψεν αὐτῷ τὸ ἴδιον ἱμάτιον. [354] ὁ δ᾽ Ἐλισσαῖος εὐθέως προφητεύειν ἤρξατο καὶ καταλιπὼν τοὺς βόας ἠκολούθησεν Ἠλίᾳ. δεηθεὶς δὲ συγχωρῆσαι αὐτῷ τοὺς γονεῖς ἀσπάσασθαι κελεύοντος τοῦτο ποιεῖν ἀποταξάμενος αὐτοῖς εἵπετο καὶ ἦν Ἠλίου τὸν ἅπαντα χρόνον τοῦ ζῆν καὶ μαθητὴς καὶ διάκονος. καὶ τὰ μὲν περὶ τοῦ προφήτου τούτου τοιαῦτα ἦν.

7. When Jezebel, the wife of Ahab, understood what signs Elijah had wrought, and how he had slain her prophets, she was angry, and sent messengers to him, and by them threatened to kill him, as he had destroyed her prophets. At this Elijah was affrighted, and fled to the city called Beersheba, which is situate at the utmost limits of the country belonging to the tribe of Judah, towards the land of Edom; and there he left his servant, and went away into the desert. He prayed also that he might die, for that he was not better than his fathers, nor need he be very desirous to live, when they were dead; and he lay and slept under a certain tree; and when somebody awakened him, and he was risen up, he found food set by him and water: so when he had eaten, and recovered his strength by that his food, he came to that mountain which is called Sinai, where it is related that Moses received his laws from God; and finding there a certain hollow cave, he entered into it, and continued to make his abode in it. But when a certain voice came to him, but from whence he knew not, and asked him, why he was come thither, and had left the city? he said, that because he had slain the prophets of the foreign gods, and had persuaded the people that he alone whom they had worshipped from the beginning was God, he was sought for by the king's wife to be punished for so doing. And when he had heard another voice, telling him that he should come out the next day into the open air, and should thereby know what he was to do, he came out of the cave the next day accordingly, When he both heard an earthquake, and saw the bright splendor of a fire; and after a silence made, a Divine voice exhorted him not to be disturbed with the circumstances he was in, for that none of his enemies should have power over him. The voice also commanded him to return home, and to ordain Jehu, the son of Nimshi, to be king over their own multitude; and Hazael, of Damascus, to be over the Syrians; and Elisha, of the city Abel, to be a prophet in his stead; and that of the impious multitude, some should be slain by Hazael, and others by Jehu. So Elijah, upon hearing this charge, returned into the land of the Hebrews. And when he found Elisha, the son of Shaphat, ploughing, and certain others with him, driving twelve yoke of oxen, he came to him, and cast his own garment upon him; upon which Elisha began to prophesy presently, and leaving his oxen, he followed Elijah. And when he desired leave to salute his parents, Elijah gave him leave so to do; and when he had taken his leave of them, he followed him, and became the disciple and the servant of Elijah all the days of his life. And thus have I despatched the affairs in which this prophet was concerned.

[XIII.viii.355] Quidam igitur naboth de azari ciuitate regio agro uicinus rogante rege ut ei uicinum agrum quolibet praetio uenundaret, quatenus eo coniuncto possessionem faceret potiorem. Quis nollet pecunias acciperet ex eius [104r] agris quem uellet eligeret. Naboth dicente hoc se facere nolle, sed paternam sortem eligere possidere. Contristatus rex, qui alienum praetium non posset accipere neque lauacris usus est neque cibis. Zezabel autem uxor sua requisiuit cur ita tribularetur cum neque balneas neque prandium appeteret neque caenam. Narrauit ei in aboth superbiam, et quia dum ipse mansuetis sermonibus et inferioribus a regia dignitate locutus ei fuisset non imperando quae poposcerat protulisset iniuriam. Illa uero rogabat ut a pusillanimitate tristitiaque recederet suo corpore sollemniter prouideret se dicens naboth supplicio cogitaret. Quae misit repente litteras ad iudicem irahelitarum nomine acab, iubens ut ierunarent omnes et abito conuentu naboth facerent praesidere. Cum itaque esset insignis genere et instruerent tres quosdam uiros audaces qui contra eum testimonium dicerent quasi deum blasphemasset et regem et hoc modo perimeretur. Naboth itaque secundum scripta reginae et testimonio contra se prohibito quasi deum blasphemasset et regem lapidatus et mortuus est. Audiens autem zezabel ad regem ingressa mox est eique dixit ut uinea naboth gratis ad quireret. Achab autem letatus in his quae acta sunt exiliens electo pergebat uineam naboth inspecturus. In hoc indignatus deus misit prophetam heliam ad agrum naboth quatenus ad achab accederet, eique de his quae fuerant gesta loqueretur. Et quod occidens uerum dominum agri ipse illum hereditatem poscideret iniuste. Cuuenisset ad eum dicente ad eum rege quid uelit, ait, Quod peccato polutum eum inuenniset in illo loco inquona bothmor tuus a canibus uidebat fuisse deuoratus eiusque sanguinem et uxoris ita fundendum et omne genus eius esse periturum eo quod huius impietates efficerent et contra leges patria ciuem iniuste perimeret. Contristatus autem achab et poenitentiam agens ingressus est ei dutus sacco nudis pedibus ambulabat, non ad petens penitus cibum et peccata sic confitens et deum hoc modo placare contendens.

Tunc deus prophete dixit achab quidem uiuente eius generis differendum esse supplicium sed eius filiis temporibus temporibus inferendum. Et haec quidem helias regi dixit.

[355] Ναβώθης δέ τις ἐξ Ἱεζαρήλου πόλεως ἀγρογείτων ὢν τοῦ βασιλέως παρακαλοῦντος αὐτὸν ἀποδόσθαι τιμῆς ὅσης βούλεται τὸν πλησίον αὐτοῦ τῶν ἰδίων ἀγρόν, ἵνα συνάψας ἓν αὐτὸ ποιήσῃ κτῆμα, εἰ δὲ μὴ βούλοιτο χρήματα λαβεῖν ἐπιτρέποντος ἐκλέξασθαι τῶν ἀγρῶν τινα τῶν ἐκείνου, τοῦτο μὲν οὔ φησι ποιήσειν, αὐτὸς δὲ τὴν ἰδίαν καρπώσεσθαι γῆν, ἣν ἐκληρονόμησε τοῦ πατρός. [356] λυπηθεὶς δ᾽ ὡς ἐφ᾽ ὕβρει τῷ μὴ τἀλλότρια λαβεῖν ὁ βασιλεὺς οὔτε λουτρὸν προσηνέγκατο οὔτε τροφήν, τῆς δ᾽ Ἰεζαβέλης τῆς γυναικὸς αὐτοῦ πυνθανομένης, ὅ τι λυπεῖται καὶ μήτε λούεται μήτε ἄριστον αὑτῷ παρατίθεται μήτε δεῖπνον, διηγήσατο αὐτῇ τὴν Ναβώθου σκαιότητα καὶ ὡς χρησάμενος ἐπιεικέσι πρὸς αὐτὸν λόγοις καὶ βασιλικῆς ἐξουσίας ὑποδεεστέροις ὑβρισθείη μὴ τυχὼν ὧν ἠξίου. [357] ἡ δὲ μὴ μικροψυχεῖν ἐπὶ τούτοις παρεκάλει, παυσάμενον δὲ τῆς λύπης ἐπὶ τὴν συνήθη τρέπεσθαι τοῦ σώματος πρόνοιαν: μελήσειν γὰρ αὐτῇ περὶ τῆς Ναβώθου τιμωρίας. [358] καὶ παραχρῆμα πέμπει γράμματα πρὸς τοὺς ὑπερέχοντας τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν ἐκ τοῦ Ἀχάβου ὀνόματος νηστεῦσαί τε κελεύουσα καὶ ποιησαμένους ἐκκλησίαν προκαθίσαι μὲν αὐτῶν Νάβωθον, εἶναι γὰρ αὐτὸν γένους ἐπιφανοῦς, παρασκευασαμένους δὲ τρεῖς τολμηρούς τινας τοὺς καταμαρτυρήσοντας αὐτοῦ, ὡς τὸν θεόν τε εἴη βλασφημήσας καὶ τὸν βασιλέα, καταλεῦσαι καὶ τούτῳ διαχρήσασθαι τῷ τρόπῳ. [359] καὶ Νάβωθος μέν, ὡς ἔγραψεν ἡ βασίλισσα, οὕτως καταμαρτυρηθεὶς βλασφημῆσαι τὸν θεόν τε καὶ Ἄχαβον βαλλόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ πλήθους ἀπέθανεν, ἀκούσασα δὲ ταῦτα Ἰεζάβηλα εἴσεισι πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα καὶ κληρονομεῖν τὸν Ναβώθου ἀμπελῶνα προῖκα ἐκέλευσεν. [360] ὁ δὲ Ἄχαβος ἥσθη τοῖς γεγενημένοις καὶ ἀναπηδήσας ἀπὸ τῆς κλίνης ὀψόμενος ἧκε τὸν ἀμπελῶνα τὸν Ναβώθου. ἀγανακτήσας δ᾽ ὁ θεὸς πέμπει τὸν προφήτην Ἠλίαν εἰς τὸ Ναβώθου χωρίον Ἀχάβῳ συμβαλοῦντα καὶ περὶ τῶν πεπραγμένων ἐρησόμενον, ὅτι κτείνας τὸν ἀληθῆ δεσπότην τοῦ χωρίου κληρονομήσειεν αὐτὸς ἀδίκως. [361] ὡς δ᾽ ἧκε πρὸς αὐτὸν εἰπόντος τοῦ βασιλέως, ὅ τι βούλεται χρήσασθαι αὐτῷ, αἰσχρὸν γὰρ ὄντα ἐπὶ ἁμαρτήματι ληφθῆναι ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ, κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον ἔφη τὸν τόπον, ἐν ᾧ τὸν Ναβώθου νεκρὸν ὑπὸ κυνῶν δαπανηθῆναι συνέβη, τό τε αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ τῆς γυναικὸς χυθήσεσθαι αἷμα καὶ πᾶν αὐτοῦ τὸ γένος ἀπολεῖσθαι τοιαῦτα ἀσεβῆσαι τετολμηκότος καὶ παρὰ τοὺς πατρίους νόμους πολίτην ἀδίκως ἀνῃρηκότος. [362] Ἀχάβῳ δὲ λύπη τῶν πεπραγμένων εἰσῆλθε καὶ μετάμελος, καὶ σακκίον ἐνδυσάμενος γυμνοῖς τοῖς ποσὶ διῆγεν οὐχ ἁπτόμενος τροφῆς ἀνθομολογούμενός τε τὰ ἡμαρτημένα καὶ τὸν θεὸν οὕτως ἐξευμενίζων. ὁ δὲ ζῶντος μὲν αὐτοῦ πρὸς τὸν προφήτην ὑπερβαλεῖσθαι τὴν τοῦ γένους τιμωρίαν εἶπεν ἐφ᾽ οἷς ἐπὶ τοῖς τετολμημένοις μετανοεῖ, τελέσειν δὲ τὴν ἀπειλὴν ἐπὶ τῷ υἱῷ Ἀχάβου. καὶ ὁ μὲν προφήτης ταῦτ᾽ ἐδήλωσε τῷ βασιλεῖ.

8. Now there was one Naboth, of the city Izar, [Jezreel,] who had a field adjoining to that of the king: the king would have persuaded him to sell him that his field, which lay so near to his own lands, at what price he pleased, that he might join them together, and make them one farm; and if he would not accept of money for it, he gave him leave to choose any of his other fields in its stead. But Naboth said he would not do so, but would keep the possession of that land of his own, which he had by inheritance from his father. Upon this the king was grieved, as if he had received an injury, when he could not get another man's possession, and he would neither wash himself, nor take any food: and when Jezebel asked him what it was that troubled him, and why he would neither wash himself, nor eat either dinner or supper, he related to her the perverseness of Naboth, and how, when he had made use of gentle words to him, and such as were beneath the royal authority, he had been affronted, and had not obtained what he desired. However, she persuaded him not to be cast down at this accident, but to leave off his grief, and return to the usual care of his body, for that she would take care to have Naboth punished; and she immediately sent letters to the rulers of the Israelites [Jezreelites] in Ahab's name, and commanded them to fast and to assemble a congregation, and to set Naboth at the head of them, because he was of an illustrious family, and to have three bold men ready to bear witness that he had blasphemed God and the king, and then to stone him, and slay him in that manner. Accordingly, when Naboth had been thus testified against, as the queen had written to them, that he had blasphemed against God and Ahab the king, she desired him to take possession of Naboth's vineyard on free cost. So Ahab was glad at what had been done, and rose up immediately from the bed whereon he lay to go to see Naboth's vineyard; but God had great indignation at it, and sent Elijah the prophet to the field of Naboth, to speak to Ahab, and to say to him, that he had slain the true owner of that field unjustly. And as soon as he came to him, and the king had said that he might do with him what he pleased, [for he thought it a reproach to him to be thus caught in his sin,] Elijah said, that in that very place in which the dead body of Naboth was eaten by dogs both his own blood and that of his wife's should be shed, and that all his family should perish, because he had been so insolently wicked, and had slain a citizen unjustly, and contrary to the laws of his country. Hereupon Ahab began to be sorry for the things he had done, and to repent of them; and he put on sackcloth, and went barefoot and would not touch any food; he also confessed his sins, and endeavored thus to appease God. But God said to the prophet, that while Ahab was living he would put off the punishment of his family, because he repented of those insolent crimes he had been guilty of, but that still he would fulfill his threatening under Ahab's son; which message the prophet delivered to the king.



CHAPTER 14. How Hadad King Of Damascus And Of Syria, Made Two Expeditions Against Ahab And Was Beaten.

[XIV.i.363] Is itaque temporibus adadus filius adadi regis syriae et damasci collecto prouinciae totius exercitu et solatia triginta duorum reum habitantium trans eufraten contra achab castrametatus est. Ille uero cum par non esset exercitum ad dimicandum praesumpsit accedere, sed omnia necessaria in ciuitatibus munitis includens ipse mansit in samaria. Habebat enim haec muros ualde fortissimos et erat in ex pugnabilis obsidentibus. Rex uero syrorum exercitu sumptu uenit ad samariam et obsidens eam praeconem misit ad achab. Petens ut eius legatos susciperet et quid uellet agnoscere quod dum rex israhelitarum fieri permisisset. Uenientes legati ad regem ante dixerunt diuitias filios et uxores achab, adado rege dandas, et promitteret haec ita facienda ut tolleret horum quae cumque uelit castra solueret et ab obscessione cessaret. Achab autem legatis dixit ut euntes suo dicerent regi, quia et ipse et omnes illius eius possessio forent, et quae displucuerint sola relinquerent. Achab itaqute secunda legatione syrorum regis uehementer affectus collecto populo in ecclesia a dxit. Quia ipse quidem paratus fuerit pro salute et pace cunctorum et uxores suas et filios et omnem dare possessionem, et quia haec rex syrorum prima legatione misisset, nunc inquit denuo missa legatione misisset, nunc inquit denuo missa legatione petit perscrutandas domum, ut quicquid in eis in eis optimum inuenire possit auferat, et occasionem hanc machinas ad pugnam, et sciens quia meis rebus non pepercissem ad uestras accessit, ego uero quod uobis placuent ex hibeo. Populus autem respondens non ei oboediendum sed potius contempnendum esse ad pugandum se praeparatus existere. Legatis itaque respondens ut ab euntes dicerent quia primae quidem peritioni esset puratus oboedire. Manere autem prociuium secuntate sollicitis ne secundam petitionem posset implere dimisit eos.

[363] Τῶν δὲ περὶ τὸν Ἄχαβον ὄντων τοιούτων κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν καιρὸν ὁ τοῦ Ἀδάδου βασιλεύων τῶν Σύρων καὶ Δαμασκοῦ δύναμιν ἐξ ἁπάσης τῆς χώρας συναγαγὼν καὶ συμμάχους τοὺς πέραν Εὐφράτου βασιλέας ποιησάμενος τριάκοντα καὶ δύο ἐστράτευσεν ἐπὶ τὸν Ἄχαβον. [364] ὁ δ᾽ οὐκ ὢν ὅμοιος αὐτῷ τῇ στρατιᾷ πρὸς μάχην μὲν οὐ παρετάξατο, πάντα δ᾽ εἰς τὰς ὀχυρωτάτας πόλεις ἐγκλείσας τὰ ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ αὐτὸς μὲν ἔμεινεν ἐν Σαμαρείᾳ: τείχη γὰρ αὕτη λίαν ἰσχυρὰ περιεβέβλητο καὶ τὰ ἄλλα δυσάλωτος ἐδόκει: ὁ δὲ Σύρος ἀναλαβὼν τὴν δύναμιν ἧκεν ἐπὶ τὴν Σαμάρειαν καὶ περικαθίσας αὐτῇ τὸν στρατὸν ἐπολιόρκει. [365] πέμψας δὲ κήρυκα πρὸς Ἄχαβον ἠξίου πρεσβευτὰς δέξασθαι παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ, δι᾽ ὧν αὐτῷ δηλώσει τί βούλεται. τοῦ δὲ τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν βασιλέως πέμπειν ἐπιτρέψαντος ἐλθόντες οἱ πρέσβεις ἔλεγον κατ᾽ ἐντολὴν τοῦ βασιλέως τὸν Ἀχάβου πλοῦτον καὶ τὰ τέκνα αὐτοῦ καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας Ἀδάδου τυγχάνειν: ἂν δ᾽ ὁμολογήσῃ καὶ λαβεῖν αὐτὸν τούτων ὅσα βούλεται συγχωρήσῃ, τὴν στρατιὰν ἀπάξει καὶ παύσεται πολιορκῶν αὐτόν. [366] ὁ δ᾽ Ἄχαβος τοῖς πρέσβεσιν ἐκέλευσε πορευθεῖσι λέγειν τῷ βασιλεῖ αὐτῶν, ὅτι καὶ αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ ἑκείνου πάντες κτήματά εἰσιν αὐτοῦ. [367] ταῦτα δ᾽ ἀπαγγειλάντων πέμπει πάλιν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀξιῶν ἀνωμολογηκότα πάντα εἶναι ἐκείνου δέξασθαι τοὺς πεμφθησομένους εἰς τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ δούλους, οἷς ἐρευνήσασι τά τε βασίλεια καὶ τοὺς τῶν φίλων καὶ συγγενῶν οἴκους ἐκέλευε διδόναι πᾶν ὅ τι ἂν ἐν αὐτοῖς εὕρωσι κάλλιστον, [368] τὰ δ᾽ ἀπαρέσαντα σοὶ καταλείψουσιν. Ἄχαβος δ᾽ ἀγασθεὶς ἐπὶ τῇ δευτέρᾳ πρεσβείᾳ τοῦ τῶν Σύρων βασιλέως συναγαγὼν εἰς ἐκκλησίαν τὸ πλῆθος ἔλεγεν, ὡς αὐτὸς μὲν ἑτοίμως εἶχεν ὑπὲρ σωτηρίας αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰρήνης καὶ γυναῖκας τὰς ἰδίας προέσθαι τῷ πολεμίῳ καὶ τὰ τέκνα καὶ πάσης παραχωρῆσαι κτήσεως: ταῦτα γὰρ ἐπιζητῶν ἐπρεσβεύσατο πρῶτον ὁ Σύρος. [369] νῦν δ᾽ ἠξίωκε δούλους πέμψαι τάς τε πάντων οἰκίας ἐρευνῆσαι καὶ μηδὲν ἐν αὐταῖς καταλιπεῖν τῶν καλλίστων κτημάτων πρόφασιν βουλόμενος πολέμου λαβεῖν, εἰδὼς ὅτι τῶν μὲν ἐμαυτοῦ δι᾽ ὑμᾶς οὐκ ἂν φεισαίμην, ἀφορμὴν δ᾽ ἐκ τοῦ περὶ τῶν ὑμετέρων ἀηδοῦς πραγματευόμενος εἰς τὸ πολεμεῖν: ‘ποιήσω γε μὴν τὰ ὑμῖν δοκοῦντα.’ [370] τὸ δὲ πλῆθος μὴ δεῖν ἀκούειν τῶν κατ᾽ αὐτὸν ἔλεγεν, ἀλλὰ καταφρονεῖν καὶ πρὸς τὸ πο&#955#955;εμεῖν ἑτοίμως ἔχειν. τοῖς οὖν πρεσβευταῖς ἀποκρινάμενος λέγειν ἀπελθοῦσιν, ὅτι τοῖς τὸ πρῶτον ἀξιωθεῖσιν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ καὶ νῦν ἐμμένει τῆς τῶν πολιτῶν ἀσφαλείας ἕνεκα πρὸς δὲ τὴν δευτέραν ἀξίωσιν οὐχ ὑπακούει, ἀπέλυσεν αὐτούς.

1. When the affairs of Ahab were thus, at that very time the son of Hadad, [Benhadad,] who was king of the Syrians and of Damascus, got together an army out of all his country, and procured thirty-two kings beyond Euphrates to be his auxiliaries: so he made an expedition against Ahab; but because Ahab's army was not like that of Benhadad, he did not set it in array to fight him, but having shut up every thing that was in the country in the strongest cities he had, he abode in Samaria himself, for the walls about it were very strong, and it appeared to be not easily to be taken in other respects also. So the king of Syria took his army with him, and came to Samaria, and placed his army round about the city, and besieged it. He also sent a herald to Ahab, and desired he would admit the ambassadors he would send him, by whom he would let him know his pleasure. So, upon the king of Israel's permission for him to send, those ambassador's came, and by their king's command spake thus: That Ahab's riches, and his children, and his wives were Benhadad's, and if he would make an agreement, and give him leave to take as much of what he had as he pleased, he would withdraw his army, and leave off the siege. Upon this Ahab bade the ambassadors to go back, and tell their king, that both he himself and all that he hath are his possessions. And when these ambassadors had told this to Berthadad, he sent to him again, and desired, since he confessed that all he had was his, that he would admit those servants of his which he should send the next day; and he commanded him to deliver to those whom he should send whatsoever, upon their searching his palace, and the houses of his friends and kindred, they should find to be excellent in its kind, but that what did not please them they should leave to him. At this second embassage of the king of Syria, Ahab was surprised, and gathered together the multitude to a congregation, and told them that, for himself, he was ready, for their safety and peace, to give up his own wives and children to the enemy, and to yield to him all his own possessions, for that was what the Syrian king required at his first embassage; but that now he desires to send his servants to search all their houses, and in them to leave nothing that is excellent in its kind, seeking an occasion of fighting against him, "as knowing that I would not spare what is mine own for your sakes, but taking a handle from the disagreeable terms he offers concerning you to bring a war upon us; however, I will do what you shall resolve is fit to be done." But the multitude advised him to hearken to none of his proposals, but to despise him, and be in readiness to fight him. Accordingly, when he had given the ambassadors this answer to be reported, that he still continued in the mind to comply with what terms he at first desired, for the safety of the citizens; but as for his second desires, he cannot submit to them,—he dismissed them.

[XIV.ii.371] Adadus autem audiens [104v] haec potius indignatus. Tertiam legationem misit ad achab inter mirando atque dicendo, quod ultionem terrae congenem muris de quibus ille praesumat erigeret si singulos terrae pugillos de exercitu eius unus quisque portaret, et his eum interminationibus deterrebat. Achab autem respondente quia non deberet gloriari qui misisset a cunctos, sed qui bello superior demonstratur. Legati uenientes et regem cum triginta duo regibus qui in eius solatio uenerant, inuenientes in aepulis ei nuntiauerunt responsum. At ille repente praecepit circum dare ciuitatem et aggeres circa eam ex tolli et nullo modo obsessionem relinqui. Achab autem his gestis erat cum omni populo in angustia constitutus, tunc tamen securior factus est et formidine releuatus cum ad eum quidam propheta uenisset atque dixisset promisisse deum, ut tanta hostium milia eius ditioni contraderet. Quo requirente per quos haec uictoria perueniret, per filios inquid principum te scilicet eorum in peritiam praecedente. Conuocans autem filios principum rex inuenit quasi centum triginta et duo. Agnoscens syrum ad conuiuia fuisse conuersum aperiens portas filios principum mox emisit. Exploratoribus autem renuntiantibus adado quod gereretur destinauit qui eis occurrerent. Praecipiens ut siquidem ad praelium uenirent eos ad se legatos adducerent, si uero pacifice essent idem efficerent. Achab autem exercitum habuit alium intra murum in subsidiis. Porro filii principum congressi syrorum custodibus multos eorum interimerent. Et alios usque ad castra secuti sunt. Uidens autem o os rex israhelitarum uincentes etiam alium exerictum dimisit exire qui repente syros inruentes praeualerunt eis. Non enim syri sperabant eos super se sic inopinabiliter fuisse uenturos, quod propter ea inuenientes nudos et ebrios ita praesecuti sunt ut illi etiam arma relinquerent fugientes, et uix in aequo rex potuisset euadere. Achab autem multo itinere persecutus interfecit syrorum et eorum castra diripuit, et inueniens in eis diuitias auri et argenti non paruas et curruum adadi et aequorum qua es eis in ciuitatem denuo remeauit. Dicente uero propheta ut praepararet exrercitum ut futoro anno denuo super eum syri reuerterent. Achab in ciuitate haec agebant,

[371] Ὁ δ᾽ Ἄδαδος ἀκούσας ταῦτα καὶ δυσχεράνας τρίτον ἔπεμψε πρὸς Ἄχαβον τοὺς πρέσβεις ἀπειλῶν ὑψηλότερον τῶν τειχῶν οἷς καταφρονεῖ χῶμα τούτοις ἐπεγείρειν αὐτοῦ τὴν στρατιὰν κατὰ δράκα λαμβάνουσαν, ἐμφανίζων αὐτῷ τῆς δυνάμεως τὸ πλῆθος καὶ καταπληττόμενος. [372] τοῦ δ᾽ Ἀχάβου μὴ καυχᾶσθαι δεῖν ἀποκριναμένου καθωπλισμένον ἀλλὰ τῇ μάχῃ κρείττω γενόμενον, ἐλθόντες οἱ πρέσβεις καὶ δειπνοῦντα καταλαβόντες τὸν βασιλέα μετὰ τριάκοντα καὶ δύο βασιλέων συμμάχων ἐδήλωσαν αὐτῷ τὴν ἀπόκρισιν: ὁ δ᾽ εὐθέως τοῦτο προσέταξε καὶ περιχαρακοῦν τὴν πόλιν καὶ χώματα βάλλεσθαι καὶ μηδένα τρόπον ἀπολιπεῖν πολιορκίας. [373] ἦν δ᾽ Ἄχαβος τούτων πραττομένων ἐν ἀγωνίᾳ δεινῇ σὺν παντὶ τῷ λαῷ: θαρρεῖ δὲ καὶ τῶν φόβων ἀπολύεται προφήτου τινὸς αὐτῷ προσελθόντος καὶ φήσαντος αὐτῷ τὸν θεὸν ὑπισχνεῖσθαι ποιήσειν τὰς τοσαύτας τῶν πολεμίων μυριάδας ὑποχειρίους. [374] πυθομένῳ δέ, διὰ τίνων ἂν ἡ νίκη γένοιτο, ‘διὰ τῶν παίδων, εἶπε, τῶν ἡγεμόνων ἡγουμένου σοῦ διὰ τὴν ἀπειρίαν ἐκείνων.’ καλέσαντος δὲ τοὺς τῶν ἡγεμόνων υἱούς, εὑρέθησαν δ᾽ ὡς διακόσιοι καὶ τριακονταδύο, μαθὼν τὸν Σύρον πρὸς εὐωχίαν καὶ ἄνεσιν τετραμμένον ἀνοίξας τὰς πύλας ἐξέπεμψε τοὺς παῖδας. [375] τῶν δὲ σκοπῶν δηλωσάντων τοῦτο τῷ Ἀδάδῳ πέμπει τινὰς ὑπαντησομένους ἐντειλάμενος, ἂν μὲν εἰς μάχην ὦσι προεληλυθότες, ἵνα δήσαντες ἀγάγωσι πρὸς αὐτόν, ἂν δ᾽ εἰρηνικῶς, ὅπως ταὐτὸ ποιῶσιν. [376] εἶχε δ᾽ ἑτοίμην Ἄχαβος καὶ τὴν ἄλλην στρατιὰν ἐντὸς τῶν τειχῶν. οἱ δὲ τῶν ἀρχόντων παῖδες συμβαλόντες τοῖς φύλαξι πολλοὺς αὐτῶν ἀποκτείνουσι καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους ἄχρι τοῦ στρατοπέδου διώκουσιν. ἰδὼν δὲ τούτους νικῶντας ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐξαφίησι καὶ τὴν ἄλλην στρατιὰν ἅπασαν. [377] ἡ δ᾽ αἰφνιδίως ἐπιπεσοῦσα τοῖς Σύροις ἐκράτησεν αὐτῶν, οὐ γὰρ προσεδόκων αὐτοὺς ἐπεξελεύσεσθαι, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο γυμνοῖς καὶ μεθύουσι προσέβαλλον, ὥστε τὰς πανοπλίας ἐκ τῶν στρατοπέδων φεύγοντας καταλιπεῖν καὶ τὸν βασιλέα σωθῆναι μόλις ἐφ᾽ ἵππου ποιησάμενον τὴν φυγήν. [378] Ἄχαβος δὲ πολλὴν ὁδὸν διώκων τοὺς Σύρους ἤνυσεν ἀναιρῶν αὐτούς, διαρπάσας δὲ τὰ ἐν τῇ παρεμβολῇ, πλοῦτος δ᾽ ἦν οὐκ ὀλίγος, ἀλλὰ καὶ χρυσοῦ πλῆθος καὶ ἀργύρου τά τε ἅρματα τοῦ Ἀδάδου καὶ τοὺς ἵππους λαβὼν ἀνέστρεψεν εἰς τὴν πόλιν. τοῦ δὲ προφήτου παρασκευάζεσθαι φήσαντος καὶ τὴν δύναμιν ἑτοίμην ἔχειν, ὡς τῷ ἐπιόντι πάλιν ἔτει στρατεύσοντος ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν τοῦ Σύρου, ὁ μὲν Ἄχαβος πρὸς τούτοις ἦν.

2. Now when Benhadad heard this, he had indignation, and sent ambassadors to Ahab the third time, and threatened that his army would raise a bank higher than those walls, in confidence of whose strength he despised him, and that by only each man of his army taking a handful of earth; hereby making a show of the great number of his army, and aiming to affright him. Ahab answered, that he ought not to vaunt himself when he had only put on his armor, but when he should have conquered his enemies in the battle. So the ambassadors came back, and found the king at supper with his thirty-two kings, and informed him of Ahab's answer; who then immediately gave order for proceeding thus: To make lines round the city, and raise a bulwark, and to prosecute the siege all manner of ways. Now, as this was doing, Ahab was in a great agony, and all his people with him; but he took courage, and was freed from his fears, upon a certain prophet coming to him, and saying to him, that God had promised to subdue so many ten thousands of his enemies under him. And when he inquired by whose means the victory was to be obtained, he said, "By the sons of the princes; but under thy conduct as their leader, by reason of their unskilfulness [in war]." Upon which he called for the sons of the princes, and found them to be two hundred and thirty-two persons. So when he was informed that the king of Syria had betaken himself to feasting and repose, he opened the gates, and sent out the princes' sons. Now when the sentinels told Benhadad of it, he sent some to meet them, and commanded them, that if these men were come out for fighting, they should bind them, and bring them to him; and that if they came out peaceably, they should do the same. Now Ahab had another army ready within the walls, but the sons of the princes fell upon the out-guard, and slew many of them, and pursued the rest of them to the camp; and when the king of Israel saw that these had the upper hand, he sent out all the rest of his army, which, falling suddenly upon the Syrians, beat them, for they did not think they would have come out; on which account it was that they assaulted them when they were naked and drunk, insomuch that they left all their armor behind them when they fled out of the camp, and the king himself escaped with difficulty, by fleeing away on horseback. But Ahab went a great way in pursuit of the Syrians; and when he had spoiled their camp, which contained a great deal of wealth, and moreover a large quantity of gold and silver, he took Benhadad's chariots and horses, and returned to the city; but as the prophet told him he ought to have his army ready, because the Syrian king would make another expedition against him the next year, Ahab was busy in making provision for it accordingly.

[XIV.iii.379] adadus autem cum quanto potuit exercitu de praelio liberatus cum amicis propriis cogitabat quemadmodum cum israhelitis denuo dimicaret, qui in montibus equidem non pugnandum esse dixerunt, quasi deos eorum praeualerent, et propter ea tunc abeis esse uictos. Sed si in campo gererent bella deuicerint. Super hoc autem consilium dabant ut reges quidem qui uenerunt in solatium ad propriae remeare domit te hic eorum exercitu praelium satrapes ordinaret et in loco occisorum exercitum de prouncia eorum eligeret et equos currusque suppleret. Credens haec bene sibi fuisse dicta. Rex syrorum disponebat exercitum.

[379] Ὁ δὲ Ἄδαδος διασωθεὶς ἐκ τῆς μάχης μεθ᾽ ὅσης ἠδυνήθη στρατιᾶς συνεβουλεύσατο τοῖς αὑτοῦ φίλοις, πῶς ἂν ἐπιστρατεύσηται τοῖς Ἰσραηλίταις. οἱ δὲ ἐν μὲν τοῖς ὄρεσιν οὐκ ἐδίδοσαν γνώμην συμβαλεῖν αὐτοῖς: τὸν γὰρ θεὸν αὐτῶν ἐν τοῖς τοιούτοις δύνασθαι τόποις καὶ διὰ τοῦτο νῦν ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν νενικῆσθαι: κρατήσειν δὲ ἔλεγον ἐν πεδίῳ ποιησαμένους τὴν μάχην. [380] συνεβούλευον δὲ πρὸς τούτῳ τοὺς μὲν βασιλέας οὓς ἐπηγάγετο συμμάχους ἀπολῦσαι πρὸς τὰ οἰκεῖα, τὴν δὲ στρατιὰν αὐτῶν κατασχεῖν ἀντ᾽ ἐκείνων σατράπας καταστήσαντα: εἰς δὲ τὴν τῶν ἀπολωλότων τάξιν στρατολογῆσαι δύναμιν ἐκ τῆς χώρας τῆς αὐτῶν καὶ ἵππους καὶ ἅρματα. δοκιμάσας οὖν ταῦτα εἰρῆσθαι καλῶς οὕτως διεκόσμησε τὴν δύναμιν.

3. Now Benhadad, when he had saved himself, and as much of his army as he could, out of the battle, he consulted with his friends how he might make another expedition against the Israelites. Now those friends advised him not to fight with them on the hills, because their God was potent in such places, and thence it had come to pass that they had very lately been beaten; but they said, that if they joined battle with them in the plain, they should beat them. They also gave him this further advice, to send home those kings whom he had brought as his auxiliaries, but to retain their army, and to set captains over it instead of the kings, and to raise an army out of their country, and let them be in the place of the former who perished in the battle, together with horses and chariots. So he judged their counsel to be good, and acted according to it in the management of the army.

[XIV.iv.381] Uerisque tempore castra mouens accedebat super hebraeos ueniens in ciuitatem apheta in magno campo castra constituit. Achab occurrens ei cum sua uirtute e diuerso tabernacula sua fixit. Erat autem quantum ad syrum paruus ualde eius exercitum. Tunc rursus accessit ad eum propheta et uictoriam dare promisit suamque qui non solum in montibus sed etiam in campis existeret, quod apud syros non ita constaret. Igitur diebus septem castris positis quiescebant. Septima uero diluculo procedentibus hostibus aciemque constituentibus ad pugnandum ediuerso et achab suum egit exercitum. Tunc congressus robustissima dimicatione conmissa hostes conuertit infugam, et ad eorum interitum persequens inminebat. Illi uero suis curribus in pediti ad inuicem sunt extincti paucique diffugere ualuerunt in ciuitate aphecath. Sed et ipsi sunt mortui muris enim cadentibus super eos uiginti septem milia defecerunt, in praelio autem centum milias occisi. Rex autem syrorum adadus fugiens cum qui busdam fidelissimis seruorum sub terraneo loco caelatus. Cui cum dixissent serui quia clementes essent et misericordes israhelitae et possint modo cum sueto rogati salutem ei conferri si euntes rogantes achab dimisit eos hoc agere. Tunc illi induti saccis et restis sua capita alligantes. Sic enim dei captiui rogabant syri achab uenerunt petentes eum ut adadus rex mereretur salutem qua gratia eius propriis foret seruus. Ille uero dicens se libenter habere si uiueret nec in praelio defecisset. Honorem quoque ac deuotionem exhibiturum se ei fratri debita promisit. Tunc illi accipientes ius iurandum ut nihil pateretur aduersum, eduxerunt eum de loco in quo uidebatur esse caelatus. Et sedentem in curru achab tulerunt quicum ad iurasset eum dans ei achab dextera leuauit in curru et osculatus eum iussit esse securus dicens, ut nihil mali deberet de cetero formidare. Adabus autem gratias egit et nullo se tempore obliuisci haec benefici conpromisit sed etiam ciuitates israhelitarum quos tulerant reges ante eum redditurum se dixit, et damascum ut ita rex hebraeorum egrederet ad suam sicut maiores eorum in samariam. [105r] Caelebritatis itaque foederibus inter eos achab multis muneribus donatum adadum ad proprium dimisit imperium. Igitur bellum adadi regis syrorum quos habuit aduersus achab et israhelita hoc modo terminatum est.

[381] Ἀρξαμένου δὲ ἔαρος ἀναλαβὼν τὴν στρατιὰν ἦγεν ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἑβραίους, καὶ γενόμενος πρὸς πόλει τινί, Ἀφεκὰ δ᾽ αὐτὴν καλοῦσιν, ἐν μεγάλῳ στρατοπεδεύεται πεδίῳ. Ἄχαβος δ᾽ ἀπαντήσας αὐτῷ μετὰ τῆς δυνάμεως ἀντεστρατοπεδεύσατο: σφόδρα δ᾽ ἦν ὀλίγ&#9#959;ν αὐτοῦ τὸ στράτευμα πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίους ἀντιπαραβαλλόμενον. [382] τοῦ δὲ προφήτου προσελθόντος αὐτῷ πάλιν καὶ νίκην τὸν θεὸν αὐτῷ διδόναι φήσαντος, ἵνα τὴν ἰδίαν ἰσχὺν ἐπιδείξηται μὴ μόνον ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσιν ἀλλὰ κἀν τοῖς πεδίοις ὑπάρχουσαν, ὅπερ οὐκ εἶναι δοκεῖ τοῖς Σύροις, ἑπτὰ μὲν ἡμέρας ἀντεστρατοπεδευκότες ἡσύχαζον, τῇ δὲ ὑστάτῃ τούτων ὑπὸ τὸν ὄρθρον προελθόντων ἐκ τοῦ στρατοπέδου τῶν πολεμίων καὶ παραταξαμένων εἰς μάχην ἀντεπεξῆγε καὶ Ἄχαβος τὴν οἰκείαν δύναμιν. [383] καὶ συμβαλὼν καρτερᾶς τῆς μάχης γενομένης τρέπεται τοὺς πολεμίους εἰς φυγὴν καὶ διώκων ἐπέκειτο. οἱ δὲ καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ἁρμάτων καὶ ὑπ᾽ ἀλλήλων ἀπώλοντο, ἴσχυσαν δ᾽ ὀλίγοι διαφυγεῖν εἰς τὴν Ἀφεκὰ πόλιν αὐτῶν. [384] ἀπέθανον δὲ καὶ αὐτοὶ τῶν τειχῶν αὐτοῖς ἐπιπεσόντων ὄντες δισμύριοι ἑπτακισχίλιοι. διεφθάρησαν δ᾽ ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ μάχῃ ἄλλαι μυριάδες δέκα. ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς τῶν Σύρων Ἄδαδος φεύγων μετά τινων πιστοτάτων οἰκετῶν εἰς ὑπόγειον οἶκον ἐκρύβη. [385] τούτων φιλανθρώπους καὶ ἐλεήμονας εἶναι φησάντων τοὺς τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν βασιλέας καὶ δυνήσεσθαι τῷ συνήθει τρόπῳ τῆς ἱκετείας χρησαμένους τὴν σωτηρίαν αὐτῷ παρ᾽ Ἀχάβου λαβεῖν, εἰ συγχωρήσειεν αὐτοῖς πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀπελθεῖν, ἀφῆκεν: οἱ δὲ σάκκους ἐνδυσάμενοι καὶ σχοινία ταῖς κεφαλαῖς περιθέμενοι, οὕτως γὰρ τὸ παλαιὸν ἱκέτευον οἱ Σύροι, πρὸς Ἄχαβον παρεγένοντο καὶ δεῖσθαι τὸν Ἄδαδον σώζειν αὐτὸν ἔλεγον εἰς ἀεὶ δοῦλον αὐτοῦ τῆς χάριτος γενησόμενον. [386] ὁ δὲ συνήδεσθαι φήσας αὐτῷ περιόντι καὶ μηδὲν ἐν τῇ μάχῃ πεπονθότι τιμὴν καὶ εὔνοιαν, ἣν ἄν τις ἀδελφῷ παράσχοι, κατεπηγγείλατο. λαβόντες δὲ ὅρκους παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ μηδὲν ἀδικήσειν φανέντα προάγουσι πορευθέντες ἐκ τοῦ οἴκου ἐν ᾧ κέκρυπτο καὶ προσάγουσι τῷ Ἀχάβῳ ἐφ᾽ ἅρματος καθεζομένῳ: ὁ δὲ προσεκύνησεν αὐτόν. [387] Ἄχαβος δ᾽ ἐπιδοὺς αὐτῷ τὴν δεξιὰν ἀναβιβάζει ἐπὶ τὸ ἅρμα καὶ καταφιλήσας θαρρεῖν ἐκέλευε καὶ μηδὲν τῶν ἀτόπων προσδοκᾶν, Ἄδαδος δ᾽ εὐχαρίστει καὶ παρ᾽ ὅλον τὸν τοῦ ζῆν χρόνον ἀπομνημονεύσειν τῆς εὐεργεσίας ὡμολόγει καὶ τὰς πόλεις τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν, ἃς ἀπήνεγκαν οἱ πρὸ αὐτοῦ βασιλεῖς, ἀποδώσειν ἐπηγγείλατο καὶ Δαμασκὸν ὥστε ἐξελαύνειν εἰς αὐτήν, καθὼς καὶ οἱ πατέρες αὐτοῦ εἰς Σαμάρειαν εἶχον τοῦτο ποιεῖν, ἀνήσειν. [388] γενομένων δ᾽ αὐτοῖς ὅρκων καὶ συνθηκῶν πολλὰ δωρησάμενος αὐτῷ Ἄχαβος ἀπέπεμψεν εἰς τὴν ἰδίαν βασιλείαν. καὶ τὰ μὲν περὶ τῆς Ἀδάδου τοῦ Σύρων βασιλέως στρατείας ἐπὶ Ἄχαβον καὶ τοὺς Ἰσραηλίτας τοιοῦτον ἔσχε τὸ τέλος.

4. At the beginning of the spring, Benhadad took his army with him, and led it against the Hebrews; and when he was come to a certain city which was called Aphek, he pitched his camp in the great plain. Ahab also went to meet him with his army, and pitched his camp over against him, although his army was a very small one, if it were compared with the enemy's; but the prophet came again to him, and told him, that God would give him the victory, that he might demonstrate his own power to be, not only on the mountains, but on the plains also; which it seems was contrary to the opinion of the Syrians. So they lay quiet in their camp seven days; but on the last of those days, when the enemies came out of their camp, and put themselves in array in order to fight, Ahab also brought out his own army; and when the battle was joined, and they fought valiantly, he put the enemy to flight, and pursued them, and pressed upon them, and slew them; nay, they were destroyed by their own chariots, and by one another; nor could any more than a few of them escape to their own city Aphek, who were also killed by the walls falling upon them, being in number twenty-seven thousand. Now there were slain in this battle a hundred thousand more; but Benhadad, the king of the Syrians, fled away, with certain others of his most faithful servants, and hid himself in a cellar under ground; and when these told him that the kings of Israel were humane and merciful men, and that they might make use of the usual manner of supplication, and obtain deliverance from Ahab, in case he would give them leave to go to him, he gave them leave accordingly. So they came to Ahab, clothed in sackcloth, with ropes about their heads, (for this was the ancient manner of supplication among the Syrians,) and said, that Benhadad desired he would save him, and that he would ever be a servant to him for that favor. Ahab replied he was glad that he was alive, and not hurt in the battle; and he further promised him the same honor and kindness that a man would show to his brother. So they received assurances upon oath from him, that when he came to him he should receive no harm from him, and then went and brought him out of the cellar wherein he was hid, and brought him to Ahab as he sat in his chariot. So Benhadad worshipped him; and Ahab gave him his hand, and made him come up to him into his chariot, and kissed him, and bid him be of good cheer, and not to expect that any mischief should be done to him. So Berthadad returned him thanks, and professed that he would remember his kindness to him all the days of his life; and promised he would restore those cities of the Israelites which the former kings had taken from them, and grant that he should have leave to come to Damascus, as his forefathers had to come to Samaria. So they confirmed their covenant by oaths, and Ahab made him many presents, and sent him back to his own kingdom. And this was the conclusion of the war that Benhadad made against Ahab and the Israelites.

[XIV.v.389] Interea quidam propheta nomine micheas accedens ad unum israhelitarum petit ut eum in capite prouoluntate dei percuteret quo nolente praedixi ei quod eo quid inoboediens esset deo eius praecepto leone occurrente perimeretur. Quod dum illi homine contigisset accessit propheta rursus ad alium et idem ut faceret imperauit. Qui dum percussisset eum et eius uerticem cruentasset alligato capite accessit ad regem dicens. Quia dum esset in exercitu constitutus accepisset a quodam seruandum captiuum sibique abeo dictum ut si captiuus fugeret ipse moretur. Quo fugiente is qui eum tradiderat mortem ei minaretur inferre. Tunc respondente achab mortem ei iminere iustissimam soluens capud agnitus est micheam esse propheta. Hac enim parabola utebatur propter sermones quos erat ei dicturus. Ait namque quoniam cum deus ei concessisset ut supplicium hostis euaderet ipse inicum eius adadum quidem blasphemauerat dimisisset, et propterea deus decreuisset ipsum quidem ab illo perimi. Populum uero ab eius exercitu inuasioni consumi. Iratus uero achab prophetae illum quidem clausum seruare remeauit.

[389] Προφήτης δέ τις τοὔνομα Μιχαίας προσελθών τινι τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν ἐκέλευεν αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν κεφαλὴν πλῆξαι: τοῦτο γὰρ ποιήσειν κατὰ βούλησιν τοῦ θεοῦ. τοῦ δὲ μὴ πεισθέντος προεῖπε παρακούσαντα τῶν τοῦ θεοῦ προσταγμάτων λέοντι περιτυχόντα διαφθαρήσεσθαι. συμβάντος τούτου τἀνθρώπῳ πρόσεισιν ἑτέρῳ πάλιν ὁ προφήτης ταὐτὸ προστάσσων. [390] πλήξαντος δ᾽ ἐκείνου καὶ θραύσαντος αὐτοῦ τὸ κρανίον καταδησάμενος τὴν κεφαλὴν προσῆλθε τῷ βασιλεῖ λέγων αὐτῷ συνεστρατεῦσθαι καὶ παραλαβεῖν ἐπὶ φυλακῇ τινα τῶν αἰχμαλώτων παρὰ τοῦ ταξιάρχου, φυγόντος δ᾽ αὐτοῦ κινδυνεύειν ὑπὸ τοῦ παραδεδωκότος ἀποθανεῖν: ἀπειλῆσαι γὰρ αὐτὸν εἰ διαφύγοι ὁ αἰχμάλωτος ἀποκτείνειν. [391] δίκαιον δὲ φήσαντος Ἀχάβου τὸν θάνατον εἶναι λύσας τὴν κεφαλὴν ἐπιγινώσκεται ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ Μιχαίας ὁ προφήτης ὤν. ἐκέχρητο δὲ σοφίσματι πρὸς αὐτὸν τῷ γενομένῳ πρὸς τοὺς μέλλοντας λόγους: [392] εἶπε γάρ, ὡς ὁ θεὸς ἀφέντ᾽ αὐτὸν διαδράναι τὴν τιμωρίαν Ἄδαδον τὸν βλασφημήσαντα εἰς αὐτὸν μετελεύσεται καὶ ποιήσει σεαυτὸν μὲν ἀποθανεῖν ὑπ᾽ ἐκείνου, τὸν δὲ λαὸν ὑπὸ τῆς στρατιᾶς αὐτοῦ. παροξυνθεὶς δ᾽ Ἄχαβος πρὸς τὸν προφήτην τὸν μὲν ἐγκλεισθέντα φυλάττεσθαι ἐκέλευσε, συγκεχυμένος δ᾽ αὐτὸς ἐπὶ τοῖς Μιχαίου λόγοις ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς τὴν οἰκείαν.

5. But a certain prophet, whose name was Micaiah, came to one of the Israelites, and bid him smite him on the head, for by so doing he would please God; but when he would not do so, he foretold to him, that since he disobeyed the commands of God, he should meet with a lion, and be destroyed by him. When that sad accident had befallen the man, the prophet came again to another, and gave him the same injunction; so he smote him, and wounded his skull; upon which he bound up his head, and came to the king, and told him that he had been a soldier of his, and had the custody of one of the prisoners committed to him by an officer, and that the prisoner being run away, he was in danger of losing his own life by the means of that officer, who had threatened him, that if the prisoner escaped he would kill him. And when Ahab had said that he would justly die, he took off the binding about his head, and was known by the king to be Micaiah the prophet, who made use of this artifice as a prelude to his following words; for he said that God would punish him who had suffered Benhadad, a blasphemer against him, to escape punishment; and that he would so bring it about, that he should die by the other's means and his people by the other's army. Upon which Ahab was very angry at the prophet, and gave commandment that he should be put in prison, and there kept; but for himself, he was in confusion at the words of Micaiah, and returned to his own house.



CHAPTER 15. Concerning Jehoshaphat The King Of Jerusalem And How Ahab Made An Expedition Against The Syrians And Was Assisted Therein By Jehoshaphat, But Was Himself Overcome In Battle And Perished Therein.

[XV.i.393] Igitur de achab haec dixisse subficiat. Reuertar autem ad regem hierosolimorum iosaphat. Is enim agens suum imperium et exercitu in ciuitatibus et subiecturum prounciam uniuersam constituens non minorem quam auus eius ab hoc tempore quo hieroboam super decem tribus regnauerat munitiones ubique collocauit. Habuit enim propitiam et quo operatricem sibi diuinitatem cum esset iustus et pius et quid boni coram deo fecerit singulis diebus in quireret. Honorabant enim eum reges in circuitu constitutis, conferentes ita ut diuitias habuerit amplissimas et gloriam ualde praeclaram.

[393] Καὶ Ἄχαβος μὲν ἐν τούτοις ἦν: ἐπάνειμι δὲ ἐπὶ τὸν Ἱεροσολύμων βασιλέα Ἰωσάφατον, ὃς αὐξήσας τὴν βασιλείαν καὶ δυνάμεις ἐν ταῖς πόλεσι ταῖς ἐν τῇ τῶν ὑπηκόων χώρᾳ καταστήσας οὐδὲν ἧττον Ἀβία τοῦ πάππου καταληφθείσης τῆς Ἐφράμου κληρουχίας Ἱεροβάμου βασιλεύοντος τῶν δέκα φυλῶν φρουρὰς ἐγκαθίδρυσεν. [394] ἀλλ᾽ εἶχεν εὐμενές τε καὶ συνεργὸν τὸ θεῖον δίκαιος ὢν καὶ εὐσεβὴς καὶ τί καθ᾽ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν ἡδὺ ποιήσει καὶ προσηνὲς τῷ θεῷ ζητῶν. ἐτίμων δ᾽ αὐτὸν οἱ πέριξ βασιλικαῖς δωρεαῖς, ὡς πλοῦτόν τε ποιῆσαι βαθύτατον καὶ δόξαν ἄρασθαι μεγίστην.

1. And these were the circumstances in which Ahab was. But I now return to Jehoshaphat, the king of Jerusalem, who, when he had augmented his kingdom, had set garrisons in the cities of the countries belonging to his subjects, and had put such garrisons no less into those cities which were taken out of the tribe of Ephraim by his grandfather Abijah, when Jeroboam reigned over the ten tribes [than he did into the other]. But then he had God favorable and assisting to him, as being both righteous and religious, and seeking to do somewhat every day that should be agreeable and acceptable to God. The kings also that were round about him honored him with the presents they made him, till the riches that he had acquired were immensely great, and the glory he had gained was of a most exalted nature.

[XV.ii.395] Anno siquidem tertio regni sui conuocans prouinciae principes et sacerdotes iussit ut per agrantes ubique omnem populum sub eo constitutum docerent per singulas ciuitates moseas leges ut eas sine praeuaricatione seruarent et circa eius religionem deuoti semper existerent. In his et enim cuncta multitudo ita grauis est ut nullus alius amplectaretur potius neque diligeret quam seruare leges. Sed etiam confines nimis amabant iosaphat. Cumque etiam pacis foedibus caelebrabant, eique palaestini solita tributa reddebant. Agnas trecenti sexaginta, et totidem eius muniuitque maximas ciuitates atque fortissimas, et exercitus in eis contra hostes arma praeparauit. Tunc enim erat ex tribu quidem armatorum exercitus trecenti milia uirorum quorum principatum habebat edrous. Iohannes autem ducentorum milium principes erat, hos ipse duxit tribum beniamin habuit arcarius ducenti milia. Alter autem princeps militiae nomine gozonat armatorum debebat centum milia qui regi famulabantur quos direxit promunitissimas ciuitates

[395] Τρίτῳ δ᾽ ἔτει τῆς βασιλείας συγκαλέσας τοὺς ἡγεμόνας τῆς χώρας καὶ τοὺς ἱερεῖς ἐκέλευε τὴν γῆν περιελθόντας ἅπαντα τὸν λαὸν τὸν ἐπ᾽ αὐτῇ διδάξαι κατὰ πόλιν τοὺς Μωσείους νόμους καὶ φυλάσσειν τούτους καὶ σπουδάζειν περὶ τὴν θρησκείαν τοῦ θεοῦ. καὶ ἥσθη πᾶν τὸ πλῆθος οὕτως, ὡς μηδὲν ἄλλο φιλοτιμεῖσθαι μηδὲ ἀγαπᾶν ὡς τὸ τηρεῖν τὰ νόμιμα. [396] οἵ τε προσχώριοι διετέλουν στέργοντες τὸν Ἰωσάφατον καὶ πρὸς αὐτὸν εἰρήνην ἄγοντες: οἱ δὲ Παλαιστῖνοι τακτοὺς ἐτέλουν αὐτῷ φόρους καὶ Ἄραβες ἐχορήγουν κατ᾽ ἔτος ἄρνας ἑξήκοντα καὶ τριακοσίους καὶ ἐρίφους τοσούτους. πόλεις τε μεγάλας ὠχύρωσεν ἄλλας τε καὶ βαρεῖς, καὶ δύναμιν στρατιωτικὴν πρὸς πολέμους ηὐτρέπιστο. [397] ἦν δὲ ἐκ μὲν τῆς Ἰούδα φυλῆς στρατὸς ὁπλιτῶν μυριάδες τριάκοντα, ὧν Ἐδναῖος τὴν ἡγεμονίαν εἶχεν, Ἰωάννης δὲ μυριάδων εἴκοσι. ὁ δ᾽ αὐτὸς οὗτος ἡγεμὼν κἀκ τῆς Βενιαμίτιδος φυλῆς εἶχε τοξοτῶν πεζῶν μυριάδας εἴκοσι, ἄλλος δ᾽ ἡγεμὼν ᾧ Χάβαθος ὄνομα μυριάδας ὁπλιτῶν ὀκτωκαίδεκα τὸ πλῆθος τῷ βασιλεῖ προσένειμε, πάρεξ ὧν εἰς τὰς ὀχυρωτάτας διέπεμψε πόλεις.

2. Now, in the third year of this reign, he called together the rulers of the country, and the priests, and commanded them to go round the land, and teach all the people that were under him, city by city, the laws of Moses, and to keep them, and to be diligent in the worship of God. With this the whole multitude was so pleased, that they were not so eagerly set upon or affected with any thing so much as the observation of the laws. The neighboring nations also continued to love Jehoshaphat, and to be at peace with him. The Philistines paid their appointed tribute, and the Arabians supplied him every year with three hundred and sixty lambs, and as many kids of the goats. He also fortified the great cities, which were many in number, and of great consequence. He prepared also a mighty army of soldiers and weapons against their enemies. Now the army of men that wore their armor, was three hundred thousand of the tribe of Judah, of whom Adnah was the chief; but John was chief of two hundred thousand. The same man was chief of the tribe of Benjamin, and had two hundred thousand archers under him. There was another chief, whose name was Jehozabad, who had a hundred and fourscore thousand armed men. This multitude was distributed to be ready for the king's service, besides those whom he sent to the best fortified cities.

[XV.iii.398] is filio suo iopam accepit uxorem filiam achab qui decem tribubus imperabat nomine gotholiam. Cumque post tempus ad samariam perrexisset opulenter eum achab suscepit et populo qui eum secutus fuerat claram ualde largitatem hospitalitatis exhibuit, idem tritici et uini et pecodum ubertatem rogauit ut contra regem syrorum ei solatia non negaret, quatenus ramatham ciuitatem in galaad constituta auferret, quod eius patri primo fuerat et a patre tunc regis syriae uideretur ablata. Promittens uero iosaphat solatia se daturum quantum non ab illius minor erat exercitus et euocante ex hierosolimis ad samariam suum populum egressi foris ciuitatem ambo reges et in propriis soliis utrique residentes suum exercitum disponebant. Iosaphat autem inter haec iussit ut si quidam prophetarum ad essent euocati cosolarentur sic et eo tempore praelium contra syrum agendum fuerat namque tunc pax una cum syro permane[n]s annis tribus ex quo eum post captiuitatem dimiserat ad propria remeare usque ad illum diem.

[398] Ἠγάγετο δὲ τῷ παιδὶ Ἰωράμῳ τὴν Ἀχάβου θυγατέρα τοῦ τῶν δέκα φυλῶν βασιλέως Ὀθλίαν ὄνομα. πορευθέντα δ᾽ αὐτὸν μετὰ χρόνον τινὰ εἰς Σαμάρειαν φιλοφρόνως Ἄχαβος ὑπεδέξατο καὶ τὸν ἀκολουθήσαντα στρατὸν ἐξένισε λαμπρῶς σίτου τε καὶ οἴνου καὶ θυμάτων ἀφθονίᾳ, παρεκάλεσέ τε συμμαχῆσαι κατὰ τοῦ Σύρων βασιλέως, ἵνα τὴν ἐν τῇ Γαλαδηνῇ πόλιν Ἀραμαθὰν ἀφέληται: [399] τοῦ γὰρ πατρὸς αὐτὴν τοῦ αὐτοῦ πρῶτον τυγχάνουσαν ἀφῃρῆσθαι τὸν ἐκείνου πατέρα. τοῦ δὲ Ἰωσαφάτου τὴν βοήθειαν ἐπαγγειλαμένου, καὶ γὰρ εἶναι δύναμιν αὐτῷ μὴ ἐλάττω τῆς ἐκείνου, καὶ μεταπεμψαμένου τὴν δύναμιν ἐξ Ἱεροσολύμων εἰς Σαμάρειαν, προεξελθόντες ἔξω τῆς πόλεως οἱ δύο βασιλεῖς καθίσαντες ἐπὶ τοῦ ἰδίου θρόνου ἑκάτερος τοῖς οἰκείοις στρατιώταις τὸ στρατιωτικὸν διένεμον. [400] Ἰωσαφάτης δ᾽ ἐκέλευσεν εἴ τινές εἰσι προφῆται καλέσαντ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἀνακρῖναι περὶ τῆς ἐπὶ τὸν Σύρον ἐξόδου, εἰ συμβουλεύουσι κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρὸν αὐτῷ ποιήσασθαι τὴν στρατείαν: καὶ γὰρ εἰρήνη τε καὶ φιλία τότε τῷ Ἀχάβῳ πρὸς τὸν Σύρον ὑπῆρχεν ἐπὶ τρία ἔτη διαμείνασα, ἀφ᾽ οὗ λαβὼν αὐτὸν αἰχμάλωτον ἀπέλυσεν ἄχρις ἐκείνης τῆς ἡμέρας.

3. Jehoshaphat took for his son Jehoram to wife the daughter of Ahab, the king of the ten tribes, whose name was Athaliah. And when, after some time, he went to Samaria, Ahab received him courteously, and treated the army that followed him in a splendid manner, with great plenty of corn and wine, and of slain beasts; and desired that he would join with him in his war against the king of Syria, that he might recover from him the city Ramoth, in Gilead; for though it had belonged to his father, yet had the king of Syria's father taken it away from him; and upon Jehoshaphat's promise to afford him his assistance, [for indeed his army was not inferior to the other,] and his sending for his army from Jerusalem to Samaria, the two kings went out of the city, and each of them sat on his own throne, and each gave their orders to their several armies. Now Jehoshaphat bid them call some of the prophets, if there were any there, and inquire of them concerning this expedition against the king of Syria, whether they would give them counsel to make that expedition at this time, for there was peace at that time between Ahab and the king of Syria, which had lasted three years, from the time he had taken him captive till that day.

[XV.iv.401] Uocans ergo achab prophetas suos quasi numero quadragentos iussit ut consulerent deum si ei uictoriam aduersus adadam pugnandi concederet, et captionem ciuitatis propter quam bellum praepararet inferri. Prophetis autem dicentibus pugnare simul et uincere et syrum esse captiuandum sicut et prius intellegens in eorum sermonibus iosaphat quo deus falsi propheta ut certius de futuris agnosceret. Achab autem esse quidem dixit sed inuisum sibimet hominem eo quod mala prophetaret praedixisset commoriturum a syrorum rege deuictum qua propter tunc in custodia teneretur, cuius nomen erat micheas filius obei. Cumque petisset iosaphat eum uocare misit eunuchum eduxit eum, et dum eunuchus isset indicauit ei omnes alios prophetas regi uictoriam praedixisse. Ille uero dicens nihil se aliud de re fore dicturum nisi quod deus in eius ore po- ]105v] -suisset. Cum uenisset ad achab cumque iurasset id quod uerum esset diceret, ostendisse sibi deum fugientes israhelitas et esse in persecutione syrorum et ab eis cunctos dipergi per montes sicut greges pastoribus dissolatis. Dicebatque significasse sibi eo quod alii quidem reuerterentur ad propria ipsum uero solum modo in praelio. Cumque micheas haec dixisset ad iosaphat, achab ait, Non ne paulo ante significaui tibi qualis sit circa me hominis huius affectus, et qui pessima prophetaret, et cum micheas dixent, et quod eum oportebat omnia quae a deo praedicabantur audire, et quod falsi quidem prophetae eum exacuerint ut spe uictoriae egrederetur ad bellum inmineret autem casus eius in proelio. Erat autem achab tristitia remissus inter ea sedechias quidam falsus propheta accedens ad regem ait, Non esse respiciendum micheam quod nihil diceret ueritatis, et indicio simul utebatur heliae prophetasset in lazara ciuitate in agro nabuth ei per eum a populo fuisset occisus quibus ab illo sic prophetatis micheam dicebat esse mendacem quando meliori prophetae dicere contraria uideretur. Cognoscentes inquit repente si ueras quae dicit iste, aut si potest spiritus sancti habere uirtutem. Caesus autem palmis a me non noceat meae manui sicuti ad unam extram regis hieroboam aridam fecit dum eum conpraehendere uoluisset, hoc enim omnibus notum est. Cumque percusisset micheam et nihil fuisset passus, confortatus est achab in semetipsum contra regem syrorum mouit exercitum uincebat arbitror illut quod inminebat, et falsi propheta uerba plus quam erat ueritas credi uiliora faciebat ut ex occasione perueniretur ad finem. Tunc ex orans sedechias et faciens cornua ferrea dixit ad achab unum ei manifesset deus in illis omnem syriam subuertendam. Micheam uero dicentem quod sedechias non post multos dies in cubiculos caelaret et quaereret poenam sui declinare mendacii. Iussit rex in custodiam duci in ad ganum principis ciuitatis et nihil aliud amplius ei praeter panem et aquam ministrare.

[401] Καλέσας δὲ Ἄχαβος τοὺς αὑτοῦ προφήτας ὡσεὶ τετρακοσίους τὸν ἀριθμὸν ὄντας ἐκέλευσεν ἔρεσθαι τοῦ θεοῦ, εἰ δίδωσιν αὐτῷ στρατευσαμένῳ ἐπὶ Ἄδερα νίκην καὶ καθαίρεσιν τῆς πόλεως, δι᾽ ἣν ἐκφέρειν μέλλει τὸν πόλεμον. [402] τῶν δὲ προφητῶν συμβουλευσάντων ἐκστρατεῦσαι, κρατήσειν γὰρ τοῦ Σύρου καὶ λήψεσθαι ὑποχείριον αὐτὸν ὡς καὶ τὸ πρῶτον, συνεὶς ἐκ τῶν λόγων Ἰωσάφατος, ὅτι ψευδοπροφῆται τυγχάνουσιν, ἐπύθετο τοῦ Ἀχάβου εἰ καὶ ἕτερός τίς ἐστι προφήτης τοῦ θεοῦ, ‘ἵνα ἀκριβέστερον μάθωμεν περὶ τῶν μελλόντων.’ ὁ δ᾽ Ἄχαβος εἶναι μὲν ἔφη, [403] μισεῖν δ᾽ αὐτὸν κακὰ προφητεύσαντα καὶ προειπόντα ὅτι τεθνήξεται νικηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ Σύρου, ἐν φρουρᾷ δὲ νῦν αὐτὸν ἔχειν: καλεῖσθαι δὲ Μιχαίαν, υἱὸν δ᾽ εἶναι Ὀμβλαίου: τοῦ δ᾽ Ἰωσαφάτου κελεύσαντος αὐτὸν προαχθῆναι πέμψας εὐνοῦχον ἄγει τὸν Μιχαίαν. [404] κατὰ δὲ τὴν ὁδὸν ἐδήλωσεν αὐτῷ ὁ εὐνοῦχος πάντας τοὺς ἄλλους προφήτας νίκην τῷ βασιλεῖ προειρηκέναι. ὁ δὲ οὐκ ἐξὸν αὐτῷ καταψεύσασθαι τοῦ θεοῖ φήσας, ἀλλ᾽ ἐρεῖν ὅτι ἂν αὐτῷ περὶ τοῦ βασιλέως αὐτὸς εἴπῃ, ὡς ἧκε πρὸς τὸν Ἄχαβον καὶ λέγειν αὐτῷ τἀληθὲς οὗτος ἐνωρκίσατο, δεῖξαι τὸν θεὸν αὐτῷ φεύγοντας τοὺς Ἰσραηλίτας ἔφη καὶ διωκομένους ὑπὸ τῶν Σύρων καὶ διασκορπιζομένους ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν εἰς τὰ ὄρη, καθάπερ ποιμένων ἠρημωμένα ποίμνια. [405] ἔλεγε δὲ σημαίνειν τοὺς μὲν μετ᾽ εἰρήνης ἀναστρέψειν εἰς τὰ ἴδια, πεσεῖσθαι δ᾽ αὐτὸν μόνον ἐν τῇ μάχῃ. ταῦτα φήσαντος τοῦ Μιχαία πρὸς Ἰωσάφατον ὁ Ἄχαβος ‘ἀλλ᾽ ἔγωγε μικρὸν ἔμπροσθεν ἐδήλωσά σοι τὴν τἀνθρώπου πρός με διάθεσιν, καὶ ὅτι μοι τὰ χείρω προεφήτευσε.’ τοῦ δὲ Μιχαία εἰπόντος, [406] ὡς προσῆκεν αὐτῷ πάντων ἀκροᾶσθαι τῶν ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ προλεγομένων, καὶ ὡς παρορμῶσιν αὐτὸν οἱ ψευδοπροφῆται ποιήσασθαι τὸν πόλεμον ἐλπίδι νίκης, καὶ ὅτι δεῖ πεσεῖν αὐτὸν μαχόμενον, αὐτὸς μὲν ἦν ἐπ᾽ ἐννοίᾳ, Σεδεκίας δέ τις τῶν ψευδοπροφητῶν προσελθὼν Μιχαίᾳ μὲν μὴ προσέχειν παρῄνει: [407] λέγειν γὰρ αὐτὸν οὐδὲν ἀληθές: τεκμηρίῳ δὲ ἐχρήσατο οἷς Ἠλίας προεφήτευσεν ὁ τούτου κρείττων τὰ μέλλοντα συνιδεῖν: καὶ γὰρ τοῦτον ἔλεγε προφητεύσαντα ἐν Ἱεζερήλα πόλει ἐν τῷ Ναβώθου ἀγρῷ τὸ αἷμα αὐτοῦ κύνας ἀναλιχμήσεσθαι προειπεῖν, καθὼς καὶ Ναβώθου τοῦ δι᾽ αὐτὸν καταλευσθέντος ὑπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου. [408] δῆλον οὖν, ὅτι οὗτος ψεύδεται τῷ κρείττονι προφήτῃ τἀναντία λέγων ἀπὸ ἡμερῶν τριῶν φάσκων τεθνήξεσθαι. γνώσεσθε δ᾽ εἴπερ ἐστὶν ἀληθὴς καὶ τοῦ θείου πνεύματος ἔχει τὴν δύναμιν: εὐθὺς γὰρ ῥαπισθεὶς ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ βλαψάτω μου τὴν χεῖρα, ὥσπερ Ἰάδαος τὴν Ἱεροβοάμου τοῦ βασιλέως συλλαβεῖν θελήσαντος ἀπεξήρανε δεξιάν: [409] ‘ἀκήκοας γὰρ οἶμαι τοῦτο πάντως γενόμενον.’ ὡς οὖν πλήξαντος αὐτοῦ τὸν Μιχαίαν μηδὲν συνέβη παθεῖν, Ἄχαβος θαρρήσας ἄγειν τὴν στρατιὰν πρόθυμος ἦν ἐπὶ τὸν Σύρον: ἐνίκα γὰρ οἶμαι τὸ χρεὼν καὶ πιθανωτέρους ἐποίει τοῦ ἀληθοῦς τοὺς ψευδοπροφήτας, ἵνα λάβῃ τὴν ἀφορμὴν τοῦ τέλους. Σεδεκίας σιδήρεα ποιήσας κέρατα λέγει πρὸς Ἄχαβον, ὡς θεὸν αὐτῷ σημαίνειν τούτοις ἅπασαν καταστρέψεσθαι τὴν Συρίαν. [410] Μιχαίαν δὲ μετ᾽ οὐ πολλὰς ἡμέρας εἰπόντα τὸν Σεδεκίαν ταμιεῖον ἐκ ταμιείου κρυβόμενον ἀμείψειν ζητοῦντα φυγεῖν τῆς ψευδολογίας τὴν δίκην, ἐκέλευσεν ὁ βασιλεὺς ἀπαχθέντα φυλάττεσθαι πρὸς Ἀχάμωνα τὸν τῆς πόλεως ἄρχοντα καὶ χορηγεῖσθαι μηδὲν ἄρτου καὶ ὕδατος αὐτῷ περισσότερον.

4. So Ahab called his own prophets, being in number about four hundred, and bid them inquire of God whether he would grant him the victory, if he made an expedition against Benhadad, and enable him to overthrow that city, for whose sake it was that he was going to war. Now these prophets gave their counsel for making this expedition, and said that he would beat the king of Syria, and, as formerly, would reduce him under his power. But Jehoshaphat, understanding by their words that they were false prophets, asked Ahab whether there were not some other prophet, and he belonging to the true God, that we may have surer information concerning futurities. Hereupon Ahab said there was indeed such a one, but that he hated him, as having prophesied evil to him, and having foretold that he should be overcome and slain by the king of Syria, and that for this cause he had him now in prison, and that his name was Micaiah, the son of Imlah. But upon Jehoshaphat's desire that he might be produced, Ahab sent a eunuch, who brought Micaiah to him. Now the eunuch had informed him by the way, that all the other prophets had foretold that the king should gain the victory; but he said, that it was not lawful for him to lie against God, but that he must speak what he should say to him about the king, whatsoever it were. When he came to Ahab, and he had adjured him upon oath to speak the truth to him, he said that God had shown to him the Israelites running away, and pursued by the Syrians, and dispersed upon the mountains by them, as flocks of sheep are dispersed when their shepherd is slain. He said further, that God signified to him, that those Israelites should return in peace to their own home, and that he only should fall in the battle. When Micalab had thus spoken, Ahab said to Jehoshaphat, "I told thee a little while ago the disposition of the man with regard to me, and that he uses to prophesy evil to me." Upon which Micaiah replied, that he ought to hear all, whatsoever it be, that God foretells; and that in particular, they were false prophets that encouraged him to make this war in hope of victory, whereas he must fight and be killed. Whereupon the king was in suspense with himself: but Zedekiah, one of those false prophets, came near, and exhorted him not to hearken to Micaiah, for he did not at all speak truth; as a demonstration of which he instanced in what Elijah had said, who was a better prophet in foretelling futurities than Micaiah for he foretold that the dogs should lick his blood in the city of Jezreel, in the field of Naboth, as they licked the blood of Naboth, who by his means was there stoned to death by the multitude; that therefore it was plain that this Micalab was a liar, as contradicting a greater prophet than himself, and saying that he should be slain at three days' journey distance: "and [said he] you shall soon know whether he be a true prophet, and hath the power of the Divine Spirit; for I will smite him, and let him then hurt my hand, as Jadon caused the hand of Jeroboam the king to wither when he would have caught him; for I suppose thou hast certainly heard of that accident." So when, upon his smiting Micaiah, no harm happened to him, Ahab took courage, and readily led his army against the king of Syria; for, as I suppose, fate was too hard for him, and made him believe that the false prophets spake truer than the true one, that it might take an occasion of bringing him to his end. However, Zedekiah made horns of iron, and said to Ahab, that God made those horns signals, that by them he should overthrow all Syria. But Micaiah replied, that Zedekiah, in a few days, should go from one secret chamber to another to hide himself, that he might escape the punishment of his lying. Then did the king give orders that they should take Micaiah away, and guard him to Amon, the governor of the city, and to give him nothing but bread and water.

[XV.v.411] Igitur achab et iosaphat ierosolimorum rex sumentes exercitum uenerunt in ramatha galaditis ciuitate. Rex uero syrorum audiens eorum aduentum suum eis obiecit exercitum non procul ab ramatha castra fixit. Constituerunt autem inter se achab et iosaphat ut achab regium scema deponeret hierosolimorum rex propria stola uestitus adstaret in aciae, et ille qui micheae dicta contempneret, etiam praeter habitum regium et quod debebatur euenit. Adadus namque syriae exercitui reciperat uniuerso post principes suos, ut nullum aliorum perimerent, nisi tantum modo israhelitarum rege. Syri uero facta congressione uidentes ante aciem iosaphat adstantem et eum esse credentes redeuntes achab impetum fecerunt eumque circum dederunt, dumque ad propinquantes ipsum non esse cognoscerent recessere post ergum. Ab ortu namque diei ad uespera pugnantes et praeualentes mandato regis neminem penitus occiderunt quaerentes achab interficere solum et inuenire ne quiuerunt. Quidam uero adadi regis puer nomine adan cum sagitasset inter hostes rege achab per loricam in pulmone percussit. At ille casum sui exercitui manifestare non uoluit ne timore conuerteretur, sed aurigae praecepit ut conuerso curru a praelio declinare. Grauiter enim et mortaliter fuerat sagittatus, et usque ad occasum factus ex sangis interiit.

[411] Καὶ Ἄχαβος μὲν καὶ Ἰωσάφατος ὁ τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων βασιλεὺς ἀναλαβόντες τὰς δυνάμεις ἤλασαν εἰς Ῥαμάθην πόλιν τῆς Γαλαδίτιδος. ὁ δὲ τῶν Σύρων βασιλεὺς ἀκούσας αὐτῶν τὴν στρατείαν ἀντεπήγαγεν αὐτοῖς τὴν αὑτοῦ στρατιὰν καὶ οὐκ ἄπωθεν τῆς Ἀραμάθης στρατοπεδεύεται. [412] συνέθεντο δὲ ὅ τε Ἄχαβος καὶ Ἰωσάφατος ἀποθέσθαι μὲν τὸν Ἄχαβον τὸ βασιλικὸν σχῆμα, τὸν δὲ τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων βασιλέα τὴν αὐτοῦ στολὴν ἔχοντα στῆναι ἐν τῇ παρατάξει, κατασοφιζόμενοι τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ Μιχαία προειρημένα. εὗρε δ᾽ αὐτὸν τὸ χρεὼν καὶ δίχα τοῦ σχήματος: [413] ὁ μὲν γὰρ Ἄδαδος ὁ τῶν Σύρων βασιλεὺς παρήγγειλε τῇ στρατιᾷ διὰ τῶν ἡγεμόνων μηδένα τῶν ἄλλων ἀναιρεῖν, μόνον δὲ τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν. οἱ δὲ Σύροι τῆς συμβολῆς γενομένης ἰδόντες τὸν Ἰωσάφατον ἑστῶτα πρὸ τῆς τάξεως καὶ τοῦτον εἰκάσαντες εἶναι τὸν Ἄχαβον ὥρμησαν ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν καὶ περικυκλωσάμενοι, [414] ὡς ἐγγὺς ὄντες ἔγνωσαν οὐκ ὄντα τοῦτον, ἀνεχώρησαν ὀπίσω, ἀπό τε ἀρχομένης ἠοῦς ἄχρι δείλης μαχόμενοι καὶ νικῶντες ἀπέκτειναν οὐδένα κατὰ τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως ἐντολὴν ζητοῦντες τὸν Ἄχαβον ἀνελεῖν μόνον καὶ εὑρεῖν οὐ δυνάμενοι. παῖς δέ τις βασιλικὸς τοῦ Ἀδάδου Ἀμανὸς ὄνομα τοξεύσας εἰς τοὺς πολεμίους τιτρώσκει τὸν βασιλέα διὰ τοῦ θώρακος κατὰ τοῦ πνεύμονος. [415] Ἄχαβος δὲ τὸ μὲν συμβεβηκὸς οὐκ ἔγνω ποιῆσαι τῷ στρατεύματι φανερὸν μὴ τραπείησαν, τὸν δ᾽ ἡνίοχον ἐκέλευσεν ἐκτρέψαντα τὸ ἅρμα ἐξάγειν τῆς μάχης: χαλεπῶς γὰρ βεβλῆσθαι καὶ καιρίως. ὀδυνώμενος δὲ ἔστη ἐπὶ τοῦ ἅρματος ἄχρι δύνοντος ἡλίου καὶ λιφαιμήσας ἀπέθανε.

5. Then did Ahab, and Jehoshaphat the king of Jerusalem, take their forces, and marched to Ramoth a city of Gilead; and when the king of Syria heard of this expedition, he brought out his army to oppose them, and pitched his camp not far from Ramoth. Now Ahalx and Jehoshaphat had agreed that Ahab should lay aside his royal robes, but that the king of Jerusalem should put on his [Ahab's] proper habit, and stand before the army, in order to disprove, by this artifice, what Micaiah had foretold. But Ahab's fate found him out without his robes; for Benhadad, the king of Assyria, had charged his army, by the means of their commanders, to kill nobody else but only the king of Israel. So when the Syrians, upon their joining battle with the Israelites, saw Jehoshaphat stand before the army, and conjectured that he was Ahab, they fell violently upon him, and encompassed him round; but when they were near, and knew that it was not he, they all returned back; and while the fight lasted from the morning till late in the evening, and the Syrians were conquerors, they killed nobody, as their king had commanded them. And when they sought to kill Ahab alone, but could not find him, there was a young nobleman belonging to king Benhadad, whose name was Naaman; he drew his bow against the enemy, and wounded the king through his breastplate, in his lungs. Upon this Ahab resolved not to make his mischance known to his army, lest they should run away; but he bid the driver of his chariot to turn it back, and carry him out of the battle, because he was sorely and mortally wounded. However, he sat in his chariot and endured the pain till sunset, and then he fainted away and died.

[] Igitur syrorum exercitus nocte super ueniente signum dante praecone a castris et cognoscentes cuncti mortuum achab ad proprias reuersi. Corpus uero achab sui ad samariam referentes sepelierunt. Currumque eius abluerunt in iezara fontes samaria regis sanguine cruentatum et tunc cognouerunt heliae prophetam fuisse ueram. Canes namque eius linxerunt sanguinem et meretrices ad fontem quod erat reliquum diluerunt. Mortuus est ergo in ramatha michea hunc praedicante cassu. Dum ergo haec achab regi a duobus prophetis praedicta uideantur, oportet magnam iudicare diuinitatem et honorari semper et coli, et quae uera sunt potius recipi, quam ea quae pro cuius piam libidine dicuntur conplecti et arbitrandum quod nihil utilis est quam uirorum talium praesentia praebente scilicet deo quod unus quisque debeat obseruare et cogitandum ex his quae regi praeuenerunt quia quod debetur neque dum praescitum fuerit euitatur, sed repit in animas hominum inutilis spe blandiendo et hoc modo se ducendo donec a deo deuita passio conpleatur. Hoc ergo modo uidetur etiam achab deceptus, ut praedicentibus quidem perditionem suam non crederet. Prophetantibus autem ea quae delectabatur, ut de se credendo moriretur, cui ochodias filius successit in regnum.

[416] Καὶ τὸ μὲν τῶν Σύρων στράτευμα νυκτὸς ἤδη γενομένης ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς τὴν παρεμβολήν, καὶ δηλώσαντος τοῦ στρατοκήρυκος ὅτι τέθνηκεν Ἄχαβος ἀνέζευξαν εἰς τὰ ἴδια, κομίσαντες δὲ τὸν Ἀχάβου νεκρὸν εἰς Σαμάρειαν ἐκεῖ θάπτουσι. [417] καὶ τὸ ἅρμα ἀποπλύναντες ἐν τῇ Ἱεζερήλα κρήνῃ καθῃμαγμένον τῷ τοῦ βασιλέως φόνῳ ἀληθῆ τὴν Ἠλία προφητείαν ἐπέγνωσαν: οἱ μὲν γὰρ κύνες ἀνελιχμήσαντο τὸ αἷμα, αἱ δὲ ἑταιριζόμεναι ἐν τῇ κρήνῃ τὸ λοιπὸν λουόμεναι τούτῳ διετέλουν. ἀπέθανε δ᾽ ἐν Ἀραμάθῃ, Μιχαία τοῦτο προειπόντος. [418] συμβάντων οὖν Ἀχάβῳ τῶν ὑπὸ τῶν δύο προφητῶν εἰρημένων μέγα τὸ θεῖον ἡγεῖσθαι καὶ σέβειν καὶ τιμᾶν αὐτὸ πανταχοῦ, καὶ τῆς ἀληθείας μὴ τὰ πρὸς ἡδονὴν καὶ βούλησιν πιθανώτερα δοκεῖν, ὑπολαμβάνειν δ᾽ ὅτι προφητείας καὶ τῆς διὰ τῶν τοιούτων προγνώσεως οὐδέν ἐστι συμφορώτερον παρέχοντος οὕτω τοῦ θεοῦ τί δεῖ φυλάξασθαι, [419] λογίζεσθαί τε πάλιν ἐκ τῶν περὶ τὸν βασιλέα γεγενημένων στοχαζομένους προσῆκε τὴν τοῦ χρεὼν ἰσχύν, ὅτι μηδὲ προγινωσκόμενον αὐτὸ διαφυγεῖν ἔστιν, ἀλλ᾽ ὑπέρχεται τὰς ἀνθρωπίνας ψυχὰς ἐλπίσι κολακεῦον χρησταῖς, αἷς εἰς τὸ πόθεν αὐτῶν κρατήσει περιάγει. [420] φαίνεται οὖν καὶ Ἄχαβος ὑπὸ τούτου τὴν διάνοιαν ἀπατηθείς, ὥστε ἀπιστῆσαι μὲν τοῖς προλέγουσι τὴν ἧτταν, τοῖς δὲ πρὸς χάριν προφητεύσασι πεισθεὶς ἀποθανεῖν. τοῦτον μὲν οὖν ὁ παῖς Ὀχοζίας διεδέξατο.


6. And now the Syrian army, upon the coming on of the night, retired to their camp; and when the herald belonging to the camp gave notice that Ahab was dead, they returned home; and they took the dead body of Ahab to Samaria, and buried it there; but when they had washed his chariot in the fountain of Jezreel, which was bloody with the dead body of the king, they acknowledged that the prophecy of Elijah was true, for the dogs licked his blood, and the harlots continued afterwards to wash themselves in that fountain; but still he died at Ramoth, as Micaiah had foretold. And as what things were foretold should happen to Ahab by the two prophets came to pass, we ought thence to have high notions of God, and every where to honor and worship him, and never to suppose that what is pleasant and agreeable is worthy of belief before what is true, and to esteem nothing more advantageous than the gift of prophecy and that foreknowledge of future events which is derived from it, since God shows men thereby what we ought to avoid. We may also guess, from what happened to this king, and have reason to consider the power of fate; that there is no way of avoiding it, even when we know it. It creeps upon human souls, and flatters them with pleasing hopes, till it leads them about to the place where it will be too hard for them. Accordingly Ahab appears to have been deceived thereby, till he disbelieved those that foretold his defeat; but, by giving credit to such as foretold what was grateful to him, was slain; and his son Ahaziah succeeded him.