Antiquities‎ > ‎

Book 1

Bamberg Msc. Class. 78

Niese, Flavii Iosephi Opera, vol. 1 (1887)

William Whiston (1737)







[2r] 
INCIP. LIB. ANTIQVITATIS IOSEPHI HISTOGRAFI

 [I.i.27] In principio creauit deus caelum et terram. Sed dum terra ad aspectum non ueniret, et profunditate  tenebris celaretur, et spiritus dei desuper portaretur, deus lumen fieri iussit: Quo facto, considerans omnem materiam, seperauit lumen et tenebras: Et aliae quidem rei nomen imposuit noctem [et] aliud uero uocauit diem uespere et mane appellans initium lucis et requiem. Et is quidem est primus dies. Moyses autem eum unum dixit. Et licet sufficiam causam huius rei etiam nunc dicere tamen quia pollicitus sum rationem causarum singularum seorsum tradere, et illud tempus ad huius rei interpretationem me necessarium est differre. Post hoc secund[o] die caelum super omnia collocauit   cumqui [ipsumque] ab aliis distinguens, in semetipso constitutum esse praecepit: et ei christallum circum figens humidum [id] eum et  pluuiale<m> circum ad utilitatem quae sit ex imbribus terrae, congrue fabricatus est. Tertia uero die sextuit terram, circa eam mare diffundens. Ipsa uero die repente uirens herba, et semina de terra sunt orta. Quarta autem die ornauit caelum sole et luna, aliisque: sideribus motus eis tribuens atque cursus quibus orarum distinctiones manifeste designarentur. Quinta  die animalia natatilia et uolatilia. Alia quidem in profundo, alia  uero in aere constituit: copulans ea ad communionem atque permixiotionem causa sobolis profuturae et ut eorum natura multiplicari potuisset et crescere. Sexta uero die creauit quadrupedum genus masculum faciens atque: foeminam: in qua etiam homin[u]em finxit. Ita ergo mundum cunctis sex diebus et omnia quae in eo sunt, facta m moyses ait: septimo die deum ab operibus manuum suarum requieuisse dicens. Unde etiam nos eo die laboribus propriis uacare dignoscimur, eum sabbatum appellantes quod nomen hebraica lingua requiem significat. 

 





[I.i.27] Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἔκτισεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν. ταύτης δ᾽ ὑπ᾽ ὄψιν οὐκ ἐρχομένης, ἀλλὰ βαθεῖ μὲν κρυπτομένης σκότει, πνεύματος δ᾽ αὐτὴν ἄνωθεν ἐπιθέοντος, γενέσθαι φῶς ἐκέλευσεν ὁ θεός. [28] καὶ γενομένου τούτου κατανοήσας τὴν ὅλην ὕλην διεχώρισε τό τε φῶς καὶ τὸ σκότος καὶ τῷ μὲν ὄνομα ἔθετο νύκτα, τὸ δὲ ἡμέραν ἐκάλεσεν ἑσπέραν τε καὶ ὄρθρον τὴν ἀρχὴν τοῦ φωτὸς καὶ τὴν ἀνάπαυσιν προσαγορεύσας. [29] καὶ αὕτη μὲν ἂν εἴη πρώτη ἡμέρα, Μωυσῆς δ᾽ αὐτὴν μίαν εἶπε: τὴν δὲ αἰτίαν ἱκανὸς μέν εἰμι ἀποδοῦναι καὶ νῦν, ἐπεὶ δ᾽ ὑπέσχημαι τὴν αἰτιολογίαν πάντων ἰδίᾳ συγγραψάμενος παραδώσειν, εἰς τότε καὶ τὴν περὶ αὐτῆς ἑρμηνείαν ἀναβάλλομαι. [30] μετὰ δὴ τοῦτο τῇ δευτέρᾳ τῶν ἡμερῶν τὸν οὐρανὸν τοῖς ὅλοις ἐπιτίθησιν, ὅτ᾽ αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τῶν ἄλλων διακρίνας κατ᾽ αὐτὸν ἠξίωσε τετάχθαι, κρύσταλλόν τε περιπήξας αὐτῷ καὶ νότιον αὐτὸν καὶ ὑετώδη πρὸς τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν δρόσων ὠφέλειαν ἁρμοδίως τῇ γῇ μηχανησάμενος. [31] τῇ δὲ τρίτῃ ἵστησι τὴν γῆν ἀναχέας περὶ αὐτὴν τὴν θάλασσαν: κατ᾽ αὐτὴν δὲ ταύτην τὴν ἡμέραν εὐθὺς φυτά τε καὶ σπέρματα γῆθεν ἀνέτειλε. τῇ τετάρτῃ δὲ διακοσμεῖ τὸν οὐρανὸν ἡλίῳ καὶ σελήνῃ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἄστροις κινήσεις αὐτοῖς ἐπιστείλας καὶ δρόμους, οἷς ἂν αἱ τῶν ὡρῶν περιφοραὶ σημαίνοιντο. [32] πέμπτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ζῷά τε κατ᾽ αὐτὴν νηκτὰ καὶ μετάρσια τὰ μὲν κατὰ βάθους τὰ δὲ δι᾽ ἀέρος ἀνῆκε συνδησάμενος αὐτὰ κοινωνίᾳ καὶ μίξει γονῆς ἕνεκα καὶ τοῦ συναύξεσθαι καὶ πλεονάζειν αὐτῶν τὴν φύσιν. τῇ δὲ ἕκτῃ ἡμέρᾳ δημιουργεῖ τὸ τῶν τετραπόδων γένος ἄρρεν τε καὶ θῆλυ ποιήσας: ἐν ταύτῃ δὲ καὶ τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἔπλασε. [33] καὶ τὸν κόσμον ἓξ ταῖς πάσαις ἡμέραις Μωυσῆς καὶ πάντα τὰ ἐν αὐτῷ φησὶ γενέσθαι, τῇ δὲ ἑβδόμῃ ἀναπαύσασθαι καὶ λαβεῖν ἀπὸ τῶν ἔργων ἐκεχειρίαν, ὅθεν καὶ ἡμεῖς σχολὴν ἀπὸ τῶν πόνων κατὰ ταύτην ἄγομεν τὴν ἡμέραν προσαγορεύοντες αὐτὴν σάββατα: δηλοῖ δὲ ἀνάπαυσιν κατὰ τὴν Ἑβραίων διάλεκτον τοὔνομα. 


 

BOOK I. Containing The Interval Of Three Thousand Eight Hundred And Thirty-Three Years. — From The Creation To The Death Of Isaac.

 CHAPTER 1. The Constitution Of The World And The Disposition Of The Elements.

[I.i.27] In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. But when the earth did not come into sight, but was covered with thick darkness, and a wind moved upon its surface, God commanded that there should be light: and when that was made, he considered the whole mass, and separated the light and the darkness; and the name he gave to one was Night, and the other he called Day: and he named the beginning of light, and the time of rest, The Evening and The Morning, and this was indeed the first day. But Moses said it was one day; the cause of which I am able to give even now; but because I have promised to give such reasons for all things in a treatise by itself, I shall put off its exposition till that time. After this, on the second day, he placed the heaven over the whole world, and separated it from the other parts, and he determined it should stand by itself. He also placed a crystalline [firmament] round it, and put it together in a manner agreeable to the earth, and fitted it for giving moisture and rain, and for affording the advantage of dews. On the third day he appointed the dry land to appear, with the sea itself round about it; and on the very same day he made the plants and the seeds to spring out of the earth. On the fourth day he adorned the heaven with the sun, the moon, and the other stars, and appointed them their motions and courses, that the vicissitudes of the seasons might be clearly signified. And on the fifth day he produced the living creatures, both those that swim, and those that fly; the former in the sea, the latter in the air: he also sorted them as to society and mixture, for procreation, and that their kinds might increase and multiply. On the sixth day he created the four-footed beasts, and made them male and female: on the same day he also formed man. Accordingly Moses says, That in just six days the world, and all that is therein, was made. And that the seventh day was a rest, and a release from the labor of such operations; whence it is that we Celebrate a rest from our labors on that day, and call it the Sabbath, which word denotes rest in the Hebrew tongue.


 [I.ii.34] Post septimam uero diem coepit de hominis natura moyses reddere rationem  ita dicens: [F]inxit deus hominem puluerem de terra sumens et in eum spiritum inspirauit. et aninam. Hic autem homo Adam uocatus est: quod nomen hebraica lingua significat rubeus: quoniam consparsa rubea terra factus est. Talis est enim uirgo tellus et uero. Praefentauit autem deus ade animalia secundum genus femininum masculumque: demonserants et his nomina […] in posuit quibus etiam nunc uocantur. Videns autem deus Adam non habentem societatem ad feminam neque: cohabitationem cum utique non esset delectatus autem in aliis animalibus quae copulata uidebantur, una die eo dormiente auferens costam eius finxit ei mulierem: et Adam sibi iunctum cognouit de se fuisse plasmatam. Issa uero hebraica lingua mulier appellatur. Nomen uero mulieris illius erat eua: quod significat omnium uiuentium matrem.   [I.ii.34] Καὶ δὴ καὶ φυσιολογεῖν Μωυσῆς μετὰ τὴν ἑβδόμην ἤρξατο περὶ τῆς τἀνθρώπου κατασκευῆς λέγων οὕτως: ἔπλασεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν ἄνθρωπον χοῦν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς λαβών, καὶ πνεῦμα ἐνῆκεν αὐτῷ καὶ ψυχήν. ὁ δ᾽ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος Ἄδαμος ἐκλήθη: σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο κατὰ γλῶτταν τὴν Ἑβραίων πυρρόν, ἐπειδήπερ ἀπὸ τῆς πυρρᾶς γῆς φυραθείσης ἐγεγόνει: τοιαύτη γάρ ἐστιν ἡ παρθένος γῆ καὶ ἀληθινή. [35] παρίστησι δὲ ὁ θεὸς τῷ Ἀδάμῳ κατὰ γένη τὰ ζῷα θῆλύ τε καὶ ἄρρεν ἀποδειξάμενος καὶ τούτοις ὀνόματα τίθησιν, οἷς ἔτι καὶ νῦν καλοῦνται. βλέπων δὲ τὸν Ἄδαμον οὐκ ἔχοντα κοινωνίαν πρὸς τὸ θῆλυ καὶ συνδιαίτησιν, οὐδὲ γὰρ ἦν, ξενιζόμενον δ᾽ ἐπὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ζῴοις οὕτως ἔχουσι, μίαν αὐτοῦ κοιμωμένου πλευρὰν ἐξελὼν ἐξ αὐτῆς ἔπλασε γυναῖκα. [36] καὶ ὁ Ἄδαμος προσαχθεῖσαν αὐτὴν ἐγνώρισεν ἐξ αὑτοῦ γενομένην. ἔσσα δὲ καθ᾽ Ἑβραίων διάλεκτον καλεῖται γυνή, τὸ δ᾽ ἐκείνης ὄνομα τῆς γυναικὸς Εὔα ἦν: σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο πάντων μητέρα.   [I.ii.34] Moreover, Moses, after the seventh day was over begins to talk philosophically; and concerning the formation of man, says thus: That God took dust from the ground, and formed man, and inserted in him a spirit and a soul. This man was called Adam, which in the Hebrew tongue signifies one that is red, because he was formed out of red earth, compounded together; for of that kind is virgin and true earth. God also presented the living creatures, when he had made them, according to their kinds, both male and female, to Adam, who gave them those names by which they are still called. But when he saw that Adam had no female companion, no society, for there was no such created, and that he wondered at the other animals which were male and female, he laid him asleep, and took away one of his ribs, and out of it formed the woman; whereupon Adam knew her when she was brought to him, and acknowledged that she was made out of himself. Now a woman is called in the Hebrew tongue Issa; but the name of this woman was Eve, which signifies the mother of all living.
 [I.iii.37] Dicit autem etiam deum  ad orientem plantasse paradisum: omni germinationem florentem. In hoc enim esse et uitae plantationem et alia [niq:] quae  prudentiae [qua] cognosceretur quid esset bonum quidue malum. Et in hunc hortum introduxisse adam and eius uxorem, praecipiens[tem] plantationum eos habere sollicitudinem. Ro[i]gatur autem hic ortus ab uno flumine, circa omnem terram undique: profluente. Hic in quattuor diuiditur partes, et fison quidem nomen est uni, quod inundationem significat. Eductus in indiam in pelagolate diffunditur qui geta nuncu patur a grecis [2v] Eu frates autem et tygris in mare rubrum feruntur. Vocatur autem eufrates quidem foras quod significat dispersionem seu flos. Tygris autem diglath quod indicat acutum aliquid & angustum. Geon autem per aegyptum fluens ostensdit eum qui nobis ab oriente redditur quem greci appellant nilum.  

 [I.iii.37] Φησὶ δὲ τὸν θεὸν καὶ παράδεισον πρὸς τὴν ἀνατολὴν καταφυτεῦσαι παντοίῳ τεθηλότα φυτῷ: ἐν τούτοις δ᾽ εἶναι καὶ τῆς ζωῆς τὸ φυτὸν καὶ ἄλλο τὸ τῆς φρονήσεως, ᾗ διεγινώσκετο τί εἴη τὸ ἀγαθὸν καὶ τί τὸ κακόν. [38] εἰς τοῦτον δὲ τὸν κῆπον εἰσαγαγόντα τόν τε Ἄδαμον καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα κελεῦσαι τῶν φυτῶν ἐπιμελεῖσθαι. ἄρδεται δ᾽ οὗτος ὁ κῆπος ὑπὸ ἑνὸς ποταμοῦ πᾶσαν ἐν κύκλῳ τὴν γῆν περιρρέοντος, ὃς εἰς τέσσαρα μέρη σχίζεται. καὶ Φεισὼν μέν, σημαίνει δὲ πληθὺν τοὔνομα, ἐπὶ τὴν Ἰνδικὴν φερόμενος ἐκδίδωσιν εἰς τὸ πέλαγος ὑφ᾽ Ἑλλήνων Γάγγης λεγόμενος, [39] Εὐφράτης δὲ καὶ Τίγρις ἐπὶ τὴν Ἐρυθρὰν ἀπίασι θάλασσαν: καλεῖται δὲ ὁ μὲν Εὐφράτης Φοράς, σημαίνει δὲ ἤτοι σκεδασμὸν ἢ ἄνθος, Τίγρις δὲ Διγλάθ, ἐξ οὗ φράζεται τὸ μετὰ στενότητος ὀξύ: Γηὼν δὲ διὰ τῆς Αἰγύπτου ῥέων δηλοῖ τὸν ἀπὸ τῆς ἐναντίας ἀναδιδόμενον ἡμῖν, ὃν δὴ Νεῖλον Ἕλληνες προσαγορεύουσιν.   [I.iii.37] Moses says further, that God planted a paradise in the east, flourishing with all sorts of trees; and that among them was the tree of life, and another of knowledge, whereby was to be known what was good and evil; and that when he brought Adam and his wife into this garden, he commanded them to take care of the plants. Now the garden was watered by one river, which ran round about the whole earth, and was parted into four parts. And Phison, which denotes a multitude, running into India, makes its exit into the sea, and is by the Greeks called Ganges. Euphrates also, as well as Tigris, goes down into the Red Sea. Now the name Euphrates, or Phrath, denotes either a dispersion, or a flower: by Tiris, or Diglath, is signified what is swift, with narrowness; and Geon runs through Egypt, and denotes what arises from the east, which the Greeks call Nile.
 [I.iv.40] Deius igitur Adam et mulierem ex aliis quidem plantationibus gustare praecepit, de prudentiae uero plantatione uoluit abstinere; praedicens contigentibus ex ea, perditionem esse uenturam. Et dum illo tempore cuncta animalia concordarent, serpens cohabitans cum Adam atque muliere, inuidiam habuit, in quibus eos arbitrabatur esse felices obedientes utique dei praeceptis dei. Quos putans per inobedientiam calamitati succumbere: persuasit mala uoluntati mulieri, ut de prudentiae plantatione gustaret dicens in ea esse boni malique cognitionem quo facto beata in eis uitam. Et cui nihil diuine cogn[nueur] monis [sat..is] de esse diebat accedere. Et se duxit quidem mulierem ut dei mandata contemnerer. Quae cum exilla plantatione gustasset et epulatione gauderet, etiam adę ut vesceretur ex inde per sua sit, quo facto cognouerunt semetipsos esse nudos, confusionemque manifestam habentes, tegumentum sibimet requirebant. Illa namque plantatio causa acuminis erat et intellectus. Foliis ergo fici semetipsos operuerunt et haec genita libus opponentes, uidebantur sibi magis esse felices in his, quae prius se putabant difficilius inuenire. Deo autem in horto [-um] ueniente, Adam e quidem prius ne ad eius ueniret alloquium, conscius iniquitatis suae discessit. Deus autem intendendebat quod egerat et causam requirebat, propter quam prius [eius] delectaretur alloquio postea uero refugeret atque confunderetur. Illo uero nihil loquente: eo quod se cognouerit dei transgressum fuisse madatum. Deus ait: Mihi quidem notum de uobis est, quem ad modum felicem uitam, et extra malorum omnium passionem habueritis, nulla sollicitudine aniimum animum uestrum conturbante, cum uobis sponte ad fruendum et ad uoluptatis abundantiam orirentur uniuersa, me prouidente uirentia sine uestro labore atque miseria. Sed nunc malis praesentibus senectus uelox uobis ad ueniet et non longa uita succedet, quando quoniam mihi contumeliam tali uoluntate fecisti[s] mea mandata praeuaricando. Neque enim uirtutis causa taciturnitate constringeris, sed mala conscientia retineris. Adam uero peccati ueniam postulabat rogabatque deum ne eum nimis affligeret: et de facto coniugem accusabat, dicens se ab ea seductum reliquisse. Quae rursus de serpente quae eam seduxerat, querebatur. Deus autem Adam uictum consilio mulieris, poene subiecit praecipiens terrae ne quicquam eis sponte proferret, sed laborantibus et operatione contritis alia [quidem] frugum redderet alia [de] negaret. Euam uero partum et conceptionum doloribus castigauit quoniam <quando> adam in quibus ipsa fuerat a serpente decepta seducens calamitatibus implicauit. Abstulit autem et serpenti uoce, iratus eius [deus] malignitati quam gesserat in Adam et uenenum ei sub lingua ponens, quo[d] esset hominibus inimicum, praecepitque: ut mulier eius capiti plagas inferret, ille uero iacens, hominib<us> esset aduersus, et interitum facilem eis pro uindicta portaret, quem pedibus priuabit ut uolutatusin puluere traheretur. Et deus igitur [quidem] haec pati eos  praecipiens transmigrauit adam & euam ex horto in aliam regionem.   [I.iv.40] Ὁ δὴ τοίνυν θεὸς τὸν Ἄδαμον καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα τῶν μὲν ἄλλων φυτῶν ἐκέλευε γεύεσθαι, τοῦ δὲ τῆς φρονήσεως ἀπέχεσθαι, προειπὼν ἁψαμένοις ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ ὄλεθρον γενησόμενον. [41] ὁμοφωνούντων δὲ κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνο καιροῦ τῶν ζῴων ἁπάντων ὄφις συνδιαιτώμενος τῷ τε Ἀδάμῳ καὶ τῇ γυναικὶ φθονερῶς μὲν εἶχεν ἐφ᾽ οἷς αὐτοὺς εὐδαιμονήσειν ᾤετο πεπεισμένους τοῖς τοῦ θεοῦ παραγγέλμασιν, [42] οἰόμενος δὲ συμφορᾷ περιπεσεῖσθαι παρακούσαντας ἀναπείθει κακοήθως τὴν γυναῖκα γεύσασθαι τοῦ φυτοῦ τῆς φρονήσεως ἐν αὐτῷ λέγων εἶναι τήν τε τἀγαθοῦ καὶ τοῦ κακοῦ διάγνωσιν, ἧς γενομένης αὐτοῖς μακάριον καὶ μηδὲν ἀπολείποντα τοῦ θείου διάξειν βίον. [43] καὶ παρακρούεται μὲν οὕτω τὴν γυναῖκα τῆς ἐντολῆς τοῦ θεοῦ καταφρονῆσαι: γευσαμένη δὲ τοῦ φυτοῦ καὶ ἡσθεῖσα τῷ ἐδέσματι καὶ τὸν Ἄδαμον ἀνέπεισεν αὐτῷ χρήσασθαι. [44] καὶ συνίεσάν τε αὑτῶν ἤδη γεγυμνωμένων καὶ τὴν αἰσχύνην ὕπαιθρον ἔχοντες σκέπην αὑτοῖς ἐπενόουν: τὸ γὰρ φυτὸν ὀξύτητος καὶ διανοίας ὑπῆρχε. φύλλοις οὖν ἑαυτοὺς συκῆς ἐσκέπασαν καὶ ταῦτα πρὸ τῆς αἰδοῦς προβαλόμενοι μᾶλλον ἐδόκουν εὐδαιμονεῖν ὡς ὧν πρότερον ἐσπάνιζον εὑρόντες. [45] τοῦ θεοῦ δ᾽ εἰς τὸν κῆπον ἐλθόντος ὁ μὲν Ἄδαμος πρότερον εἰς ὁμιλίαν αὐτῷ φοιτῶν συνειδὼς αὑτῷ τὴν ἀδικίαν ὑπεχώρει, τὸν δὲ θεὸν ἐξένιζε τὸ πραττόμενον καὶ τὴν αἰτίαν ἐπυνθάνετο, δι᾽ ἣν πρότερον ἡδόμενος τῇ πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁμιλίᾳ νῦν φεύγει ταύτην καὶ περιίσταται. [46] τοῦ δὲ μηδὲν φθεγγομένου διὰ τὸ συγγινώσκειν ἑαυτῷ παραβάντι τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ πρόσταξιν ‘ἀλλ᾽ ἐμοὶ μέν, εἶπεν ὁ θεός, ἔγνωστο περὶ ὑμῶν, ὅπως βίον εὐδαίμονα καὶ κακοῦ παντὸς ἀπαθῆ βιώσετε μηδεμιᾷ ξαινόμενοι τὴν ψυχὴν φροντίδι, πάντων δ᾽ ὑμῖν αὐτομάτων ὅσα πρὸς ἀπόλαυσιν καὶ ἡδονὴν συντελεῖ κατὰ τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνιόντων πρόνοιαν χωρὶς ὑμετέρου πόνου καὶ ταλαιπωρίας, ὧν παρόντων γῆράς τε θᾶττον οὐκ ἂν ἐπέλθοι καὶ τὸ ζῆν ὑμῖν μακρὸν γένοιτο. [47] νῦν δ᾽ εἰς ταύτην μου τὴν γνώμην ἐνύβρισας παρακούσας τῶν ἐμῶν ἐντολῶν: οὐ γὰρ ἐπ᾽ ἀρετῇ τὴν σιωπὴν ἄγεις, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ συνειδότι πονηρῷ.’ [48] Ἄδαμος δὲ παρῃτεῖτο τῆς ἁμαρτίας αὑτὸν καὶ παρεκάλει τὸν θεὸν μὴ χαλεπαίνειν αὐτῷ τὴν γυναῖκα τοῦ γεγονότος αἰτιώμενος καὶ λέγων ὑπ᾽ αὐτῆς ἐξαπατηθεὶς ἁμαρτεῖν, ἡ δ᾽ αὖ κατηγόρει τοῦ ὄφεως. [49] ὁ δὲ θεὸς ἥττονα γυναικείας συμβουλίας αὐτὸν γενόμενον ὑπετίθει τιμωρίᾳ, τὴν γῆν οὐκέτι μὲν οὐδὲν αὐτοῖς ἀναδώσειν αὐτομάτως εἰπών, πονοῦσι δὲ καὶ τοῖς ἔργοις τριβομένοις τὰ μὲν παρέξειν, τῶν δ᾽ οὐκ ἀξιώσειν. Εὔαν δὲ τοκετοῖς καὶ ταῖς ἐξ ὠδίνων ἀλγηδόσιν ἐκόλαζεν, ὅτι τὸν Ἄδαμον οἷς αὐτὴν ὁ ὄφις ἐξηπάτησε τούτοις παρακρουσαμένη συμφοραῖς περιέβαλεν. [50] ἀφείλετο δὲ καὶ τὸν ὄφιν τὴν φωνὴν ὀργισθεὶς ἐπὶ τῇ κακοηθείᾳ τῇ πρὸς τὸν Ἄδαμον καὶ ἰὸν ἐντίθησιν ὑπὸ τὴν γλῶτταν αὐτῷ πολέμιον ἀποδείξας ἀνθρώποις καὶ ὑποθέμενος κατὰ τῆς κεφαλῆς φέρειν τὰς πληγάς, ὡς ἐν ἐκείνῃ τοῦ τε κακοῦ τοῦ πρὸς ἀνθρώπους κειμένου καὶ τῆς τελευτῆς ῥᾴστης τοῖς ἀμυνομένοις ἐσομένης, ποδῶν τε αὐτὸν ἀποστερήσας σύρεσθαι κατὰ τῆς γῆς ἰλυσπώμενον ἐποίησε. [51] καὶ ὁ μὲν θεὸς ταῦτα προστάξας αὐτοῖς πάσχειν μετοικίζει τὸν Ἄδαμον καὶ τὴν Εὔαν ἐκ τοῦ κήπου εἰς ἕτερον χωρίον.   [I.iv.40] God therefore commanded that Adam and his wife should eat of all the rest of the plants, but to abstain from the tree of knowledge; and foretold to them, that if they touched it, it would prove their destruction. But while all the living creatures had one language,  at that time the serpent, which then lived together with Adam and his wife, shewed an envious disposition, at his supposal of their living happily, and in obedience to the commands of God; and imagining, that when they disobeyed them, they would fall into calamities, he persuaded the woman, out of a malicious intention, to taste of the tree of knowledge, telling them, that in that tree was the knowledge of good and evil; which knowledge, when they should obtain, they would lead a happy life; nay, a life not inferior to that of a god: by which means he overcame the woman, and persuaded her to despise the command of God. Now when she had tasted of that tree, and was pleased with its fruit, she persuaded Adam to make use of it also. Upon this they perceived that they were become naked to one another; and being ashamed thus to appear abroad, they invented somewhat to cover them; for the tree sharpened their understanding; and they covered themselves with fig-leaves; and tying these before them, out of modesty, they thought they were happier than they were before, as they had discovered what they were in want of. But when God came into the garden, Adam, who was wont before to come and converse with him, being conscious of his wicked behavior, went out of the way. This behavior surprised God; and he asked what was the cause of this his procedure; and why he, that before delighted in that conversation, did now fly from it, and avoid it. When he made no reply, as conscious to himself that he had transgressed the command of God, God said, "I had before determined about you both, how you might lead a happy life, without any affliction, and care, and vexation of soul; and that all things which might contribute to your enjoyment and pleasure should grow up by my providence, of their own accord, without your own labor and pains-taking; which state of labor and pains-taking would soon bring on old age, and death would not be at any remote distance: but now thou hast abused this my good-will, and hast disobeyed my commands; for thy silence is not the sign of thy virtue, but of thy evil conscience." However, Adam excused his sin, and entreated God not to be angry at him, and laid the blame of what was done upon his wife; and said that he was deceived by her, and thence became an offender; while she again accused the serpent. But God allotted him punishment, because he weakly submitted to the counsel of his wife; and said the ground should not henceforth yield its fruits of its own accord, but that when it should be harassed by their labor, it should bring forth some of its fruits, and refuse to bring forth others. He also made Eve liable to the inconveniency of breeding, and the sharp pains of bringing forth children; and this because she persuaded Adam with the same arguments wherewith the serpent had persuaded her, and had thereby brought him into a calamitous condition. He also deprived the serpent of speech, out of indignation at his malicious disposition towards Adam. Besides this, he inserted poison under his tongue, and made him an enemy to men; and suggested to them, that they should direct their strokes against his head, that being the place wherein lay his mischievous designs towards men, and it being easiest to take vengeance on him, that way. And when he had deprived him of the use of his feet, he made him to go rolling all along, and dragging himself upon the ground. And when God had appointed these penalties for them, he removed Adam and Eve out of the garden into another place.



[II.i.52] Nati sunt autem eis filii duo masculi: quorum unus quidem prior, appellabatur cain, quod nomen interpraetum significat possessionem. Abel autem secundus, quod significat nihil hoc. Quibus natae sunt etiam filiae. Germani siquidem diuersis studiis luctabantur: Abel  quidem iunior iustitiam colebat, et in omnibus quaecumque gerebat, deum putabat esse[t] praesentem, uirtutique: prospiciebat cuius eras conuersatio pastoralis. Cain autem erat quidem circa alia malignissimus et ad lucra tantum modo semper intentus. Terram uero primus arare comperit et fratrem huiusmodi causa peremit. Nam cum eis placuisset deo sacrificare, cain quidem de culturae gerrminationibus  obtulerat fructum. abel autem lac et primogenita gregrum. Dei enim hoc potius sacrificio delectatus est. Quod spotaneis et naturaliter ortis frugibus fuerat honoratus: et non in illis quae ex inuentioe hominis avarem nata [3r] uidebatur. Quapropter cain indignatus eo quod abel fuisset a deo praepositus, fratrem interemit. Quem cum necasset et mortuum occultasse, credidit latere comissum. Deus autem sciens quod erat factum uenit ad Cain de fratre requirens ubi esset, quia[-od] eum diebus plurimus non uideret dum caetero tempore illum cum eo conuersari respiceret. Cain autem h
ęsitans nec habens quod deo potuisset e dicere, ipse quoque: seprius quod fratrem non uideret cogitare dicebat. Et cum deus vehementer instaret atque perfeueraret [eru....r], indignatus ille non se esse pedagogum atqe [nisi]: custodem eius, nec actuum fratris affatus est.Deus uero repente cain increpauit interemptorem fratris effectum et ait: Admiror si de fratre nescis dicere quid factum sit, quem ipse peremesti. Cui tamen sacrificium celebranti atque poscenti, ne ob hoc iram susciperet, faeuiovrem poenam homicidis relaxeauit, maledictumque esse constituit, et eius sobolem usque ad generationem septimam interminatus est esse puniendam. Et ex illa terra eum cum uxore proiecit quo formidante, ne bestiis capiendus incideret et eo modo periret, iussit ut nihil triste de tali cogitatione metueret, neque: ei propterea malum quicquam per bestias eueniret, ac per omnem terram eum sine formidine signo et posito quo notus fieret abire praecepit. 



[II.i.52] Γίνονται δὲ αὐτοῖς παῖδες ἄρρενες δύο: προσηγορεύετο δὲ αὐτῶν ὁ μὲν πρῶτος Κάις, κτίσιν δὲ σημαίνει τοῦτο μεθερμηνευόμενον τοὔνομα, Ἄβελος δὲ ὁ δεύτερος, σημαίνει δὲ οὐθὲν τοῦτο: [53] γίνονται δὲ αὐτοῖς καὶ θυγατέρες. οἱ μὲν οὖν ἀδελφοὶ διαφόροις ἔχαιρον ἐπιτηδεύμασιν: Ἄβελος μὲν γὰρ ὁ νεώτερος δικαιοσύνης ἐπεμελεῖτο καὶ πᾶσι τοῖς ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ πραττομένοις παρεῖναι τὸν θεὸν νομίζων ἀρετῆς προενόει, ποιμενικὸς δ᾽ ἦν ὁ βίος αὐτῷ: Κάις δὲ τά τε ἄλλα πονηρότατος ἦν καὶ πρὸς τὸ κερδαίνειν μόνον ἀποβλέπων γῆν τε ἀροῦν ἐπενόησε πρῶτος καὶ κτείνει δὲ τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἐκ τοιαύτης αἰτίας: [54] θῦσαι τῷ θεῷ δόξαν αὐτοῖς ὁ μὲν Κάις τοὺς ἀπὸ τῆς γεωργίας καὶ φυτῶν καρποὺς ἐπήνεγκεν, Ἄβελος δὲ γάλα καὶ τὰ πρωτότοκα τῶν βοσκημάτων. ὁ δὲ θεὸς ταύτῃ μᾶλλον ἥδεται τῇ θυσίᾳ τοῖς αὐτομάτοις καὶ κατὰ φύσιν γεγονόσι τιμώμενος, ἀλλ᾽ οὐχὶ τοῖς κατ᾽ ἐπίνοιαν ἀνθρώπου πλεονέκτου βίᾳ πεφυκόσιν. [55] ἔνθεν ὁ Κάις παροξυνθεὶς ἐπὶ τῷ προτετιμῆσθαι τὸν Ἄβελον ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ κτείνει τὸν ἀδελφὸν καὶ τὸν νεκρὸν αὐτοῦ ποιήσας ἀφανῆ λήσειν ὑπέλαβεν. ὁ δὲ θεὸς συνεὶς τὸ ἔργον ἧκε πρὸς τὸν Κάιν περὶ τἀδελφοῦ πυνθανόμενος, ποῖ ποτ᾽ εἴη: πολλῶν γὰρ αὐτὸν οὐκ ἰδεῖν ἡμερῶν τὸν ἄλλον χρόνον πάντα μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ βλέπων αὐτὸν ἀναστρεφόμενον. [56] ὁ δὲ Κάις ἀπορούμενος καὶ οὐκ ἔχων ὅ τι λέγοι πρὸς τὸν θεὸν ἀμηχανεῖν μὲν καὶ αὐτὸς ἔφασκε τὸ πρῶτον ἐπὶ τἀδελφῷ μὴ βλεπομένῳ, παροξυνθεὶς δὲ τοῦ θεοῦ λιπαρῶς ἐγκειμένου καὶ πολυπραγμονοῦντος οὐκ εἶναι παιδαγωγὸς καὶ φύλαξ αὐτοῦ καὶ τῶν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ πραττομένων ἔλεγεν. [57] ὁ δὲ θεὸς τοὐντεῦθεν ἤλεγχεν ἤδη τὸν Κάιν φονέα τἀδελφοῦ γενόμενον καί ‘θαυμάζω, φησίν, εἰ περὶ ἀνδρὸς ἀγνοεῖς εἰπεῖν τί γέγονεν, ὃν αὐτὸς ἀπολώλεκας.’ [58] τῆς μὲν οὖν ἐπὶ τῷ φόνῳ τιμωρίας αὐτὸν ἠφίει θυσίαν ἐπιτελέσαντα καὶ δι᾽ αὐτῆς ἱκετεύσαντα μὴ λαβεῖν ὀργὴν αὐτῷ χαλεπωτέραν, ἐπάρατον δ᾽ αὐτὸν ἐτίθει καὶ τοὺς ἐγγόνους αὐτοῦ τιμωρήσεσθαι κατὰ τὴν ἑβδόμην ἠπείλησε γενεάν, καὶ τῆς γῆς αὐτὸν ἐκείνης ἐκβάλλει σὺν τῇ γυναικί. [59] τοῦ δὲ μὴ θηρίοις ἀλώμενος περιπέσῃ δεδιότος καὶ τοῦτον ἀπόληται τὸν τρόπον, ἐκέλευε μηδὲν ὑφορᾶσθαι σκυθρωπὸν ἀπὸ τοιαύτης αἰτίας, ἀλλ᾽ ἕνεκα τοῦ μηδὲν αὐτῷ ἐκ θηρίων γενέσθαι δεινὸν διὰ πάσης ἀδεῶς χωρεῖν γῆς: καὶ σημεῖον ἐπιβαλών, ᾧ γνώριμος ἂν εἴη, προσέταξεν ἀπιέναι. 
 CHAPTER 2. Concerning The Posterity Of Adam, And The Ten Generations From Him To The Deluge.

[II.i.52] Adam and Eve had two sons: the elder of them was named Cain; which name, when it is interpreted, signifies a possession: the younger was Abel, which signifies sorrow. They had also daughters. Now the two brethren were pleased with different courses of life: for Abel, the younger, was a lover of righteousness; and believing that God was present at all his actions, he excelled in virtue; and his employment was that of a shepherd. But Cain was not only very wicked in other respects, but was wholly intent upon getting; and he first contrived to plough the ground. He slew his brother on the occasion following:—They had resolved to sacrifice to God. Now Cain brought the fruits of the earth, and of his husbandry; but Abel brought milk, and the first-fruits of his flocks: but God was more delighted with the latter oblation, when he was honored with what grew naturally of its own accord, than he was with what was the invention of a covetous man, and gotten by forcing the ground; whence it was that Cain was very angry that Abel was preferred by God before him; and he slew his brother, and hid his dead body, thinking to escape discovery. But God, knowing what had been done, came to Cain, and asked him what was become of his brother, because he had not seen him of many days; whereas he used to observe them conversing together at other times. But Cain was in doubt with himself, and knew not what answer to give to God. At first he said that he was himself at a loss about his brother's disappearing; but when he was provoked by God, who pressed him vehemently, as resolving to know what the matter was, he replied, he was not his brother's guardian or keeper, nor was he an observer of what he did. But, in return, God convicted Cain, as having been the murderer of his brother; and said, "I wonder at thee, that thou knowest not what is become of a man whom thou thyself hast destroyed." God therefore did not inflict the punishment [of death] upon him, on account of his offering sacrifice, and thereby making supplication to him not to be extreme in his wrath to him; but he made him accursed, and threatened his posterity in the seventh generation. He also cast him, together with his wife, out of that land. And when he was afraid that in wandering about he should fall among Wild beasts, and by that means perish, God bid him not to entertain such a melancholy suspicion, and to go over all the earth without fear of what mischief he might suffer from wild beasts; and setting a mark upon him, that he might be known, he commanded him to depart.

 [II.ii.60] Multam uero peragrans terram cum sua uxore cain conlocatus in loco qui naida nuncupatur, ibique: moratus est, qui[o] ei etiam filiis nati sunt. At uero poenam illam non habuit pro emendatione sed cremento mali libidine suo potius nutriuit in corpore, licet cum iniuria secum comorantium hanc haberet. Augens domum multitudine pecaniarum ex rapinis et uiolentia congestarum. Ad luxo[v]riam quoque et latrociniam suos familiares inuitans, quorum doctor in scelestis studiis erat. Et simplicatem quidem, cum qua prius uiuebant homines,et  adinuentionem mensurarum et ponderum permutauit, integramque eorum uitam ex earum rerum ignorantia atque manganime ad callidatem corruptionemque perduxit. Terminos terrae primus posuit ciuitate itaque consueuit murisque muniuit illicque suos coegit couenire domesticos. Hanc uero ciuitatem ab enoch seniore filio suo seniore enocham appellauit. Enoch uero iarath filius fuit, ex quo maruel cuius fuit filius matusalas qui habuit filium lamech: cui fuerut filii septem, et septuaginta ex duobus uxoribus eius nati sella et ada, horum quidem iobal quidem qui fuit quidem de ada tabernacula fixit et greges amauit, iobel autem cosanguineus eius existens, musicam coluit et psalterium citharamque laudauit. Iobel autem qui ex altera natus est fortitudine cunctos excellens, res bellicas decenter exercuit. Ex his etiam quae ad libidinem adtinent corporis enutriuit, ferrariam artem primus inuenit. Habuit nomine filiam naaman. Et quoniam res diuinas sapienter sciens, uidebat se subiacere poenę cain ob nece fatris, hoc suis uxoribus indicauit. Adhuc autem uiuente adam, contigit cain sobolem per successionem esse nequissimam, et alium alio peiorem existere qui utique ad bella incontinentes erant et ad latrocinia properabat. Siquis autem eorum segnis esset ad fundendum sanguinem, aliis rebus pessimis imminebat, costumeliam faciens et auarus existens.   [II.ii.60] Πολλὴν δ᾽ ἐπελθὼν γῆν ἱδρύεται μετὰ τῆς γυναικὸς Κάις Ναΐδα τόπον οὕτω καλούμενον καὶ αὐτόθι ποιεῖται τὴν κατοίκησιν, ἔνθ᾽ αὐτῷ καὶ παῖδες ἐγένοντο: οὐκ ἐπὶ νουθεσίᾳ δὲ τὴν κόλασιν ἔλαβεν, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπ᾽ αὐξήσει τῆς κακίας, ἡδονὴν μὲν πᾶσαν ἐκπορίζων αὐτοῦ τῷ σώματι, κἂν μεθ᾽ ὕβρεως τῶν συνόντων δέῃ ταύτην ἔχειν: [61] αὔξων δὲ τὸν οἶκον πλήθει χρημάτων ἐξ ἁρπαγῆς καὶ βίας πρὸς ἡδονὴν καὶ λῃστείαν τοὺς ἐντυγχάνοντας παρακαλῶν διδάσκαλος αὐτοῖς ὑπῆρχε πονηρῶν ἐπιτηδευμάτων, καὶ τὴν ἀπραγμοσύνην, ᾗ πρότερον συνέζων οἱ ἄνθρωποι, μέτρων ἐπινοίᾳ καὶ σταθμῶν μετεστήσατο ἀκέραιον αὐτοῖς ὄντα τὸν βίον ἐκ τῆς τούτων ἀμαθίας καὶ μεγαλόψυχον εἰς πανουργίαν περιαγαγών, [62] ὅρους τε γῆς πρῶτος ἔθετο καὶ πόλιν ἐδείματο καὶ τείχεσιν ὠχύρωσεν εἰς ταὐτὸν συνελθεῖν τοὺς οἰκείους καταναγκάσας. καὶ τὴν πόλιν δὲ ταύτην ἀπὸ Ἀνώχου τοῦ πρεσβυτάτου παιδὸς Ἄνωχαν ἐκάλεσεν. [63] Ἀνώχου δὲ Ἰαράδης υἱὸς ἦν, ἐκ δὲ τούτου Μαρουῆλος, οὗ γίνεται παῖς Μαθουσάλας, τοῦ δὲ Λάμεχος, ᾧ παῖδες ὑπῆρξαν ἑπτὰ καὶ ἑβδομήκοντα ἐκ δύο γυναικῶν αὐτῷ φύντες Σελλᾶς καὶ Ἄδας. [64] τούτων Ἰώβηλος μὲν ἐξ Ἄδας γεγονὼς σκηνὰς ἐπήξατο καὶ προβατείαν ἠγάπησεν, Ἰούβαλος δέ, ὁμομήτριος δ᾽ ἦν αὐτῷ, μουσικὴν ἤσκησε καὶ ψαλτήρια καὶ κιθάρας ἐπενόησεν, Ἰουβῆλος δὲ τῶν ἐκ τῆς ἑτέρας γεγονότων ἰσχύι πάντας ὑπερβαλὼν τὰ πολεμικὰ διαπρεπῶς μετῆλθεν ἐκ τούτων καὶ τὰ πρὸς ἡδονὴν τοῦ σώματος ἐκπορίζων, χαλκείαν τε πρῶτος ἐπενόησεν. [65] πατὴρ δὲ θυγατρὸς γενόμενος ὁ Λάμεχος Νοεμᾶς ὄνομα, ἐπεὶ τὰ θεῖα σαφῶς ἐξεπιστάμενος ἑώρα δίκην αὑτὸν ὑφέξοντα τῆς Κάιος ἀδελφοκτονίας μείζονα, τοῦτο ταῖς ἑαυτοῦ γυναιξὶν ἐποίησε φανερόν. [66] ἔτι δὲ ζῶντος Ἀδάμου Κάιος τοὺς ἐγγόνους πονηροτάτους συνέβη γενέσθαι κατὰ διαδοχὴν καὶ μίμησιν ἄλλον ἄλλου χείρονα τελευτῶντα: πρός τε γὰρ πολέμους εἶχον ἀκρατῶς καὶ πρὸς λῃστείαν ὡρμήκεσαν, ἄλλος δ᾽ εἴ τις ὀκνηρὸς ἦν πρὸς τὸ φονεύειν, ἄλλην ἀπόνοιαν ἦν θράσους ὑβρίζων καὶ πλεονεκτῶν.   [II.ii.60] And when Cain had traveled over many countries, he, with his wife, built a city, named Nod, which is a place so called, and there he settled his abode; where also he had children. However, he did not accept of his punishment in order to amendment, but to increase his wickedness; for he only aimed to procure every thing that was for his own bodily pleasure, though it obliged him to be injurious to his neighbors. He augmented his household substance with much wealth, by rapine and violence; he excited his acquaintance to procure pleasures and spoils by robbery, and became a great leader of men into wicked courses. He also introduced a change in that way of simplicity wherein men lived before; and was the author of measures and weights. And whereas they lived innocently and generously while they knew nothing of such arts, he changed the world into cunning craftiness. He first of all set boundaries about lands: he built a city, and fortified it with walls, and he compelled his family to come together to it; and called that city Enoch, after the name of his eldest son Enoch. Now Jared was the son of Enoch; whose son was Malaliel; whose son was Mathusela; whose son was Lamech; who had seventy-seven children by two wives, Silla and Ada. Of those children by Ada, one was Jabal: he erected tents, and loved the life of a shepherd. But Jubal, who was born of the same mother with him, exercised himself in music; and invented the psaltery and the harp. But Tubal, one of his children by the other wife, exceeded all men in strength, and was very expert and famous in martial performances. He procured what tended to the pleasures of the body by that method; and first of all invented the art of making brass. Lamech was also the father of a daughter, whose name was Naamah. And because he was so skillful in matters of divine revelation, that he knew he was to be punished for Cain's murder of his brother, he made that known to his wives. Nay, even while Adam was alive, it came to pass that the posterity of Cain became exceeding wicked, every one successively dying, one after another, more wicked than the former. They were intolerable in war, and vehement in robberies; and if any one were slow to murder people, yet was he bold in his profligate behavior, in acting unjustly, and doing injuries for gain.
 [II.iii.67] Adam uero qui primus de terra factus est et de quo nos exigit ratio adhuc habere sermonem, abel quidem extincto; cain autem propter necem illius effugato, de filiorum procreatione cogitabat et uehementer eu generationis amor habebat, agentem annos ducentos et tinginta, super quos alteris uiuens septingentis defunctus est., fuerunt ergo ei et aliis filii plurimi, inter quos etiam seth. Sed de aliis quidem longum est dicere, conabor autem de seth narrare tantum modo. Is namque nutritus et perueniens ad ętate, quae etiam posset ea quae sunt bona discernere, uirtuti studuit. Et cum fuisset uir egregius, imitatores e[s]ui filios dereliquit. Illi autem <omnes> cum boni suissent orti, in eadem terra sine aliqua uexatioe uiuentes, felicissime commorati sunt. Nihil que eis usque ad uitae terminum crudele prouenit. Disciplinam uero rerum caelestium et ornatum eorum primitus inuenerunt et ne dilaberemur ab hominibus quae ab eis inuenta uidebantur, aut antequam uenirent ad cognitionem deperirent cum praedixis sent Adam exterminationem serum omnium unamginis uirtute, alteram uero aquarum ur ac multitudine fore uenturam duas facientes columnas, aliam quidem ex lateribus aliam uero ex lapidibus alem ambabus quae [3v] inuenerant conscripserunt, ut et si constructa lateribus exterminaretur ab imbribus, laipdea permanens praeberet in omnibus scripta congoscere. Simul et quia lateralem aliam posuissent, quae tamen laipdea per manet. Actenus in terra syrida.   [II.iii.67]  Ἄδαμος δὲ ὁ πρῶτος ἐκ γῆς γενόμενος, ἀπαιτεῖ γὰρ ἡ διήγησις τὸν περὶ αὐτοῦ λόγον, Ἀβέλου μὲν ἐσφαγμένου, Κάιος δὲ διὰ τὸν ἐκείνου φόνον πεφευγότος, παιδοποιίας ἐφρόντιζε, καὶ δεινὸς εἶχεν αὐτὸν γενέσεως ἔρως ἔτη τριάκοντ᾽ ἤδη καὶ διακόσια ἠνυκότα τοῦ βίου, πρὸς οἷς ἕτερα ζήσας ἑπτακόσια τελευτᾷ. [68] γίνονται μὲν οὖν αὐτῷ παῖδες ἄλλοι τε πλείους καὶ Σῆθος: ἀλλὰ περὶ μὲν τῶν ἄλλων μακρὸν ἂν εἴη λέγειν, πειράσομαι δὲ μόνα τὰ τῶν ἀπὸ Σήθου διελθεῖν: τραφεὶς γὰρ οὗτος καὶ παρελθὼν εἰς ἡλικίαν ἤδη καλὰ κρίνειν δυναμένην καὶ γενόμενος αὐτὸς ἄριστος μιμητὰς τῶν αὐτῶν τοὺς ἀπογόνους κατέλιπεν. [69] οἱ δὲ πάντες ἀγαθοὶ φύντες γῆν τε τὴν αὐτὴν ἀστασίαστοι κατῴκησαν εὐδαιμονήσαντες μηδενὸς αὐτοῖς ἄχρι καὶ τελευτῆς δυσκόλου προσπεσόντος, σοφίαν τε τὴν περὶ τὰ οὐράνια καὶ τὴν τούτων διακόσμησιν ἐπενόησαν. [70] ὑπὲρ δὲ τοῦ μὴ διαφυγεῖν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τὰ ηὑρημένα μηδὲ πρὶν εἰς γνῶσιν ἐλθεῖν φθαρῆναι, προειρηκότος ἀφανισμὸν Ἀδάμου τῶν ὅλων ἔσεσθαι τὸν μὲν κατ᾽ ἰσχὺν πυρὸς τὸν ἕτερον δὲ κατὰ βίαν καὶ πλῆθος ὕδατος, στήλας δύο ποιησάμενοι τὴν μὲν ἐκ πλίνθου τὴν ἑτέραν δὲ ἐκ λίθων ἀμφοτέραις ἐνέγραψαν τὰ εὑρημένα, [71] ἵνα καὶ τῆς πλινθίνης ἀφανισθείσης ὑπὸ τῆς ἐπομβρίας ἡ λιθίνη μείνασα παράσχῃ μαθεῖν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τὰ ἐγγεγραμμένα δηλοῦσα καὶ πλινθίνην ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν ἀνατεθῆναι. μένει δ᾽ ἄχρι δεῦρο κατὰ γῆν τὴν Σειρίδα.   [II.iii.67] Now Adam, who was the first man, and made out of the earth, [for our discourse must now be about him,] after Abel was slain, and Cain fled away, on account of his murder, was solicitous for posterity, and had a vehement desire of children, he being two hundred and thirty years old; after which time he lived other seven hundred, and then died. He had indeed many other children, but Seth in particular. As for the rest, it would be tedious to name them; I will therefore only endeavor to give an account of those that proceeded from Seth. Now this Seth, when he was brought up, and came to those years in which he could discern what was good, became a virtuous man; and as he was himself of an excellent character, so did he leave children behind him who imitated his virtues. All these proved to be of good dispositions. They also inhabited the same country without dissensions, and in a happy condition, without any misfortunes falling upon them, till they died. They also were the inventors of that peculiar sort of wisdom which is concerned with the heavenly bodies, and their order. And that their inventions might not be lost before they were sufficiently known, upon Adam's prediction that the world was to be destroyed at one time by the force of fire, and at another time by the violence and quantity of water, they made two pillars,  the one of brick, the other of stone: they inscribed their discoveries on them both, that in case the pillar of brick should be destroyed by the flood, the pillar of stone might remain, and exhibit those discoveries to mankind; and also inform them that there was another pillar of brick erected by them. Now this remains in the land of Siriad to this day.
 



 [III.i.72]
 Et isti quidem septem generationibus permanserunt deum iudicantes esse omnium donum et ad virtutem semper inspicietes. Deinde tempore procedente de paternis sollem per nitatibus ad mala progressi sunt. Neque legitimos honores ulterius praebentes deo: neque circa homines iustitiae uerba facientes sed zelum que prius habuerunt pro uirtute. In duplam malitiam, per ea quae gerebant postea demonstrabant. Ob hoc itaque deu contra sed in iritauerunt. Nam multi angeli dei mulieribus coeuntes in uitiosos filios genuerunt,qui omne bonum dispicientes propter confidentia fortitudinis similia his quidem sunt a grecis gigantes perpetrasse traduntur. Noe autem grauiter ferens eorum actus et habens eorum consilia nimis ingrata, agebat ut ad meliora mentem eorum actusque transferret. Cum autem uideret non acquiescentes ad talia, sed uehementer eos malorum libidine detineri metuens ne ipsum quoque cum uxore et filiis et suis omnibus interficerent, discessit ab ea terra. 




  [III.i.72] Καὶ οὗτοι μὲν ἑπτὰ γενεὰς διέμειναν θεὸν ἡγούμενοι δεσπότην εἶναι τῶν ὅλων καὶ πάντα πρὸς ἀρετὴν ἀποβλέποντες, εἶτα προϊόντος χρόνου μεταβάλλονται πρὸς τὸ χεῖρον ἐκ τῶν πατρίων ἐθισμῶν μήτε τὰς νενομισμένας τιμὰς ἔτι τῷ θεῷ παρέχοντες μήτε τοῦ πρὸς ἀνθρώπους δικαίου ποιούμενοι λόγον, ἀλλ᾽ ἣν πρότερον εἶχον τῆς ἀρετῆς ζήλωσιν διπλασίονα τῆς κακίας τότ᾽ ἐπιδεικνύμενοι δι᾽ ὧν ἔπραττον: ἔνθεν ἑαυτοῖς τὸν θεὸν ἐξεπολέμωσαν. [73] πολλοὶ γὰρ ἄγγελοι θεοῦ γυναιξὶ συνιόντες ὑβριστὰς ἐγέννησαν παῖδας καὶ παντὸς ὑπερόπτας καλοῦ διὰ τὴν ἐπὶ τῇ δυνάμει πεποίθησιν: ὅμοια τοῖς ὑπὸ γιγάντων τετολμῆσθαι λεγομένοις ὑφ᾽ Ἑλλήνων καὶ οὗτοι δράσαι παραδίδονται. [74] Νῶχος δὲ τοῖς πραττομένοις ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν δυσχεραίνων καὶ τοῖς βουλεύμασιν ἀηδῶς ἔχων ἔπειθεν ἐπὶ τὸ κρεῖττον τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτοὺς καὶ τὰς πράξεις μεταφέρειν, ὁρῶν δ᾽ οὐκ ἐνδιδόντας, ἀλλ᾽ ἰσχυρῶς ὑπὸ τῆς ἡδονῆς τῶν κακῶν κεκρατημένους, δείσας μὴ καὶ φονεύσωσιν αὐτὸν μετὰ γυναικῶν καὶ τέκνων καὶ τῶν τούτοις συνοικουσῶν ἐξεχώρησε τῆς γῆς. 
 CHAPTER 3. Concerning The Flood; And After What Manner Noah Was Saved In An Ark, With His Kindred, And Afterwards Dwelt In The Plain Of Shinar.

[III.i.72] Now this posterity of Seth continued to esteem God as the Lord of the universe, and to have an entire regard to virtue, for seven generations; but in process of time they were perverted, and forsook the practices of their forefathers; and did neither pay those honors to God which were appointed them, nor had they any concern to do justice towards men. But for what degree of zeal they had formerly shown for virtue, they now showed by their actions a double degree of wickedness, whereby they made God to be their enemy. For many angels of God accompanied with women, and begat sons that proved unjust, and despisers of all that was good, on account of the confidence they had in their own strength; for the tradition is, that these men did what resembled the acts of those whom the Grecians call giants. But Noah was very uneasy at what they did; and being displeased at their conduct, persuaded them to change their dispositions and their acts for the better: but seeing they did not yield to him, but were slaves to their wicked pleasures, he was afraid they would kill him, together with his wife and children, and those they had married; so he departed out of that land.

 [III.ii.75] Deus itaque noe quidem iustitiam dilexit: condem per nauit autem non solum illorum malitiam, sed et omne genus humanum. Quod cum ei disperdere placuisset et aluid constituere genus malignitate priuatum et minuere hominum uitam annisque non quantis prius uixerant, sed usque ad centum viginti esse mensuram, tunc arida[m] conuertit in maria, et sic uniuersi inundatione perierunt. Noe  uero liberatus est solus, dicente ei domino ut sibi fabricam ad salutem huiusmodi faceret id est arcam, quattuor [cameras habentem et longitutidinem] cubitorum trecentorum, quinquaginta uero latitudinem et triginta altitudinem in quam cum matre filiorum, et eorum uxoribus introiuit. Et alia quidem quae sibi pro solatio uitae sorent necessaria posui cunctorumque animalium ad seruandum genus eourum masculos et feminas pariter introduxit, aliorum uero animalium numerum septuplum. Erat autem arca parietibus atque camera fortis, ut ex nulla parte fluhäretur, nec aqua uiolentiae uinceretur. Et noe quidem cum suis […] saluatus est. Erat autem ipse quidem ab adam decimus. Lamech uero filius cuius pater fuit mathusala, hic autem fuit ex enoch qui fuit iareth. Iareth autem mala id quid et cain naturem qui fuit enos eum sororibus plurimis. Anos uero seth: filius fuit qui natus est ex adam.   [III.ii.75] Ὁ δὲ θεὸς τοῦτον μὲν τῆς δικαιοσύνης ἠγάπησε, κατεδίκαζε δ᾽ οὐκ ἐκείνων μόνων τῆς κακίας, ἀλλὰ καὶ πᾶν ὅσον ἦν ἀνθρώπινον τότε δόξαν αὐτῷ διαφθεῖραι καὶ ποιῆσαι γένος ἕτερον πονηρίας καθαρόν, ἐπιτεμόμενος αὐτῶν τὸν βίον καὶ ποιήσας ἐτῶν οὐχ ὅσα πρότερον ἔζων, ἀλλ᾽ ἑκατὸν εἴκοσιν, εἰς θάλασσαν τὴν ἤπειρον μετέβαλε. [76] καὶ οἱ μὲν οὕτως ἀφανίζονται πάντες, Νῶχος δὲ σώζεται μόνος ὑποθεμένου μηχανὴν αὐτῷ καὶ πόρον πρὸς σωτηρίαν τοῦ θεοῦ τοιαύτην: [77] λάρνακα τετράστεγον κατασκευάσας πηχῶν τὸ μῆκος τριακοσίων πεντήκοντα δὲ τὸ πλάτος καὶ τριάκοντα τὸ βάθος, εἰς ταύτην σὺν τῇ μητρὶ τῶν παίδων καὶ ταῖς τούτων γυναιξὶν ἀνέβη, τά τε ἄλλα ὅσα πρὸς τὰς χρείας ἐπικουρήσειν αὐτοῖς ἔμελλεν ἐνθέμενος, ζῷά τε παντοῖα πρὸς διατήρησιν τοῦ γένους αὐτῶν ἄρρενάς τε καὶ θηλείας συνεισβαλόμενος ἄλλα τε τούτων ἑπταπλασίονα τὸν ἀριθμόν. [78] ἦν δ᾽ ἡ λάρναξ τούς τε τοίχους καρτερὰ καὶ τὸν ὄροφον, ὡς μηδαμόθεν ἐπικλύζεσθαι μηδ᾽ ἡττᾶσθαι τῆς τοῦ ὕδατος βίας. καὶ Νῶχος μὲν οὕτως μετὰ τῶν οἰκείων διασώζεται. [79] ἦν δ᾽ αὐτὸς μὲν ἀπὸ Ἀδάμου δέκατος: Λαμέχου γάρ ἐστιν υἱός, οὗ πατὴρ ἦν Μαθουσάλας, οὗτος δὲ ἦν τοῦ Ἀνώχου τοῦ Ἰαρέδου, Μαλαήλου δὲ Ἰάρεδος ἐγεγόνει, ὃς ἐκ Καϊνᾶ τεκνοῦται τοῦ Ἀνώσου σὺν ἀδελφαῖς πλείοσιν, Ἄνωσος δὲ Σήθου υἱὸς ἦν τοῦ Ἀδάμου:    [III.ii.75] Now God loved this man for his righteousness: yet he not only condemned those other men for their wickedness, but determined to destroy the whole race of mankind, and to make another race that should be pure from wickedness; and cutting short their lives, and making their years not so many as they formerly lived, but one hundred and twenty only, he turned the dry land into sea; and thus were all these men destroyed: but Noah alone was saved; for God suggested to him the following contrivance and way of escape:—That he should make an ark of four stories high, three hundred cubits long, fifty cubits broad, and thirty cubits high. Accordingly he entered into that ark, and his wife, and sons, and their wives, and put into it not only other provisions, to support their wants there, but also sent in with the rest all sorts of living creatures, the male and his female, for the preservation of their kinds; and others of them by sevens. Now this ark had firm walls, and a roof, and was braced with cross beams, so that it could not be any way drowned or overborne by the violence of the water. And thus was Noah, with his family, preserved. Now he was the tenth from Adam, as being the son of Lamech, whose father was Mathusela; he was the son of Enoch, the son of Jared; and Jared was the son of Malaleel, who, with many of his sisters, were the children of Cainan, the son of Enos. Now Enos was the son of Seth, the son of Adam.
 [III.iii.80] Contigit autem haec passio sexcentesimo anno natiuitatis noe, mensesecundo, qui a macedonibus dyo nuncupatur, ab hebreis autem nuncupatur maraath seu anmarsuane. Sic enim in aegypto annum costituerunt. Moyses autem nisan mensem qui est xancticus primum in festiuitatibus definiuit, in quo ex aegypto Hebreos eduxit. Hic autem apud eum etiam in cunctis muneribus diuinis ualde pollebat in uenditionibus autem et emptionibus et alia gubernatione prioris seculi decreta setuauit. Pluuia uero inchoasse dicitur septima et uicesima die praefentis mensis. Et usque ad hoc tempus ab Adam, qui primus creatus est, anni fuerunt duo milia, sexcentis quinquaginta sex, quod tempus in sacris libris conscriptum multa integritate signatum est. Una cum natiuitatibus insignium uirorum, qui tunc fuerunt, simul et terminis. 

 [III.iii.80] Συνέβη δὲ τοῦτο τὸ πάθος κατὰ τὸ ἑξακοσιοστὸν ἔτος ἤδη Νώχου τῆς ἀρχῆς, ἐν μηνὶ δευτέρῳ Δίῳ μὲν ὑπὸ Μακεδόνων λεγομένῳ, Μαρσουάνῃ δ᾽ ὑπὸ Ἑβραίων: οὕτω γὰρ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ τὸν ἐνιαυτὸν ἦσαν διατεταχότες. [81] Μωυσῆς δὲ τὸν Νισᾶν, ὅς ἐστι Ξανθικός, μῆνα πρῶτον ἐπὶ ταῖς ἑορταῖς ὥρισε κατὰ τοῦτον ἐξ Αἰγύπτου τοὺς Ἑβραίους προαγαγών: οὗτος δ᾽ αὐτῷ καὶ πρὸς ἁπάσας τὰς εἰς τὸ θεῖον τιμὰς ἦρχεν, ἐπὶ μέντοι γε πράσεις καὶ ὠνὰς καὶ τὴν ἄλλην διοίκησιν τὸν πρῶτον κόσμον διεφύλαξε: τὴν δ᾽ ἐπομβρίαν ἄρξασθαί φησιν ἑβδόμῃ τοῦ προειρημένου μηνὸς καὶ εἰκάδι. [82] χρόνος δὲ οὗτος ἀπὸ Ἀδάμου τοῦ πρώτου γεγονότος ἐτῶν ὑπῆρχε δισχιλίων διακοσίων ἑξηκονταδύο. ἀναγέγραπται δὲ ὁ χρόνος ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς βίβλοις σημειουμένων μετὰ πολλῆς ἀκριβείας τῶν τότε καὶ τὰς γενέσεις τῶν ἐπιφανῶν ἀνδρῶν καὶ τὰς τελευτάς.   [III.iii.80] This calamity happened in the six hundredth year of Noah's government, [age,] in the second month,  called by the Macedonians Dius, but by the Hebrews Marchesuan: for so did they order their year in Egypt. But Moses appointed that ú Nisan, which is the same with Xanthicus, should be the first month for their festivals, because he brought them out of Egypt in that month: so that this month began the year as to all the solemnities they observed to the honor of God, although he preserved the original order of the months as to selling and buying, and other ordinary affairs. Now he says that this flood began on the twenty-seventh [seventeenth] day of the forementioned month; and this was two thousand six hundred and fifty-six [one thousand six hundred and fifty-six] years from Adam, the first man; and the time is written down in our sacred books, those who then lived having noted down,  with great accuracy, both the births and deaths of illustrious men.
 [III.iv.83] Adae. Siquidem cum esset triginturum et ducentorum annorum, seth filius natus est qui non gentos et triginta uixit annos. Seth autem centesimo et quinto anno genuit anos,qui dum quinque et nongetis uixisset annis, Can e suo filio suo rerum diligentia tradidit, que genuerat anno nonagesimo. Hic uixit annis dece et nongetis. Cainas autem cum uixisset decem et nongentis annis, malaleel filium derelequit annorum septuaginta. Iste malalehel cum uixisset qunque ac nonaginta et octigentis annis, defunctus est. Iareth filium drelinquens quem genuit cum sexagintaduorum et centum [esset] annorum. Cui nouem et sexaginta super haec et nongentis annis uiuenti, enoch filius successit, natus cum sexaginta et duo[-rum] et centum annorum pater eius existeret. Qui uiuens trecentis et sexaginta [4r]  quinque annis, discessit ad deum. Unde non finis eius inuenitur esse conscriptus.  Matusalas autem enoch filius, quinto ei et centesimo natus anno, lamech filium habuit, cum esset annorum octuaginta septem et centum. Cui tradidit principatum, quem ipse tenuerat annis nongentis sexaginta et nouem. Lamech autem cum habuisset princpatum annis septingentis septem, noe suum filium rerum praeceptorem ostendit, qui de lamech natus est, agente annum aetatis secundum et octuagesimum, quique quinquaginta et et nongenti annis rerum extitit praeful. Isti uero anni qui collecti sunt, tempus quo[d ] prius scriptum est compleuerunt. Nullus itaque perfutetur priscorum fines, quando cum suis filiis eorumque auis aut atauis, suam quis extendebat aetatem: sed tantum ortum eorum generationis intedat. 

 [II.iv.83] Ἀδάμῳ μὲν τριακοστῷ ἤδη καὶ διακοσιοστῷ ἔτει γεγονότι παῖς Σῆθος γίνεται, ὃς ἐνακόσια καὶ τριάκοντα ἔτη ἐβίωσε. Σῆθος δὲ κατὰ πέμπτον καὶ διακοσιοστὸν ἔτος ἐγέννησεν Ἄνωσον, ὃς πέντε ζήσας ἔτη καὶ ἐνακόσια Καϊνᾷ τῷ παιδὶ τὴν τῶν πραγμάτων ἐπιμέλειαν δίδωσι τεκνώσας αὐτὸν περὶ ἐνενηκοστὸν καὶ ἑκατοστὸν ἔτος: οὗτος ἐβίωσεν ἔτη δώδεκα πρὸς τοῖς ἐνακοσίοις. [84] Καϊνᾶς δὲ βιοὺς δέκα καὶ ἐνακόσια Μαλαῆλον υἱὸν ἔσχεν ἔτει γενόμενον ἑβδομηκοστῷ καὶ ἑκατοστῷ. οὗτος ὁ Μαλαῆλος ζήσας πέντε καὶ ἐνενήκοντα καὶ ὀκτακόσια ἔτη ἐτελεύτησεν Ἰάρεδον καταλιπὼν υἱόν, ὃν ἔτος πέμπτον ἑξηκοστὸν καὶ ἑκατοστὸν γενόμενος ἐγέννησε. [85] τοῦτον εἰς ἐννέα καὶ ἑξήκοντα πρὸς τοῖς ἐνακοσίοις βιώσαντα Ἄνωχος υἱὸς διαδέχεται γεννηθεὶς περὶ ἔτη δύο καὶ ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἑκατὸν τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτῷ τυγχάνοντος. οὗτος ζήσας πέντε καὶ ἑξήκοντα πρὸς τοῖς τριακοσίοις ἀνεχώρησε πρὸς τὸ θεῖον, ὅθεν οὐδὲ τελευτὴν αὐτοῦ ἀναγεγράφασι. [86] Μαθουσάλας δὲ Ἀνώχου παῖς κατὰ ἔτος αὐτῷ γεγονὼς πέμπτον καὶ ἑξηκοστὸν καὶ ἑκατοστὸν Λάμεχον υἱὸν ἔσχε περὶ ἔτη γεγονὼς ἑπτὰ καὶ ὀγδοήκοντα καὶ ἑκατόν, ᾧ τὴν ἀρχὴν παρέδωκεν αὐτὸς αὐτὴν κατασχὼν ἐννέα καὶ ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἐνακοσίοις. [87] Λάμεχος δὲ ἄρξας ἑπτὰ καὶ ἑπτακοσίοις ἔτεσι Νῶχον τῶν πραγμάτων ἀποδείκνυσι προστάτην υἱόν, ὃς Λαμέχῳ γενόμενος ὄγδοον καὶ ὀγδοηκοστὸν καὶ ἑκατοστὸν ἔτος ἠνυκότι πεντήκοντα καὶ ἐνακοσίοις ἔτεσιν ἦρξε τῶν πραγμάτων. [88] ταῦτα συναγόμενα τὰ ἔτη τὸν προαναγεγραμμένον πληροῖ χρόνον. ἐξεταζέτω δὲ μηδεὶς τὰς τελευτὰς τῶν ἀνδρῶν, τοῖς γὰρ αὐτῶν παισὶ καὶ τοῖς ἐκείνων ἀπογόνοις παρεξέτεινον τὸν βίον, ἀλλὰ τὰς γενέσεις αὐτῶν μόνον ὁράτω.   [II.iv.83] For indeed Seth was born when Adam was in his two hundred and thirtieth year, who lived nine hundred and thirty years. Seth begat Enos in his two hundred and fifth year; who, when he had lived nine hundred and twelve years, delivered the government to Cainan his son, whom he had in his hundred and ninetieth year. He lived nine hundred and five years. Cainan, when he had lived nine hundred and ten years, had his son Malaleel, who was born in his hundred and seventieth year. This Malaleel, having lived eight hundred and ninety-five years, died, leaving his son Jared, whom he begat when he was in his hundred and sixty-fifth year. He lived nine hundred and sixty-two years; and then his son Enoch succeeded him, who was born when his father was one hundred and sixty-two years old. Now he, when he had lived three hundred and sixty-five years, departed and went to God; whence it is that they have not written down his death. Now Mathusela, the son of Enoch, who was born to him when he was one hundred and sixty-five years old, had Lamech for his son when he was one hundred and eighty-seven years of age; to whom he delivered the government, when he had retained it nine hundred and sixty-nine years. Now Lamech, when he had governed seven hundred and seventy-seven years, appointed Noah, his son, to be ruler of the people, who was born to Lamech when he was one hundred and eighty-two years old, and retained the government nine hundred and fifty years. These years collected together make up the sum before set down. But let no one inquire into the deaths of these men; for they extended their lives along together with their children and grandchildren; but let him have regard to their births only.

 [III.v.89] Igitur decernente deo et incipiente pluere, aquam cunctis diebus quadraginta ferebatur, ita ut usque ad quindecim cubitos transcenderet terram. Quod propterea factum [est] ne plurimos fugae occasio liberaret, quiescente autem pluuia, aquae coepit uix diebus centum et quinquaginta deficere quasi mense septimo, quo instante paulatim inchoauit latens herba parere. Deinceps dum arca circa summitatem cuiusdam montis in arme[ni]a constituti sedisset. Intelligens noe aperuit eam respiciens modica[-tram] circa eam, in ipse meliore constitutus, tunc quidem siluit. Post paucos uero dies aqua amplius recedente misit coruum, uolens agnoscere siquid etiam aliud terrae fuisset ab aqua derelictum, et ad agrediendum iam tutum esse uideretur. Qui cuncta repperiens inundantia regressus est ad noe. Post septem uero dies columba, quam miserat ut aliquid de terra cognosceret, lutulenta remeante, simul et ramum oliuae portante conosces terram diluuio liberatam, manensque adhuc aliis septem diebus et animalia ex arca dimisit et ipse cum generatione sua simul egressus, sacrificansque deo cum suis epulabatur. Hunc autem locum armenii egressorium uocant: illic enim arce salutae reliquias nunc usque prouinciales ostendunt.    [III.v.89]  Ἐπισημήναντος δὲ τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ὕειν ἀρξαμένου τὸ ὕδωρ ἡμέραις τεσσαράκοντα ὅλαις κατεφέρετο, ὡς ἐπὶ πήχεις πεντεκαίδεκα τὴν γῆν ὑπερέχειν. καὶ τοῦτο ἦν τὸ αἴτιον τοῦ μὴ διασωθῆναι πλείονας φυγῆς ἀφορμὴν οὐκ ἔχοντας. [90] παυσαμένου δὲ τοῦ ὑετοῦ μόλις ἤρξατο ὑποβαίνειν τὸ ὕδωρ ἐφ᾽ ἡμέρας ἑκατὸν καὶ πεντήκοντα, ὡς μηνὶ ἑβδόμῳ, ἱσταμένου δὲ ἦν ἑβδόμη, κατ᾽ ὀλίγον ὑπονοστεῖν ἀπολήγοντος. ἔπειτα τῆς λάρνακος περὶ ἄκραν τινὰ ὄρους σταθείσης κατὰ τὴν Ἀρμενίαν συνεὶς ὁ Νῶχος ἀνοίγει τ᾽ αὐτὴν καὶ θεασάμενος γῆν βραχεῖαν περὶ αὐτὴν ἐπὶ χρηστοτέρας ἤδη γεγονὼς ἐλπίδος ἠρέμει. [91] ὀλίγαις δ᾽ ὕστερον ἡμέραις μᾶλλον ὑποχωροῦντος τοῦ ὕδατος μεθίησι κόρακα βουλόμενος μαθεῖν, εἴ τι καὶ ἄλλο τῆς γῆς ἐκλελειμμένον ὑπὸ τοῦ ὕδατος ἀσφαλές ἐστιν ἤδη πρὸς ἔκβασιν: ὁ δὲ πᾶσαν εὑρὼν ἔτι λιμναζομένην πρὸς Νῶχον ἐπανῆλθε. μετὰ δὲ ἡμέρας ἑπτὰ περιστερὰν ἐπὶ τῷ γνῶναι τὰ περὶ τὴν γῆν προύπεμψεν: [92] ἐπανελθούσης δὲ πεπηλωμένης ἅμα καὶ θαλλὸν ἐλαίας κομιζούσης, μαθὼν τὴν γῆν ἀπηλλαγμένην τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ μείνας ἄλλας ἑπτὰ ἡμέρας τά τε ζῷα τῆς λάρνακος ἐξαφίησιν αὐτός τε μετὰ τῆς γενεᾶς προελθὼν καὶ θύσας τῷ θεῷ συνευωχεῖτο τοῖς οἰκείοις. ἀποβατήριον μέντοι τὸν τόπον τοῦτον Ἀρμένιοι καλοῦσιν: ἐκεῖ γὰρ ἀνασωθείσης τῆς λάρνακος ἔτι νῦν αὐτῆς τὰ λείψανα ἐπιδεικνύουσι.  [III.v.89] When God gave the signal, and it began to rain, the water poured down forty entire days, till it became fifteen cubits higher than the earth; which was the reason why there was no greater number preserved, since they had no place to fly to. When the rain ceased, the water did but just begin to abate after one hundred and fifty days, [that is, on the seventeenth day of the seventh month,] it then ceasing to subside for a little while. After this, the ark rested on the top of a certain mountain in Armenia; which, when Noah understood, he opened it; and seeing a small piece of land about it, he continued quiet, and conceived some cheerful hopes of deliverance. But a few days afterward, when the water was decreased to a greater degree, he sent out a raven, as desirous to learn whether any other part of the earth were left dry by the water, and whether he might go out of the ark with safety; but the raven, finding all the land still overflowed, returned to Noah again. And after seven days he sent out a dove, to know the state of the ground; which came back to him covered with mud, and bringing an olive branch: hereby Noah learned that the earth was become clear of the flood. So after he had staid seven more days, he sent the living creatures out of the ark; and both he and his family went out, when he also sacrificed to God, and feasted with his companions. However, the Armenians call this place, [GREEK]  The Place of Descent; for the ark being saved in that place, its remains are shown there by the inhabitants to this day.
 [III.vi.93] Huius uero diluuii et arcae memoriam faciunt omnes, qui historias barbaricas conscripserunt. Quorum unus est berosus chaldaeus. Narrans enim de diluuio, taliter est affatus: Dicitur autem et nauis eius quae in armeniam uenit, circa montem chordicum, adhuc aliqua pars esse, et quosdam bitumen exinde tollere, quo maxime homines ad expiationes utuntur.  Meminit autem horum et hieronymus aegyptius, qui antiquitate fenicae noscitur coscripsisse. Sed et manaseas damascenus in nonagesimo sexto historiarum libro ita de eis dicit: Est  super miniadam excelsus mons in armenia qui baris appellatur, in quo multos confugientes, semo est, diluuii tempore liberatos. Et quendam simul in arca deuectum, in montis ocilae summitate lignorumque reliquias multo tempore conseruatas. Fuit autem iste quem etiam moyses legislator scripsit.     [III.vi.93] Τοῦ δὲ κατακλυσμοῦ τούτου καὶ τῆς λάρνακος μέμνηνται πάντες οἱ τὰς βαρβαρικὰς ἱστορίας ἀναγεγραφότες, ὧν ἐστι Βηρωσὸς ὁ Χαλδαῖος: διηγούμενος γὰρ τὰ περὶ τὸν κατακλυσμὸν οὕτως που διέξεισι: ‘λέγεται δὲ καὶ τοῦ πλοίου ἐν τῇ Ἀρμενίᾳ πρὸς τῷ ὄρει τῶν Κορδυαίων ἔτι μέρος τι εἶναι καὶ κομίζειν τινὰς τῆς ἀσφάλτου ἀφαιροῦντας: χρῶνται δ᾽ οἱ ἄνθρωποι τῷ κομιζομένῳ πρὸς τοὺς ἀποτροπιασμούς.’ [94] μέμνηται δὲ τούτων καὶ Ἱερώνυμος ὁ Αἰγύπτιος ὁ τὴν ἀρχαιολογίαν τὴν Φοινικικὴν συγγραψάμενος καὶ Μνασέας δὲ καὶ ἄλλοι πλείους, καὶ Νικόλαος δὲ ὁ Δαμασκηνὸς ἐν τῇ ἐνενηκοστῇ καὶ ἕκτῃ βίβλῳ ἱστορεῖ περὶ αὐτῶν λέγων οὕτως: [95] ‘ἔστιν ὑπὲρ τὴν Μινυάδα μέγα ὄρος κατὰ τὴν Ἀρμενίαν Βάρις λεγόμενον, εἰς ὃ πολλοὺς συμφυγόντας ἐπὶ τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ λόγος ἔχει περισωθῆναι καί τινα ἐπὶ λάρνακος ὀχούμενον ἐπὶ τὴν ἀκρώρειαν ὀκεῖλαι καὶ τὰ λείψανα τῶν ξύλων ἐπὶ πολὺ σωθῆναι. γένοιτο δ᾽ ἂν οὗτος, ὅντινα καὶ Μωυσῆς ἀνέγραψεν ὁ Ἰουδαίων νομοθέτης.’    [III.vi.93] Now all the writers of barbarian histories make mention of this flood, and of this ark; among whom is Berosus the Chaldean. For when he is describing the circumstances of the flood, he goes on thus: "It is said there is still some part of this ship in Armenia, at the mountain of the Cordyaeans; and that some people carry off pieces of the bitumen, which they take away, and use chiefly as amulets for the averting of mischiefs." Hieronymus the Egyptian also, who wrote the Phoenician Antiquities, and Mnaseas, and a great many more, make mention of the same. Nay, Nicolaus of Damascus, in his ninety-sixth book, hath a particular relation about them; where he speaks thus: "There is a great mountain in Armenia, over Minyas, called Baris, upon which it is reported that many who fled at the time of the Deluge were saved; and that one who was carried in an ark came on shore upon the top of it; and that the remains of the timber were a great while preserved. This might be the man about whom Moses the legislator of the Jews wrote."
 [III.vii.96] Noe uero metuens, ne per annos singulos diluuium terrae deus induceret humanum genus decernens omnino delere, fana incendens omnia supplicabat de caetero deo pro statu priori, ut nullam interius huiusmodi uastationem superinduceret, quo periret omne animalium genus, sed punitis malis parceret eis, qui propter bonitatem fuerint derelicti et decreuerant mala uitare. Nam infeliciores felicet essens ab illis et peiori afflictione damnati, si non saluarentur ad integrum, sed magis alteri diluuio seruarentur. Cum priores quidem terrorem experimentumque vidisset. Posteri uero perditionem nouissimam sustinerent. Rogabatque <....> ut eius hostias suspicere propitius dignaretur et nullam iracundiam similem. Vterius terra susciperet. Ut eius operibus inpinguati et ciuitates conscreuentes uitam decetero possent habere felicem. Et nullo bonorum qubus ante imbrem adaucti fuerant fraudarentur, ad longam utique senectutem, et uitae longitudinem peruenturi.    [III.vii.96] Νῶχος δὲ φοβούμενος, μὴ καθ᾽ ἕκαστον ἔτος ἐπικλύζῃ τὴν γῆν ὁ θεὸς φθορὰν ἀνθρώπων καταψηφισάμενος, ἱερὰ καύσας ἐδεῖτο τὸν θεὸν τοῦ λοιποῦ ἐπὶ τῆς πρώτης μένειν εὐταξίας καὶ μηδὲν ἔτι τοιοῦτον ἐπενεγκεῖν πάθος, ὑφ᾽ οὗ κινδυνεύσει πᾶν ἀπολέσθαι τὸ τῶν ζῴων γένος, ἀλλὰ τετιμωρημένον τοὺς πονηροὺς φειδὼ ποιεῖσθαι τῶν διὰ χρηστότητα περιλειφθέντων καὶ τὸ δεινὸν διαφυγεῖν κεκριμένων: [97] κακοδαιμονεστέρους γὰρ ἐκείνων ἔσεσθαι καὶ χείρω κακίαν καταδικασθέντας, εἰ μὴ πρὸς τὸ παντελὲς εἶεν σεσωσμένοι, τηρηθεῖεν δ᾽ ἑτέρῳ κατακλυσμῷ, τοῦ μὲν πρώτου τὸν φόβον καὶ τὴν ἱστορίαν μαθόντες τοῦ δευτέρου δὲ τὴν ἀπώλειαν. [98] εὐμενῶς τε οὖν αὐτὸν προσδέχεσθαι τὴν θυσίαν παρεκάλει καὶ μηδεμίαν ὀργὴν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ὁμοίαν βαλεῖν, ὅπως ἔργοις τε τοῖς ταύτης προσλιπαροῦντες καὶ πόλεις ἀναστήσαντες εὐδαιμόνως ζῆν ἔχοιεν καὶ μηδενὸς ὧν καὶ πρὸ τῆς ἐπομβρίας ἀπέλαυον ὑστερῶσιν ἀγαθῶν, εἰς μακρὸν αὐτῶν γῆρας καὶ βίου μῆκος ὅμοιον τοῖς τάχιον ἐπερχομένων.  [III.vii.96] But as for Noah, he was afraid, since God had determined to destroy mankind, lest he should drown the earth every year; so he offered burnt-offerings, and besought God that nature might hereafter go on in its former orderly course, and that he would not bring on so great a judgment any more, by which the whole race of creatures might be in danger of destruction: but that, having now punished the wicked, he would of his goodness spare the remainder, and such as he had hitherto judged fit to be delivered from so severe a calamity; for that otherwise these last must be more miserable than the first, and that they must be condemned to a worse condition than the others, unless they be suffered to escape entirely; that is, if they be reserved for another deluge; while they must be afflicted with the terror and sight of the first deluge, and must also be destroyed by a second. He also entreated God to accept of his sacrifice, and to grant that the earth might never again undergo the like effects of 'his wrath; that men might be permitted to go on cheerfully in cultivating the same; to build cities, and live happily in them; and that they might not be deprived of any of those good things which they enjoyed before the Flood; but might attain to the like length of days, and old age, which the ancient people had arrived at before.
 [4v] [III.viii.99] Noe uero has effundente praeces, deus pro iustitia uirum diligens annuit ut eius uota ad finem usque perduceret. Neque defunctos dicens ipse  [se] perdisse, sed poenam pro malitia propria pertulisse. Neque ut tales essent homines qui ita perderentur fuisse factos, cum utique castum nosset eis esse principium. Neque donasse uitam, quae corruptionem delectaretur. Sed per quae contumeliam inquit meae pietati uirtutique fecerunt, per ea quoque conpulerunt me ut poenam eis hanc inferrem. Cessabo namque de cetero post hanc iram eos pro suis iniquitatibus poenas exigere, et multo potius te rogante et si in aliquo amplius aliquando peccauerint, iam non opus erit imbrium mangitudo, neque enim ulterius ita terras aqua rigabit. Moneo tamen ut ab umana nece omnes abstineant, et sint ab hominicidio puri facientes quippe tale aliquid peuniturours. Vtimini uero cunctis animalibus ut uultis, et desiderium quisquis habuerit. Dominos enim uos omnium [esse] feci terrenorum, et nata[ti]lium, et quaecunque uolatilem habent modum, et in aere uegetantur, abstinentes a sanguine in eo enim est anima. Designo autem uobis futuram requiem arcu meo. Arcus enim dei apud illos iris esse putatur. Et deus quidem haec dicens atque promittens siluit.   [III.viii.99] Νώχου δὲ ταύτας ποιησαμένου τὰς ἱκετείας ὁ θεὸς ἐπὶ δικαιοσύνῃ τὸν ἄνδρα ἀγαπῶν ἐπένευεν αὐτῷ τὰς εὐχὰς εἰς τέλος ἄξειν, οὔτε τοὺς διεφθαρμένους λέγων αὐτὸς ἀπολέσαι, κακίᾳ δὲ τῇ οἰκείᾳ ταύτην αὐτοὺς ὑποσχεῖν τὴν δίκην, οὔτ᾽ ἄν, εἰ γενομένους ἀνθρώπους ἀφανίσαι διεγνώκει, παραγαγεῖν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸν βίον, [100] σῶφρον γὰρ εἶναι τὴν ἀρχὴν αὐτοῖς μηδὲ χαρίσασθαι τὸ ζῆν ἢ δόντα τοῦτο διαφθείρειν: ἀλλ᾽ οἷς ἐξύβριζον εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν εὐσέβειαν καὶ ἀρετήν, τούτοις ἐξεβιάσαντό με ταύτην αὐτοῖς ἐπιθεῖναι τὴν δίκην. [101] παύσομαι δὲ τοῦ λοιποῦ μετὰ τοσαύτης ὀργῆς τὰς τιμωρίας ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀδικήμασιν εἰσπραττόμενος καὶ πολὺ μᾶλλον σοῦ παρακαλοῦντος. εἰ δ᾽ ἐπὶ πλέον ποτὲ χειμάσαιμι, μὴ δείσητε τῶν ὄμβρων τὸ μέγεθος: οὐ γὰρ ἔτι τὴν γῆν ἐπικλύσει τὸ ὕδωρ. [102] παραινῶ μέντοι σφαγῆς ἀνθρωπίνης ἀπέχεσθαι καὶ καθαρεύειν φόνου τοὺς δράσαντάς τι τοιοῦτον κολάζοντας, χρῆσθαι δὲ τοῖς ἄλλοις ζῴοις ἅπασι πρὸς ἃ βούλεσθε καὶ τὰς ὀρέξεις ἔχετε. δεσπότας γὰρ ἁπάντων ὑμᾶς εἶναι πεποίηκα τῶν τε χερσαίων καὶ νηκτῶν καὶ ὅσα τὴν μετάρσιον αἰώραν ἔχει καὶ φοράν, χωρὶς αἵματος: ἐν τούτῳ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ψυχή. [103] σημανῶ δὲ ὑμῖν παῦλαν ἐσομένην τοξείᾳ τῇ ἐμῇ τὴν ἶριν ἀποσημαίνων: τόξον γὰρ εἶναι τοῦ θεοῦ παρὰ τοῖς ἐκεῖ νενόμισται. καὶ ὁ μὲν θεὸς ταῦτ᾽ εἰπὼν καὶ ὑποσχόμενος ἀπαλλάσσεται.  [III.viii.99] When Noah had made these supplications, God, who loved the man for his righteousness, granted entire success to his prayers, and said, that it was not he who brought the destruction on a polluted world, but that they underwent that vengeance on account of their own wickedness; and that he had not brought men into the world if he had himself determined to destroy them, it being an instance of greater wisdom not to have granted them life at all, than, after it was granted, to procure their destruction; "But the injuries," said he, "they offered to my holiness and virtue, forced me to bring this punishment upon them. But I will leave off for the time to come to require such punishments, the effects of so great wrath, for their future wicked actions, and especially on account of thy prayers. But if I shall at any time send tempests of rain, in an extraordinary manner, be not affrighted at the largeness of the showers; for the water shall no more overspread the earth. However, I require you to abstain from shedding the blood of men, and to keep yourselves pure from murder; and to punish those that commit any such thing. I permit you to make use of all the other living creatures at your pleasure, and as your appetites lead you; for I have made you lords of them all, both of those that walk on the land, and those that swim in the waters, and of those that fly in the regions of the air on high, excepting their blood, for therein is the life. But I will give you a sign that I have left off my anger by my bow." [whereby is meant the rainbow, for they determined that the rainbow was the bow of God]. And when God had said and promised thus, he went away.

 [III.ix.104] Noe uero cum uixisset post diluuium trecentis et quinquaginta annis, omne tempus feliciter agens, mortuus est annos uitae suae nongentesimo quinquagesimo. Nullus autuem ad uitam modernam et annotum breuitatem quibus nunc uiuimus uitam comparans antiquorum, putet falsa quae de illis sunt dicta. Et eo quod nunc uita tanto non dicatur tempore, credat neque illos ad uitae illius longitudinem peruenisse. Illi namque cum essent religiosi, et ab ipso deo facti: cum eis pabula oportuniora ad maius tempus existerent per parata tantorum annorum circulis rite uiuebat. Deinde propter uirtutes, et gloriosas utilitates, quas iugiter perscrutabantur, id est astrologiam et geometriam, deus ei[s] amplius uiuendi spatia condonauit, quae nunc autem dicere potuissent. Ali nisi sexcentis uiuerent annis. Per tot enim annorum curricula magnus annus impletur. Testes autem dicti mei sunt omnes qui antiquitatem apud graecos et barbaros conscribere maluerunt. Nam et manathon qui descriptionem fecit aegyptiorum, et berosus, qui chaldeica deflorauit, et modius et aestius, ad haec et hieronimus aegyptius, qui phenicam [ph....em]  disposuerunt, concordant cum meis dictis. Isiodorus quoque et egatheus et hellanicus et accusilaus, et inter hos ephorus et nicholaus in istoriis suis memoriam faciunt antiquorum, annis mille uiuentium. De his itaque sicut singulis gratum est ita cosiderent,    [III.ix.104] Νῶχος δὲ βιοὺς μετὰ τὴν ἐπομβρίαν πεντήκοντα καὶ τριακόσια ἔτη καὶ πάντα τὸν χρόνον τοῦτον εὐδαιμόνως διαγαγὼν τελευτᾷ ζήσας ἐτῶν ἀριθμὸν ἐνακοσίων καὶ πεντήκοντα. [105] μηδεὶς δὲ πρὸς τὸν νῦν βίον καὶ τὴν βραχύτητα τῶν ἐτῶν ἃ ζῶμεν συμβαλὼν τὸν τῶν παλαιῶν ψευδῆ νομιζέτω τὰ περὶ ἐκείνων λεγόμενα τῷ μηδένα νῦν τοσοῦτον ἐν τῷ βίῳ παρατείνειν χρόνον τεκμαιρόμενος μηδ᾽ ἐκείνους εἰς ἐκεῖνο τὸ μῆκος τῆς ζωῆς ἀφῖχθαι. [106] οἱ μὲν γὰρ θεοφιλεῖς ὄντες καὶ ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ γενόμενοι καὶ διὰ τὰς τροφὰς ἐπιτηδειοτέρας πρὸς πλείονα χρόνον οὔσας εἰκότως ἔζων πλῆθος τοσοῦτον ἐτῶν: ἔπειτα καὶ δι᾽ ἀρετὴν καὶ τὴν εὐχρηστίαν ὧν ἐπενόουν ἀστρονομίας καὶ γεωμετρίας πλεῖον ζῆν τὸν θεὸν αὐτοῖς παρασχεῖν, ἅπερ οὐκ ἦν ἀσφαλῶς αὐτοῖς προειπεῖν μὴ ζήσασιν ἑξακοσίους ἐνιαυτούς: διὰ τοσούτων γὰρ ὁ μέγας ἐνιαυτὸς πληροῦται. [107] μαρτυροῦσι δέ μου τῷ λόγῳ πάντες οἱ παρ᾽ Ἕλλησι καὶ βαρβάροις συγγραψάμενοι τὰς ἀρχαιολογίας: καὶ γὰρ καὶ Μανέθων ὁ τὴν Αἰγυπτίων ποιησάμενος ἀναγραφὴν καὶ Βηρωσὸς ὁ τὰ Χαλδαϊκὰ συναγαγὼν καὶ Μῶχός τε καὶ Ἑστιαῖος καὶ πρὸς τούτοις ὁ Αἰγύπτιος Ἱερώνυμος οἱ τὰ Φοινικικὰ συγγραψάμενοι συμφωνοῦσι τοῖς ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ λεγομένοις, [108] Ἡσίοδός τε καὶ Ἑκαταῖος καὶ Ἑλλάνικος καὶ Ἀκουσίλαος καὶ πρὸς τούτοις Ἔφορος καὶ Νικόλαος ἱστοροῦσι τοὺς ἀρχαίους ζήσαντας ἔτη χίλια. περὶ μὲν τούτων, ὡς ἂν ἑκάστοις ᾖ φίλον, οὕτω σκοπείτωσαν. [III.ix.104] Now when Noah had lived three hundred and fifty years after the Flood, and that all that time happily, he died, having lived the number of nine hundred and fifty years. But let no one, upon comparing the lives of the ancients with our lives, and with the few years which we now live, think that what we have said of them is false; or make the shortness of our lives at present an argument, that neither did they attain to so long a duration of life, for those ancients were beloved of God, and [lately] made by God himself; and because their food was then fitter for the prolongation of life, might well live so great a number of years: and besides, God afforded them a longer time of life on account of their virtue, and the good use they made of it in astronomical and geometrical discoveries, which would not have afforded the time of foretelling [the periods of the stars] unless they had lived six hundred years; for the great year is completed in that interval. Now I have for witnesses to what I have said, all those that have written Antiquities, both among the Greeks and barbarians; for even Manetho, who wrote the Egyptian History, and Berosus, who collected the Chaldean Monuments, and Mochus, and Hestieus, and, besides these, Hieronymus the Egyptian, and those who composed the Phoenician History, agree to what I here say: Hesiod also, and Hecatseus, Hellanicus, and Acusilaus; and, besides these, Ephorus and Nicolaus relate that the ancients lived a thousand years. But as to these matters, let every one look upon them as he thinks fit.



 [IV.i.109] filii autuem noe tres erant, sem, cham, [et]  iaseth, qui ante centum annos diluuii fuerant generati. Hi primum de montibus ad campestria descenderunt ut haberent illic habitaculum. Et alios ualde metuentes propter diluuium ad campos descendere, et segniter habentes ab excelsis locis ad inferiora uenire coegerunt quippe ut eorum fiducie imitatores existerent. Et campus quidem in quo prius habitauerunt. Sennaarr appellatur. Deo autem iubente eos ad crementum hominum peruenire, dispersi sunt ne inter se dissensiones efficerent, sed ut multa colentes spatia terrarum abundantia fructuum potirentur. Qui cum essent incruditi et deo inobedientes existerent, in calamitatibus incidentes sua grauiter peccata senserunt. Et quia iuuentutis multitudine feruebant, rursus eos deus a semetipsis migrare fecit, qnoniam non in illius propitiatione putabant se habere bona, sed propriam fortitudine sibi credebant causam esse dei uitiarum. Unde apposuerunt, ut uoluntati dei inobedientes existerent: putates quod per inuidia eius ab alterutris migrarentur ut diuisi possent deo facilius subiugari.
 


 [IV.i.109] Οἱ δὲ Νώχου παῖδες τρεῖς ὄντες Σημᾶς καὶ Ἰαφθᾶς καὶ Χαμᾶς ἔτεσιν ἑκατὸν ἔμπροσθεν τῆς ἐπομβρίας γεγονότες, πρῶτοι κατελθόντες ἀπὸ τῶν ὀρῶν εἰς τὰ πεδία τὴν ἐν τούτοις οἴκησιν ἐποιήσαντο, καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους σφόδρα δεδιότας διὰ τὸν κατακλυσμὸν τὰ πεδία καὶ ὀκνηρῶς ἔχοντας πρὸς τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν ὑψηλῶν τόπων κατάβασιν ἔπεισαν θαρσήσαντας μιμητὰς αὐτῶν γενέσθαι. [110] καὶ τὸ μὲν πεδίον, εἰς ὃ πρῶτον αὐτοὺς κατῴκισαν, καλεῖται Σεναάρ: τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ κελεύσαντος αὐτοὺς διὰ πολυανθρωπίαν στέλλειν ἀποικίας, ἵνα μὴ στασιάζοιεν πρὸς ἀλλήλους, ἀλλὰ γῆν πολλὴν γεωργοῦντες ἀφθονίας ἀπολαύοιεν τῶν καρπῶν, ὑπὸ ἀμαθίας παρήκουσαν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ διὰ τοῦτο συμφοραῖς περιπεσόντες ᾔσθοντο τῆς ἁμαρτίας: [111] ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἤνθουν νεότητος πλήθει, πάλιν ὁ θεὸς αὐτοῖς συνεβούλευσε ποιεῖσθαι τὴν ἀποικίαν: οἱ δὲ οὐ κατὰ τὴν εὐμένειαν τὴν ἐκείνου νομίζοντες ἔχειν τὰ ἀγαθά, τὴν δ᾽ ἰσχὺν αὐτοῖς τὴν οἰκείαν αἰτίαν τῆς εὐπορίας ὑπολαμβάνοντες οὐκ ἐπείθοντο. [112] προσετίθεσαν δὲ τῷ παρακούειν τῆς τοῦ θεοῦ γνώμης καὶ τὸ κατ᾽ ἐπιβουλὴν ὑπονοεῖν εἰς ἀποικίαν αὐτοὺς παρορμᾶν, ἵνα διαιρεθέντες εὐεπιχειρητότεροι γένωνται. 
 CHAPTER 4. Concerning The Tower Of Babylon, And The Confusion Of Tongues.

 [IV.i.109] Now the sons of Noah were three,—Shem, Japhet, and Ham, born one hundred years before the Deluge. These first of all descended from the mountains into the plains, and fixed their habitation there; and persuaded others who were greatly afraid of the lower grounds on account of the flood, and so were very loath to come down from the higher places, to venture to follow their examples. Now the plain in which they first dwelt was called Shinar. God also commanded them to send colonies abroad, for the thorough peopling of the earth, that they might not raise seditions among themselves, but might cultivate a great part of the earth, and enjoy its fruits after a plentiful manner. But they were so ill instructed that they did not obey God; for which reason they fell into calamities, and were made sensible, by experience, of what sin they had been guilty: for when they flourished with a numerous youth, God admonished them again to send out colonies; but they, imagining the prosperity they enjoyed was not derived from the favor of God, but supposing that their own power was the proper cause of the plentiful condition they were in, did not obey him. Nay, they added to this their disobedience to the Divine will, the suspicion that they were therefore ordered to send out separate colonies, that, being divided asunder, they might the more easily be Oppressed.

 [IV.ii.113] Feci autem eos esse elatos ad iniuiriam dei atque contemptum. Nebroth filius cham  filii noe, qui cum esset audatior et manu fortissimus, suedebat eis ut non deo adscriberent, quia hominibus per illum felicitas [5r] eueniret. Sed quia haec eis propria uirtute praeberetur. Et cognatos sui generis ad causam tyrannidis adduxit, solus ipse praesummens homines a dei timore reuocare, et spem suam in propria uirtute reponere: ulcisesque <.>ese dementes in deum putabant, interminantem ferre diluuium terrae. Ob quam causam turrem aedificandam altiorem suadebant, ubi aqua non posset ascendere.    [IV.ii.113] Ἐξῆρέ τε αὐτοὺς πρός τε ὕβριν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ καταφρόνησιν Ναβρώδης, ὃς υἱωνὸς μὲν ἦν Χάμου τοῦ Νώχου, τολμηρὸς δὲ καὶ κατὰ χεῖρα γενναῖος: ἔπειθεν οὖν αὐτοὺς μὴ τῷ θεῷ διδόναι τὸ δι᾽ ἐκεῖνον εὐδαιμονεῖν, ἀλλὰ τὴν ἰδίαν ἀρετὴν ταῦτα παρέχειν αὐτοῖς ἡγεῖσθαι, [114] καὶ περιίστα δὲ κατ᾽ ὀλίγον εἰς τυραννίδα τὰ πράγματα μόνως οὕτως νομίζων ἀποστήσειν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τοῦ φόβου τοῦ παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, εἰ χρώμενοι τῇ αὐτοῦ δυνάμει διατελοῖεν, ἀμυνεῖσθαί τε τὸν θεὸν πάλιν ἠπείλει τὴν γῆν ἐπικλύσαι θελήσαντα: πύργον γὰρ οἰκοδομήσειν ὑψηλότερον ἢ τὸ ὕδωρ ἀναβῆναι δυνηθείη, μετελεύσεσθαι δὲ καὶ τῆς τῶν προγόνων ἀπωλείας.   [IV.ii.113]  Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God. He was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah, a bold man, and of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it was through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness. He also gradually changed the government into tyranny, seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence on his power. He also said he would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again; for that he would build a tower too high for the waters to be able to reach! and that he would avenge himself on God for destroying their forefathers!
 [IV.iii.115] Multitudo autem prona erat, ut nebroth praeceptionibus oboediret. graue putantes seruitium obsequi deo. Et turrem aedificabant, in nullo sua studia deferentes. Sumebat ergo altitudo facilitatem: et plus quam sperare quis posset multis manibus utique fabricata crescebat. Latitutdo tamen ita erat fortissimia, ut propteream respicientibus longitudo uideretur inminui. Edificabatur autem ex latere cocto colligato bitumine ne forte penetraretur, acsolueretur aquis. Sic illos insanientes deus intendens exterminare omnes pariter non decreuit. Quoniam nec aliis dudum perditis formidabant. Sed discordiam illis inmisit diuersarum linguarum, ut per multas absonasque uoces intellectu carere potuissent. Locus autem in quo turrem aedificauerunt nunc babylon uocatur, dicta propter confusionem babel appellant. De hac uero turre diuersique uocibus hominum, hoc meminit et sibilla dicens. Cum omnes homines unius uocis existerent: quidam turrem aedificauerunt excelsam, tamquam ascensuri per eam ad caelum, dei uero uentos immittentes, euerterunt turrem, et uocem propriam unicuique partiti sunt, et propterea babyloniam uocari contigit ciuitatem. De campo uero qui uocatur sennaar in regione babylonis, meminit estius ita dicens, qui uero de sacerdotibus sunt erepti, iouis sacra sumentes in sennaar babylonis uenerunt.   [IV.iii.115] Τὸ δὲ πλῆθος πρόθυμον ἦν τοῖς Ναβρώδου ἕπεσθαι δόγμασι δουλείαν ἡγούμενοι τὸ εἴκειν τῷ θεῷ, καὶ τὸν πύργον ᾠκοδόμουν οὐδὲν ἀπολείποντες σπουδῆς οὐδὲ πρὸς τὸ ἔργον ὀκνηρῶς ἔχοντες: ἐλάμβανε δὲ θᾶττον ὕψος ἢ προσεδόκησεν ἄν τις ὑπὸ πολυχειρίας. [116] τὸ μέντοι πάχος ἦν ἰσχυρὸν τοσοῦτον, ὥσθ᾽ ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ μειοῦσθαι τοῖς ὁρῶσι τὸ μῆκος. ᾠκοδομεῖτο δὲ ἐκ πλίνθου ὀπτῆς ἀσφάλτῳ συνδεδεμένης, ὡς ἂν μὴ περιρρέοι. οὕτως δὲ μεμηνότας αὐτοὺς ὁρῶν ὁ θεὸς ἀφανίσαι μὲν ἐκ παντὸς οὐκ ἔκρινεν, ὅτι μηδ᾽ ὑπὸ τῶν πρώτων ἀπολωλότων σωφρονισθεῖεν, [117] εἰς στάσιν δὲ αὐτοὺς ἐνέβαλεν ἀλλογλώσσους ἀπεργασάμενος καὶ ὑπὸ πολυφωνίας ποιήσας ἑαυτῶν ἀσυνέτους εἶναι. ὁ δὲ τόπος ἐν ᾧ τὸν πύργον ᾠκοδόμησαν νῦν Βαβυλὼν καλεῖται διὰ τὴν σύγχυσιν τοῦ περὶ τὴν διάλεκτον πρῶτον ἐναργοῦς: Ἑβραῖοι γὰρ τὴν σύγχυσιν βαβὲλ καλοῦσι. [118] περὶ δὲ τοῦ πύργου τούτου καὶ τῆς ἀλλοφωνίας τῶν ἀνθρώπων μέμνηται καὶ Σίβυλλα λέγουσα οὕτως: ‘πάντων ὁμοφώνων ὄντων τῶν ἀνθρώπων πύργον ᾠκοδόμησάν τινες ὑψηλότατον ὡς ἐπὶ τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀναβησόμενοι δι᾽ αὐτοῦ. οἱ δὲ θεοὶ ἀνέμους ἐπιπέμψαντες ἀνέτρεψαν τὸν πύργον καὶ ἰδίαν ἑκάστῳ φωνὴν ἔδωκαν: καὶ διὰ τοῦτο Βαβυλῶνα συνέβη κληθῆναι τὴν πόλιν.’ [119] περὶ δὲ τοῦ πεδίου τοῦ λεγομένου Σεναὰρ ἐν τῇ Βαβυλωνίᾳ χώρᾳ μνημονεύει Ἑστιαῖος λέγων οὕτως: ‘τῶν δὲ ἱερέων τοὺς διασωθέντας τὰ τοῦ Ἐνυαλίου Διὸς ἱερώματα λαβόντας εἰς Σεναὰρ τῆς Βαβυλωνίας ἐλθεῖν.’  [IV.iii.115] Now the multitude were very ready to follow the determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece of cowardice to submit to God; and they built a tower, neither sparing any pains, nor being in any degree negligent about the work: and, by reason of the multitude of hands employed in it, it grew very high, sooner than any one could expect; but the thickness of it was so great, and it was so strongly built, that thereby its great height seemed, upon the view, to be less than it really was. It was built of burnt brick, cemented together with mortar, made of bitumen, that it might not be liable to admit water. When God saw that they acted so madly, he did not resolve to destroy them utterly, since they were not grown wiser by the destruction of the former sinners; but he caused a tumult among them, by producing in them divers languages, and causing that, through the multitude of those languages, they should not be able to understand one another. The place wherein they built the tower is now called Babylon, because of the confusion of that language which they readily understood before; for the Hebrews mean by the word Babel, confusion. The Sibyl also makes mention of this tower, and of the confusion of the language, when she says thus: "When all men were of one language, some of them built a high tower, as if they would thereby ascend up to heaven, but the gods sent storms of wind and overthrew the tower, and gave every one his peculiar language; and for this reason it was that the city was called Babylon." But as to the plan of Shinar, in the country of Babylonia, Hestiaeus mentions it, when he says thus: "Such of the priests as were saved, took the sacred vessels of Jupiter Enyalius, and came to Shinar of Babylonia."
 


[V.i.120]
 Diuisi sunt itaque post haec diuersitate linguarum migrationes agentes iniquae, et terram adpraehendentes unusquisque felicem, et ad quam eos deus adduceret ut ita ut omnis terra per eos completeretur, mediterranea simul atque maritima. Quidam autem etiam nauibus transeuntes, insulas habitarunt unde aliquae gentes ab institutoribus positas appellationes actenus seruant. Quedam uero placita sibi nomina mutauerunt alii autem ut inhabitatoribus clarius esse uisum est, conuersionum nominum fecerunt. Greci sunt tamen rei huius auctores qui posteris temporibus confortari: etiam antiquorum gloriam propriam effecerunt, et gentes nominibus exhornarunt: ut eis sapiens esse uidebatur, ornatum utique ponentes eorum rei publicae uelut a se constitutae: 
 


[V.i.120] 
Σκίδνανται δὴ τὸ λοιπὸν ἐντεῦθεν ὑπὸ τῆς ἀλλογλωσσίας τὰς ἀποικίας ποιησάμενοι πανταχοῦ, καὶ γῆν ἕκαστοι κατελάμβανον τὴν ἐντυχοῦσαν καὶ εἰς ἣν αὐτοὺς ἦγεν ὁ θεός, ὡς πληρωθῆναι πᾶσαν αὐτῶν ἤπειρον μεσόγεών τε καὶ παράλιον: εἰσὶ δ᾽ οἳ καὶ περαιωσάμενοι ναυσὶ τὰς νήσους κατῴκησαν. [121] καὶ τῶν ἐθνῶν ἔνια μὲν διασώζει τὰς ὑπὸ τῶν κτισάντων κειμένας προσηγορίας, ἔνια δὲ καὶ μετέβαλεν, οἱ δὲ καὶ πρὸς τὸ σαφέστερον εἶναι δοκοῦν τοῖς παροικοῦσι τροπὴν ἔλαβον. Ἕλληνες δ᾽ εἰσὶν οἱ τούτου καταστάντες αἴτιοι: ἰσχύσαντες γὰρ ἐν τοῖς ὕστερον ἰδίαν ἐποιήσαντο καὶ τὴν πάλαι δόξαν καλλωπίσαντες τὰ ἔθνη τοῖς ὀνόμασι πρὸς τὸ συνετὸν αὐτοῖς καὶ κόσμον θέμενοι πολιτείας ὡς ἀφ᾽ αὑτῶν γεγονόσιν. 
 CHAPTER 5. After What Manner The Posterity Of Noah Sent Out Colonies, And Inhabited The Whole Earth.

[V.i.120] After this they were dispersed abroad, on account of their languages, and went out by colonies every where; and each colony took possession of that land which they light upon, and unto which God led them; so that the whole continent was filled with them, both the inland and the maritime countries. There were some also who passed over the sea in ships, and inhabited the islands: and some of those nations do still retain the denominations which were given them by their first founders; but some have lost them also, and some have only admitted certain changes in them, that they might be the more intelligible to the inhabitants. And they were the Greeks who became the authors of such mutations. For when in after-ages they grew potent, they claimed to themselves the glory of antiquity; giving names to the nations that sounded well [in Greek] that they might be better understood among themselves; and setting agreeable forms of government over them, as if they were a people derived from themselves.




[VI.i.122] fuerunt autem filiis noe filii, quorum nomina propter honorem genitibus imposuerunt homines quicquam cumque terram apprehendere potuerunt. Iaseth autuem noe filius habuit filios septem, habitauerunt isti regionem a tauro et aman montibus incipientem et pertigentem in asia usque ad flumen tanai. In europa uero terra gazitorum, cum nullus eorum qui supra dicti ibidem habreator existeret, gentes eius diuersis se nominibus appellabant. Qui nunc a grecis galate nuncupantur, olim uero dicti sunt gomeritae, quos gomer instituit. Magog uero magogas a se nominata instituit, isti a grecis scithae sunt appellati. Item fliliorum iaseth madeus et ianus fuerunt, et ex madeo quidem sunt gentes quae a grecis medi uocantur. A iano uero omnes ionii elladici quae descendunt. Condidit autem iobel iobelos, qui nostris temporibus hyberes appellantur. Moschini uero a mosochim plantati sunt qui nunc cappadoces nuncupantur quorum antiqua appellationis signum ostenditur. Nam ciuitas est apud eos quae acetenus moza dicitur, ostendens intelle[i]gere uolentibus, eo quod aliquando omnes gentes regionis ipsius ita uocate sunt. Thyras autem thirensis appelauit suos, quorum princeps fuit quibis greci thracum nomen conmutauerunt. Tante siquidem gentes per iaseth filios instituae sunt. Gomer autem habente tres filios aschenezas quidem aschenezos instituit, qui nunc regini uocantur a grecis. Riphat autem ripheos qui dicuntur paflagones. Tygran uero tygraneos qui friges a grecis sunt nuncupati. A iano autem iaphet [5v]   filio et ipso tres habente filios, elisas quidem heliseos uocauit eos quorum princeps fuit, qui nunc sunt eolii. Tharsis uero Tharsos. Sic enim antiquitus cilicia uocabatur. Tharsos enim apud eos maxima ciuitatum metropolis appellatur. Tam litera propter heta mutata, cethim autem chethimam insulam habuit quae nunc dicitur cyprus, et ab ea omnes insulae et maritima loca cethim hebraicae nominantur. Testis est enim sermonis mei una in cypro ciuitatum quae appellationam ualuit retinere. Cythis enim ab his qu ei grecii nomen imposuerunt uocatur, neque sic fugiens cythi nomen. Iaseth itaque filii seu nopotes has habuere gentes quae forsan nunc ignorantur a grecis. Hoc ergo praedicens, ad narrationem reuertar eorum unde digressus sum. Nomina siquidem propter scripturae decorem greci ad delectationem legentium mutauerunt. Neque enim prouinciae nostrae est huiusmodi formis uti sed licet unum quidem scema et finis nominum sit unus, ultimas tamen nominum syllabas aliter illi declinant. Noe namque  nochus apud eos appellatur, et abraham abramos. Et sic haec forma in omni schematae custoditur.

 


[VI.i.122] 
Ἦσαν δὲ τῶν Νώχου παίδων υἱοί, ὧν ἐπὶ τιμῇ τοῖς ἔθνεσι τὰ ὀνόματα ἐπετίθεσαν οἱ γῆν τινα καταλαβόντες. Ἰαφθᾶ μὲν οὖν τοῦ Νώχου παιδὸς ἦσαν ἑπτὰ υἱοί. κατοικοῦσι δὲ οὗτοι ἀπὸ Ταύρου καὶ Ἀμάνου τῶν ὀρῶν ἀρξάμενοι καὶ προῆλθον ἐπὶ μὲν τῆς Ἀσίας ἄχρι ποταμοῦ Τανάιδος, ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς Εὐρώπης ἕως Γαδείρων γῆν ἣν ἔτυχον καταλαμβάνοντες, καὶ μηδενὸς προκατῳκηκότος τὰ ἔθνη τοῖς αὑτῶν ἐκάλουν ὀνόμασιν. [123] τοὺς γὰρ νῦν ὑφ᾽ Ἑλλήνων Γαλάτας καλουμένους, Γομαρεῖς δὲ λεγομένους, Γόμαρος ἔκτισε. Μαγώγης δὲ τοὺς ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ Μαγώγας ὀνομασθέντας ᾤκισεν, Σκύθας δὲ ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν προσαγορευομένους. [124] τῶν δὲ Ἰαφθᾶ παίδων Ἰαυάνου καὶ Μάδου ἀπὸ μὲν τούτου Μαδαῖοι γίνονται ἔθνος, οἳ πρὸς Ἑλλήνων Μῆδοι κέκληνται, ἀπὸ δὲ Ἰαυάνου Ἰωνία καὶ πάντες Ἕλληνες γεγόνασι. κατοικίζει δὲ καὶ Θεοβήλους Θεόβηλος, οἵτινες ἐν τοῖς νῦν Ἴβηρες καλοῦνται. [125] καὶ Μεσχῆνοι δὲ ὑπὸ Μέσχου κτισθέντες Καππάδοκες μὲν ἄρτι κέκληνται, τῆς δὲ ἀρχαίας αὐτῶν προσηγορίας σημεῖον δείκνυται: πόλις γάρ ἐστι παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἔτι καὶ νῦν Μάζακα, δηλοῦσα τοῖς συνιέναι δυναμένοις οὕτως ποτὲ προσαγορευθὲν πᾶν τὸ ἔθνος. Θείρης δὲ Θείρας μὲν ἐκάλεσεν ὧν ἦρξεν, Ἕλληνες δὲ Θρᾷκας αὐτοὺς μετωνόμασαν. [126] καὶ τοσαῦτα μὲν ἔθνη ὑπὸ τῶν Ἰαφέθου παίδων κατοικεῖται: Γομάρου δὲ τριῶν υἱῶν γενομένων Ἀσχανάξης μὲν Ἀσχανάξους ᾤκισεν, οἳ νῦν Ῥήγινες ὑπὸ τῶν Ἑλλήνων καλοῦνται, Ῥιφάθης δὲ Ῥιφαθαίους τοὺς Παφλαγόνας λεγομένους, Θυγράμης δὲ Θυγραμαίους, οἳ δόξαν Ἕλλησι Φρύγες ὠνομάσθησαν. [127] Ἰαυάνου δὲ τοῦ Ἰάφθου τριῶν καὶ αὐτοῦ παίδων γενομένων Ἁλισᾶς μὲν Ἁλισαίους ἐκάλεσεν ὧν ἦρχεν, Αἰολεῖς δὲ νῦν εἰσι, Θάρσος δὲ Θαρσεῖς: οὕτως γὰρ ἐκαλεῖτο τὸ παλαιὸν ἡ Κιλικία. σημεῖον δέ: Ταρσὸς γὰρ παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς τῶν πόλεων ἡ ἀξιολογωτάτη καλεῖται μητρόπολις οὖσα τὸ ταῦ πρὸς τὴν κλῆσιν ἀντὶ τοῦ θῆτα μεταβαλόντων. [128] Χέθιμος δὲ Χέθιμα τὴν νῆσον ἔσχε, Κύπρος αὕτη νῦν καλεῖται, καὶ ἀπ᾽ αὐτῆς νῆσοί τε πᾶσαι καὶ τὰ πλείω τῶν παρὰ θάλατταν Χέθη ὑπὸ Ἑβραίων ὀνομάζεται: μάρτυς δέ μου τῷ λόγῳ μία τῶν ἐν Κύπρῳ πόλεων ἰσχύσασα τὴν προσηγορίαν φυλάξαι: Κίτιον γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ἐξελληνισάντων αὐτὴν καλεῖται μηδ᾽ οὕτως διαφυγοῦσα τοῦ Χεθίμου τὸ ὄνομα. Ἰαφθᾶ μὲν δὴ παῖδές τε καὶ υἱωνοὶ τοσαῦτα ἔσχον ἔθνη. [129] ὃ δ᾽ ἴσως ὑφ᾽ Ἑλλήνων ἀγνοεῖται, τοῦτο προειπὼν τρέψομαι πρὸς τὴν ἀφήγησιν ὧν κατέλιπον. τὰ γὰρ ὀνόματα διὰ τὸ τῆς γραφῆς εὐπρεπὲς ἡλλήνισται πρὸς ἡδονὴν τῶν ἐντευξομένων: οὐ γὰρ ἐπιχώριος ἡμῖν ὁ τοιοῦτος αὐτῶν τύπος, ἀλλ᾽ ἕν τε αὐτῶν σχῆμα καὶ τελευτὴ μία, Νῶχός τέ τοι Νῶε καλεῖται καὶ τοῦτον τὸν τύπον ἐπὶ παντὸς τηρεῖ σχήματος.
 CHAPTER 6. How Every Nation Was Denominated From Their First Inhabitants.

[VI.i.122] Now they were the grandchildren of Noah, in honor of whom names were imposed on the nations by those that first seized upon them. Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tansis, and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names. For Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians, [Galls,] but were then called Gomerites. Magog founded those that from him were named Magogites, but who are by the Greeks called Scythians. Now as to Javan and Madai, the sons of Japhet; from Madai came the Madeans, who are called Medes, by the Greeks; but from Javan, Ionia, and all the Grecians, are derived. Thobel founded the Thobelites, who are now called Iberes; and the Mosocheni were founded by Mosoch; now they are Cappadocians. There is also a mark of their ancient denomination still to be shown; for there is even now among them a city called Mazaca, which may inform those that are able to understand, that so was the entire nation once called. Thiras also called those whom he ruled over Thirasians; but the Greeks changed the name into Thracians. And so many were the countries that had the children of Japhet for their inhabitants. Of the three sons of Gomer, Aschanax founded the Aschanaxians, who are now called by the Greeks Rheginians. So did Riphath found the Ripheans, now called Paphlagonians; and Thrugramma the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were named Phrygians. Of the three sons of Javan also, the son of Japhet, Elisa gave name to the Eliseans, who were his subjects; they are now the Aeolians. Tharsus to the Tharsians, for so was Cilicia of old called; the sign of which is this, that the noblest city they have, and a metropolis also, is Tarsus, the tau being by change put for the theta. Cethimus possessed the island Cethima: it is now called Cyprus; and from that it is that all islands, and the greatest part of the sea-coasts, are named Cethim by the Hebrews: and one city there is in Cyprus that has been able to preserve its denomination; it has been called Citius by those who use the language of the Greeks, and has not, by the use of that dialect, escaped the name of Cethim. And so many nations have the children and grandchildren of Japhet possessed. Now when I have premised somewhat, which perhaps the Greeks do not know, I will return and explain what I have omitted; for such names are pronounced here after the manner of the Greeks, to please my readers; for our own country language does not so pronounce them: but the names in all cases are of one and the same ending; for the name we here pronounce Noeas, is there Noah, and in every case retains the same termination.

  [VI.ii.130] Filii uero Cham a prouincia syria: et aman et libano montibus cunctas terras obtinuerunt, que cumque ad mare sunt positę. Ad praehendentes etiam eas quae usque ad oceanum sunt, et proprias facientes appellationes tamen aliorum quidam omnino perierunt. Aliorum uero in alias transmutatae et transformatae nimis ignotae sunt. Quatuor enim filiis existentibus cham, chuso quidem nihcil nocuit tempus. Nam aethiopes quorum princeps fuit actenus et a semetipsis et ab omnibus asianis chusei uocitantur. Seruata uero est etiam merseis secundum appellationem prisca memoria. Aegyptum namque mersim et merseos omnes uocamus aegyptios. Instituit autem methfuth libiam fotos a se uocans prouinciales. Est autem et fluius in mauritania prouincia qui isto nomine nuncupatur. Unde et plurimos grecorum historiograforum inuenimus huius fluminis memoriam facientes, et ex adiacenti prouincia quae fuht uocatur ei nomen impositum. Mutatum est autem nomen ei quod nunc est ab uno filiorum mersaim qui libius dictus est. Post paululum uero dicemus et causam, pro qua eam contigit africam nominari. Chananus uero quartus existens filius cham, quae nunc iudaea uocatur inhabitans regionem, a se chananaeam appellauit. Fuerunt autem ex istis filii, chuso quidem sabas ex quo sabei. Euilas autem ex quo euilei, qui nunc getuli uocantur. Sabath uero ex quo sabatheni qui nominantur a grecis astabari. Condidit autem etiam saba sabathenos. Ram uero rameos instituit, et duos filios habuit, quorum iudadas quidem aegyptiacam gentem hesperiorum inhabitans iudaeis cognomen suum reliquit. Sabas autuem sabatheos. Nebroth autem filius chusi permanens apud babylonios, tyrannidem exercuit sicut a me etiam primitus declaratum est. Porro mesroth cum essent octo filii, omnem terram a gaza aegyptum usque tenuerunt. Solius autem filistim cognomen prouincia custodiuit, cuius partem greci palestinam appellant. Ex aliis autue, id est nomeo et anamia et labim, solus labim a se prouinciam libiam nominauit. Nedem autuem et petrosim et ceslim et cephthos, ultra nomina nihil scimus. Bello enim ethiopico de quo postea declarabimus, eourum ciuitates euersae sunt, fuerunt autem et chananaei filii sidon, qui et ciuitatem sui nominis aedificauit in phenicae. Sidon autuem a grecis apppellata est. Amath autem amatheos instituit, quae etiam nunc est et a prouincialibus amathi uocatur. Macedones autem uero e[a]m epyphaniam ab uno priscorum [nomine] uocauerunt. Aradeus autem aradium  insulam habuit. Eruceus autuem arcem quae in libano posita est. De aliis uero septem id est eugeo chitheo, iebuseo, amorreo, gergeseo, eudeo, sineo, samareo, praeter nomina in sacris libris nihil habuimus. Ebrei namque eorum deser uxere [6r] ciuitates huiusmodi causa calamitatibus adpraehensas.   [VI.ii.130] Οἱ δὲ Χάμου παῖδες τὴν ἀπὸ Συρίας καὶ Ἀμάνου καὶ Λιβάνου τῶν ὀρῶν γῆν κατέσχον, ὅσα πρὸς θάλασσαν αὐτῆς ἐτέτραπτο καταλαβόντες καὶ τὰ μέχρι τοῦ ὠκεανοῦ ἐξιδιωσάμενοι: αἱ μέντοι προσηγορίαι τῶν μὲν καὶ παντελῶς ἐξίτηλοι γεγόνασιν, ἐνίων δὲ μεταβαλοῦσαι καὶ μεταρρυθμισθεῖσαι πρὸς ἑτέρας δύσγνωστοι τυγχάνουσιν, ὀλίγοι δὲ οἱ φυλάξαντες ἀκεραίους τὰς προσηγορίας ὑπάρχουσι. [131] τεσσάρων γὰρ Χάμου παίδων γενομένων Χουσαῖον μὲν οὐδὲν ἔβλαψεν ὁ χρόνος: Αἰθίοπες γὰρ ὧν ἦρξεν ἔτι καὶ νῦν ὑπὸ ἑαυτῶν τε καὶ τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ πάντων Χουσαῖοι καλοῦνται. [132] ἐτηρήθη δὲ καὶ Μερσαίοις ἡ κατὰ τὴν προσηγορίαν μνήμη: τὴν γὰρ Αἴγυπτον Μέρσην καὶ Μερσαίους τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους ἅπαντες οἱ ταύτῃ καλοῦμεν. ἔκτισε δὲ καὶ Φούδης τὴν Λιβύην Φούτους ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ καλέσας τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους. [133] ἔστι δὲ καὶ ποταμὸς ἐν τῇ Μαύρων χώρᾳ τοῦτο ἔχων τὸ ὄνομα, ὅθεν καὶ τοὺς πλείστους τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν ἱστοριογράφων ἔστιν ἰδεῖν μεμνημένους τοῦ ποταμοῦ καὶ τῆς παρακειμένης αὐτῷ χώρας Φούτης λεγομένης. μετέβαλε δὲ ὃ νῦν αὐτῇ ἐστιν ὄνομα ἀπὸ τῶν Μεσράμου υἱῶν Λίβυος λεγομένου: μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺ δ᾽ ἐροῦμεν τὴν αἰτίαν, δι᾽ ἣν αὐτὴν καὶ Ἀφρικὴν προσαγορεύεσθαι συμβέβηκε. [134] Χαναναῖος δὲ τέταρτος ὢν Χάμου παῖς τὴν νῦν Ἰουδαίαν καλουμένην οἰκίσας ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ Χαναναίαν προσηγόρευσεν. γίνονται δὲ παῖδες ἐξ αὐτῶν Χούσου μὲν ἕξ, ὧν Σάβας μὲν Σαβαίους, Εὐίλας δὲ Εὐιλαίους ἔκτισεν, οἳ νῦν Γαιτοῦλοι λέγονται, Σαβάθης δὲ Σαβαθηνούς, ὀνομάζονται δὲ Ἀστάβαροι παρ᾽ Ἕλλησιν: [135] οἰκίζει δὲ καὶ Σαβάκτας Σαβακτηνούς: Ῥάμος δὲ Ῥαμαίους ᾤκισε καὶ δύο παῖδας ἔσχεν, ὧν Ἰουδάδας μὲν Ἰουδαδαίους Αἰθιοπικὸν ἔθνος τῶν ἑσπερίων οἰκίσας ἐπωνύμους αὐτῷ κατέλιπε, Σαβαίους δὲ Σαβαῖος: Ναβρώδης δὲ Χούσου υἱὸς ὑπομείνας παρὰ Βαβυλωνίοις ἐτυράννησεν, ὡς καὶ πρότερόν μοι δεδήλωται. [136] τῶν δὲ Μεσραίου παίδων ὀκτὼ γενομένων οἱ πάντες τὴν ἀπὸ Γάζης ἕως Αἰγύπτου γῆν κατέσχον, μόνου δὲ Φυλιστίνου τὴν ἐπωνυμίαν ἡ χώρα διεφύλαξε: Παλαιστίνην γὰρ οἱ Ἕλληνες αὐτοῦ τὴν μοῖραν καλοῦσι. [137] τῶν δὲ ἄλλων, Λουμαίου καὶ Ἀναμία καὶ Λαβίμου τοῦ μόνου κατοικήσαντος ἐν Λιβύῃ καὶ ὧδε τὴν χώραν ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ καλέσαντος, Νεδέμου τε καὶ Πεθρωσίμου καὶ Χεσλοίμου καὶ Χεφθώμου πέρα τῶν ὀνομάτων οὐδὲν ἴσμεν: ὁ γὰρ Αἰθιοπικὸς πόλεμος, περὶ οὗ δηλώσομεν ὕστερον, ἀναστάτους αὐτῶν τὰς πόλεις ἐποίησεν. [138] ἐγένοντο δὲ καὶ Χαναναίου παῖδες, Σιδώνιος, ὃς καὶ πόλιν ἐπώνυμον ἔκτισεν ἐν τῇ Φοινίκῃ, Σιδὼν δ᾽ ὑφ᾽ Ἑλλήνων καλεῖται: Ἀμαθοῦς δὲ Ἀμάθουν κατῴκισεν, ἥτις ἔστι καὶ νῦν ὑπὸ μὲν τῶν ἐπιχωρίων Ἀμάθη καλουμένη, Μακεδόνες δ᾽ αὐτὴν Ἐπιφάνειαν ἀφ᾽ ἑνὸς τῶν ἐπιγόνων ἐπωνόμασαν: Ἀρουδαῖος δὲ Ἄραδον τὴν νῆσον ἔσχεν: Ἀρουκαῖος δὲ Ἄρκην τὴν ἐν τῷ Λιβάνῳ. [139] τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἑπτά, Εὐαίου Χετταίου Ἰεβουσαίου Ἀμορραίου Γεργεσαίου Σειναίου Σαμαραίου, πλὴν τῶν ὀνομάτων ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς βίβλοις οὐδὲν ἔχομεν: Ἑβραῖοι γὰρ αὐτῶν ἀνέστησαν τὰς πόλεις ἐκ τοιαύτης αἰτίας ἐν συμφορᾷ γενομένας:  [VI.ii.130] The children of Ham possessed the land from Syria and Amanus, and the mountains of Libanus; seizing upon all that was on its sea-coasts, and as far as the ocean, and keeping it as their own. Some indeed of its names are utterly vanished away; others of them being changed, and another sound given them, are hardly to be discovered; yet a few there are which have kept their denominations entire. For of the four sons of Ham, time has not at all hurt the name of Chus; for the Ethiopians, over whom he reigned, are even at this day, both by themselves and by all men in Asia, called Chusites. The memory also of the Mesraites is preserved in their name; for all we who inhabit this country [of Judea] called Egypt Mestre, and the Egyptians Mestreans. Phut also was the founder of Libya, and called the inhabitants Phutites, from himself: there is also a river in the country of Moors which bears that name; whence it is that we may see the greatest part of the Grecian historiographers mention that river and the adjoining country by the appellation of Phut: but the name it has now has been by change given it from one of the sons of Mesraim, who was called Lybyos. We will inform you presently what has been the occasion why it has been called Africa also. Canaan, the fourth son of Ham, inhabited the country now called Judea, and called it from his own name Canaan. The children of these [four] were these: Sabas, who founded the Sabeans; Evilas, who founded the Evileans, who are called Getuli; Sabathes founded the Sabathens, they are now called by the Greeks Astaborans; Sabactas settled the Sabactens; and Ragmus the Ragmeans; and he had two sons, the one of whom, Judadas, settled the Judadeans, a nation of the western Ethiopians, and left them his name; as did Sabas to the Sabeans: but Nimrod, the son of Chus, staid and tyrannized at Babylon, as we have already informed you. Now all the children of Mesraim, being eight in number, possessed the country from Gaza to Egypt, though it retained the name of one only, the Philistim; for the Greeks call part of that country Palestine. As for the rest, Ludieim, and Enemim, and Labim, who alone inhabited in Libya, and called the country from himself, Nedim, and Phethrosim, and Chesloim, and Cephthorim, we know nothing of them besides their names; for the Ethiopic war which we shall describe hereafter, was the cause that those cities were overthrown. The sons of Canaan were these: Sidonius, who also built a city of the same name; it is called by the Greeks Sidon Amathus inhabited in Amathine, which is even now called Amathe by the inhabitants, although the Macedonians named it Epiphania, from one of his posterity: Arudeus possessed the island Aradus: Arucas possessed Arce, which is in Libanus. But for the seven others, [Eueus,] Chetteus, Jebuseus, Amorreus, Gergesus, Eudeus, Sineus, Samareus, we have nothing in the sacred books but their names, for the Hebrews overthrew their cities; and their calamities came upon them on the occasion following.
 [VI.iii.140] Noe itaque, post inundationem terra ad propriam reuertente naturam uenit ad opera. Et dum uineam in ea plantasset, uidens fructum in ea perfectum, uindemiauit, et deducto ad usum uino sacrificans, erat in epulis. [in]Debriatus autem in sopore resoluts nudatusque inhoneste iacebat. Quae cum uidisset iunior filiorum fratribus irridendum ostendit. Illi uero operuerunt patrem. Quod dum noe sent[s]isset, aliis quidem filiis felicitatem optauit. Cham uero propter cognitionem sui non quidem maledixit, sed eius proli et aliis effugientibus maledictum deus chananei filios emigrauit. Et de his quidem dicemus in reliquis.  [140] Νῶχος μετὰ τὴν ἐπομβρίαν τῆς γῆς κατασταθείσης εἰς τὴν αὐτῆς φύσιν ἐπ᾽ ἔργα χωρεῖ καὶ καταφυτεύσας αὐτὴν ἀμπέλοις, ἡνίκα τοῦ καρποῦ τελεσφορηθέντος καθ᾽ ὥραν ἐτρύγησε καὶ παρῆν εἰς χρῆσιν ὁ οἶνος, θύσας ἐν εὐωχίαις ἦν. [141] μεθυσθεὶς δὲ εἰς ὕπνον καταφέρεται καὶ γεγυμνωμένος παρακόσμως ἔκειτο. θεασάμενος δὲ αὐτὸν ὁ νεώτατος τῶν παίδων τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς ἐπιγελῶν δείκνυσιν: οἱ δὲ περιστέλλουσι τὸν πατέρα. [142] καὶ Νῶχος αἰσθόμενος τοῖς μὲν ἄλλοις παισὶν εὐδαιμονίαν εὔχεται, τῷ δὲ Χαμᾷ διὰ τὴν συγγένειαν αὐτῷ μὲν οὐ κατηράσατο, τοῖς δ᾽ ἐγγόνοις αὐτοῦ: καὶ τῶν ἄλλων διαπεφευγότων τὴν ἀρὰν τοὺς Χαναναίου παῖδας μέτεισιν ὁ θεός. καὶ περὶ μὲν τούτων ἐν τοῖς ἑξῆς ἐροῦμεν.   [140] Noah, when, after the deluge, the earth was resettled in its former condition, set about its cultivation; and when he had planted it with vines, and when the fruit was ripe, and he had gathered the grapes in their season, and the wine was ready for use, he offered sacrifice, and feasted, and, being drunk, he fell asleep, and lay naked in an unseemly manner. When his youngest son saw this, he came laughing, and showed him to his brethren; but they covered their father's nakedness. And when Noah was made sensible of what had been done, he prayed for prosperity to his other sons; but for Ham, he did not curse him, by reason of his nearness in blood, but cursed his prosperity: and when the rest of them escaped that curse, God inflicted it on the children of Canaan. But as to these matters, we shall speak more hereafter.
 [VI.iv.143] Sem uero tertio noe filio quninque fuerunt nati, qui usque ad oceanum seorsum habitant asiam ab eufrate faciens initium, helam siquidem helamites, qui perfarum sunt principes dereliquit. Asur autuem ninum instituit ciuitatem, et subiectos sibi assyrios nominauit, qui fuerunt ualde felices. Arfaxat autem qui nunc chaldei uocantur, arfaxatheos nominauit cum princeps eorum esset. Aram uero Arameos instiuit, quos greci syros appellant. Quos autem nunch lidos vocant, [l]uth tunc luda[o]s nominauit. Aram uero filiis quatuor existentibus eis quidem instituit tra[n]conitidem et damascum quae est media palestinae syrieque coniuncta. Armeniam uero otrus gether batrionu[o]s. Mes autuem mesaneos quae nunc arax uocatur ab omnibus. Arfaxat autem filius fuit sala de quo natus heber, a quo iudaeos hebreos initio uocauerunt. Eber autem iectam genuit et phalech. Dictus autem phalech quoniam secundum diuisionem habitationum natus est. Phalech autem diuisionem hebraei uocant. Iectan uero qui filius fuit heber, habuit filios helmoda saleth asormotare adoram, uzal decla sebal abimahel, sapha et ophi et ebila et iobal. Isti a flumine chophino indie, et positae circa eam syriae loca quędam inhabitant. Haec itaque de filiis sem dicta sufficiant.  [143] Σημᾷ δὲ τῷ τρίτῳ τῶν Νώχου υἱῶν πέντε γίνονται παῖδες, οἳ τὴν μέχρι τοῦ κατ᾽ Ἰνδίαν ὠκεανοῦ κατοικοῦσιν Ἀσίαν ἀπ᾽ Εὐφράτου τὴν ἀρχὴν πεποιημένοι. Ἔλυμος μὲν γὰρ Ἐλυμαίους Περσῶν ὄντας ἀρχηγέτας κατέλιπεν: Ἀσσούρας δὲ Νίνον οἰκίζει πόλιν καὶ τοὺς ὑπηκόους Ἀσσυρίους ἐπωνόμασεν, οἳ μάλιστα εὐδαιμόνησαν: [144] Ἀρφαξάδης δὲ τοὺς νῦν Χαλδαίους καλουμένους Ἀρφαξαδαίους ὠνόμασεν ἄρξας αὐτῶν: Ἀραμαίους δὲ Ἄραμος ἔσχεν, οὓς Ἕλληνες Σύρους προσαγορεύουσιν: οὓς δὲ Λυδοὺς νῦν καλοῦσι, Λούδους δὲ τότε, Λούδας ἔκτισε. [145] τῶν δὲ Ἀράμου παίδων τεσσάρων ὄντων Οὔσης μὲν κτίζει τὴν Τραχωνῖτιν καὶ Δαμασκόν, μέση δ᾽ ἐστὶ τῆς Παλαιστίνης καὶ κοίλης Συρίας: Ἀρμενίαν δὲ Ὄτρος, καὶ Γεθέρης Βακτριανούς, Μήσας δὲ Μησαναίους, Σπασίνου Χάραξ ἐν τοῖς νῦν καλεῖται. [146] Ἀρφαξάδου δὲ παῖς γίνεται Σάλης, τοῦ δὲ Ἕβερος, ἀφ᾽ οὗ τοὺς Ἰουδαίους Ἑβραίους ἀρχῆθεν ἐκάλουν: Ἕβερος δὲ Ἰούκταν καὶ Φάλεγον ἐγέννησεν: ἐκλήθη δὲ Φάλεγος, ἐπειδὴ κατὰ τὸν ἀποδασμὸν τῶν οἰκήσεων τίκτεται: φαλὲκ γὰρ τὸν μερισμὸν Ἑβραῖοι καλοῦσιν. [147] Ἰούκτᾳ δὲ τῶν Ἑβέρου παίδων ἦσαν υἱοὶ Ἐλμόδαδος Σάλεφος Ἀζερμώθης Εἰράης Ἐδώραμος Οὐζάλης Δαήλης Ἤβαλος Ἀβιμάηλος Σάφας Ὀφίρης Εὐίλης Ἰόβηλος. οὗτοι ἀπὸ Κωφῆνος ποταμοῦ τῆς Ἰνδικῆς καὶ τῆς πρὸς αὐτῇ Σηρίας τινὰ κατοικοῦσι. ταῦτα μὲν περὶ τῶν Σημᾶ παίδων ἱστορήσθω.  [143] Shem, the third son of Noah, had five sons, who inhabited the land that began at Euphrates, and reached to the Indian Ocean. For Elam left behind him the Elamites, the ancestors of the Persians. Ashur lived at the city Nineve; and named his subjects Assyrians, who became the most fortunate nation, beyond others. Arphaxad named the Arphaxadites, who are now called Chaldeans. Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians; as Laud founded the Laudites, which are now called Lydians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia; and Gather the Bactrians; and Mesa the Mesaneans; it is now called Charax Spasini. Sala was the son of Arphaxad; and his son was Heber, from whom they originally called the Jews Hebrews. Heber begat Joetan and Phaleg: he was called Phaleg, because he was born at the dispersion of the nations to their several countries; for Phaleg among the Hebrews signifies division. Now Joctan, one of the sons of Heber, had these sons, Elmodad, Saleph, Asermoth, Jera, Adoram, Aizel, Decla, Ebal, Abimael, Sabeus, Ophir, Euilat, and Jobab. These inhabited from Cophen, an Indian river, and in part of Asia adjoining to it. And this shall suffice concerning the sons of Shem.
 [VI.v.148] Faciam uero de hebreis quoque sermonem. Phalech enim filio eber fuit quidam filius seraus, huius autem seruc, de quo nahor filius generatus est cuius fuit filius thares qui fuit pater abraham. Hic autuem decimus quidem est a noe. Secundo uero anno et nonagesimo super ducentos post diluuium natus est. Thares et enim septuagesimo anno genuit abraham. Nachor autem cum esset uigesimo et centesimo anno genuit tharim. De saruch autem na[c]hor nascitur circa annos secundum tricesimum et centersimum. Reu uero seruch habuit cum esset annorum centum triginta.. Isdem uero annis habuit phalech, ruin. Eber autem quarto et trig[c]esimo et centesimo anno genuit phalech, natus ipse de sala trig[c]esimo annum habentem atque centesimum, quem arfaxat genuit quintum et trig[c]esimum annum atque centesimum natus. Sem autuem filius arfaxat natus est post annos duodecim facti diluii. Abraham autem habuit fratres na[c]hor et aran. Quorum aran quidem derelicto filio loth et sarra et melcha filiabus inter chaldeos mortuus est in ciuitate chaldeorum, quae dicitur ur,  et actenus sepultura eius ostenditur. Duxerunt autem uxores filias fratris sui. Melcham quidem na[c]hor, sarra uero abraham. Porro thares dum odio habuisset terram chaldeorum, propter luctum aran, migrauerunt omnes in c[h]arram mesopotamiae ciuitatem, ubi etiam tharem morientem sepeliunt cum uixisset annis ducentis quinque. Recedebatur enim iam uita hominum, fiebatque paulatim breuior usque ad generationem moysis, postquam terminu[s] uitae centum uiginti positus est annorum. Hos annos statuente deo quantos et moysen quoque uixisset prouenit. Na[c]hor autem de melcha octo fuerunt filii. Uxos bauz, chamuhel, zachama, zaus, zadelphas,zadaphus batuel. Isti ergo na[c]hor filii fuerunt legitimi. Thabeus enim et gadam et that et maubas de concubina ei nati sunt. Bathuel autem filio na[c]hor, nata est rebecca filia, et filius laban.   [148] Ποιήσομαι δὲ περὶ Ἑβραίων τὸν λόγον: Φαλέγου γὰρ τοῦ Ἑβέρου γίνεται παῖς Ῥεούς: τούτου δὲ Σεροῦγος, ᾧ Ναχώρης υἱὸς τίκτεται: τούτου δὲ Θέρρος: πατὴρ δὲ οὗτος Ἁβράμου γίνεται, ὃς δέκατος μέν ἐστιν ἀπὸ Νώχου, δευτέρῳ δ᾽ ἔτει καὶ ἐνενηκοστῷ πρὸς ἐνακοσίοις μετὰ τὴν ἐπομβρίαν ἐγένετο. [149] Θέρρος μὲν γὰρ ἑβδομηκοστῷ ποιεῖται τὸν Ἅβραμον: Ναχώρης δὲ Θέρρον εἰκοστὸν αὐτὸς [ἔτος] καὶ ἑκατοστὸν ἤδη γεγονὼς ἐγέννησε: Σερούγῳ δὲ Ναχώρης τίκτεται περὶ ἔτος δεύτερον καὶ τριακοστὸν καὶ ἑκατοστόν: Ῥοῦμος δὲ Σεροῦγον ἔτη τριάκοντα γεγονὼς πρὸς τοῖς ἑκατόν: ἐν δὲ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἔτεσι καὶ Ῥοῦμον Φάλεγος ἔσχεν: [150] Ἕβερος δὲ τετάρτῳ καὶ τριακοστῷ πρὸς τοῖς ἑκατὸν γεννᾷ Φάλεγον γεννηθεὶς αὐτὸς ὑπὸ Σέλου τριακοστὸν ἔτος ἔχοντος καὶ ἑκατοστόν, ὃν Ἀρφάξαδος ἐτέκνωσε κατὰ πέμπτον καὶ τριακοστὸν ἔτος πρὸς τοῖς ἑκατόν: Σημᾷ δὲ υἱὸς Ἀρφαξάδης ἦν μετὰ ἔτη δώδεκα τῆς ἐπομβρίας γενόμενος. [151] Ἅβραμος δὲ εἶχεν ἀδελφοὺς Ναχώρην καὶ Ἀράνην: τούτων Ἀράνης μὲν υἱὸν καταλιπὼν Λῶτον καὶ Σάρραν καὶ Μελχὰν θυγατέρας ἐν Χαλδαίοις ἀπέθανεν ἐν πόλει Οὐρῆ λεγομένῃ τῶν Χαλδαίων, καὶ τάφος αὐτοῦ μέχρι νῦν δείκνυται. γαμοῦσι δὲ τὰς ἀδελφιδὰς Μελχὰν μὲν Ναχώρης Σάρραν δὲ Ἅβραμος. [152] Θέρρου δὲ μισήσαντος τὴν Χαλδαίαν διὰ τὸ Ἀράνου πένθος μετοικίζονται πάντες εἰς Χαρρὰν τῆς Μεσοποταμίας, ὅπου καὶ Θέρρον τελευτήσαντα θάπτουσιν ἔτη βιώσαντα πέντε καὶ διακόσια: συνετέμνετο γὰρ ἤδη τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τὸ ζῆν καὶ βραχύτερον ἐγίνετο μέχρι τῆς Μωυσέος γενέσεως, μεθ᾽ ὃν ὅρος ἦν τοῦ ζῆν ἑκατὸν ἔτη πρὸς τοῖς εἴκοσι τοσαῦθ᾽ ὁρίσαντος τοῦ θεοῦ, ὅσα καὶ Μωυσεῖ συνέβη βιῶναι. [153] Ναχώρῃ μὲν οὖν ἐκ τῆς Μελχᾶς ὀκτὼ παῖδες ἐγένοντο, Οὖξος Βαοῦξος Μαουῆλος Ζάχαμος Ἀζαοῦος Ἰαδελφᾶς Ἰαδαφᾶς Βαθουῆλος: οὗτοι μὲν Ναχώρου παῖδες γνήσιοι: Ταβαῖος γὰρ καὶ Γάδαμος καὶ Τααῦος καὶ Μαχᾶς ἐκ Ῥούμας παλλακῆς αὐτῷ γεγόνασι. Βαθουήλῳ δὲ τῶν Ναχώρου γνησίων παίδων γίνεται Ῥεβέκκα θυγάτηρ καὶ Λάβανος υἱός.  [148] I will now treat of the Hebrews. The son of Phaleg, whose father Was Heber, was Ragau; whose son was Serug, to whom was born Nahor; his son was Terah, who was the father of Abraham, who accordingly was the tenth from Noah, and was born in the two hundred and ninety-second year after the deluge; for Terah begat Abram in his seventieth year. Nahor begat Haran when he was one hundred and twenty years old; Nahor was born to Serug in his hundred and thirty-second year; Ragau had Serug at one hundred and thirty; at the same age also Phaleg had Ragau; Heber begat Phaleg in his hundred and thirty-fourth year; he himself being begotten by Sala when he was a hundred and thirty years old, whom Arphaxad had for his son at the hundred and thirty-fifth year of his age. Arphaxad was the son of Shem, and born twelve years after the deluge. Now Abram had two brethren, Nahor and Haran: of these Haran left a son, Lot; as also Sarai and Milcha his daughters; and died among the Chaldeans, in a city of the Chaldeans, called Ur; and his monument is shown to this day. These married their nieces. Nabor married Milcha, and Abram married Sarai. Now Terah hating Chaldea, on account of his mourning for Ilaran, they all removed to Haran of Mesopotamia, where Terah died, and was buried, when he had lived to be two hundred and five years old; for the life of man was already, by degrees, diminished, and became shorter than before, till the birth of Moses; after whom the term of human life was one hundred and twenty years, God determining it to the length that Moses happened to live. Now Nahor had eight sons by Milcha; Uz and Buz, Kemuel, Chesed, Azau, Pheldas, Jadelph, and Bethuel. These were all the genuine sons of Nahor; for Teba, and Gaam, and Tachas, and Maaca, were born of Reuma his concubine: but Bethuel had a daughter, Rebecca, and a son, Laban.




 [VII.i.154] Abraham uero loth filium fratris sui aran, uxoris uero suae sarrae germanum adoptauit filium legitimum non habens, dimisitque chaldeam cum septuaginta et quinque esset annorum deo iubente ut migraret in chananea: in qua etiam habitauit eamque proli suae reliquit. Prudens existens, et nimis intelligens in omnibus rebus, [6v] et sapines in his quae audierat, et de quibus libet aliquit cogitaret. Propterea et uirtute sapru[d]entia maior aliis fuit, et opinionem, quam de deo tunc cuncti habebant, innouare et inmutare praeualuit. Primus itaque presumpsit pronunciare deum creatorem unum esse cunctorum. Reliqua uero ad felicitatem tendentia per praeceptum praebentis singula quaeque dari, et non propria uirtute subsistere consessus est. Haec uero conici<.>ebat per terrae passionem et maris, et ea quae contingunt circa solem et lunam et ex omnibus quae circa caelum semper eueniunt. Uirtute enim eius praesente et prouidentia ordinatione[i]s eorum cuncta disponi docebat: quibus quicumque priuarentur manifesti fierent, quae [qui] neque ea quae ad utilitatem nobis necessaria sunt, sua potestate potuerunt possidere, quae scilicet secundum iub[u]entutis fortitudinem ministrantur cui bonum est solummodo honorem et actionem tribuere gratiarum. Propter quae chaldeis et aliis mesopothamitis in eum consurgentibus, migrationem eligens, sequi per uoluntatem et adiutorium dei terram chananeam late possedit, ubi collocatus, altare aedifauit et hostias immolauit deo.




 [154] Ἅβραμος δὲ Λῶτον τὸν Ἀράνου τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ υἱὸν τῆς δὲ γυναικὸς αὐτοῦ Σάρρας ἀδελφὸν εἰσεποιήσατο γνησίου παιδὸς ἀπορῶν καὶ καταλείπει τὴν Χαλδαίαν ἑβδομήκοντα καὶ πέντε γεγονὼς ἔτη τοῦ θεοῦ κελεύσαντος εἰς τὴν Χαναναίαν μετελθεῖν, ἐν ᾗ κατῴκησε καὶ τοῖς ἀπογόνοις κατέλιπε δεινὸς ὢν συνεῖναί τε περὶ πάντων καὶ πιθανὸς τοῖς ἀκροωμένοις περί τε ὧν εἰκάσειεν οὐ διαμαρτάνων. [155] διὰ τοῦτο καὶ φρονεῖν μεῖζον ἐπ᾽ ἀρετῇ τῶν ἄλλων ἠργμένος καὶ τὴν περὶ τοῦ θεοῦ δόξαν, ἣν ἅπασι συνέβαινεν εἶναι, καινίσαι καὶ μεταβαλεῖν ἔγνω. πρῶτος οὖν τολμᾷ θεὸν ἀποφήνασθαι δημιουργὸν τῶν ὅλων ἕνα, τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν εἰ καί τι πρὸς εὐδαιμονίαν συντελεῖ κατὰ προσταγὴν τὴν τούτου παρέχειν ἕκαστον καὶ οὐ κατ᾽ οἰκείαν ἰσχύν. [156] εἰκάζεται δὲ ταῦτα τοῖς γῆς καὶ θαλάσσης παθήμασι τοῖς τε περὶ τὸν ἥλιον καὶ τὴν σελήνην καὶ πᾶσι τοῖς κατ᾽ οὐρανὸν συμβαίνουσι: δυνάμεως γὰρ αὐτοῖς παρούσης καὶ προνοῆσαι τῆς κατ᾽ αὐτοὺς εὐταξίας, ταύτης δ᾽ ὑστεροῦντας φανεροὺς γίνεσθαι μηδ᾽ ὅσα πρὸς τὸ χρησιμώτερον ἡμῖν συνεργοῦσι κατὰ τὴν αὐτῶν ἐξουσίαν, ἀλλὰ κατὰ τὴν τοῦ κελεύοντος ἰσχὺν ὑπουργεῖν, ᾧ καλῶς ἔχει μόνῳ τὴν τιμὴν καὶ τὴν εὐχαριστίαν ἀπονέμειν. [157] δι᾽ ἅπερ Χαλδαίων τε καὶ τῶν ἄλλων Μεσοποταμιτῶν στασιασάντων πρὸς αὐτὸν μετοικεῖν δοκιμάσας κατὰ βούλησιν καὶ βοήθειαν τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν Χαναναίαν ἔσχε γῆν, ἱδρυθείς τε αὐτόθι βωμὸν ᾠκοδόμησε καὶ θυσίαν ἐτέλεσε τῷ θεῷ.
 CHAPTER 7. How Abram Our Forefather Went Out Of The Land Of The Chaldeans, And Lived In The Land Then Called Canaan But Now Judea.

Now Abram, having no son of his own, adopted Lot, his brother Haran's son, and his wife Sarai's brother; and he left the land of Chaldea when he was seventy-five years old, and at the command of God went into Canaan, and therein he dwelt himself, and left it to his posterity. He was a person of great sagacity, both for understanding all things and persuading his hearers, and not mistaken in his opinions; for which reason he began to have higher notions of virtue than others had, and he determined to renew and to change the opinion all men happened then to have concerning God; for he was the first that ventured to publish this notion, That there was but one God, the Creator of the universe; and that, as to other [gods], if they contributed any thing to the happiness of men, that each of them afforded it only according to his appointment, and not by their own power. This his opinion was derived from the irregular phenomena that were visible both at land and sea, as well as those that happen to the sun, and moon, and all the heavenly bodies, thus:—"If [said he] these bodies had power of their own, they would certainly take care of their own regular motions; but since they do not preserve such regularity, they make it plain, that in so far as they co-operate to our advantage, they do it not of their own abilities, but as they are subservient to Him that commands them, to whom alone we ought justly to offer our honor and thanksgiving." For which doctrines, when the Chaldeans, and other people of Mesopotamia, raised a tumult against him, he thought fit to leave that country; and at the command and by the assistance of God, he came and lived in the land of Canaan. And when he was there settled, he built an altar, and performed a sacrifice to God.
 [VII.ii.158] Meminit autuem patris nostri abraham berosus, non quidem nominans eum sed ita dicens, post diluuium decima generatione, apud chaldeos fuit quidam uiriustus et magnus in caelestibus rebus expertus. Ecateus autem etiam memoriam plus aliquid fecit. Librum enim de eo conficiens dereliquid. Nicholaus uero damascenus quarto historiarum sic ait. Abraham<.>mus regnauit in damasco: ueniens aduena cum exercitu <..> de terra  quae suo babylonem dicitur chaldeorum. Igitur post non multum tempus exurgens etiam de has regione cum populo suo, terram, quae tunc cananea, nunc uero iudea dicitur, habitauit. Et hic qui de illo multipliciter sunt progeniti, de quibus in alio libro quae discenda sunt explanabo. Abraham uero usque nunc in damascena ciuitate nomen habetur in gloria, et uicus ostenditur, qui ab eo habitatio dicitur abram.  [158] Μνημονεύει δὲ τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Ἁβράμου Βηρωσός, οὐκ ὀνομάζων, λέγων δ᾽ οὕτως: “μετὰ δὲ τὸν κατακλυσμὸν δεκάτῃ γενεᾷ παρὰ Χαλδαίοις τις ἦν δίκαιος ἀνὴρ καὶ μέγας καὶ τὰ οὐράνια [159] ἔμπειρος.” Ἑκαταῖος δὲ καὶ τοῦ μνησθῆναι πλέον τι πεποίηκε: βιβλίον γὰρ περὶ αὐτοῦ συνταξάμενος κατέλιπε. Νικόλαος δὲ ὁ Δαμασκηνὸς ἐν τῇ τετάρτῃ τῶν ἱστοριῶν λέγει οὕτως: “Ἁβράμης ἐβασίλευσεν ἔπηλυς σὺν στρατῷ ἀφιγμένος ἐκ τῆς γῆς τῆς ὑπὲρ Βαβυλῶνος Χαλδαίων λεγομένης. [160] μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺν δὲ χρόνον μεταναστὰς καὶ ἀπὸ ταύτης τῆς χώρας σὺν τῷ σφετέρῳ λαῷ εἰς τὴν τότε μὲν Χαναναίαν λεγομένην νῦν δὲ Ἰουδαίαν μετῴκησε καὶ οἱ ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνου πληθύσαντες, περὶ ὧν ἐν ἑτέρῳ λόγῳ διέξειμι τὰ ἱστορούμενα. τοῦ δὲ Ἁβράμου ἔτι καὶ νῦν ἐν τῇ Δαμασκηνῇ τὸ ὄνομα δοξάζεται καὶ κώμη δείκνυται ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ Ἁβράμου οἴκησις λεγομένη.”   Berosus mentions our father Abram without naming him, when he says thus: "In the tenth generation after the Flood, there was among the Chaldeans a man righteous and great, and skillful in the celestial science." But Hecatseus does more than barely mention him; for he composed, and left behind him, a book concerning him. And Nicolaus of Damascus, in the fourth book of his History, says thus: "Abram reigned at Damascus, being a foreigner, who came with an army out of the land above Babylon, called the land of the Chaldeans: but, after a long time, he got him up, and removed from that country also, with his people, and went into the land then called the land of Canaan, but now the land of Judea, and this when his posterity were become a multitude; as to which posterity of his, we relate their history in another work. Now the name of Abram is even still famous in the country of Damascus; and there is shown a village named from him, The Habitation of Abram."




 [VIII.i.161] Fame uero posteris temporibus adprehendente chananeam, abraham aegyptios uiuere feliciter audiens ad eos proficisci tendebat, ut eorum abundantia participaretur et sacerdotum simul auditor esset, et cognosceret quae de diis exponerent et aut meliores inuenie[n]s sequeretur, autem eas sua prudentia in ornatum meliorem transponeret deducens sarram pariter. Metuens autem uesaniam aegyptiorum circa mulieres, ne rex eum propter mulieris speciem trucidaret, hanc exquisiuit arc[t]em ut se fratrem eius adsimularet. Sed et illam hoc respondere docens, eo quod sibi prodesse confideret, qui cum uenisset aegyptum, pertulit abrahae quod ipse praeuiderat.. Tunc enim pulchritudo uxoris eius innotuit. Unde et farao rex aegypti non sufficiens de his quae de ipsa dicebantur, etiam ipsam inspicere festinauit: abitratus se sarram posse contingere. Sed deus impediuit desiderium eius iniustum, egritudine scilicet, et tumultu causarum. Cumque pro libertate sacrificarentur, per iram dei pestem sacerdotes aduenisse significabant, eo quod uxori peregrini iniuriam uoluisset inferri. Ille uero pertimescens, interrogauit sarram ut diceret  et ipsa quae esset, et ille qui eam adduxerat, qui cum ueritatem audisset, excusabat se apud abraham dicens, putasse sororem et non eius uxorem. Et festinasse circa eam congationem sibi facere, et non iniuriae causa suum desiderium perpetrare. Cui multa quaeque munera condonauit, et ut esset inter sapientissimos aegyptiorum instituit, uirtutemque eius et gloriam ex hoc esse contigit clariorem. 




 [161] Λιμοῦ δὲ χρόνοις ὕστερον τὴν Ἰουδαίαν καταλαβόντος Ἅβραμος Αἰγυπτίους εὐδαιμονεῖν πυθόμενος μεταίρειν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἦν πρόθυμος τῆς τε ἀφθονίας τῆς ἐκείνων μεθέξων καὶ τῶν ἱερέων ἀκροατὴς ἐσόμενος ὧν λέγοιεν περὶ θεῶν: ἢ γὰρ κρείσσοσιν εὑρεθεῖσι κατακολουθήσειν ἢ μετακοσμήσειν αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ τὸ βέλτιον αὐτὸς ἄμεινον φρονῶν. [162] ἐπαγόμενος δὲ καὶ τὴν Σάρραν καὶ φοβούμενος τὸ πρὸς τὰς γυναῖκας τῶν Αἰγυπτίων ἐπιμανές, μὴ διὰ τὴν εὐμορφίαν τῆς γυναικὸς ὁ βασιλεὺς αὐτὸν ἀνέλῃ, τέχνην ἐπενόησε τοιαύτην: ἀδελφὸς αὐτῆς εἶναι προσεποιήσατο κἀκείνην τοῦθ᾽ ὑποκρίνασθαι, συμφέρειν γὰρ αὐτοῖς, ἐδίδαξεν. [163] ὡς δ᾽ ἧκον εἰς τὴν Αἴγυπτον, ἀπέβαινε τῷ Ἁβράμῳ καθὼς ὑπενόησε: τὸ γὰρ κάλλος ἐξεβοήθη τῆς γυναικὸς αὐτοῦ: διὸ καὶ Φαραώθης ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Αἰγυπτίων οὐ τοῖς περὶ αὐτῆς λεγομένοις ἀρκεσθεὶς ἀλλὰ καὶ θεάσασθαι σπουδάσας οἷός τε ἦν ἅψασθαι τῆς Σάρρας. [164] ἐμποδίζει δὲ αὐτοῦ ὁ θεὸς τὴν ἄδικον ἐπιθυμίαν νόσῳ τε καὶ στάσει τῶν πραγμάτων: καὶ θυομένῳ περὶ ἀπαλλαγῆς κατὰ μῆνιν θεοῦ τὸ δεινὸν αὐτῷ παρεῖναι ἀπεσήμαινον οἱ ἱερεῖς, ἐφ᾽ οἷς ἠθέλησεν ὑβρίσαι τοῦ ξένου τὴν γυναῖκα. [165] ὁ δὲ φοβηθεὶς ἠρώτα τὴν Σάρραν, τίς τε εἴη καὶ τίνα τοῦτον ἐπάγοιτο, πυθόμενός τε τὴν ἀλήθειαν Ἅβραμον παρῃτεῖτο: νομίζων γὰρ ἀδελφὴν ἀλλ᾽ οὐ γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ σπουδάσαι περὶ αὐτὴν συγγένειαν ποιήσασθαι βουλόμενος, ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἐνυβρίσαι κατ᾽ ἐπιθυμίαν ὡρμημένος: δωρεῖταί τε αὐτὸν πολλοῖς χρήμασι, καὶ συνῆν Αἰγυπτίων τοῖς λογιωτάτοις τήν τε ἀρετὴν αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἐπ᾽ αὐτῇ δόξαν ἐντεῦθεν ἐπιφανεστέραν συνέβη γενέσθαι. 
 CHAPTER 8. That When There Was A Famine In Canaan, Abram Went Thence Into Egypt; And After He Had Continued There A While He Returned Back Again.

1. Now, after this, when a famine had invaded the land of Canaan, and Abram had discovered that the Egyptians were in a flourishing condition, he was disposed to go down to them, both to partake of the plenty they enjoyed, and to become an auditor of their priests, and to know what they said concerning the gods; designing either to follow them, if they had better notions than he, or to convert them into a better way, if his own notions proved the truest. Now, seeing he was to take Sarai with him, and was afraid of the madness of the Egyptians with regard to women, lest the king should kill him on occasion of his wife's great beauty, he contrived this device:—he pretended to be her brother, and directed her in a dissembling way to pretend the same, for he said it would be for their benefit. Now, as soon as he came into Egypt, it happened to Abram as he supposed it would; for the fame of his wife's beauty was greatly talked of; for which reason Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, would not be satisfied with what was reported of her, but would needs see her himself, and was preparing to enjoy her; but God put a stop to his unjust inclinations, by sending upon him a distemper, and a sedition against his government. And when he inquired of the priests how he might be freed from these calamities, they told him that this his miserable condition was derived from the wrath of God, upon account of his inclinations to abuse the stranger's wife. He then, out of fear, asked Sarai who she was, and who it was that she brought along with her. And when he had found out the truth, he excused himself to Abram, that supposing the woman to be his sister, and not his wife, he set his affections on her, as desiring an affinity with him by marrying her, but not as incited by lust to abuse her. He also made him a large present in money, and gave him leave to enter into conversation with the most learned among the Egyptians; from which conversation his virtue and his reputation became more conspicuous than they had been before.

 [VIII.ii.166] Nam cum essent aegyptii diuersis moribus complacentes, et adinuicem leges proprias reprobantes, et a se etiam propterea diffidentes: sibi met eos comparans, et unumquemque despiciens, uerba eorum inania nihilque uerum habentia demonstrabat. Erat igitur in admiratione cunctorum, tamquam uir sapiens: atque paratus non solum ad intelligendum sed etiam ad satisfaciendum, et ad loquendum quod cumque docere niteretur. Arithmeticam eis quoque contulit, et quae de astrologia sunt, ipse contradidit. Nam ante aduentum, [7r] abraham in aegiptum haec aegyptii penitus ignorabant. A chaldeis autem haec plantata noscuntur in aegypto, unde etiam peruenisse noscuntur ad grecos.  [166] Τῶν γὰρ Αἰγυπτίων διαφόροις ἀρεσκομένων ἔθεσι καὶ τὰ παρ᾽ ἀλλήλοις ἐκφαυλιζόντων νόμιμα καὶ διὰ τοῦτο δυσμενῶς ἐχόντων πρὸς ἀλλήλους, συμβαλὼν αὐτῶν ἑκάστοις καὶ διαπτύων τοὺς λόγους οὓς ἐποιοῦντο περὶ τῶν ἰδίων κενοὺς καὶ μηδὲν ἔχοντας ἀληθὲς ἀπέφαινε. [167] θαυμασθεὶς οὖν ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν ἐν ταῖς συνουσίαις ὡς συνετώτατος καὶ δεινὸς ἀνὴρ οὐ νοῆσαι μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ πεῖσαι λέγων περὶ ὧν ἐπιχειρήσειε διδάσκειν, τήν τε ἀριθμητικὴν αὐτοῖς χαρίζεται καὶ τὰ περὶ ἀστρονομίαν παραδίδωσι. [168] πρὸ γὰρ τῆς Ἁβράμου παρουσίας Αἰγύπτιοι τούτων εἶχον ἀμαθῶς: ἐκ Χαλδαίων γὰρ ταῦτ᾽ ἐφοίτησεν εἰς Αἴγυπτον, ὅθεν ἦλθε καὶ εἰς τοὺς Ἕλληνας.  2. For whereas the Egyptians were formerly addicted to different customs, and despised one another's sacred and accustomed rites, and were very angry one with another on that account, Abram conferred with each of them, and, confuting the reasonings they made use of, every one for their own practices, demonstrated that such reasonings were vain and void of truth: whereupon he was admired by them in those conferences as a very wise man, and one of great sagacity, when he discoursed on any subject he undertook; and this not only in understanding it, but in persuading other men also to assent to him. He communicated to them arithmetic, and delivered to them the science of astronomy; for before Abram came into Egypt they were unacquainted with those parts of learning; for that science came from the Chaldeans into Egypt, and from thence to the Greeks also.

 [VIII.iii.169] Et cum uenisset in chananeam, partitus est terram cum loth, dum pastores eorum inter se iurgia facerent propter loca pasturae. Electionem tamen atque conditionem concessit loth. Sumens itaque ipse partem ab eo relictam, habitauit in ciuitate nabroth, quae est antiquior annis septem, ciuitate aegiptia prothanide. Loth igitur terrram, quae est posita in campo circa iordanem fluuium habtauit [habuit], non longe a ciuitate. Sodomorum, quae tunc [et]iam erat bona, nunc autem probatur exterminata uoluntate dei., quam causam loco proprio designabo.  [169] Ὡς δ᾽ εἰς τὴν Χαναναίαν ἀφίκετο, μερίζεται πρὸς Λῶτον τὴν γῆν τῶν ποιμένων αὐτοῖς στασιαζόντων περὶ τῆς χώρας ἐν ᾗ νέμοιεν: τὴν ἐκλογὴν μέντοι καὶ τὴν αἵρεσιν ἐπιτρέπει τῷ Λώτῳ: [170] λαβὼν δ᾽ αὐτὸς τὴν ὑπ᾽ ἐκείνου καταλελειμμένην ὑπώρειαν ᾤκει ἐν τῇ Ναβρῶ πόλει: παλαιοτέρα δέ ἐστιν ἔτεσιν ἑπτὰ πρὸ Τάνιδος τῆς Αἰγύπτου. Λῶτος δὲ τὴν πρὸς τὸ πεδίον κειμένην καὶ ποταμὸν Ἰορδάνην εἶχεν οὐκ ἄπωθεν τῆς Σοδομιτῶν πόλεως, ἣ τότε μὲν ἦν ἀγαθή, νῦν δὲ ἠφάνισται κατὰ βούλησιν θεοῦ. τὴν δὲ αἰτίαν κατὰ χώραν σημανῶ.   3. As soon as Abram was come back into Canaan, he parted the land between him and Lot, upon account of the tumultuous behavior of their shepherds, concerning the pastures wherein they should feed their flocks. However, he gave Lot his option, or leave, to choose which lands he would take; and he took himself what the other left, which were the lower grounds at the foot of the mountains; and he himself dwelt in Hebron, which is a city seven years more ancient than Tunis of Egypt. But Lot possessed the land of the plain, and the river Jordan, not far from the city of Sodom, which was then a fine city, but is now destroyed, by the will and wrath of God, the cause of which I shall show in its proper place hereafter.




 [IX.i.171]
 Illo namque tempore asyriis asiam obtinentibus rex sodomitarum ualde florebat [in] diuitiis, et  iuuentute multa, quibus erant reges quinque eorum prouinciam gubernantes ballas baleas, sinnabaris, simoborus, et baloniorum rex [et ballinorum rex]. Singuli namque eorum habebant proprium principatum. Aduersum quos congressi assirii, et quattuor partes sui exercitus facientes, obsidebant eos. Dux autem erat unus quis ordinatus. Commisso autuem praelio uincentes assyrii tributum imposuerunt regibus sodomorum. Duodecim siquidem annis isti seruientes, tributum sibimet impositum soluere passi sunt, tertiodecimo autem abstinuerunt. Quapropter exercitus assyriorum super eos aduenit, ducentibus simul exercitum rabsido, ariocho, chodolamoro, thadallo. Isti namque et uniuersam diripuerunt asiam et gigantum sobolem subuerterunt. Qui cum uenissent sodomis, castra posuerunt in ualle quae dicitur putei bituminis. In illo namque tempore putea erant in eo loco: nunc autuem exterminata ciuitate sodomorum, uallis illa palus effecta est, quae dicitur aspaltidis id est bituminalis. De hac itaque palude rursus non post multa dicemus. Sodomitis autem cum assyris congressis, et praelio forti commisso, multi quidem eorum mortui, reliqui uero captiui ducti sunt, cum quibus et loth ducebatur qui uenerat ad auxilium sodomorum.
 


[171] Κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον δὲ τὸν καιρὸν Ἀσσυρίων κρατούντων τῆς Ἀσίας Σοδομίταις ἤνθει τὰ πράγματα εἴς τε πλοῦτον αὐτῶν ἐπιδεδωκότων καὶ νεότητα πολλήν: βασιλεῖς δὲ αὐτοῖς πέντε διεῖπον τὴν χώραν, Βάλας Βαλαίας Συναβάνης καὶ Συμμόβορος ὅ τε Βαλήνων βασιλεύς: μοίρας δ᾽ ἦρχον ἕκαστος ἰδίας. [172] ἐπὶ τούτους στρατεύσαντες Ἀσσύριοι καὶ μέρη τέσσαρα ποιήσαντες τῆς στρατιᾶς ἐπολιόρκουν αὐτούς: στρατηγὸς δ᾽ ἑκάστοις ἦν εἷς ἐπιτεταγμένος. γενομένης δὲ μάχης νικήσαντες οἱ Ἀσσύριοι φόρον ἐπιτάσσουσι τοῖς Σοδομιτῶν βασιλεῦσι. [173] δώδεκα μὲν οὖν ἔτη δουλεύοντες καὶ τοὺς ἐπιταχθέντας αὐτοῖς φόρους τελοῦντες ὑπέμειναν, τῷ δὲ τρισκαιδεκάτῳ ἀπέστησαν, καὶ διαβαίνει στρατὸς Ἀσσυρίων ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς στρατηγούντων Ἀμαραψίδου Ἀριόχου Χοδολαμόρου Θαδάλου. [174] οὗτοι τήν τε Συρίαν ἅπασαν διηρπάσαντο καὶ τοὺς τῶν Γιγάντων ἀπογόνους κατεστρέψαντο, γενόμενοι δὲ κατὰ τὰ Σόδομα στρατοπεδεύουσι κατὰ τὴν κοιλάδα τὴν λεγομένην φρέατα ἀσφάλτου: κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον γὰρ τὸν καιρὸν φρέατα ἦν ἐν τῷ τόπῳ, νῦν μέντοι τῆς Σοδομιτῶν πόλεως ἀφανισθείσης ἡ κοιλὰς ἐκείνη λίμνη γέγονεν ἡ Ἀσφαλτῖτις λεγομένη. [175] περὶ μὲν οὖν τῆς λίμνης ταύτης αὖθις μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺ δηλώσομεν, τῶν δὲ Σοδομιτῶν συμβαλόντων τοῖς Ἀσσυρίοις καὶ καρτερᾶς τῆς μάχης γενομένης, πολλοὶ μὲν αὐτῶν ἀπέθανον, οἱ λοιποὶ δὲ ᾐχμαλωτίσθησαν, σὺν οἷς καὶ Λῶτος ἤγετο τοῖς Σοδομίταις σύμμαχος ἐληλυθώς.
 CHAPTER 9. The Destruction Of The Sodomites By The Assyrian Wall.

At this time, when the Assyrians had the dominion over Asia, the people of Sodom were in a flourishing condition, both as to riches and the number of their youth. There were five kings that managed the affairs of this county: Ballas, Barsas, Senabar, and Sumobor, with the king of Bela; and each king led on his own troops: and the Assyrians made war upon them; and, dividing their army into four parts, fought against them. Now every part of the army had its own commander; and when the battle was joined, the Assyrians were conquerors, and imposed a tribute on the kings of the Sodomites, who submitted to this slavery twelve years; and so long they continued to pay their tribute: but on the thirteenth year they rebelled, and then the army of the Assyrians came upon them, under their commanders Amraphel, Arioch, Chodorlaomer, and Tidal. These kings had laid waste all Syria, and overthrown the offspring of the giants. And when they were come over against Sodom, they pitched their camp at the vale called the Slime Pits, for at that time there were pits in that place; but now, upon the destruction of the city of Sodom, that vale became the Lake Asphaltites, as it is called. However, concerning this lake we shall speak more presently. Now when the Sodomites joined battle with the Assyrians, and the fight was very obstinate, many of them were killed, and the rest were carried captive; among which captives was Lot, who had come to assist the Sodomites.




 [X.i.176] Abraham autem cum cum audisset calamitatem eius,timor simul de loth cognato eius, et misericordia in eius ingressa est, propter sodomitas amicos atque uicinos. Et cum festinaret eis ferre solatium, non tardauit. Sed accessit, et quinta nocte inruens super assyrios circa dan, sic enim alter iordanis fons appellatur et inueniens eos antequam armarentur, alios quidem in lectulis constitutos occidit, qui neque suspitionem cladis haberent, alii uero nondum in soporem conuersi, tamen pugnare prae ebrietatem non ualentes, effugerunt, abraham autem persequens eos  expulit eos usque ad terram dam ascenorum: ostendens uictoriam non in multitudine, nec in plurimis manibus esse [sed] confidentiam pugnatorum et fortitudinem praeualere contra totius numeri quantitatem. Cum trecentis namque decem et octo et tribus amicis, tantum exercitum superauit. Quicum autem [enim] ostium effugierunt inglorii sunt reuersi.


 

[176] Ἁβράμῳ δὲ ἀκούσαντι τὴν συμφορὰν αὐτῶν φόβος τε ἅμα περὶ Λώτου τοῦ συγγενοῦς εἰσῆλθε καὶ οἶκτος περὶ τῶν Σοδομιτῶν φίλων ὄντων καὶ γειτνιώντων. [177] καὶ βοηθεῖν αὐτοῖς δοκιμάσας οὐκ ἀνέμεινεν, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπειχθεὶς καὶ κατὰ πέμπτην ἐπιπεσὼν νύκτα τοῖς Ἀσσυρίοις περὶ Δάνον, οὕτως γὰρ ἡ ἑτέρα τοῦ Ἰορδάνου προσαγορεύεται πηγή, καὶ φθάσας πρὶν ἐν ὅπλοις γενέσθαι τοὺς μὲν ἐν ταῖς κοίταις ὄντας ἀπέκτεινε μηδ᾽ ἐπίνοιαν τῆς συμφορᾶς ἔχοντας, οἱ δὲ μήπω πρὸς ὕπνον τετραμμένοι μάχεσθαι δ᾽ ὑπὸ μέθης ἀδύνατοι ἔφυγον. [178] Ἅβραμος δὲ διώκων εἵπετο μέχρι καὶ δευτεραίους συνήλασεν αὐτοὺς εἰς Ὠβὰ τῆς Δαμασκηνῶν γῆς, ἐπιδείξας ὅτι τὸ νικᾶν οὐκ ἐν τῷ πλήθει καὶ τῇ πολυχειρίᾳ κεῖσθαι συμβέβηκεν, ἀλλὰ προθυμία τῶν μαχομένων καὶ τὸ γενναῖον κρατεῖ παντὸς ἀριθμοῦ, τριακοσίοις καὶ δεκαοκτὼ οἰκέταις αὐτοῦ καὶ τρισὶ φίλοις τοσούτου στρατοῦ περιγενόμενος. ὁπόσοι δὲ αὐτῶν καὶ διέφυγον ἀδόξως ἀνέστρεψαν.
 CHAPTER 10. How Abram Fought With The Assyrians, And Overcame Them, And Saved The Sodomite Prisoners, And Took From The Assyrians The Prey They Had Gotten.

1. When, Abram heard of their calamity, he was at once afraid for Lot his kinsman, and pitied the Sodomites, his friends and neighbors; and thinking it proper to afford them assistance, he did not delay it, but marched hastily, and the fifth night fell upon the Assyrians, near Dan, for that is the name of the other spring of Jordan; and before they could arm themselves, he slew some as they were in their beds, before they could suspect any harm; and others, who were not yet gone to sleep, but were so drunk they could not fight, ran away. Abram pursued after them, till, on the second day, he drove them in a body unto Hoba, a place belonging to Damascus; and thereby demonstrated that victory does not depend on multitude and the number of hands, but the alacrity and courage of soldiers overcome the most numerous bodies of men, while he got the victory over so great an army with no more than three hundred and eighteen of his servants, and three of his friends: but all those that fled returned home ingloriously.
 [X.ii.179] Abraham autem captiuos eripiens sodomitarum qui capti fuerant ab assyriis cum pace reuersus est. Occurrit autem ei rex sodomoroum ad conloquendum, qui uocatur uallis regia, in uia solimae ciuitatis. Suscepitque eum rex melchisedech, quod significat rex iustus. Et erat utique, tales et fine dubio ita aut propter hanc causam etiam dei sacerdos esset solimorum tamen civitatem postea hierosolima uocauerunt. Ministrauit autem iste melchisedech abraham exercitiui exenia et multam abundantiam rerum opportunarum simul exibuit: et super a epulas [eum] conlaudare coepi et benedicere deum qui eius subdiderat inimicos. Abraham uero dante etiam decimas spoliorum munus accepit. Rex autem sodomorum praedam quidem abraham habere poscebat. Homines uero qui eius essent recipere precabatur, quos ab asyriis eripuerat. Abraham uero ait, non hoc solum se facere: nec aliam utilitatem ex illa semetipsum habiturum praeda, nisi quecumque pro cibo seruorum eius uidebantur impensa. Partem uero quandam amicis suis fore praebendam, qui cum eo pugnassent, quorum primus eschol uocabatur: et ner alius et mambre.  [179] Ἅβραμος δὲ τοὺς τῶν Σοδομιτῶν σώσας αἰχμαλώτους, οἳ ληφθέντες ἔφθησαν ὑπὸ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων, καὶ τὸν συγγενῆ Λῶτον ἀνέζευξεν μετὰ εἰρήνης. ἀπήντησε δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ τῶν Σοδομιτῶν βασιλεὺς εἰς τόπον τινά, ὃν καλοῦσι πεδίον βασιλικόν. [180] ἔνθα ὁ τῆς Σολυμᾶ ὑποδέχεται βασιλεὺς αὐτὸν Μελχισεδέκ: σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο βασιλεὺς δίκαιος: καὶ ἦν δὲ τοιοῦτος ὁμολογουμένως, ὡς διὰ ταύτην αὐτὸν τὴν αἰτίαν καὶ ἱερέα γενέσθαι τοῦ θεοῦ: τὴν μέντοι Σολυμᾶ ὕστερον ἐκάλεσεν Ἱεροσόλυμα. [181] ἐχορήγησε δὲ οὗτος ὁ Μελχισεδὲκ τῷ Ἁβράμου στρατῷ ξένια καὶ πολλὴν ἀφθονίαν τῶν ἐπιτηδείων παρέσχε καὶ παρὰ τὴν εὐωχίαν αὐτόν τε ἐπαινεῖν ἤρξατο καὶ τὸν θεὸν εὐλογεῖν ὑποχειρίους αὐτῷ ποιήσαντα τοὺς ἐχθρούς. Ἁβράμου δὲ διδόντος καὶ τὴν δεκάτην τῆς λείας αὐτῷ προσδέχεται τὴν δόσιν. [182] ὁ δὲ τῶν Σοδομιτῶν βασιλεὺς τὴν μὲν λείαν ἔχειν Ἅβραμον παρεκάλει, τοὺς δ᾽ ἀνθρώπους ἀπολαβεῖν ἠξίου, οὓς παρὰ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων ἔσωσεν οἰκείους ὄντας. Ἅβραμος δὲ οὐκ ἔφη τοῦτο ποιήσειν, οὐδ᾽ ἂν ἄλλην ὠφέλειαν ἐκ τῆς λείας ἐκείνης εἰς αὐτὸν ἥξειν πλὴν ὅσα τροφὴ τοῖς οἰκέταις αὐτοῦ γένοιτο: μοῖραν μέντοι τινὰ τοῖς φίλοις αὐτοῦ παρέσχε τοῖς συστρατευομένοις. Ἔσχων δ᾽ ὁ πρῶτος ἐκαλεῖτο [καὶ] Ἔννηρος καὶ Μαμβρῆς.  2. So Abram, when he had saved the captive Sodomites, who had been taken by the Assyrians, and Lot also, his kinsman, returned home in peace. Now the king of Sodom met him at a certain place, which they called The King's Dale, where Melchisedec, king of the city Salem, received him. That name signifies, the righteous king: and such he was, without dispute, insomuch that, on this account, he was made the priest of God: however, they afterward called Salem Jerusalem. Now this Melchisedec supplied Abram's army in an hospitable manner, and gave them provisions in abundance; and as they were feasting, he began to praise him, and to bless God for subduing his enemies under him. And when Abram gave him the tenth part of his prey, he accepted of the gift: but the king of Sodom desired Abram to take the prey, but entreated that he might have those men restored to him whom Abram had saved from the Assyrians, because they belonged to him. But Abram would not do so; nor would make any other advantage of that prey than what his servants had eaten; but still insisted that he should afford a part to his friends that had assisted him in the battle. The first of them was called Eschol, and then Enner, and Mambre.
 [X.iii.183]  Laudans autem deus uirtutem eius ait: non perdes mercedes tuas. Dignum est pro talibus habere te gratiam. Et quae putas fuit retributio merce[dum] cum nondum esset qui ei succederet [7v] erat enim adhuc sine filio. Deius et filium ei generandum esse promisit, et multam ex  illo sobolem, et proximam stellarum numero profuturam. Et ille quidem haec audiens, deo sacrificium obtulit: ab eo iussus hoc facere. Erat autem huiusmodi sacrificium. Uitula triennis  et capra triennis, [et aries similiter triennis] et turtur et columba quae diuidi iusserat. Auium uero nihil diuisum est. Et antequam constitueretur ara altibus superuolantibus, pro concupiscenti sanguinis, uox adfuit diuina. Significans malignos proelii eius uicinos fore annis quadringentis in aegypto, in quibus afflicti superessent inimicis, et vincentes bello chananeos: habituri essent eorum terras et ciuitates.   [183] Ἐπαινέσας δὲ αὐτοῦ τὴν ἀρετὴν ὁ θεός, “ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἀπολεῖς, φησί, μισθοὺς οὓς ἄξιόν ἐστίν σε ἐπὶ τοιαύταις εὐπραγίαις κομίζεσθαι.” τοῦ δ᾽ ὑπολαβόντος “καὶ τίς ἂν εἴη χάρις τούτων τῶν μισθῶν, οὐκ ὄντων οἳ διαδέξονται μετ᾽ αὐτόν, ἔτι γὰρ ἦν ἄπαις, ὁ θεὸς καὶ παῖδα αὐτῷ γενήσεσθαι καταγγέλλει καὶ πολλὴν ἐκείνου γενεάν, ὡς παραπλησίως αὐτῇ τοῖς ἄστροις ἔσεσθαι τὸν ἀριθμόν. [184] καὶ ὁ μὲν ταῦτ᾽ ἀκούσας θυσίαν προσφέρει τῷ θεῷ κελευσθεὶς ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ. ἦν δὲ ὁ τρόπος τῆς θυσίας τοιοῦτος: δάμαλιν τριετίζουσαν καὶ αἶγα τριετίζουσαν καὶ κριὸν ὁμοίως τριετῆ καὶ τρυγόνα καὶ περιστερὰν κελεύσαντος διεῖλε, τῶν ὀρνέων οὐδὲν διελών. [185] εἶτα πρὶν στῆναι τὸν βωμὸν οἰωνῶν ἐφιπταμένων ἐπιθυμίᾳ τοῦ αἵματος φωνὴ θεία παρῆν ἀποσημαίνουσα πονηροὺς αὐτοῦ τοῖς ἐγγόνοις γείτονας ἐπὶ ἔτη τετρακόσια γενησομένους κατὰ τὴν Αἴγυπτον: ἐν οἷς κακοπαθήσαντας περιέσεσθαι τῶν ἐχθρῶν καὶ κρατήσαντας πολέμῳ Χαναναίων ἕξειν αὐτῶν τὴν γῆν καὶ τὰς πόλεις.  3. And God commended his virtue, and said, Thou shalt not however lose the rewards thou hast deserved to receive by such thy glorious actions. He answered, And what advantage will it be to me to have such rewards, when I have none to enjoy them after me?—for he was hitherto childless. And God promised that he should have a son, and that his posterity should be very numerous; insomuch that their number should be like the stars. When he heard that, he offered a sacrifice to God, as he commanded him. The manner of the sacrifice was this:—He took an heifer of three years old, and a she-goat of three years old, and a ram in like manner of three years old, and a turtle-dove, and a pigeon 19 and as he was enjoined, he divided the three former, but the birds he did not divide. After which, before he built his altar, where the birds of prey flew about, as desirous of blood, a Divine voice came to him, declaring that their neighbors would be grievous to his posterity, when they should be in Egypt, for four hundred years; 20 during which time they should be afflicted, but afterwards should overcome their enemies, should conquer the Canaanites in war, and possess themselves of their land, and of their cities.
 [X.iv.186] Abraham autem habitauit quidem circa ilicem, quae uocatur ogis. Est autuem regio chananeorum non longe ab ebron ciuitate, et cum grauiter haberet super non parientem mulierem depraecatus est dominum ut ei sobolem masculi fili condonaret. Domino autem iubente, uti confideret pro aliis omnibus bonis, in quibas a mesopotamia eductus fuerat” sed etiam filios ei futuros. Tunc sarra praecipiente deo unam ancillarum cui nomen erat agar aegyptiam genere, collocauit ei tamquam ex ea filios habituro. Et dum concepisset ancilla, iniuriam facere sarrae praesumpsit, quasi regnum foret filius, qui ex ea fuerat procreatus. Hanc dum abraham pro uindicta sarrae tradidisset, fugam meditata est. Et adflictiones non sustinens, deprecata deum, ut eius miseretur. Occuritque per desertum eunti diuinus angelus iubens eam ad dominos remeare; et uitam habituram potiorem caste uiuentem. Tunc namque eo quod in dominam superba ingrataque fuerat mala talia pertulisse, quae si inoboediens esset deo et longius abscederret, eam perire dicebat. Si uero reuerteretur fieret mater pueri, in illa [terra] postea regnaturi. His obediens illa, ueniam reuersa a dominis suis impetrauit. Et post non multum peperit ismahel. Acsi quis dicat deo nobilitatam: eo quod exaudierit dominus preces  [186] Ἅβραμος δὲ κατῴκει μὲν περὶ τὴν Ὠγύγην καλουμένην δρῦν, ἔστι δὲ τῆς Χαναναίας τὸ χωρίον οὐ πόρρω τῆς Ἑβρωνίων πόλεως, δυσφορῶν δὲ ἐπὶ γυναικὶ μὴ κυούσῃ ἱκετεύει τὸν θεὸν γονὴν αὐτῷ παιδὸς ἄρσενος παρασχεῖν. [187] τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ θαρσεῖν αὐτὸν παρακελευομένου τοῖς τε ἄλλοις ἅπασιν ὡς ἐπ᾽ ἀγαθοῖς αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τῆς Μεσοποταμίας ἠγμένον καὶ παίδων ἐσομένων, Σάρρα τοῦ θεοῦ κελεύσαντος ἐπικλίνει μίαν τῶν θεραπαινίδων Ἀγάρην ὄνομα γένος οὖσαν Αἰγυπτίαν ὡς ἐξ αὐτῆς παιδοποιησομένῳ. [188] καὶ γενομένη ἐγκύμων ἡ θεραπαινὶς ἐξυβρίζειν εἰς τὴν Σάρραν ἐτόλμησε βασιλίζουσα, ὡς τῆς ἡγεμονίας περιστησομένης εἰς τὸν ὑπ᾽ αὐτῆς τεχθησόμενον. Ἁβράμου δὲ αὐτὴν πρὸς αἰκίαν παραδιδόντος τῇ Σάρρᾳ δρασμὸν ἐπεβούλευσεν οὐχ ὑπομένουσα τὰς ταλαιπωρίας καὶ τὸν θεὸν ἱκέτευεν οἶκτον αὐτῆς λαβεῖν. [189] ὑπαντιάζει δὲ διὰ τῆς ἐρήμου προϊοῦσαν αὐτὴν ἄγγελος θεῖος κελεύων πρὸς τοὺς δεσπότας ἐπανιέναι: βίου γὰρ μείζονος τεύξεσθαι σωφρονοῦσαν: καὶ γὰρ νῦν εἰς τὴν δέσποιναν ἀγνώμονα καὶ αὐθάδη γενομένην ἐν τούτοις εἶναι τοῖς κακοῖς: [190] παρακούουσαν μὲν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ προσωτέρω χωροῦσαν ἔλεγεν ἀπολεῖσθαι, νοστήσασαν δὲ αὐτὴν ὀπίσω γενήσεσθαι μητέρα παιδὸς τῆς γῆς ἐκείνης βασιλεύσοντος. τούτοις πείθεται καὶ ἐπανελθοῦσα πρὸς τοὺς δεσπότας συγγνώμης ἔτυχε: τίκτει δὲ μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺ Ἰσμαῆλον, θεόκλυτον ἄν τις εἴποι, διὰ τὸ εἰσακοῦσαι τὸν θεὸν τῆς ἱκεσίας.  4. Now Abram dwelt near the oak called Ogyges,—the place belongs to Canaan, not far from the city of Hebron. But being uneasy at his wife's barrenness, he entreated God to grant that he might have male issue; and God required of him to be of good courage, and said that he would add to all the rest of the benefits that he had bestowed upon him, ever since he led him out of Mesopotamia, the gift of children. Accordingly Sarai, at God's command, brought to his bed one of her handmaidens, a woman of Egyptian descent, in order to obtain children by her; and when this handmaid was with child, she triumphed, and ventured to affront Sarai, as if the dominion were to come to a son to be born of her. But when Abram resigned her into the hand of Sarai, to punish her, she contrived to fly away, as not able to bear the instances of Sarai's severity to her; and she entreated God to have compassion on her. Now a Divine Angel met her, as she was going forward in the wilderness, and bid her return to her master and mistress, for if she would submit to that wise advice, she would live better hereafter; for that the reason of her being in such a miserable case was this, that she had been ungrateful and arrogant towards her mistress. He also told her, that if she disobeyed God, and went on still in her way, she should perish; but if she would return back, she should become the mother of a son who should reign over that country. These admonitions she obeyed, and returned to her master and mistress, and obtained forgiveness. A little while afterwards, she bare Ismael; which may be interpreted Heard of God, because God had heard his mother's prayer.
 [X.v.191] Abraham. Itaque cum sex esset annorum et octoginta, natus est ei[is] quem praediximus. In nonagesimonono octauo autem   anno eodem constituto apparuit deus promittens quia filius ei de sarra nasceretur, iussitque [eum] uocari isaac, significans gentes magnas ex eo futuras et reges. Et quia pugnantes omnem chananeam a sydone usque ad aegyptii terminos obtinerent. Praecepit autem ut genus quod nasceretur aliis non misceretur [et] sua genitalia circumcidere, et hoc faciendum octana die post partum. Causam uero circumcisionis nostrae in aliis indicabo. Consulenti autem abrahae de ismahele utrum multo tempore uiueret, longeuum significauit deus et patrem gentium fore magnarum. Et abraham quidem in his gratias agens deo repente circumcisus est, et omness qui apud eum er[ant]  et puer pariter ismahel: pariter, qui die illa tredecim erat annorum, ipse uero nouem et nonaginta annos habebat.  [191] Ἁβράμῳ μὲν οὖν ἕκτον ἤδη καὶ ὀγδοηκοστὸν ἔτος γεγονότι ὁ προειρημένος ἐγεννήθη, εἰς ἔνατον δ᾽ αὐτῷ καὶ ἐνενηκοστὸν παρελθόντι ἐπιφανεὶς ὁ θεὸς ἀπήγγειλεν, ὡς παῖς αὐτῷ ἐκ Σάρρας ἔσοιτο: κελεύει δ᾽ αὐτὸν καλέσαι Ἴσακον δηλῶν ἐσόμενα ἔθνη μεγάλα ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ καὶ βασιλεῖς, καὶ ὅτι πολεμήσαντες καθέξουσι τὴν Χαναναίαν ἅπασαν ἀπὸ Σιδῶνος μέχρι Αἰγύπτου, [192] προσέταξέ τε βουλόμενος τὸ ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ γένος μένειν τοῖς ἄλλοις οὐ συμφυρόμενον περιτέμνεσθαι τὰ αἰδοῖα καὶ τοῦτο ποιεῖν ὀγδόῃ ἡμέρᾳ μετὰ τὸ γεννηθῆναι. τὴν αἰτίαν δὲ τῆς περιτομῆς ἡμῶν ἐν ἄλλοις δηλώσω. [193] πυθομένῳ δὲ Ἁβράμῳ καὶ περὶ τοῦ Ἰσμαήλου, εἰ ζήσεται, πολυχρόνιόν τε ἀπεσήμαινεν ὁ θεὸς καὶ μεγάλων ἐθνῶν πατέρα. καὶ Ἅβραμος μὲν ἐπὶ τούτοις εὐχαριστήσας τῷ θεῷ περιτέμνεται παραχρῆμα καὶ πάντες οἱ παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ καὶ ὁ παῖς Ἰσμαῆλος, οὗ κατ᾽ ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν τρισκαιδέκατον ἔτος ἔχοντος αὐτὸς ἐνενηκοστὸν πρὸς τοῖς ἐννέα διῆγεν.   5. The forementioned son was born to Abram when he was eighty-six years old: but when he was ninety-nine, God appeared to him, and promised him that he Should have a son by Sarai, and commanded that his name should be Isaac; and showed him, that from this son should spring great nations and kings, and that they should obtain all the land of Canaan by war, from Sidon to Egypt. But he charged him, in order to keep his posterity unmixed with others, that they should be circumcised in the flesh of their foreskin, and that this should be done on the eighth day after they were born: the reason of which circumcision I will explain in another place. And Abram inquiring also concerning Ismael, whether he should live or not, God signified to him that he should live to be very old, and should be the father of great nations. Abram therefore gave thanks to God for these blessings; and then he, and all his family, and his son Ismael, were circumcised immediately; the son being that day thirteen years of age, and he ninety-nine.
 


[XI.i.194]
 Eodem scilicet tempore sodomitae diuitiis et abundantia pecuniarum elati, hominibus contumelias faciebant. Et erant impii circa deum, ut nequam recordarentur beneficiorum eius. Auersique sunt a susceptione peregrinorum, et circa eos affectum habere distiterunt. Exasperatus igitur in his deus, disposuit eorum punire superbiam, et ciuitatem eorum subuertere, regionemque cuncta simul exterminare: it ut neque plantatio, neque fructus alter ex eo consurgeret.
 


[194] Ὑπὸ δὴ τοῦτον τὸν καιρὸν οἱ Σοδομῖται πλήθει καὶ μεγέθει χρημάτων ὑπερφρονοῦντες εἴς τε ἀνθρώπους ἦσαν ὑβρισταὶ καὶ πρὸς τὸ θεῖον ἀσεβεῖς, ὡς μηκέτι μεμνῆσθαι τῶν παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ γενομένων ὠφελειῶν, εἶναί τε μισόξενοι καὶ τὰς πρὸς ἄλλους ὁμιλίας ἐκτρέπεσθαι. [195] χαλεπήνας οὖν ἐπὶ τούτοις ὁ θεὸς ἔγνω τιμωρήσασθαι τῆς ὑπερηφανίας αὐτοὺς καὶ τήν τε πόλιν αὐτὴν κατασκάψασθαι καὶ τὴν χώραν οὕτως ἀφανίσαι, ὡς μήτε φυτὸν ἔτι μήτε καρπὸν ἕτερον ἐξ αὐτῆς ἀναδοθῆναι.
 CHAPTER 11. How God Overthrew The Nation Of The Sodomites, Out Of His Wrath Against Them For Their Sins.

1. About this time the Sodomites grew proud, on account of their riches and great wealth; they became unjust towards men, and impious towards God, insomuch that they did not call to mind the advantages they received from him: they hated strangers, and abused themselves with Sodomitical practices. God was therefore much displeased at them, and determined to punish them for their pride, and to overthrow their city, and to lay waste their country, until there should neither plant nor fruit grow out of it.
 [XI.ii.196] Cumque [haec] deus de sodomitis decreuisset explere Abraham respiciens tres angelos dum sederet ad ilicem mambre circa ianuam domus suae: putaretque esse peregrinos. Consurgens amplexatus est. Et ibidem eos retinens rogabat quatenus xenia eis impartirentur.  Quibus annuentibus, panes repente de simila praecepit fieri, et occidens uitulum et affans obtulit eis sub quercu iacentibus. At illi ei gratiam praebuerunt, et cum adhuc comenderent, de muliere requirebant ubi esset Sarra, quo dicente intus eam esse uenturos se in futurum esse dixerunt, et inuenturos eam iam matrem existere. In hoc uero subridente muliere, et impossibile [8r] sibi esse filium habere dicente, cum ipsa quidem nonaginta esset annorum, uir autem eius centum. Tunc illi iam non s[e] celerare continuerunt, sed pronuntiauerunt semetipsos angelos esse dei, et quia missi sunt, ut unus significaret de filio duo uero sodo mitas euerterent.  [196] Ταῦτα τοῦ θεοῦ κρίναντος περὶ τῶν Σοδομιτῶν Ἅβραμος θεασάμενος τρεῖς ἀγγέλους, ἐκαθέζετο δὲ πρὸς τῇ δρυῒ τῇ Μαμβρῆ παρὰ τῇ θύρᾳ τῆς αὑτοῦ αὐλῆς, καὶ νομίσας εἶναι ξένους ἀναστὰς ἠσπάσατό τε καὶ παρ᾽ αὐτῷ καταχθέντας παρεκάλει ξενίας μεταλαβεῖν. [197] ἐπινευσάντων δὲ ἄρτους τε προσέταξεν εὐθὺς ἐκ σεμιδάλεως γενέσθαι, καὶ μόσχον θύσας καὶ ὀπτήσας ἐκόμισεν αὐτοῖς ὑπὸ τῇ δρυῒ κατακειμένοις: οἱ δὲ δόξαν αὐτῷ παρέσχον ἐσθιόντων, ἔτι δὲ καὶ περὶ τῆς γυναικὸς ἐπυνθάνοντο, ποῖ ποτ᾽ εἴη Σάρρα. τοῦ δ᾽ εἰπόντος ἔνδον εἶναι, ἥξειν ἔφασαν εἰς τὸ μέλλον καὶ εὑρήσειν αὐτὴν ἤδη μητέρα γεγενημένην. [198] τῆς δὲ γυναικὸς ἐπὶ τούτῳ μειδιασάσης καὶ ἀδύνατον εἶναι τὴν τεκνοποιίαν εἰπούσης αὐτῆς μὲν ἐνενήκοντα ἔτη ἐχούσης τοῦ δ᾽ ἀνδρὸς ἑκατόν, οὐκέτι κατέσχον λανθάνοντες ἀλλ᾽ ἐμήνυσαν ἑαυτοὺς ὄντας ἀγγέλους τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ ὅτι πεμφθείη μὲν ὁ εἷς σημανῶν περὶ τοῦ παιδός, οἱ δύο δὲ Σοδομίτας καταστρεψόμενοι.  2. When God had thus resolved concerning the Sodomites, Abraham, as he sat by the oak of Mambre, at the door of his tent, saw three angels; and thinking them to be strangers, he rose up, and saluted them, and desired they would accept of an entertainment, and abide with him; to which, when they agreed, he ordered cakes of meal to be made presently; and when he had slain a calf, he roasted it, and brought it to them, as they sat under the oak. Now they made a show of eating; and besides, they asked him about his wife Sarah, where she was; and when he said she was within, they said they would come again hereafter, and find her become a mother. Upon which the woman laughed, and said that it was impossible she should bear children, since she was ninety years of age, and her husband was a hundred. Then they concealed themselves no longer, but declared that they were angels of God; and that one of them was sent to inform them about the child, and two of the overthrow of Sodom.
 [XI.iii.199] Haec audiens Abraham doluit super sodomitis, exurgensque donum deprecatus est, rogans ne iustos et bonos perderet cum malignis. Deo uero dicente, nullum esse sodomitarum  bonum. Nam si inter eos essent decem: omnibus remitteret peccati supplicium: abraham quidem cessauit. Angeli uero in in ciuitatem sodomam peruenerunt, quos loth pro susceptione rogabat: cum esset ualde circa peregrinos humano[u]s, et abraham benignitatis discipulus. Sodomitae uero respicientes iuuenculos nimio uultus decore praecipuos, et apud loth eos successisse cognoscentes, ad uim et iniuriam eorum pulchritudinis sunt conuersi. Loth autem monente ut casti essent, et ad peregrinorum confusionem nequaquam accederent, sed reuerentiam in eorum successione haberent: quod si ita intemperantes essent, filias suas pro illis concupiscentiae eorum se diceret praebiturum: neque sic quieuerunt.  [199] Ταῦτ᾽ ἀκούσας Ἅβραμος ἤλγησεν ἐπὶ τοῖς Σοδομίταις καὶ τὸν θεὸν ἀναστὰς ἱκέτευσε παρακαλῶν, μὴ τοὺς δικαίους καὶ ἀγαθοὺς συναπολλύναι τοῖς πονηροῖς. τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ φήσαντος μηδένα εἶναι τῶν Σοδομιτῶν ἀγαθόν, εἰ γὰρ ἐν αὐτοῖς δέκα εἶεν συγχωρεῖν ἅπασι τὴν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἁμαρτήμασι τιμωρίαν, ὁ μὲν Ἅβραμος ἡσύχασεν: [200] οἱ δὲ ἄγγελοι παρεγένοντο εἰς τὴν τῶν Σοδομιτῶν πόλιν, καὶ ὁ Λῶτος αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ ξενίαν παρεκάλει: λίαν γὰρ ἦν περὶ τοὺς ξένους φιλάνθρωπος καὶ μαθητὴς τῆς Ἁβράμου χρηστότητος. οἱ δὲ Σοδομῖται θεασάμενοι τοὺς νεανίσκους εὐπρεπεστάτους τῇ ὄψει διαφέροντας καὶ παρὰ Λώτῳ καταχθέντας ἐπὶ βίαν καὶ ὕβριν αὐτῶν τῆς ὥρας ἐτράπησαν. [201] τοῦ δὲ Λώτου παραινοῦντος σωφρονεῖν καὶ μὴ χωρεῖν ἐπ᾽ αἰσχύνῃ τῶν ξένων, ἀλλ᾽ ἔχειν αἰδῶ τῆς παρ᾽ αὐτῷ καταγωγῆς, εἰ δὲ ἔχουσιν ἀκρατῶς, τὰς θυγατέρας αὐτοῦ ὑπὲρ ἐκείνων ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις αὐτῶν λέγοντος παρέξειν, οὐδ᾽ οὕτως ἐπείσθησαν.  3. When Abraham heard this, he was grieved for the Sodomites; and he rose up, and besought God for them, and entreated him that he would not destroy the righteous with the wicked. And when God had replied that there was no good man among the Sodomites; for if there were but ten such man among them, he would not punish any of them for their sins, Abraham held his peace. And the angels came to the city of the Sodomites, and Lot entreated them to accept of a lodging with him; for he was a very generous and hospitable man, and one that had learned to imitate the goodness of Abraham. Now when the Sodomites saw the young men to be of beautiful countenances, and this to an extraordinary degree, and that they took up their lodgings with Lot, they resolved themselves to enjoy these beautiful boys by force and violence; and when Lot exhorted them to sobriety, and not to offer any thing immodest to the strangers, but to have regard to their lodging in his house; and promised that if their inclinations could not be governed, he would expose his daughters to their lust, instead of these strangers; neither thus were they made ashamed.
 [XI.iv.202] Deus autuem eorum praesumtionibus indignatus est, alios quidem excecauit; ita ut non possent ad ingressum domus accedere, et sodomitarum omnem populum pestifera morte damnauit. Loth autem deo dicente eis futuram sodomorum perditionem, ereptus est coniuge et filias duas adsumens quae adhuc uirgines erant. Sponsi autem egredi contempserunt, consuetudinem hanc uerborum loth esse dicentes. Deus igitur inmisit gladium in ciuitate: eamque cum habitatoribus concremauit. Terramque simili exterminauit incendio, sicut dudum a me dictum est, cum bellum iudia cum descripsissem. Uxor autem loth descendens cum respiceret sepius ciuitatem, et eius curam haberet, inter dicente deo ne faceret, in statua salis conuersa dinoscitur. Uidi siquidem eam. Acentus enim manet, fugit autem ille cum filiabus, in paru[lo]o quodam agro se con[re]tinens ab igne liberato, qui locus zochor acentus appellatur: sic enim hebrei modicum uocant. Illic autem dessolatione hominum, et inopia ciborum afflictus habitabat.  [202] Ὁ θεὸς οὖν ἀγανακτήσας αὐτῶν ἐπὶ τοῖς τολμήμασι τοὺς μὲν ἠμαύρωσεν, ὡς μὴ δυνηθῆναι τὴν εἴσοδον τὴν εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν εὑρεῖν, Σοδομιτῶν δὲ κατέκρινε πάνδημον ὄλεθρον. Λῶτος δὲ τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν μέλλουσαν ἀπώλειαν τῶν Σοδομιτῶν αὐτῷ φράσαντος ἀπαλλάσσεται τήν τε γυναῖκα καὶ τὰς θυγατέρας, δύο δὲ ἦσαν ἔτι παρθένοι, ἀναλαβών: οἱ γὰρ μνηστῆρες περιεφρόνησαν τῆς ἐξόδου εὐήθειαν ἐπικαλοῦντες τοῖς ὑπὸ τοῦ Λώτου λεγομένοις. [203] καὶ ὁ θεὸς ἐνσκήπτει βέλος εἰς τὴν πόλιν καὶ σὺν τοῖς οἰκήτορσιν κατεπίμπρα τὴν γῆν ὁμοίᾳ πυρώσει ἀφανίζων, ὥς μοι καὶ πρότερον λέλεκται τὸν Ἰουδαϊκὸν ἀναγράφοντι πόλεμον. ἡ δὲ Λώτου γυνὴ παρὰ τὴν ἀναχώρησιν συνεχῶς εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἀναστρεφομένη καὶ πολυπραγμονοῦσα τὰ περὶ αὐτὴν ἀπηγορευκότος τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦτο μὴ ποιεῖν εἰς στήλην ἁλῶν μετέβαλεν: ἱστόρησα δ᾽ αὐτήν, ἔτι γὰρ καὶ νῦν διαμένει. [204] διαφεύγει δ᾽ αὐτὸς μετὰ τῶν θυγατέρων εἰς βραχύ τι χωρίον κατασχὼν περιγραφὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ πυρός: Ζωὼρ ἔτι καὶ νῦν λέγεται: καλοῦσι γὰρ οὕτως Ἑβραῖοι τὸ ὀλίγον. ἐνταῦθα τοίνυν ὑπό τε ἀνθρώπων ἐρημίας καὶ τροφῆς ἀπορίας ταλαιπώρως διῆγεν.  4. But God was much displeased at their impudent behavior, so that he both smote those men with blindness, and condemned the Sodomites to universal destruction. But Lot, upon God's informing him of the future destruction of the Sodomites, went away, taking with him his wife and daughters, who were two, and still virgins; for those that were betrothed to them were above the thoughts of going, and deemed that Lot's words were trifling. God then cast a thunderbolt upon the city, and set it on fire, with its inhabitants; and laid waste the country with the like burning, as I formerly said when I wrote the Jewish War. But Lot's wife continually turning back to view the city as she went from it, and being too nicely inquisitive what would become of it, although God had forbidden her so to do, was changed into a pillar of salt; for I have seen it, and it remains at this day. Now he and his daughters fled to a certain small place, encompassed with the fire, and settled in it: it is to this day called Zoar, for that is the word which the Hebrews use for a small thing. There it was that he lived a miserable life, on account of his having no company, and his want of provisions.
 [XI.v.205] Uirgines autem omne genus humanum exterminatum existimantes, cuiucunque misceri uoluerint se libere credebant. Hoc uero faciebant, ne deficeret humanum genus fuerunt autem filii de seniore quidem moab. Ac si quis dicat ex patre. Iunior autem genuit ammon, quod nomen significat filius generis. Et instituerunt alter quidam moabitas, quorum actenus magna gens est: alter uero ammanitas. Utraque enim gens est in conualle syriae. Et loth quidem huiusmodi esse contigit de sodomitis egressum.  [205] Αἱ δὲ παρθένοι πᾶν ἠφανίσθαι τὸ ἀνθρώπινον ὑπολαβοῦσαι τῷ πατρὶ πλησιάζουσι προνοήσασαι λαθεῖν: ἐποίουν δὲ τοῦτο ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ τὸ γένος ἐκλιπεῖν. γίνονται δὲ παῖδες ὑπὸ μὲν τῆς πρεσβυτέρας Μώαβος: εἴποι δ᾽ ἄν τις ἀπὸ πατρός. Ἄμμανον δ᾽ ἡ νεωτέρα ποιεῖται: γένους υἱὸν ἀποσημαίνει τὸ ὄνομα. [206] καὶ κτίζει δ᾽ αὐτῶν ὁ μὲν Μωαβίτας μέγιστον ὄντας καὶ νῦν ἔθνος, Ἀμμανίτας δὲ ὁ ἕτερος: Συρίας τῆς κοίλης ἐστὶν ἀμφότερα. καὶ Λώτῳ μὲν τοιαύτην συνέβη τὴν ἐκ Σοδομιτῶν ἀναχώρησιν γενέσθαι.  5. But his daughters, thinking that all mankind were destroyed, approached to their father, 24 though taking care not to be perceived. This they did, that human kind might not utterly fail: and they bare sons; the son of the elder was named Moab, Which denotes one derived from his father; the younger bare Ammon, which name denotes one derived from a kinsman. The former of whom was the father of the Moabites, which is even still a great nation; the latter was the father of the Ammonites; and both of them are inhabitants of Celesyria. And such was the departure of Lot from among the Sodomites.
 



[XII.i.207]
 Abraham uero migrauit in gerara palestinae, in loco sororis sarram habens similia prioribus simulans prae timore. Metuebat enim abimelech locorum regem, qui etiam cum adamasset sarram, credens eam se posse corrumpere propter concupiscentiam; in aegritudine dei incidit uoluntate. Medicisque disperantibus eum soportatus somnium, ne contumueliam uxori faceret peregrini aliquantulum leuigatus amicis exposuit: quod [quia] deus ei hanc aegritudinem intulerit pro ultione peregrini, ut eius uxorem sine iniuria conseruaret: qu[i]ae non sororem eam haberet ille sed lege iunctam uxorem, et promisisset praebiturum se ei decetero sospitatem, si pro uxore ille sine timore consisteret. Et cum hoc dixisset, abraham amicis suadentibus euocauit, nihilque ulterius eum de coniuge quasi aliquid turpe passuram formidare praecepit. Deum enim eius habere curam dicens, cuius auxilio uxorem ei suam permanentem sine iniuria reputaret. Deo autem protestante, conscientiaque mulieris dicebat neque eam ab initio se appetisse, si esse eam scisset uxorem, sed tamquam pro sorore seductum. Sed hoc tantum rogabat [qui] ut mitis circa eum esset et deum ei propitium faceret. Et si apud eum manere uellet omnem ubertatem ei conferret. Uolenti uero discidere danda munera rerum omnium quibus ad eum indigens aduenisset. Haec illo dicente, abraham non de cognatione [8v] mulieris mentitum se esse dicebat, fratris eam filiam esse referens. Et eo quod praeter hoc figmentum aduentum suum non fuisse securum arbitraretur. Nec esse suam culpam in illius aegritudine praedicabat, et debere regem habere de salute fiduciam, paratumque se manere apud eum esse dicebat. Abimelech itaque et terram ei distribuit et pecunias, constitueruntque inter se, ut sine dolo conuersarentur, facientes ad quendam puteum foedus, quem uiri sabe uocant, quod foedus putei potuerit dici. Sic enim actenus a prouincialibus nominatur.


 

[207] Ἅβραμος δὲ μετῴκησεν εἰς Γέραρα τῆς Παλαιστίνης ἐν ἀδελφῆς ἐπαγόμενος σχήματι τὴν Σάρραν, ὅμοια τοῖς πρὶν ὑποκρινάμενος διὰ τὸν φόβον: ἐδεδίει γὰρ Ἀβιμέλεχον τὸν βασιλέα τῶν ἐπιχωρίων: ὃς καὶ αὐτὸς ἐρασθεὶς τῆς Σάρρας φθείρειν οἷός τε ἦν. [208] εἴργεται δὲ τῆς ἐπιθυμίας ὑπὸ νόσου χαλεπῆς αὐτῷ προσπεσούσης ἐκ θεοῦ καὶ τῶν ἰατρῶν αὐτὸν ἀπεγνωκότων ὑπνώσας ὄναρ ὁρᾷ μηδὲν ὑβρίζειν τὴν τοῦ ξένου γυναῖκα, καὶ ῥᾷον διατεθεὶς φράζει πρὸς τοὺς φίλους, ὡς ὁ θεὸς ταύτην αὐτῷ ἐπάγει τὴν νόσον ὑπὲρ ἐκδικίας τοῦ ξένου φυλάσσων ἀνύβριστον αὐτῷ τὴν γυναῖκα, μὴ γὰρ ἀδελφὴν οὖσαν ἐπάγεσθαι νόμῳ δ᾽ αὐτῷ συνοικοῦσαν, ἐπαγγέλλεταί τε παρέξειν αὑτὸν εὐμενῆ τὸ λοιπὸν ἀδεοῦς ἐκείνου περὶ τὴν γυναῖκα γενομένου. [209] ταῦτα εἰπὼν μεταπέμπεται τὸν Ἅβραμον συμβουλευσάντων τῶν φίλων καὶ μηδὲν ἔτι περὶ τῆς γυναικὸς αὐτὸν ὡς πεισομένης τι τῶν αἰσχρῶν ἐκέλευσε δεδιέναι, θεὸν γὰρ αὐτοῦ κήδεσθαι, καὶ κατὰ τὴν συμμαχίαν τὴν ἐκείνου μεμενηκυῖαν ἀνύβριστον κομίζεσθαι. τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ μάρτυρος ὄντος καὶ τοῦ τῆς γυναικὸς συνειδότος ἔλεγε μηδ᾽ ἂν ὀρεχθῆναι τὴν ἀρχήν, εἰ γαμετὴν οὖσαν ἠπίστατο, ὡς ἀδελφὴν δὲ ἀγόμενον ἣν οὐκ ἠδίκουν. [210] παρακαλεῖ τε πρᾴως ἔχειν πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ τὸν θεὸν εὐμενῆ ποιεῖν, παρ᾽ αὐτῷ τε μένειν βουλομένῳ πᾶσαν ἀφθονίαν ὑπάρξειν ἀπιέναι τε προαιρούμενον τεύξεσθαι πομπῆς καὶ πάντων ὅσων καὶ χρῄζων πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀφίκοιτο. [211] ταῦτ᾽ εἰπόντος Ἅβραμος οὔτε τὴν συγγένειαν τῆς γυναικὸς ἐψεῦσθαι ἔλεγεν, ἀδελφοῦ γὰρ αὐτὴν εἶναι παῖδα, καὶ δίχα τοιαύτης ὑποκρίσεως οὐκ ἀσφαλῆ τὴν ἐπιδημίαν ὑπολαβεῖν. ὅσα τε ἐπὶ τῷ μηδὲν αἴτιος τῆς νόσου γεγονέναι προθυμηθῆναι δ᾽ αὐτοῦ περὶ τὴν σωτηρίαν, ἑτοίμως ἔφασκεν ἔχειν παρ᾽ αὐτῷ μένειν. [212] καὶ Ἀβιμέλεχος τήν τε γῆν πρὸς αὐτὸν νέμεται καὶ τὰ χρήματα, καὶ συντίθενται ἀδόλως πολιτεύσεσθαι ὑπέρ τινος φρέατος ποιούμενοι τὸν ὅρκον, ὃ Βηρσουβαὶ καλοῦσιν: ὅρκιον δὲ φρέαρ λέγοιτ᾽ ἄν. οὕτω δ᾽ ἔτι καὶ νῦν ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων ὠνόμασται.
 CHAPTER 12. Concerning Abimelech; And Concerning Ismael The Son Of Abraham; And Concerning The Arabians, Who Were His Posterity.

1. Abraham now removed to Gerar of Palestine, leading Sarah along with him, under the notion of his sister, using the like dissimulation that he had used before, and this out of fear: for he was afraid of Abimelech, the king of that country, who did also himself fall in love with Sarah, and was disposed to corrupt her; but he was restrained from satisfying his lust by a dangerous distemper which befell him from God. Now when his physicians despaired of curing him, he fell asleep, and saw a dream, warning him not to abuse the stranger's wife; and when he recovered, he told his friends that God had inflicted that disease upon him, by way of punishment, for his injury to the stranger; and in order to preserve the chastity of his wife, for that she did not accompany him as his sister, but as his legitimate wife; and that God had promised to be gracious to him for the time to come, if this person be once secure of his wife's chastity. When he had said this, by the advice of his friends, he sent for Abraham, and bid him not to be concerned about his wife, or fear the corruption of her chastity; for that God took care of him, and that it was by his providence that he received his wife again, without her suffering any abuse. And he appealed to God, and to his wife's conscience; and said that he had not any inclination at first to enjoy her, if he had known she was his wife; but since, said he, thou leddest her about as thy sister, I was guilty of no offense. He also entreated him to be at peace with him, and to make God propitious to him; and that if he thought fit to continue with him, he should have what he wanted in abundance; but that if he designed to go away, he should be honorably conducted, and have whatsoever supply he wanted when he came thither. Upon his saying this, Abraham told him that his pretense of kindred to his wife was no lie, because she was his brother's daughter; and that he did not think himself safe in his travels abroad, without this sort of dissimulation; and that he was not the cause of his distemper, but was only solicitous for his own safety: he said also, that he was ready to stay with him. Whereupon Abimelech assigned him land and money; and they coventanted to live together without guile, and took an oath at a certain well called Beersheba, which may be interpreted, The Well of the Oath: and so it is named by the people of the country unto this day.

 [XII.ii.213] Post non multum uero tempore natus est abraham filius de sarra sicut fuerat ei a deo praedictum quem nominauit isaac. Hoc autem significat risum. Nam eo quod sarra riserit dicente deo quod pareret, nec iam speraret prae senectute partum, ideo filius ita uocaretur. Haec itaque tunc agebat nonaginta centum uero abraham.  Natus est ergo filius utroque sene, quem reptente post octo dies circunciderunt, et ex illo post totidem dies mos est iudaeorum circuncisiones efficere: Arabas autem post annos tredecim, eo quod ismahel qui gentem eorum instituit, filius abrahae de concubin, hoc fuerit tempore circuncisus, de quo certissime omne tempus exponam.  [213] Γίνεται δὲ Ἁβράμῳ μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺ καὶ παῖς ἐκ Σάρρας, ὡς αὐτῷ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ προείρητο, ὃν Ἴσακον ὠνόμασε: τοῦτο γέλωτα σημαίνει: διὰ μέντοι τὸ τὴν Σάρραν μειδιάσαι τέξεσθαι φήσαντος αὐτὴν τοῦ θεοῦ μὴ προσδοκῶσαν ἤδη τοκετοῦ πρεσβυτέραν οὖσαν τὸν υἱὸν οὕτως ἐκάλεσεν. αὐτὴ μὲν γὰρ ἐνενήκοντα εἶχεν ἔτη ἑκατὸν δὲ Ἅβραμος. [214] τίκτεται δὲ παῖς ἑκατέρων τῷ ὑστάτῳ ἔτει, ὃν εὐθὺς μετ᾽ ὀγδόην ἡμέραν περιτέμνουσι, κἀξ ἐκείνου μετὰ τοσαύτας ἔθος ἔχουσιν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ποιεῖσθαι τὰς περιτομάς, Ἄραβες δὲ μετὰ ἔτος τρισκαιδέκατον: Ἰσμαῆλος γὰρ ὁ κτίστης αὐτῶν τοῦ ἔθνους Ἁβράμῳ γενόμενος ἐκ τῆς παλλακῆς ἐν τούτῳ περιτέμνεται τῷ χρόνῳ: περὶ οὗ τὸν πάντα λόγον ἐκθήσομαι μετὰ πολλῆς ἀκριβείας.   2. Now in a little time Abraham had a son by Sarah, as God had foretold to him, whom he named Isaac, which signifies Laughter. And indeed they so called him, because Sarah laughed when God 25 said that she should bear a son, she not expecting such a thing, as being past the age of child-bearing, for she was ninety years old, and Abraham a hundred; so that this son was born to them both in the last year of each of those decimal numbers. And they circumcised him upon the eighth day and from that time the Jews continue the custom of circumcising their sons within that number of days. But as for the Arabians, they circumcise after the thirteenth year, because Ismael, the founder of their nation, who was born to Abraham of the concubine, was circumcised at that age; concerning whom I will presently give a particular account, with great exactness.


 [XII.iii.215] Sarra natum ismahel de agar acilla primitus diligebat, nihil in eo fauoris  imminuens, quem utique quasi proprium filium et principatus nutriebat heredem. Isaac autem filio procreato, non dignabatur eum nutrie cum ismahel cum senior esset, eumque possit opprimere patrem moriente. Suadebat ergo abrahae ut eum in alia regione cum matre transmitteret. Ille uero in initio quidem non apposuit uoluntatem, ad ea quae sarra fieri festinabat. Crudele nimis arbitratu[ru]s paruulum filium et mulierem et necessariis indigentes abicere. Postea uero cum deo placuisset, ad ea quae sarra praecipiebat confentiens, matri tradidit ismahelem, qui nondum a se poterat gubernari et aquam in utrem et panem ferentem iussit abire [quo] quae itineris necessitas imperaret. Dum ergo abeunti necessaria defecissent: erat in malis, cum esset aqua difficilis. Et exponens puerum sub quadam arbore. Animam pro[tra]hentem ne ea praesente deficeret, procul abscessit. Ad quam ueniens diuinus angelus dixit ei adesse fontem, et monuit ut prouideret hunc infantulum recreare dicens, grandia ei esse conferenda de pueri sospitate. Illa uero confidens de promissionibus et studens alere puerum adhibendo curam, declinauit erumnas.

[215] Σάρρα δὲ γεννηθέντα τὸν Ἰσμαῆλον ἐκ τῆς δούλης αὐτῆς Ἀγάρης τὸ μὲν πρῶτον ἔστεργεν οὐδὲν ἀπολείπουσα τῆς πρὸς ἴδιον υἱὸν εὐνοίας, ἐτρέφετο γὰρ ἐπὶ τῇ τῆς ἡγεμονίας διαδοχῇ, τεκοῦσα δ᾽ αὐτὴ τὸν Ἴσακον οὐκ ἠξίου παρατρέφεσθαι τούτῳ τὸν Ἰσμαῆλον ὄντα πρεσβύτερον καὶ κακουργεῖν δυνάμενον τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῖς ἀποθανόντος. [216] ἔπειθεν οὖν τὸν Ἅβραμον εἰς ἀποικίαν ἐκπέμπειν αὐτὸν μετὰ τῆς μητρός. ὁ δὲ κατὰ μὲν ἀρχὰς οὐ προσετίθετο τὴν αὑτοῦ γνώμην οἷς ἡ Σάρρα ἐσπουδάκει πάντων ὠμότατον ἡγούμενος εἶναι παῖδα νήπιον καὶ γυναῖκα ἄπορον τῶν ἀναγκαίων ἐκπέμπειν. [217] ὕστερον δέ, καὶ γὰρ ὁ θεὸς ἠρέσκετο τοῖς ὑπὸ τῆς Σάρρας προσταττομένοις, πεισθεὶς παρεδίδου τὸν Ἰσμαῆλον τῇ μητρὶ μήπω δι᾽ αὐτοῦ χωρεῖν δυνάμενον, ὕδωρ τε ἐν ἀσκῷ καὶ ἄρτον φερομένην ἐκέλευεν ἀπιέναι ὁδηγῷ τῇ ἀνάγκῃ χρωμένην. [218] ὡς δ᾽ ἀπιοῦσαν ἐπιλελοίπει τὰ ἀναγκαῖα, ἐν κακοῖς ἦν, ὕδατος δὲ σπανίζοντος ὑπ᾽ ἐλάτῃ τινὶ θεῖσα τὸ παιδίον ψυχορραγοῦν, ὡς μὴ παρούσης τὴν ψυχὴν ἀφῇ, προῄει πορρωτέρω. [219] συντυχὼν δ᾽ αὐτῇ θεῖος ἄγγελος πηγήν τε φράζει παρακειμένην καὶ κελεύει προνοεῖν τῆς ἀνατροφῆς τοῦ παιδίου: μεγάλα γὰρ αὐτὴν ἀγαθὰ περιμένειν ἐκ τῆς Ἰσμαήλου σωτηρίας. ἡ δ᾽ ἐθάρσησε τοῖς προκατηγγελμένοις καὶ συμβαλοῦσα ποιμέσι διὰ τὴν ἐξ αὐτῶν ἐπιμέλειαν διαφεύγει τὰς ταλαιπωρίας.

 
3. As for Sarah, she at first loved Ismael, who was born of her own handmaid Hagar, with an affection not inferior to that of her own son, for he was brought up in order to succeed in the government; but when she herself had borne Isaac, she was not willing that Ismael should be brought up with him, as being too old for him, and able to do him injuries when their father should be dead; she therefore persuaded Abraham to send him and his mother to some distant country. Now, at the first, he did not agree to what Sarah was so zealous for, and thought it an instance of the greatest barbarity, to send away a young child and a woman unprovided of necessaries; but at length he agreed to it, because God was pleased with what Sarah had determined: so he delivered Ismael to his mother, as not yet able to go by himself; and commanded her to take a bottle of water, and a loaf of bread, and so to depart, and to take Necessity for her guide. But as soon as her necessary provisions failed, she found herself in an evil case; and when the water was almost spent, she laid the young child, who was ready to expire, under a fig-tree, and went on further, that so he might die while she was absent. But a Divine Angel came to her, and told her of a fountain hard by, and bid her take care, and bring up the child, because she should be very happy by the preservation of Ismael. She then took courage, upon the prospect of what was promised her, and, meeting with some shepherds, by their care she got clear of the distresses she had been in.
 [XII.iv.220] Cum uero puer ad uirilem peruenisset aetatem, uxor ei coniuncta est aegyptia genere. Unde etiam ipsa erat antiquitus oriunda, de qua filii ismaheli nati sunt duodecim. Nabeoth et darus abdeilus marfamus masmasus, dumas, masmirus,  quodamus, thema[n]sus, ecchurus, naplesus, chadomas[us]. Isti namque omnem terram ab eufrate ad mare rubrum postitam usque tenuerunt: nabatheam prouinciam nominantes. Sunt autem isti, qui gentem arabicam secundum tribus ab eis uocant, et propter uirtutem eorum, et propter abraham dignitatem.  [220] Ἀνδρωθέντι δὲ τῷ παιδὶ γύναιον ἄγεται τὸ γένος Αἰγύπτιον, ἐνθένδε ἦν καὶ αὐτὴ τὸ ἀρχαῖον, ἐξ οὗ παῖδες Ἰσμαήλῳ γίνονται δώδεκα πάντες, Ναβαιώθης Κήδαρος Ἀβδεῆλος Μάσσαμος Μάσμασος Ἰδουμᾶς Μάσμησος Χόδαμος Θέμανος Ἰετοῦρος Νάφαισος Κάδμασος. [221] οὗτοι πᾶσαν τὴν ἀπ᾽ Εὐφράτου καθήκουσαν πρὸς τὴν Ἐρυθρὰν θάλασσαν κατοικοῦσι Ναβατηνὴν τὴν χώραν ὀνομάσαντες. εἰσὶ δὲ οὗτοι, οἳ τὸ τῶν Ἀράβων ἔθνος καὶ τὰς φυλὰς ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν καλοῦσι διά τε τὴν ἀρετὴν αὐτῶν καὶ τὸ Ἁβράμου ἀξίωμα.  4. When the lad was grown up, he married a wife, by birth an Egyptian, from whence the mother was herself derived originally. Of this wife were born to Ismael twelve sons; Nabaioth, Kedar, Abdeel, Mabsam, Idumas, Masmaos, Masaos, Chodad, Theman, Jetur, Naphesus, Cadmas. These inhabited all the country from Euphrates to the Red Sea, and called it Nabatene. They are an Arabian nation, and name their tribes from these, both because of their own virtue, and because of the dignity of Abraham their father.



 [XIII.i.222]
 Isaac autem suum filium pater abraham minimium dilligebat, cum esset unigenitus eique a deo pro munere in senectute concessus. Prouocat enim ad fauorem amoremque suum potius ad parentes, et ipse puer, eo quod omni uirtuti studeret, et parentum haberet solicitudinem, et affectum circa dei religionem. Abraham autem cum felicitatem suam filio legitimo relicturus esset, morti uicinus, hoc  dei uoluntate promeruit, qui temptare uolens religionem eius apparuit ei et cuncta quae praestitisset dinumerans. Et quomodo hostium melior fuisset effectus, et praesentem felicatatem eius studio percepisset, et isaac filium habuisset: eundem filium eius sibi sacra immolatione praecepit offerri, in monte nomine mori[u]m eleuatum, ara ibidem collocata. Sic enim apparituram eius religionem: si etiam salutem filii praeponeret quod deo placeret. 
 


[222] Ἴσακον δὲ ὁ πατὴρ Ἅβραμος ὑπερηγάπα μονογενῆ ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ γήρως οὐδῷ κατὰ δωρεὰν αὐτῷ τοῦ θεοῦ γενόμενον. προεκαλεῖτο δὲ εἰς εὔνοιαν καὶ τὸ φιλεῖσθαι μᾶλλον ὑπὸ τῶν γονέων καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ παῖς ἐπιτηδεύων πᾶσαν ἀρετὴν καὶ τῆς τε τῶν πατέρων θεραπείας ἐχόμενος καὶ περὶ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ θρησκείαν ἐσπουδακώς. [223] Ἅβραμος δὲ τὴν ἰδίαν εὐδαιμονίαν ἐν μόνῳ τῷ τὸν υἱὸν ἀπαθῆ καταλιπὼν ἐξελθεῖν τοῦ ζῆν ἐτίθετο. τούτου μέντοι κατὰ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ βούλησιν ἔτυχεν, ὃς διάπειραν αὐτοῦ βουλόμενος λαβεῖν τῆς περὶ αὐτὸν θρησκείας ἐμφανισθεὶς αὐτῷ καὶ πάντα ὅσα εἴη παρεσχημένος καταριθμησάμενος, [224] ὡς πολεμίων τε κρείττονα ποιήσειε καὶ τὴν παροῦσαν εὐδαιμονίαν ἐκ τῆς αὐτοῦ σπουδῆς ἔχοι καὶ τὸν υἱὸν Ἴσακον, ᾔτει τοῦτον αὐτῷ θῦμα καὶ ἱερεῖον αὐτὸν παρασχεῖν ἐκέλευέ τε εἰς τὸ Μώριον ὄρος ἀναγαγόντα ὁλοκαυτῶσαι βωμὸν ἱδρυσάμενον: οὕτως γὰρ ἐμφανίσειν τὴν περὶ αὐτὸν θρησκείαν, εἰ καὶ τῆς τοῦ τέκνου σωτηρίας προτιμήσειε τὸ τῷ θεῷ κεχαρισμένον.
 CHAPTER 13. Concerning Isaac The Legitimate Son Of Abraham.


1. Now Abraham greatly loved Isaac, as being his only begotten and given to him at the borders of old age, by the favor of God. The child also endeared himself to his parents still more, by the exercise of every virtue, and adhering to his duty to his parents, and being zealous in the worship of God. Abraham also placed his own happiness in this prospect, that, when he should die, he should leave this his son in a safe and secure condition; which accordingly he obtained by the will of God: who being desirous to make an experiment of Abraham's religious disposition towards himself, appeared to him, and enumerated all the blessings he had bestowed on him; how he had made him superior to his enemies; and that his son Isaac, who was the principal part of his present happiness, was derived from him; and he said that he required this son of his as a sacrifice and holy oblation. Accordingly he commanded him to carry him to the mountain Moriah, and to build an altar, and offer him for a burnt-offering upon it for that this would best manifest his religious disposition towards him, if he preferred what was pleasing to God, before the preservation of his own son.
 [XIII.ii.225] Abraham autem in nullo iustum esse decernens non obediri deo, sed cunctos ei ministrare debere, tamquam eius prouidentia uiuant omnes quibus est ipse propitius, caelans coniugi dei praeceptum, et quam ipse habuisset decaede filii uoluntatem. Sed neque seruorum cuiquam hoc palam faciens, ne forte deo placere prohiberetur, sumens [9r] isaac cum duobus seruis, et quae erant ad sacrificium necessaria, imponens asino ibat ad montem. Et duobus quidem diebus iter cum eo ferui fecerunt. Tertia uero cum iam circa locum montis essent relinquens in campo reliquos qui cum eo erant, cum solo filio uenit ad montem, in quo templum rex dauid postea collocauit. Portabant autem secum caetera quae erant sacrificio necessaria praeter uictimam. Isaac uero cum quinque et uiginti esset annorum, altari constructo interrogabat quid esset sacrificaturus pater cum uictima de esset. Ille autem dicebat deum ad praebendum hoc idoneum: qui etiam ea quae non sunt abundanter hominibus condonaret, et ea quae sunt ab his qui in semetipsis confiderent, possit auferre: daturum ergo et illi uictimam si propitius ad sacrificium suum dignaretur accedere.  [225] Ἅβραμος δὲ ἐπὶ μηδενὶ κρίνων παρακούειν τοῦ θεοῦ δίκαιον ἅπαντά θ᾽ ὑπουργεῖν ὡς ἐκ τῆς ἐκείνου προνοίας ἀπαντώντων οἷς ἂν εὐμενὴς ᾖ, ἐπικρυψάμενος πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα τήν τε τοῦ θεοῦ πρόρρησιν καὶ ἣν εἶχεν αὐτὸς γνώμην περὶ τῆς τοῦ παιδὸς σφαγῆς, ἀλλὰ μηδὲ τῶν οἰκετῶν τινι δηλώσας, ἐκωλύετο γὰρ ἂν ὑπηρετῆσαι τῷ θεῷ, λαβὼν τὸν Ἴσακον μετὰ δύο οἰκετῶν καὶ τὰ πρὸς τὴν ἱερουργίαν ἐπισάξας ὄνῳ ἀπῄει πρὸς τὸ ὄρος. [226] καὶ δύο μὲν ἡμέρας αὐτῷ συνώδευσαν οἱ οἰκέται, τῇ τρίτῃ δὲ ὡς κάτοπτον ἦν αὐτῷ τὸ ὄρος, καταλιπὼν ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ τοὺς συνόντας μετὰ μόνου τοῦ παιδὸς παραγίνεται εἰς τὸ ὄρος, ἐφ᾽ οὗ τὸ ἱερὸν Δαβίδης ὁ βασιλεὺς ὕστερον ἱδρύεται. [227] ἔφερον δὲ σὺν αὐτοῖς ὅσα λοιπὰ πρὸς τὴν θυσίαν ἦν πλὴν ἱερείου. τοῦ δ᾽ Ἰσάκου πέμπτον τε καὶ εἰκοστὸν ἔτος ἔχοντος τὸν βωμὸν κατασκευάζοντος καὶ πυθομένου, τί καὶ μέλλοιεν θύειν ἱερείου μὴ παρόντος, τὸν θεὸν αὐτοῖς παρέξειν ἔλεγεν ὄντα ἱκανὸν καὶ τῶν οὐκ ὄντων εἰς εὐπορίαν ἀνθρώποις παραγαγεῖν καὶ τὰ ὄντα τῶν ἐπ᾽ αὐτοῖς θαρρούντων ἀφελέσθαι: δώσειν οὖν κἀκείνῳ ἱερεῖον, εἴπερ εὐμενὴς μέλλει τῇ θυσίᾳ παρατυγχάνειν αὐτοῦ.  2. Now Abraham thought that it was not right to disobey God in any thing, but that he was obliged to serve him in every circumstance of life, since all creatures that live enjoy their life by his providence, and the kindness he bestows on them. Accordingly he concealed this command of God, and his own intentions about the slaughter of his son, from his wife, as also from every one of his servants, otherwise he should have been hindered from his obedience to God; and he took Isaac, together with two of his servants, and laying what things were necessary for a sacrifice upon an ass, he went away to the mountain. Now the two servants went along with him two days; but on the third day, as soon as he saw the mountain, he left those servants that were with him till then in the plain, and, having his son alone with him, he came to the mountain. It was that mountain upon which king David afterwards built the temple. Now they had brought with them every thing necessary for a sacrifice, excepting the animal that was to be offered only. Now Isaac was twenty-five years old. And as he was building the altar, he asked his father what he was about to offer, since there was no animal there for an oblation:—to which it was answered, "That God would provide himself an oblation, he being able to make a plentiful provision for men out of what they have not, and to deprive others of what they already have, when they put too much trust therein; that therefore, if God pleased to be present and propitious at this sacrifice, he would provide himself an oblation."

 [XIII.iii.228] Dum ergo altare fuisset constructum, et ligna superinposita, et omnia pro parata, dict ad filium, O puer, quem innumeris uotis optaui a deo mihi conferri [fitur]. Et dum peruenisses ad uitam, nihil est quod pro alimento tuo non feci. Neque me feliciorem magis arbitrabar, nisi cum te uiderem ad uirilem iuuentutem, et moriens succcessorem mei principatus relinquere congaudebam. Qhod [quia] dei uoluntate tuus pater sum factus, denuo secundum eius placitum te repono hanc fortiter porta dicationem. Deo namque te caedo, qui hunc honorem a nonbis dignatur accipere, eo quod placitus mihi fuit, et per omnia suffragator. Natus ergo feliciter morere, non communi modo hanc uitam egrediens. Sed a patre proprio oblatus deo patri cunctorum ob legitimum sacrificium. Recor enim quia te dignum iudicauerit, nec aegritudine, nec bello nec qualibet alia passione, quae solent hominibus accedere, ex hac uita liberare. Sed cum oblationibus et sacrificiis tuam animam suspicere, et apud se nihil ominus obtinere. Eritque ei de caetero curam habens, senectutemque regens qua gratia te maxime nutriebam, haec mihi deo scilicet pro te praebituro.  [228] Ὡς δ᾽ ὁ βωμὸς παρεσκεύαστο καὶ τὰς σχίζας ἐπενηνόχει καὶ ἦν εὐτρεπῆ, λέγει πρὸς τὸν υἱόν: “ὦ παῖ, μυρίαις εὐχαῖς αἰτησάμενός σε γενέσθαι μοι παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, ἐπεὶ παρῆλθες εἰς τὸν βίον, οὐκ ἔστιν ὅ τι μὴ περὶ τὴν σὴν ἀνατροφὴν ἐφιλοτιμησάμην οὐδ᾽ ἐφ᾽ ᾧ μᾶλλον εὐδαιμονήσειν ᾤμην, ὡς εἰ σέ τ᾽ ἴδοιμι ἠνδρωμένον καὶ τελευτῶν διάδοχον τῆς ἀρχῆς τῆς ἐμαυτοῦ καταλίποιμι. [229] ἀλλ᾽ ἐπεὶ θεοῦ τε βουλομένου σὸς πατὴρ ἐγενόμην καὶ πάλιν τούτῳ δοκοῦν ἀποτίθεμαί σε, φέρε γενναίως τὴν καθιέρωσιν: τῷ θεῷ γάρ σε παραχωρῶ ταύτης ἀξιώσαντι παρ᾽ ἡμῶν τῆς τιμῆς ἀνθ᾽ ὧν εὐμενὴς γέγονέ μοι παραστάτης καὶ σύμμαχος νῦν ἐπιτυχεῖν. [230] ἐπεὶ δ᾽ ἐγεννήθης * ἀποθάνῃς οὐ τὸν κοινὸν ἐκ τοῦ ζῆν τρόπον, ἀλλ᾽ ὑπὸ πατρὸς ἰδίου θεῷ τῷ πάντων πατρὶ νόμῳ θυσίας προπεμπόμενος, ἄξιον οἶμαί σε κρίναντος αὐτοῦ μήτε νόσῳ μήτε πολέμῳ μήτε ἄλλῳ τινὶ τῶν παθῶν, ἃ συμπίπτειν πέφυκεν ἀνθρώποις, ἀπαλλαγῆναι τοῦ βίου, [231] μετ᾽ εὐχῶν τε καὶ ἱερουργίας ἐκείνου ψυχὴν τὴν σὴν προσδεξομένου καὶ παρ᾽ αὐτῷ καθέξοντος: ἔσῃ τ᾽ ἐμοὶ εἰς κηδεμόνα καὶ γηρωκόμον, διὸ καὶ σὲ μάλιστα ἀνετρεφόμην, τὸν θεὸν ἀντὶ σαυτοῦ παρεσχημένος.”  3. As soon as the altar was prepared, and Abraham had laid on the wood, and all things were entirely ready, he said to his son, "O son, I poured out a vast number of prayers that I might have thee for my son; when thou wast come into the world, there was nothing that could contribute to thy support for which I was not greatly solicitous, nor any thing wherein I thought myself happier than to see thee grown up to man's estate, and that I might leave thee at my death the successor to my dominion; but since it was by God's will that I became thy father, and it is now his will that I relinquish thee, bear this consecration to God with a generous mind; for I resign thee up to God who has thought fit now to require this testimony of honor to himself, on account of the favors he hath conferred on me, in being to me a supporter and defender. Accordingly thou, my son, wilt now die, not in any common way of going out of the world, but sent to God, the Father of all men, beforehand, by thy own father, in the nature of a sacrifice. I suppose he thinks thee worthy to get clear of this world neither by disease, neither by war, nor by any other severe way, by which death usually comes upon men, but so that he will receive thy soul with prayers and holy offices of religion, and will place thee near to himself, and thou wilt there be to me a succorer and supporter in my old age; on which account I principally brought thee up, and thou wilt thereby procure me God for my Comforter instead of thyself."

 [XIII.iv.232] Isaac autem habens patrem ualde fortissimum sapientiamque delectatus. Et libertissime sermones eius accipiens, ait: Quod [quia] neque iustum esset, ut initio nasceretur, si dei et patris iudicium esset refutaturus. Aut non se monstraret amborum uoluntatibus praeparatum, quando licet solo patre haec uolente facere si non oboediret esset iniustum, hoc dicens accessit ad altare, pariter et ad caedam. Sed opus infirmatum est, afferente deo  impedimentum. Clamauit enim nominatim abraham deus, suspendens eum a filii nece. Non enim quasi sanguinem desideraret humanum, caedem filii se ei imperasse dicebat. Neque cuius patrem eum fecerat, hunc ei auferre cum tanta impietate poscebat, sed eius mentem probare se uelle, si etiam talia [facere] iussus audiret. Cognoscens uero eius oboedientiam, et excellentiam religionis intendens, delectare quidem se in his quae praebuerat ei, ne unquam fraudandum eum omni cura dicebat: et genus eius honorandum futurumque filium eius longeuum, feliciterque uicturum in omnibus bonis, praebiturumque se magnum eius so[u]bole[i]  principatum praedicebat atque genus eorum et multis gentibus et diuit[i]is esse constituendum, et memoriam sempiternam generis eius princibus ad futuram: Chananeamque terram armis esse possessuros, et exemplum boni futuros cunctis hominibus, haec cum dixisset deus, arietem ex inprouiso produxit [eis] ad sacrificium. Illi uero praeter spem semetipsos amplexantes quique qui bonorum talium promissiones audirent, osculabantur alterutros. Et sacrificio celebrato, reuersi sunt ad sarram: feliciterque degebant, cuncta quae uellent eis praebente deo.  [232] Ἴσακος δέ, πατρὸς γὰρ ἦν οἵου τετυχηκότα γενναῖον ἔδει τὸ φρόνημα εἶναι, δέχεται πρὸς ἡδονὴν τοὺς λόγους καὶ φήσας, ὡς οὐδὲ γεγονέναι τὴν ἀρχὴν ἦν δίκαιος, εἰ θεοῦ καὶ πατρὸς μέλλει κρίσιν ἀπωθεῖσθαι καὶ μὴ παρέχειν αὑτὸν τοῖς ἀμφοτέρων βουλήμασιν ἑτοίμως, ὅτε καὶ μόνου τοῦ πατρὸς ταῦτα προαιρουμένου μὴ ὑπακούειν ἄδικον ἦν, ὥρμησεν ἐπὶ τὸν βωμὸν καὶ τὴν σφαγήν. [233] κἂν ἐπράχθη τὸ ἔργον μὴ στάντος ἐμποδὼν τοῦ θεοῦ: βοᾷ γὰρ ὀνομαστὶ τὸν Ἅβραμον εἴργων τῆς τοῦ παιδὸς σφαγῆς. οὐ γὰρ ἐπιθυμήσας αἵματος ἀνθρωπίνου τὴν σφαγὴν αὐτῷ προστάξαι τοῦ παιδὸς ἔλεγεν, οὐδὲ οὗ πατέρα ἐποίησεν αὐτὸς ἀφελέσθαι τούτου βουλόμενος μετὰ τοιαύτης ἀσεβείας, ἀλλὰ δοκιμάσαι θέλων αὐτοῦ τὴν διάνοιαν, εἰ καὶ τοιαῦτα προστασσόμενος ὑπακούοι. [234] μαθὼν δὲ αὐτοῦ τὸ πρόθυμον καὶ τὴν ὑπερβολὴν τῆς θρησκείας ἥδεσθαι μὲν οἷς αὐτῷ παρέσχεν, οὐχ ὑστερήσειν δὲ αὐτὸν ἀεὶ πάσης ἐπιμελείας καὶ τὸ γένος ἀξιοῦντα, ἔσεσθαί τε τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ πολυχρονιώτατον καὶ βιώσαντα εὐδαιμόνως παισὶν ἀγαθοῖς καὶ γνησίοις παραδώσειν μεγάλην ἡγεμονίαν. [235] προεδήλου τε τὸ γένος τὸ αὐτῶν εἰς ἔθνη πολλὰ καὶ πλοῦτον ἐπιδώσειν, καὶ μνήμην αἰώνιον αὐτῶν ἔσεσθαι τοῖς γενάρχαις, τήν τε Χαναναίαν ὅπλοις κατακτησαμένους ζηλωτοὺς ἔσεσθαι πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις. [236] ταῦτα ὁ θεὸς εἰπὼν κριὸν ἐκ τἀφανοῦς παρήγαγεν αὐτοῖς εἰς τὴν ἱερουργίαν. οἱ δὲ παρ᾽ ἐλπίδας αὐτοῦ κεκομισμένου καὶ τοιούτων ἀγαθῶν ἐπαγγελίας ἀκηκοότες ἠσπάζοντό τε ἀλλήλους καὶ θύσαντες ἀπενόστησαν πρὸς τὴν Σάρραν καὶ διῆγον εὐδαιμόνως ἐφ᾽ ἅπασιν οἷς ἐθελήσειαν τοῦ θεοῦ συλλαμβάνοντος αὐτοῖς.  4. Now Isaac was of such a generous disposition as became the son of such a father, and was pleased with this discourse; and said, "That he was not worthy to be born at first, if he should reject the determination of God and of his father, and should not resign himself up readily to both their pleasures; since it would have been unjust if he had not obeyed, even if his father alone had so resolved." So he went immediately to the altar to be sacrificed. And the deed had been done if God had not opposed it; for he called loudly to Abraham by his name, and forbade him to slay his son; and said, "It was not out of a desire of human blood that he was commanded to slay his son, nor was he willing that he should be taken away from him whom he had made his father, but to try the temper of his mind, whether he would be obedient to such a command. Since therefore he now was satisfied as to that his alacrity, and the surprising readiness he showed in this his piety, he was delighted in having bestowed such blessings upon him; and that he would not be wanting in all sort of concern about him, and in bestowing other children upon him; and that his son should live to a very great age; that he should live a happy life, and bequeath a large principality to his children, who should be good and legitimate." He foretold also, that his family should increase into many nations 29 and that those patriarchs should leave behind them an everlasting name; that they should obtain the possession of the land of Canaan, and be envied by all men. When God had said this, he produced to them a ram, which did not appear before, for the sacrifice. So Abraham and Isaac receiving each other unexpectedly, and having obtained the promises of such great blessings, embraced one another; and when they had sacrificed, they returned to Sarah, and lived happily together, God affording them his assistance in all things they desired.



 [XIV.237] Et sarra quidem non multo post tempore defuncta est, cum uixisset annis centum uiginti et septem sepultaque est in ebron permittentibus chananaeis, sepulchrumque eius publicae factum est, abraham emente agrum fidis quadrigentis a quodam ephrem de ebron: et sepulchra sibi abraham et eius sobolis constituterunt.



 [237] Καὶ Σάρρα μὲν οὐ πολὺ ὕστερον ἀποθνήσκει βιώσασα ἔτη ἑπτὰ καὶ εἴκοσι πρὸς τοῖς ἑκατόν. θάπτουσι δ᾽ αὐτὴν ἐν Νεβρῶνι συγχωρούντων μὲν τῶν Χαναναίων καὶ δημοσίᾳ χοῦν αὐτῆς τὸν τάφον, Ἁβράμου δὲ ὠνησαμένου τὸ χωρίον σίκλων τετρακοσίων παρ᾽ Ἐφραίμου τινὸς ἐκ τῆς Νεβρῶνος. καὶ τὰ μνημεῖα Ἅβραμός τε καὶ οἱ ἀπόγονοι αὐτοῦ ταύτῃ κατεσκευάσαντο.
CHAPTER 14. Concerning Sarah Abraham's Wife; And How She Ended Her Days.

Now Sarah died a little while after, having lived one hundred and twenty-seven years. They buried her in Hebron; the Canaanites publicly allowing them a burying-place; which piece of ground Abraham bought for four hundred shekels, of Ephron, an inhabitant of Hebron. And both Abraham and his descendants built themselves sepulchers in that place.




 [XV.i.238]
 Post haec autem abraham duxit uxorem nomine cheturam, ex qua ei sex filii nati sunt, et ad labores ualidi et ad sapientia cauti, zambri, iexar, madan, mag]t]iani, iesuoc, et esue. Natu sunt autem etiam his filii. Et esue quidem sabathem [9v] fuit et dadam huic uero fuerunt affurim et i[l]acusi et lomni, madan autem habuit effam, et opher et enoch, et abida, et helda. His omnibus filiis filiorumque natis abraham ex propriis dona praebuit, qui et throgoditen adpraehenderunt, et felicem arabiam in quantum ad mare rubrum pertingit. Dicitur autem quia dum opher castra finxisset in libia et filiorum eius filii habitassent in ea terram illam ex illius nomine africam uocauerunt. Testatur autem meo sermoni alexander qui dicitur polyistor, id est multarum historiarum, sic dicens. Cleodemus autem propheta qui et malchus scribens historiam iudaeorum. Sicut etiam moyses legislator eorum retulit ait quia de cethura abrahae [fuerunt] filii multi filii. Dicit autem eorum etiam nomina ria apher ansurim,  iaphran. Et de surim quidem assyriam nuncupatam. Ex duobus autem reliquis iafran et apheran, ciuitatem abran et prouinciam africam nominatam: his enim auxilium praebuisse herculem in libia, et duxisset uxorem filiam iaphra nomine heam, et genuisset ex ea diodorum filium, cuius fuit filius soron: ex quo barbari sophaci nominantur.



 [238] Γαμεῖ δ᾽ αὐτὸς Κατούραν ὕστερον, ἐξ ἧς αὐτῷ παῖδες ἓξ γίνονται πρός τε πόνους καρτεροὶ καὶ δεινοὶ συνιέναι, Ζεμβράνης Ἰαζάρης Μαδάνης Μαδιάνης Λουσούβακος Σοῦος. φύονται δὲ καὶ τούτοις παῖδες: καὶ Σούου μὲν Σαβακίνης γίνεται καὶ Δαδάνης, τούτου δὲ Λατούσιμος Ἄσσουρις Λούουρις: Μαδάνου δὲ Ἠφᾶς Ἑώφρην Ἄνωχος Ἐβιδᾶς Ἐλδᾶς. [239] τούτοις ἅπασι τοῖς παισὶ καὶ τοῖς υἱωνοῖς Ἅβραμος ἀποικιῶν στόλους μηχανᾶται, καὶ τήν τε Τρωγλοδῦτιν καταλαμβάνουσι καὶ τῆς εὐδαίμονος Ἀραβίας ὅσον ἐπὶ τὴν Ἐρυθρὰν καθήκει θάλασσαν. λέγεται δέ, ὡς οὗτος ὁ Ἑώφρην στρατεύσας ἐπὶ τὴν Λιβύην κατέσχεν αὐτὴν καὶ οἱ υἱωνοὶ αὐτοῦ κατοικήσαντες ἐν αὐτῇ τὴν γῆν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἐκείνου ὀνόματος Ἀφρικὰ προσηγόρευσαν. [240] μαρτυρεῖ δέ μου τῷ λόγῳ Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ πολυίστωρ λέγων οὕτως: “Κλεόδημος δέ φησιν ὁ προφήτης ὁ καὶ Μάλχος ἱστορῶν τὰ περὶ Ἰουδαίων, καθὼς καὶ Μωυσῆς ἱστόρησεν ὁ νομοθέτης αὐτῶν, ὅτι ἐκ τῆς Κατούρας Ἁβράμῳ ἐγένοντο παῖδες ἱκανοί. [241] λέγει δὲ αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ ὀνόματα ὀνομάζων τρεῖς Ἰαφέραν Σούρην Ἰαφράν. ἀπὸ Σούρου μὲν τὴν Ἀσσυρίαν κεκλῆσθαι, ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν δύο Ἰαφρᾶ τε καὶ Ἰαφέρου, πόλιν τε Ἐφρᾶν καὶ τὴν χώραν Ἀφρικὰ ὀνομασθῆναι. τούτους γὰρ Ἡρακλεῖ συστρατεῦσαι ἐπὶ Λιβύην καὶ Ἀνταῖον: γήμαντά τε τὴν Ἀφράνου θυγατέρα Ἡρακλέα γεννῆσαι υἱὸν ἐξ αὐτῆς Δίδωρον: τούτου δὲ γενέσθαι Σόφωνα, ἀφ᾽ οὗ τοὺς βαρβάρους Σόφακας λέγεσθαι.” 
 CHAPTER 15. How The Nation Of The Troglodytes Were Derived From Abraham By Keturah.

Abraham after this married Keturah, by whom six sons were born to him, men of courage, and of sagacious minds: Zambran, and Jazar, and Madan, and Madian, and Josabak, and Sous. Now the sons of Sous were Sabathan and Dadan. The sons of Dadan were Latusim, and Assur, and Luom. The sons of Madiau were Ephas, and Ophren, and Anoch, and Ebidas, and Eldas. Now, for all these sons and grandsons, Abraham contrived to settle them in colonies; and they took possession of Troglodytis, and the country of Arabia the Happy, as far as it reaches to the Red Sea. It is related of this Ophren, that he made war against Libya, and took it, and that his grandchildren, when they inhabited it, called it [from his name] Africa. And indeed Alexander Polyhistor gives his attestation to what I here say; who speaks thus: "Cleodemus the prophet, who was also called Malchus, who wrote a History of the Jews, in agreement with the History of Moses, their legislator, relates, that there were many sons born to Abraham by Keturah: nay, he names three of them, Apher, and Surim, and Japhran. That from Surim was the land of Assyria denominated; and that from the other two [Apher and Japbran] the country of Africa took its name, because these men were auxiliaries to Hercules, when he fought against Libya and Antaeus; and that Hercules married Aphra's daughter, and of her he begat a son, Diodorus; and that Sophon was his son, from whom that barbarous people called Sophacians were denominated."



 [XVI.i.242] Isaac autem circa quadraginta annos iam constituto a patre abraham ut uxore duceretur ei rebecca, quae fuit fratris eius nachor neptis filia bathuelis. Seniorem seruorum suorum misit ad desponsanda[u]m ea[u]m magnis fidei sacramentis obstrictum, quod hoc modo faciebant, suffemore manum mittentes, deinde inuocantes deum testem omnium futurorum. Misit autem et munera ibidem commanentibus quae apud illos rariora essent, autem nec omnino [in] illa regione repperirentur, quo tempore multo uadens, eo quod sit iter agentibus dira mesopothamia, hieme quidem propter luti profunditatem, aestate uero propter aquae defectionem, in super etiam latronibus ibidem commorantibus quae de[i]fugere non esset facile nisi prouidentia uiatoribus inherept. Uenit in ciuitate carrenorum cum esset in suburbanis uirgines uidit plures euntes ad aquam orauitque deum ut  rebecca ob quam disponsan clam filio eum miserat abraham, si secundum eius uoluntatem essent nuptiae caelebrandae, inter illas inueniretur, et ita congoscetur ut aliis quidem aquam poscenti negantibus illa praeberet.


 [242] Ἰσάκῳ δὲ περὶ τεσσαρακοστὸν ἔτος γεγονότι γυναῖκα γνοὺς ἀγαγέσθαι ὁ πατὴρ Ἅβραμος Ῥεβέκκαν Ναχώρου παιδὸς θυγατέρα τἀδελφοῦ τὸν πρεσβύτατον πέμπει τῶν οἰκετῶν ἐπὶ τὴν μνηστείαν ἐνδησάμενος μεγάλαις πίστεσι. [243] γίνονται δὲ αὗται τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον: ὑπὸ τοὺς μηροὺς ἀλλήλοις τὰς χεῖρας ἐπαγαγόντες ἔπειτα ἐπικαλοῦνται τὸν θεὸν μάρτυρα τῶν ἐσομένων. ἔπεμπε δὲ καὶ δῶρα τοῖς ἐκεῖ διὰ τὸ σπάνιον ἢ μηδ᾽ ὅλως ἐπιχωριάζειν ἐκτετιμημένα. [244] οὗτος ἀπερχόμενος χρόνῳ διὰ τὸ εἶναι χαλεπὴν ὁδεύεσθαι τὴν Μεσοποταμίαν, χειμῶνι μὲν ὑπὸ πηλῶν βάθους, θέρους δ᾽ ὑπὸ ἀνυδρίας, ἔτι δὲ καὶ λῃστηρίων ὄντων ἐν αὐτῇ, ἃ διαφυγεῖν οὐκ ἐνῆν μὴ προνοοῦσι τούτου τοῖς ὁδεύουσιν, εἰς πόλιν ἀφικνεῖται Κάρραν καὶ γενόμενος ἐν τοῖς προαστείοις παρθένοις ἐντυγχάνει πλείοσιν ἐφ᾽ ὕδωρ βαδιζούσαις: [245] εὔχεται μὲν οὖν τῷ θεῷ Ῥεβέκκαν, ἣν τῷ παιδὶ Ἅβραμος μνηστευσόμενον ἐξαπέστειλεν, εἰ κατὰ νοῦν τὸν αὐτοῦ μέλλει ὁ γάμος οὗτος συντελεῖσθαι, ἐν ἐκείναις εὑρεθῆναι γνωρισθῆναι τε αὐτὴν τῶν μὲν ἄλλων αἰτοῦντι ποτὸν ἀρνουμένων ἐκείνης δὲ αὐτῷ παρασχούσης. 
 CHAPTER 16. How Isaac Took Rebeka To Wife.

1. Now when Abraham, the father of Isaac, had resolved to take Rebeka, who was grand-daughter to his brother Nahor, for a wife to his son Isaac, who was then about forty years old, he sent the ancientest of his servants to betroth her, after he had obliged him to give him the strongest assurances of his fidelity; which assurances were given after the manner following:—They put each other's hands under each other's thighs; then they called upon God as the witness of what was to be done. He also sent such presents to those that were there as were in esteem, on account that that they either rarely or never were seen in that country, The servant got thither not under a considerable time; for it requires much time to pass through Meopotamia, in which it is tedious traveling, both in the winter for the depth of the clay, and in summer for want of water; and, besides this, for the robberies there committed, which are not to be avoided by travelers but by caution beforehand. However, the servant came to Haran; and when he was in the suburbs, he met a considerable number of maidens going to the water; he therefore prayed to God that Rebeka might be found among them, or her whom Abraham sent him as his servant to espouse to his son, in case his will were that this marriage should be consummated, and that she might be made known to him by the sign, That while others denied him water to drink, she might give it him.

 [XVI.ii.246] Et ille quidem hanc uoluntatem habens uenit ad puteum, rogauitque uirgines ut potum ei praeberent. Illis autem auertentibus se, indigentibusque aquam domi portare et non praebere illi, quae utique difficile possit hauriri. Una ex illis omnibus increpans eis pro peregrino, quasi non esset hominibus ad illas aliquando communio, quae neque aquam participarent egeno, sola ei praebuit abundanter. Ille autem in spem rerum omnium ueniens, uolens autem cognoscere ueritatem, Laudabat eius nobilitatem atque benignitatem, quia etiam cum suo labore, egentibus sufficientiam praebere minime declinasset. Interrogabat autem de quibus parentibus esset, optauitque quod illi foret gratissimum, ut in domum uiri boni ueniret, filios ei paritura germanos. Illa uero neque haec inuidit uolenti cognoscere. Sed et genus indicauit. Et Rebecca inquid ego dicor: pater autem bathuel fuit. Sed ille iam quidem defunctus est: Laban uero frater est noster qui et domui prospicit: simul et matri et ille meae uirginitatis sollicitudinem gerit. Ille namque gaudebat in his quae facta fuerant atque dicta, deum ita uidens suo itineri clare prospicere et proferens redimiculu et alia pariter ornamenta quibus uirgines decet uti dedit puellae, ut ei causa poculi haec retributio foret et honor iustum esse dicens ut talia mereretur, quae fuerit bona praeter uirgines uniuersas. Poscebat haec apud eos succedere, quando ad eam integrius aliter peruenire nequiret. Cum iam nox utique super esset portabatque ornamenta muliebria ualde praeciosissima. Estimans sibi nihil esse cautius quam quibus iam uidebatur expertus, et conicere ex ea et matris et fratris eius clementiam, et quod [quia] nihil esset eorum uirtute dificile, neque eos grauaturum, sed mercedem peregrinationis praebiturum, et propriis ex pensis usurum esse dicebat. Illa uero de parentum quidem suorum clementia recte eum adseruit arbitratum. Culpauit autem pro mercedis uerbo cum esset utique omnia sine mercedibus habiturus, sed ut nunciaret, [10r] prius laban fratri, quo permittente accersiendum  esse dicebat.  [246] Καὶ ὁ μὲν ἐπὶ ταύτης ὢν τῆς διανοίας ἐπὶ τὸ φρέαρ παραγίνεται καὶ παρακαλεῖ τὰς παρθένους ποτὸν αὐτῷ παρασχεῖν: τῶν δ᾽ ἐκτρεπομένων ὡς χρῃζουσῶν οἴκαδε κομίζειν, ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἐκείνῳ παρασχεῖν, καὶ γὰρ οὐδ᾽ εὔληπτον εἶναι τὸ ὕδωρ, μία ἐξ ἁπασῶν ἐκείναις τε τῆς πρὸς τὸν ξένον ἐπιπλήττει δυσκολίας, τίνος ἄλλου κοινωνήσειν πρὸς ἀνθρώπους αὐτάς ποτε, αἳ μηδ᾽ ὕδατος μετέδοσαν λέγουσα, καὶ παρέχει αὐτῷ φιλοφρόνως. [247] ὁ δὲ ἐν ἐλπίδι μὲν τῶν ὅλων γενόμενος, βουλόμενος δὲ τὴν ἀλήθειαν μαθεῖν, ἐπῄνει τε τῆς εὐγενείας αὐτὴν καὶ τῆς χρηστότητος, ὅτι καὶ μετ᾽ οἰκείου πόνου τοῖς δεομένοις ἐπαρκεῖν οὐκ ἔφυγεν, ἐπυνθάνετό τε τίνων εἴη γονέων καὶ κατεύχεται αὐτοῖς ὄνησιν τοιαύτης παιδὸς καί “νυμφεύσειαν, φησίν, ὡς αὐτοῖς ἐστι κεχαρισμένον, εἰς οἶκον ἀνδρὸς ἀγαθοῦ παῖδας [248] αὐτῷ τεξομένην γνησίους.” ἡ δὲ οὐδὲ τούτων ἐφθόνησεν αὐτῷ βουλομένῳ μαθεῖν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ γένος ἀπεσήμαινε καὶ “Ῥεβέκκα μέν, φησίν, ἐγὼ καλοῦμαι, πατὴρ δέ μοι Βαθουῆλος ἦν: ἀλλ᾽ ὁ μὲν ἤδη τέθνηκε, Λάβανος δὲ ἀδελφός ἐστιν ἡμέτερος τοῦ τε οἴκου παντὸς σὺν τῇ μητρὶ προνοούμενος καὶ τῆς ἐμῆς παρθενίας ἐπιμελόμενος.” [249] τούτων ἀκροασάμενος ἔχαιρέ τε τοῖς γεγονόσι καὶ τοῖς εἰρημένοις τὸν θεὸν οὕτως ὁρῶν αὐτῷ τῆς ὁδοῦ σαφῶς συλλαμβάνοντα, καὶ προκομίσας ὁρμίσκον τε καί τινας κόσμους, οὓς εὐπρεπὲς φορεῖν παρθένοις, ἀνεδίδου τῇ κόρῃ τῆς ἐπὶ τῷ πιεῖν χάριτος ἀμοιβὴν εἶναι καὶ γέρας, δίκαιον λέγων τοιούτων αὐτὴν τυγχάνειν ἀγαθὴν παρὰ τὰς τοσαύτας παρθένους γενομένην. [250] ἠξίου τε παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς καταχθῆναι τοῦ προσωτέρω χωρεῖν τῆς νυκτὸς αὐτὸν ἀφαιρουμένης, κόσμον τε φέρων γυναικεῖον πολυτελῆ πιστεύειν αὐτὸν οὐκ ἀσφαλεστέροις ἔφασκεν ἢ τούτοις, οἷς αὐτὸς ἐπειράθη. τεκμαίρεσθαι δὲ καὶ τὴν τῆς μητρὸς καὶ τἀδελφοῦ φιλανθρωπίαν αὐτῆς ἔλεγεν, ὡς οὐ δυσχερανοῦσιν, ἐκ τῆς περὶ αὐτὴν ἀρετῆς: οὐδὲ γὰρ ἔσεσθαι βαρὺς μισθόν τε τῆς φιλοξενίας τελέσας καὶ δαπάναις ἰδίαις χρησάμενος. [251] ἡ δὲ περὶ μὲν τῆς τῶν γονέων φιλανθρωπίας αὐτῆς ὀρθῶς εἰκάζειν αὐτὸν εἶπεν, ἐπεμέμφετο δὲ ὡς μικρολόγους ὑπειληφότα: πάντων γὰρ ἀμισθὶ μεθέξειν. δηλώσασα μέντοι Λαβάνῳ πρότερον τἀδελφῷ συγχωροῦντος ἄξειν αὐτὸν ἔλεγεν.  2. With this intention he went to the well, and desired the maidens to give him some water to drink: but while the others refused, on pretense that they wanted it all at home, and could spare none for him, one only of the company rebuked them for their peevish behavior towards the stranger; and said, What is there that you will ever communicate to anybody, who have not so much as given the man some water? She then offered him water in an obliging manner. And now he began to hope that his grand affair would succeed; but desiring still to know the truth, he commended her for her generosity and good nature, that she did not scruple to afford a sufficiency of water to those that wanted it, though it cost her some pains to draw it; and asked who were her parents, and wished them joy of such a daughter. "And mayst thou be espoused," said he, "to their satisfaction, into the family of an agreeable husband, and bring him legitimate children." Nor did she disdain to satisfy his inquiries, but told him her family. "They," says she, "call me Rebeka; my father was Bethuel, but he is dead; and Laban is my brother; and, together with my mother, takes care of all our family affairs, and is the guardian of my virginity." When the servant heard this, he was very glad at what had happened, and at what was told him, as perceiving that God had thus plainly directed his journey; and producing his bracelets, and some other ornaments which it was esteemed decent for virgins to wear, he gave them to the damsel, by way of acknowledgment, and as a reward for her kindness in giving him water to drink; saying, it was but just that she should have them, because she was so much more obliging than any of the rest. She desired also that he would come and lodge with them, since the approach of the night gave him not time to proceed farther. And producing his precious ornaments for women, he said he desired to trust them to none more safely than to such as she had shown herself to be; and that he believed he might guess at the humanity of her mother and brother, that they would not be displeased, from the virtue he found in her; for he would not be burdensome, but would pay the hire for his entertainment, and spend his own money. To which she replied, that he guessed right as to the humanity of her parents; but complained that he should think them so parsimonious as to take money, for that he should have all on free cost. But she said she would first inform her brother Laban, and, if he gave her leave, she would conduct him in.

 [XVI.iii.252] Cum ergo hoc factum fuisset, peregrinus adductus est, et camelos quidem fumentes laban famuli eis diligentiam adhibebant. Ipse uero cenaturus ingrediebatur cum eo. Et post cenam ad eum matremque puellae locutus est, dicens. Abraham  thares quidem est filius, uester uero cognatus, nachor enim horum o mulier puerorum auus frater abrahae fuit ex eodem patre uel matre. Is igitur misit ad uos po[e]tens hanc puellam uxorem filio suo iungendam esse, qui legitimus est ei solus. In bonis omnibus erudit. Cui possibile quidem fuit, felicissima exinde mulierem ei copulare, sed noluit. Honorans autem genus nuptias postulat, cuius studium ac uoluntate nolite contempnere. Dei enim uoluntate et alia quidem pariter mihi prospera contigerunt, et puellam citius et uestram inueni domum. Dei namque uoluntatem et alia quidem mihi  praeter prospera contingerunt, et puellam citius et uostram inueni domum. Dum enim essem proximus ciuitati, uirgines uidens plurimas uenientes a[d] puteum, oraui ut in istam inci[e]derem quod scilicet factum est. Nuptias ergo diuina proscientia disponsatas uos quoque firmate; Illi uero per ea quae eis fuerant secunde conlata, dispositionem diuinae uoluntatis intellexerunt, miseruntque sicut petebat uirginem, quam duxit. isaac potitus omnium rerum abrahae. Nam qui fuerunt decethura nati exinde migrauerunt.  [252] Ὡς οὖν τούτου γενομένου παρῆγε τὸν ξένον, τὰς μὲν καμήλους αὐτοῦ παραλαμβάνοντες οἱ Λαβάνου θεράποντες ἐτημέλουν, αὐτὸς δὲ δειπνήσων εἰσήγετο σὺν αὐτῷ καὶ μετὰ τὸ δεῖπνόν φησι πρός τε αὐτὸν καὶ τὴν μητέρα τῆς κόρης: “Ἅβραμος Θέρρου μέν ἐστιν υἱός, συγγενὴς δ᾽ ὑμέτερος: Ναχώρης γὰρ ὁ τούτων, ὦ γύναι, τῶν παίδων πάππος ἀδελφὸς ἦν Ἁβράμου ὁμοπάτριός τε καὶ ὁμομήτριος. [253] πέμπει τοίνυν οὗτος πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἀξιῶν τὴν κόρην ταύτην παιδὶ τῷ ἑαυτοῦ λαβεῖν πρὸς γάμον, ὃς γνήσιός ἐστιν αὐτῷ καὶ μόνος ἐπὶ τοῖς πᾶσι τεθραμμένος. ᾧ τῶν μὲν ἐκεῖ γυναικῶν δυνατὸν αὐτῷ τὴν εὐδαιμονεστάτην λαβεῖν οὐκ ἠξίωσεν ἀγαγέσθαι, τιμῶν δὲ τὸ γένος τὸν γάμον πολιτεύει τοῦτον. [254] οὗ τὴν σπουδὴν καὶ τὴν προαίρεσιν μὴ ὑβρίσητε: κατὰ γὰρ θεοῦ βούλησιν τά τε ἄλλα μοι κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν ἀπήντησε καὶ τὴν παῖδα καὶ τὸν ὑμέτερον οἶκον εὗρον. ἐπεὶ γὰρ πλησίον τῆς πόλεως ἐγενόμην, παρθένους ἰδὼν πολλὰς ἐπὶ τὸ φρέαρ παραγινομένας ηὐξάμην εἰς ταύτην ἐμπεσεῖν, ὃ δὴ γέγονε. [255] γάμον οὖν ὑπὸ θείας μνηστευόμενον ἐπιφανείας καὶ ὑμεῖς κυρώσατε καὶ Ἅβραμον τὸν μετὰ τοσαύτης ἀπεσταλκότα σπουδῆς τῷ κατανεῦσαι τὴν κόρην τιμήσατε.” οἱ δὲ, καλὰ γὰρ ἦν αὐτοῖς καὶ κεχαρισμένα, τήν τε γνώμην τοῦ θεοῦ συνῆκαν καὶ πέμπουσιν ἐφ᾽ οἷς ἠξίου τὴν θυγατέρα. γαμεῖ δὲ ταύτην ὁ Ἴσακος τῶν πραγμάτων εἰς αὐτὸν ἀφικομένων: οἱ γὰρ ἐκ τῆς Κατούρας εἰς τὰς ἀποικίας ἐξεληλύθεισαν.  3. As soon then as this was over, she introduced the stranger; and for the camels, the servants of Laban brought them in, and took care of them; and he was himself brought in to supper by Laban. And, after supper, he says to him, and to the mother of the damsel, addressing himself to her, "Abraham is the son of Terah, and a kinsman of yours; for Nahor, the grandfather of these children, was the brother of Abraham, by both father and mother; upon which account he hath sent me to you, being desirous to take this damsel for his son to wife. He is his legitimate son, and is brought up as his only heir. He could indeed have had the most happy of all the women in that country for him, but he would not have his son marry any of them; but, out of regard to his own relations, he desired him to match here, whose affection and inclination I would not have you despise; for it was by the good pleasure of God that other accidents fell out in my journey, and that thereby I lighted upon your daughter and your house; for when I was near to the city, I saw a great many maidens coming to a well, and I prayed that I might meet with this damsel, which has come to pass accordingly. Do you therefore confirm that marriage, whose espousals have been already made by a Divine appearance; and show the respect you have for Abraham, who hath sent me with so much solicitude, in giving your consent to the marriage of this damsel." Upon this they understood it to be the will of God, and greatly approved of the offer, and sent their daughter, as was desired. Accordingly Isaac married her, the inheritance being now come to him; for the children by Keturah were gone to their own remote habitations.

 

[XVII.256]
 Post paululum uero temporis mortuus est etiam abraham, uir omni quidem uirtute summus et digne a deo pro studio quo circa eum habuerat, honoratus. Uixit autem omne tempus suum annis centum septuaginta quinque. Et in ebron cum sarra coniuge a suis filiis isaac et ismahele sepultus est.


 [256] Τελευτᾷ δὲ καὶ Ἅβραμος μετ᾽ ὀλίγον, ἀνὴρ πᾶσαν ἀρετὴν ἄκρος καὶ τῆς περὶ αὐτὸν σπουδῆς ἀξίως ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ τετιμημένος. ἐβίωσε δὲ τὸν πάντα χρόνον ἐτῶν ἑβδομηκονταπέντε πρὸς τοῖς ἑκατὸν καὶ θάπτεται ἐν Νεβρῶνι μετὰ τῆς γυναικὸς Σάρρας ὑπὸ τῶν παίδων Ἰσάκου καὶ Ἰσμαήλου.
 CHAPTER 17. Concerning The Death Of Abraham.

A Little while after this Abraham died. He was a man of incomparable virtue, and honored by God in a manner agreeable to his piety towards him. The whole time of his life was one hundred seventy and five years, and he was buried in Hebron, with his wife Sarah, by their sons Isaac and Ismael.



 [XVIII.i.257]
 Porro post mortem abraham concepit uxor isaac, cuius uenire nimis intumescente, haesitans consuluit dominum, responditque geminos parituram fore rebeccam. Et in omnibus gentibus esse nominandos: maioris autem primatum esse minuandum. Peperit ergo ei paulatim secundum diuinum eloquium germinos filios quorum senior quidem ut credimus a capite usque ad pedes esse uehementer hirsutus, quem iunior praecedentem tenebat a planta. Diligebat autem pater quidam seniorem qui uocobatur esau, secundum ethimologiam pilosum. Ebraei namque capillaturam seirion dicunt. Iacob autem iunior carus erat genetrici,


 
[257] Ἰσάκῳ δὲ μετὰ τὴν Ἁβράμου τελευτὴν ἐκύει τὸ γύναιον, καὶ τῆς γαστρὸς ἐπὶ μεῖζον ὀγκουμένης ἀγωνιάσας ἀνήρετο τὸν θεόν. φράζει δ᾽ αὐτῷ διδύμους τέξεσθαι τὴν Ῥεβέκκαν καὶ φερώνυμα ἔσεσθαι τοῖς παισὶν ἔθνη, τοῦ δὲ μείζονος προτερήσειν τὸ δοκοῦν ἔλασσον εἶναι. [258] τίκτεται δ᾽ αὐτῷ μετ᾽ ὀλίγον κατὰ πρόρρησιν τοῦ θεοῦ δίδυμα παιδία, ὧν τὸ μὲν πρεσβύτερον ἀπὸ κεφαλῆς ἐπὶ τοὺς πόδας περισσῶς ἦν δασύ, τὸ δὲ νεώτερον εἴχετο προϊόντος αὐτοῦ κατὰ πτέρναν. ἠγάπα δὲ ὁ μὲν πατὴρ τὸν πρεσβύτερον Ἠσαῦ λεγόμενον κατ᾽ ἐπωνυμίαν τῆς τριχώσεως: Ἑβραῖοι γὰρ τὸ ἤσαυρον τρίχωμα λέγουσιν: Ἰάκωβος δὲ ὁ νεώτερος τῇ μητρὶ προσφιλὴς ἦν.
 CHAPTER 18. Concerning The Sons Of Isaac, Esau And Jacob; Of Their Nativity And Education.

1. Now Isaac's wife proved with child, after the death of Abraham; and when her belly was greatly burdened, Isaac was very anxious, and inquired of God; who answered, that Rebeka should bear twins; and that two nations should take the names of those sons; and that he who appeared the second should excel the elder. Accordingly she, in a little time, as God had foretold, bare twins; the elder of whom, from his head to his feet, was very rough and hairy; but the younger took hold of his heel as they were in the birth. Now the father loved the elder, who was called Esau, a name agreeable to his roughness, for the Hebrews call such a hairy roughness [Esau, or] Seir; but Jacob the younger was best beloved by his mother.
 [XVIII.ii.259] fame uero superueniente, dum isaac placuisset ut iret in aegypto, ubertuosam ualde prouinciam, pergebat in geraris deo praecipiente. Hunc suscepit rex abimelech pro mueribus et amicitiis abraham. Et cum multo eum fauore fuisset usus initio, in hoc permanere semper inuidia faciente prohibitus est. Videns namque deum isaac esse praefentem, et tanto eum studio fauentem expulit eum. Illo uero huiusmodi inuidia temptatus per abimelech, tunc quidem discessit in agrum qui dicitur pharan, id est, conualles, non longe a geraris. Ubi cum soderet puteum irruentes pastores in lite congressi sunt, prohibentes illud opus impleri. Quo nolente contendere, praeualuisse uidebantur. Discedens autem alium fodiebat et uim facientibus aliis quibusdam abimelech pastoribus, etiam hunc relinquens abscessit, expectans bonae uoluntatis ratione licentiam, quod dum ei esset sponte concessum, ut puteum sine prohibitione soderet. Roboth puteum appellauit quod nomen significat spatiosum. Priorum uero alium quidem escon pellatur quod potes dici litigium. Alium uero suennam quae nomen designat, inimicitias.  [259] Λιμοῦ δὲ τὴν γῆν καταλαβόντος Ἴσακος, δόξαν αὐτῷ χωρεῖν εἰς Αἴγυπτον τῆς χώρας ἀγαθῆς ὑπαρχούσης, ἐπὶ Γεράρων ἀπῄει τοῦ θεοῦ κελεύσαντος. ὑποδέχεται δ᾽ αὐτὸν ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἀβιμέλεχος κατὰ ξενίαν καὶ φιλίαν τὴν Ἁβράμου καὶ πολλῇ πάνυ πρὸς αὐτὸν εὐνοίᾳ χρησάμενος κατ᾽ ἀρχὰς ἐπὶ ταύτης ὑπὸ φθόνου μεῖναι πρὸς τὸ πᾶν ἐκωλύθη. [260] ὁρῶν γὰρ τὸν θεὸν τῷ Ἰσάκῳ συμπαρόντα καὶ τοσαύτῃ περὶ αὐτὸν σπουδῇ χρώμενον ἀπώσατο αὐτόν. ὁ δὲ τοιούτου πάλιν ἐκ μεταβολῆς τῆς ἀπὸ τοῦ βασκάνου πειραθεὶς Ἀβιμελέχου τότε μὲν ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς τὴν λεγομένην Φάραγγα χωρίον οὐ μακρὰν Γεράρων, ὀρύσσοντι δ᾽ αὐτῷ φρέαρ ποιμένες ἐπιπεσόντες εἰς μάχην ἐχώρησαν κωλύοντες τὸ ἔργον, καὶ μὴ βουληθέντος φιλονικεῖν ἔδοξαν κεκρατηκέναι. [261] ὑποχωρήσας δὲ ὤρυσσεν ἕτερον, καὶ βιασαμένων ἄλλων τινῶν Ἀβιμελέχου ποιμένων καὶ τοῦτο καταλιπὼν ἀπεχώρησεν εὐγνώμονι λογισμῷ κτώμενος αὑτῷ τὴν ἄδειαν. [262] εἶτα αὐτομάτου παρασχόντος αὐτῷ τὴν φρεωρυχίαν ἀνεπικώλυτον, Ῥοωβὼθ τὸ φρέαρ ὠνόμασεν: εὐρύχωρον ἀποσημαίνει τὸ ὄνομα. τῶν δὲ προτέρων τὸ μὲν Ἔσκον καλεῖται: μάχην ἄν τις αὐτὸ φήσειε: τὸ δ᾽ ἕτερον Σύαιναν: ἔχθραν ἀποσημαίνει τὸ ὄνομα.  2. When there was a famine in the land, Isaac resolved to go into Egypt, the land there being good; but he went to Gerar, as God commanded him. Here Abimelech the king received him, because Abraham had formerly lived with him, and had been his friend. And as in the beginning he treated him exceeding kindly, so he was hindered from continuing in the same disposition to the end, by his envy at him; for when he saw that God was with Isaac, and took such great care of him, he drove him away from him. But Isaac, when he saw how envy had changed the temper of Abimelech retired to a place called the Valley, not far from Gerar: and as he was digging a well, the shepherds fell upon him, and began to fight, in order to hinder the work; and because he did not desire to contend, the shepherds seemed to get the him, so he still retired, and dug another and when certain other shepherds of Abimelech began to offer him violence, he left that also, still retired, thus purchasing security to himself a rational and prudent conduct. At length the gave him leave to dig a well without disturbance. He named this well Rehoboth, which denotes a large space; but of the former wells, one was called Escon, which denotes strife, the other Sitenna, name signifies enmity.
 [XVIII.iii.263] Isaac itaque rerum magnitudine fortitudine pullulabat. Abimelech autem contra se crescere putans. Isaac propter hoc quod cum eo degens ex incertis inimicitiis egerat metuens ne prior amicitia nihil ei prodesset conuerso isaac adultionem eorum quae uidebatur esse perpessus, amicitias rursus cum eo firmauit. Et unum adhuc suorum ducum philolochum nomine destinauit. Et cum omnia quae poposcerat , ab imilech meruisset propter isaac bonitatem, qui recenti iracundiae priscam gratiam in se inquae patrem suum habitam pro posuerat, tulit eum in propria.  [263] Ἰσάκῳ μὲν οὖν ἀκμάζειν συνέβαινε τὴν ἰσχὺν ὑπὸ μεγέθους πραγμάτων, Ἀβιμέλεχος δὲ κατ᾽ αὐτοῦ φύεσθαι νομίζων τὸν Ἴσακον, ὑπόπτου μὲν αὐτοῖς καὶ τῆς συνδιαιτήσεως γενομένης, ἐπ᾽ οὐ φανερᾷ δὲ ἔχθρᾳ τοῦ Ἰσάκου ὑπεκστάντος, δείσας μὴ τῆς προτέρας αὐτῷ φιλίας οὐδὲν ὄφελος γένηται πρὸς ἄμυναν ὧν ἔπαθεν Ἰσάκου τραπέντος φιλίαν ἄνωθεν ποιεῖται πρὸς αὐτὸν ἕνα τῶν στρατηγῶν Φίλοχον ἐπαγόμενος. [264] πάντων δὲ τετυχηκὼς ὧν ἠξίου διὰ τὴν Ἰσάκου χρηστότητα ὀργῆς προσφάτου πρεσβυτέραν χάριν εἰς αὐτόν τε καὶ τὸν πατέρα γεγενημένην προτιμῶντος ἀπῆρεν εἰς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ.  3. It was now that Isaac's affairs increased, and in a flourishing condition; and this his great riches. But Abimelech, thinking in opposition to him, while their living made them suspicious of each other, and retiring showing a secret enmity also, he afraid that his former friendship with Isaac would not secure him, if Isaac should endeavor the injuries he had formerly offered him; he therefore renewed his friendship with him, Philoc, one of his generals. And when he had obtained every thing he desired, by reason of Isaac's good nature, who preferred the earlier friendship Abimelech had shown to himself and his father to his later wrath against him, he returned home.
 [XVIII.iv.265] Isaac uero filius esau, circa quem maximum habebat pater affectum, cum esset annorum quadraginta duxit uxores agamidam elonis filiam et alibamin eum se bonis uirorum inter chananaeos ualde potentium, semetipsum faciens dominum in potestate nuptiarum. Et neque patris consilium sumens, quia nec permisset [10v] isaac si in eius uoluntate iaceret. Non enim libenter habebat ad prouinciales, suam copulare cognationem. Nolens autem molestus esse filio ut iuberet eum a mulieribus abstinere tacere decreuit.  [265] Τῶν δὲ Ἰσάκου παίδων Ἡσαῦς, περὶ ὃν μάλιστα ὁ πατὴρ ἐσπουδάκει, τεσσαράκοντα γεγονὼς ἔτη γαμεῖ Ἄδαν τὴν Ἥλωνος καὶ Ἀλιβάμην τὴν Εὐσεβεῶνος δυναστευόντων ἐν Χαναναίοις ἀνδρῶν θυγατέρας, ἑαυτὸν ποιήσας τῆς περὶ τὸν γάμον ἐξουσίας κύριον καὶ μηδὲ τῷ πατρὶ συμβουλευσάμενος: [266] οὐδὲ γὰρ ἂν ἐπέτρεψεν Ἴσακος ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ τῆς γνώμης γενομένης: οὐ γὰρ ἦν αὐτῷ δι᾽ ἡδονῆς συνάψασθαι συγγένειαν πρὸς τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους. οὐ βουλόμενος δὲ ἀπεχθὴς εἶναι τῷ παιδὶ κελεύων ἀφίστασθαι τῶν γυναικῶν σιγᾶν ἔκρινε.  4. Now when Esau, one of the sons of Isaac, whom the father principally loved, was now come to the age of forty years, he married Adah, the daughter of Helon, and Aholibamah, the daughter of Esebeon; which Helon and Esebeon were great lords among the Canaanites: thereby taking upon himself the authority, and pretending to have dominion over his own marriages, without so much as asking the advice of his father; for had Isaac been the arbitrator, he had not given him leave to marry thus, for he was not pleased with contracting any alliance with the people of that country; but not caring to be uneasy to his son by commanding him to put away these wives, he resolved to be silent.

 [XVIII.v.267] Cum senis[ex] autem esset et aspectum penitus non haberet, euocans esau, et senectutem indicans quia et propter caecitatem et passionem uisus, impedimentum ei iam esset deo seruire, iussit eum egredi ad uenandum: ut dum caperet quecumque potuisset ei praepararet ad coenam postquam domino supplicaret ut auxiliator ei in omnia uita, et cooperator existeret. Incertumque esse dicens, quando etiam moriretur. Et ante hoc ei se praebiturum, ut deum propitium eius ortationibus habere mereretur.  [267] Γηραιὸς δὲ ὢν καὶ τὰς ὄψεις εἰς τὸ παντελὲς ἠφανισμένος προσκαλεσάμενος τὸν Ἡσαῦν καὶ τὸ γῆρας εἰπὼν ὡς καὶ δίχα τῆς πηρώσεως καὶ τοῦ κατὰ τὰς ὄψεις πάθους ἐμποδὼν ἦν αὐτῷ θερα [268] πεύειν τὸν θεὸν ἐκέλευσεν ἐξελθεῖν ἐπὶ κυνηγέσιον καὶ θηρασάμενον ὅσα ἂν αὐτῷ δυνατὸν γίνηται παρασκευάσαι δεῖπνον, ἵνα μετὰ τοῦτο ἱκετεύσῃ τὸν θεὸν σύμμαχον αὐτῷ καὶ συνεργὸν εἰς ἅπαντα παρεῖναι τὸν βίον, ἄδηλον μὲν εἶναι λέγων, ὁπότε καὶ τελευτήσειε, πρὸ δὲ τούτου παρασχεῖν αὐτῷ βούλεσθαι τὸν θεὸν ταῖς εὐχαῖς ταῖς ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ παρακεκλημένον.   5. But when he was old, and could not see at all, he called Esau to him, and told him, that besides his blindness, and the disorder of his eyes, his very old age hindered him from his worship of God [by sacrifice]; he bid him therefore to go out a hunting, and when he had caught as much venison as he could, to prepare him a supper 32 that after this he might make supplication to God, to be to him a supporter and an assister during the whole time of his life; saying, that it was uncertain when he should die, and that he was desirous, by prayers for him, to procure, beforehand, God to be merciful to him.
 [XVIII.vi.269] Et esau quidem ad uenationem egressus est. Rebecca uero deum pro fauore iacob rogabat, et praeter isaac uoluntatem, iussit eum hoedos occidere coenamque praeparare. Iacob autem ministrabat matri ei semper oboediens. Cum uero suisset parata coena, hoedi pelle brachia conuoluit iacob, ut pater propter pilos esse crederet esau. Nam cum in omnibus aliis similarent eo quod essent gemini in hoc tantumodo differebant. Trepidusque iacob ne antequam fierent orationes repertus in hac calliditate patrem ut contraria faceret irritare proferebat patri coenam. Isaac uero sentiens uocem iacob, proprio eum nomine uocitabat. Illo autem brachio[um] porrigente, cui pelle circumdederat [hoedi] contingens eum isaac ait: Uoce quidem iacob proximus, secundum pili uero profunditatem esau mihi esse uideris. Nihilque suspicans malum, cum coenasset conuersus [est] ad orationes et dei praetes. Domine, inquit omnium seculorum et creator uniuersae substantiae tu patri meo mangnam fortitudinem concessisti bonorum, et me dignum rebus praesentibus effecisti, et ex me procedentibus promisisti adiutor et propitius et dator semper esse meliorum, haec ergo confirma et me noli dispicere propter praesentem necessitatem, propter quam et praecipue te deposco, et hunc filium propitius serua mihi, et ab omni malo  sine  passione custodi, dans ei felicem uitam, possessionemque bonorum, quorum cumque tibi praebere potestas est. Fac autem eum metuendum equidem inimicis amicis honorabilem atque gratissimum.

 [269] Καὶ Ἡσαῦς μὲν ἐπὶ τὸ κυνηγέσιον ἐξώρμησεν: ἡ δὲ Ῥεβέκκα τὸν θεὸν εἰς τὴν εὔνοιαν ἀξιοῦσα τὴν Ἰακώβου παρακαλεῖν καὶ παρὰ τὴν Ἰσάκου γνώμην ἐκέλευσεν αὐτὸν ἐρίφους κατασφάξαντα δεῖπνον παρασκευάζειν. ὁ δὲ Ἰάκωβος ὑπηρέτει τῇ μητρὶ πάντα παρ᾽ αὐτῆς πεπυσμένος: [270] ἐπεὶ δ᾽ εὐτρεπὲς ἦν τὸ δεῖπνον, ἐρίφου δέρματι τὸν βραχίονα περιβαλών, ἵνα πιστεύοιτο παρὰ τῷ πατρὶ διὰ τὴν δασύτητα Ἡσαῦς εἶναι, τὰ γὰρ ἄλλα πάντ᾽ ὢν ὅμοιος διὰ τὸ εἶναι δίδυμος τούτῳ μόνῳ διέφερε, καὶ φοβηθεὶς μὴ πρὶν γενέσθαι τὰς εὐχὰς εὑρεθεὶς κακουργῶν εἰς τοὐναντίον παροξύνῃ τὸν πατέρα ποιήσασθαι ταύτας, προσέφερε τῷ πατρὶ τὸ δεῖπνον. [271] καὶ ὁ Ἴσακος ἐπαισθόμενος τῷ κατὰ τὴν φωνὴν ἰδίῳ προσκαλεῖται τὸν υἱόν: τοῦ δὲ τὸν βραχίονα προτείναντος, ᾧ τὴν αἰγέαν περιβέβλητο, ταύτης ἐπαφώμενος “φωνεῖς μέν, εἶπεν, Ἰακώβῳ παραπλήσιον, κατὰ δὲ τὸ [272] τῆς τριχὸς βάθος Ἡσαῦς εἶναί μοι δοκεῖς.” καὶ μηδὲν ὑπολαβὼν κακοῦργον δειπνήσας τρέπεται πρὸς εὐχὰς καὶ παράκλησιν τοῦ θεοῦ “δέσποτα, λέγων, παντὸς αἰῶνος καὶ δημιουργὲ τῆς ὅλης οὐσίας: σὺ γὰρ πατρὶ τῷ ἐμῷ μεγάλην ἰσχὺν προύθηκας ἀγαθῶν κἀμὲ τῶν παρόντων ἠξίωσας καὶ τοῖς ἐξ ἐμοῦ γενομένοις ὑπέσχου βοηθὸς εὐμενὴς καὶ δοτὴρ ἀεὶ τῶν κρειττόνων ἔσεσθαι: [273] ταῦτ᾽ οὖν καὶ βεβαίωσον καὶ μὴ περιίδῃς με διὰ τὴν παροῦσαν ἀσθένειαν, δι᾽ ἣν καὶ μᾶλλόν σου δεόμενος τυγχάνω, καί μοι παῖδα τοῦτον εὐμενὴς σῶζε καὶ παντὸς ἀπαθῆ κακοῦ διαφύλαττε δοὺς αὐτῷ βίον εὐδαίμονα καὶ κτῆσιν ἀγαθῶν, ὅσων σοι δύναμις παρασχεῖν, ποιήσας δ᾽ αὐτὸν φοβερὸν μὲν ἐχθροῖς φίλοις δὲ τίμιον καὶ κεχαρισμένον.”   6. Accordingly, Esau went out a hunting. But Rebeka 33 thinking it proper to have the supplication made for obtaining the favor of God to Jacob, and that without the consent of Isaac, bid him kill kids of the goats, and prepare a supper. So Jacob obeyed his mother, according to all her instructions. Now when the supper was got ready, he took a goat's skin, and put it about his arm, that by reason of its hairy roughness, he might by his father be believed to be Esau; for they being twins, and in all things else alike, differed only in this thing. This was done out of his fear, that before his father had made his supplications, he should be caught in his evil practice, and lest he should, on the contrary, provoke his father to curse him. So he brought in the supper to his father. Isaac perceivest to be Esau. So suspecting no deceit, he ate the supper, and betook himself to his prayers and intercessions with God; and said, "O Lord of all ages, and Creator of all substance; for it was thou that didst propose to my father great plenty of good things, and hast vouchsafed to bestow on me what I have; and hast promised to my posterity to be their kind supporter, and to bestow on them still greater blessings; do thou therefore confirm these thy promises, and do not overlook me, because of my present weak condition, on account of which I most earnestly pray to thee. Be gracious to this my son; and preserve him and keep him from every thing that is evil. Give him a happy life, and the possession of as many good things as thy power is able to bestow. Make him terrible to his enemies, and honorable and beloved among his friends."
 [XVIII.vii.274] Et ille quidem arbitratus pro esau se orationes facere rogabat deum. Mox enim ut cessauit a uenatione ad fuit esau. Isaac autem sentiens quae egerat quiescebat. Esau uero petebat similia quae fratri fuerant iam conlata. Patre uero negante eo quod omnes in iacob fuissent orationes expensae, luctum agebat quod esset oratione frust[r]atus, eiusque lacrimis afflictus pater eo quod circa uenationem et fortitudinem corporis esset aptus in armis et omnibus operibus, esau probabilem fore dicebat: Eumque fructum earum rerum, et gloriam sempiter nam, etiam genus quod ab eo descenderet habiturum, fratri uero esset seruiturum.  [274] Καὶ ὁ μὲν νομίζων εἰς Ἡσαῦν ποιεῖσθαι τὰς εὐχὰς παρεκάλει τὸν θεόν: ἄρτι δὲ πέπαυτο τούτων καὶ παρῆν Ἡσαῦς ἀπὸ τῆς θήρας. καὶ τῆς διαμαρτίας Ἴσακος αἰσθόμενος ἡσυχίαν ἄγει, Ἡσαῦς δὲ ἠξίου τῶν ὁμοίων τἀδελφῷ παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς τυγχάνειν: [275] τοῦ δὲ [πατρὸς] ἀρνουμένου διὰ τὸ πάσας εἰς Ἰάκωβον τὰς εὐχὰς ἀνηλωκέναι πένθος ἦγεν ἐπὶ τῇ διαμαρτίᾳ. καὶ αὐτοῦ τοῖς δάκρυσιν ἀχθόμενος ὁ πατὴρ τὰ μὲν περὶ τὸ κυνηγέσιον καὶ δύναμιν σώματος ἐν ὅπλοις καὶ πᾶσιν ἔργοις εὐδοκιμήσειν αὐτὸν ἔφασκε καὶ καρπώσεσθαι τὴν ἐπ᾽ αὐτοῖς δόξαν δι᾽ αἰῶνος καὶ τὸ ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ γένος, δουλεύσειν δὲ τἀδελφῷ.  7. Thus did Isaac pray to God, thinking his prayers had been made for Esau. He had but just finished them, when Esau came in from hunting. And when Isaac perceived his mistake, he was silent: but Esau required that he might be made partaker of the like blessing from his father that his brother had partook of; but his father refused it, because all his prayers had been spent upon Jacob: so Esau lamented the mistake. However, his father being grieved at his weeping, said, that "he should excel in hunting and strength of body, in arms, and all such sorts of work; and should obtain glory for ever on those accounts, he and his posterity after him; but still should serve his brother."
 [XVIII.viii.276] Iacob autem metuentem fra[trem] ulcisci se in eum uolentem, prop eo quod in illo deliquerat mater eripuit, marito autem haec persuasit, ut iacob de mesopotamia cognatam suam daret uxorem: cum iam ismaelis patrui filiam basamin esau coniugem accepisset non enim erant deuoti chananaei, circa isaac, in prioribus eius bellis ualde grauati cum barem nathim caepisset, circa quam praecipue laborauerat.  [276] Ἰάκωβον δὲ φοβούμενον τὸν ἀδελφὸν τιμωρίαν βουλόμενον λαβεῖν τῆς ἐπὶ ταῖς εὐχαῖς διαμαρτίας ἡ μήτηρ ῥύεται: πείθει γὰρ τὸν ἄνδρα Μεσοποταμίαν ἀγαγέσθαι τῷ Ἰακώβῳ γυναῖκα συγγενῆ. [277] ἤδη γὰρ τὴν Ἰσμαήλου παῖδα Ἡσαῦς παρειλήφει πρὸς γάμον Βασεμάθην: οὐ γὰρ εὐνόουν τοῖς Χαναναίοις οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἴσακον, ὥστε ἐπὶ τοῖς πρότερον αὐτοῦ γάμοις δυσχερῶς διακειμένων εἰς τὸ ἐκείνοις κεχαρισμένον τὴν Βασεμάθην παρέλαβεν μάλιστα περὶ αὐτὴν σπουδάσας.   8. Now the mother delivered Jacob, when she was afraid that his brother would inflict some punishment upon him because of the mistake about the prayers of Isaac; for she persuaded her husband to take a wife for Jacob out of Mesopotamia, of her own kindred, Esau having married already Basemmath, the daughter of Ismael, without his father's consent; for Isaac did not like the Canaanites, so that he disapproved of Esau's former marriages, which made him take Basemmath to wife, in order to please him; and indeed he had a great affection for her.

 


[XIX.i.278]
 Iacob autem in mesopotamiam missus a matre pro[pter] nuptias filiae laban [et] eius germani permittente isaac nuptias celebrare eo quod ei fuisset uxoris consilio persuasum, per chanaeam properabat. Et propter odium prouincialium, apud nullum quidem succedere uoluit sed sub diuo iacebat, caput suum lapidi subditis superponens, ibique per somnium uidit huiuscemodi uisionem: ad sed isse sibi scalam a terra pertingentem ad caelum, et per eam descendentes siguras honestiorem naturam habentes quam homines. Et ad ultimum super eam deum manifeste sibimet apparentem, nominatimque uocantem et huiusmodi uerba facientem. Iacob cum patris boni fis filius et aui qui gloriam magnae uirtutis inuenit, fatige[a]ri te in praesentibus non oporter, sed sperante meliora. Et enim opulentissima tibi maximorum bonorum meo solatio erit ubique praesentia . Abraham itaque ex mesopotamia hic ego deduxi a cognatis expulsum, et patrem tuum felicem [11r] cunctis ostendi, quorum non minorem partem in te quaeque reponam. Confidens ergo et hoc itinere profiscere me dirigente securus. Impetrabis enim et nuptias ad quas ualde festinas. Eruntque tibi filii boni quorum multitudo numero maior erit: et potiores filios derelinquent, quibus ergo huius terrae potentiam condonabo, eorumque filiis, qui replebunt omnem quam sol respicit terram simul et maria. Sed neque ullum periculum timeas, nec laborum multitudinem [mastii] metuas me prouindente omnia quae tibi conferenda sunt et in praesentibus et multo magis in posteris.



 [278] Ἰάκωβος δὲ εἰς τὴν Μεσοποταμίαν στελλόμενος ὑπὸ τῆς μητρὸς κατὰ γάμον τῆς Λαβάνου θυγατρὸς τοῦ ἐκείνης ἀδελφοῦ, ἐπιτρέψαντος Ἰσάκου τὸν γάμον διὰ τὸ πείθεσθαι τοῖς βουλήμασι τῆς γυναικὸς διὰ τῆς Χαναναίας ἐπορεύετο καὶ διὰ τὸ πρὸς τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους μῖσος παρ᾽ οὐδένα μὲν ἠξίου κατάγεσθαι, [279] ὑπαίθριος δὲ ηὐλίζετο τὴν κεφαλὴν λίθοις ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ συμφορουμένοις ἐπιτιθεὶς καὶ τοιαύτην κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους ὄψιν ὁρᾷ παραστᾶσαν αὐτῷ: κλίμακα γῆθεν ἔδοξεν ἐφικνουμένην τοῦ οὐρανοῦ βλέπειν καὶ δι᾽ αὐτῆς ὄψεις κατιούσας σεμνότερον ἢ κατὰ ἀνθρώπου φύσιν ἐχούσας, καὶ τελευταῖον ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς τὸν θεὸν ἐναργῶς αὐτῷ φαινόμενον ὀνομαστί τε καλέσαι καὶ ποιήσασθαι τοιούτους λόγους. [280] “Ἰάκωβε, πατρὸς ὄντα σε ἀγαθοῦ καὶ πάππου δόξαν ἀρετῆς μεγάλης εὑραμένου κάμνειν ἐπὶ τοῖς παροῦσιν οὐ προσῆκεν, ἀλλ᾽ ἐλπίζειν τὰ κρείττονα: [281] καὶ γὰρ ἄφθονος ἐκδέξεταί σε μεγάλων ἀγαθῶν παρουσία πρὸς τὸ πᾶν κατὰ τὴν ἐμὴν ἐπικουρίαν. Ἅβραμόν τε γὰρ ἐγὼ ἐκ τῆς Μεσοποταμίας δεῦρο ἤγαγον ἐλαυνόμενον ὑπὸ τῶν συγγενῶν, καὶ πατέρα τὸν σὸν εὐδαίμονα ἀπέφηνα: ὧν οὐχ ἥττω μοῖραν εἰς σὲ καταθήσομαι: [282] θαρρῶν οὖν καὶ ταύτην πορεύου τὴν ὁδὸν ἐμοὶ προπομπῷ χρώμενος: ἀνυσθήσεται γάρ σοι γάμος, ἐφ᾽ ὃν ἐσπούδακας, καὶ γενήσονταί σοι παῖδες ἀγαθοί, τὸ δὲ πλῆθος αὐτῶν ἀριθμοῦ κρεῖττον ἔσται, μείζοσιν υἱοῖς αὐτῶν καταλιμπάνοντες: οἷς ἐγὼ τὸ ταύτης κράτος τῆς γῆς δίδωμι καὶ παισὶ τοῖς αὐτῶν, οἳ πληρώσουσιν ὅσην ἥλιος ὁρᾷ καὶ γῆν καὶ θάλασσαν. [283] ἀλλὰ μήτε κίνδυνον ὑφορῶ μηδένα μήτ᾽ εὐλαβοῦ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν πόνων ἐμοῦ ποιουμένου τῶν σοὶ πραχθησομένων πρόνοιαν ἔν τε τοῖς νῦν καὶ πολὺ πλέον ἐν τοῖς ὕστερον.” 
 CHAPTER 19. Concerning Jacob's Flight Into Mesopotamia, By Reason Of The Fear He Was In Of His Brother.

1. Now Jacob was sent by his mother to Mesopotamia, in order to marry Laban her brother's daughter [which marriage was permitted by Isaac, on account of his obsequiousness to the desires of his wife]; and he accordingly journeyed through the land of Canaan; and because he hated the people of that country, he would not lodge with any of them, but took up his lodging in the open air, and laid his head on a heap of stones that he had gathered together. At which time he saw in his sleep such a vision standing by him:—he seemed to see a ladder that reached from the earth unto heaven, and persons descending upon the ladder that seemed more excellent than human; and at last God himself stood above it, and was plainly visible to him, who, calling him by his name, spake to him in these words:—
[2.] "O Jacob, it is not fit for thee, who art the son of a good father, and grandson of one who had obtained a great reputation for his eminent virtue, to be dejected at thy present circumstances, but to hope for better times, for thou shalt have great abundance of all good things, by my assistance: for I brought Abraham hither, out of Mesopotamia, when he was driven away by his kinsmen, and I made thy father a happy man, nor will I bestow a lesser degree of happiness on thyself: be of good courage, therefore, and under my conduct proceed on this thy journey, for the marriage thou goest so zealously about shall be consummated. And thou shalt have children of good characters, but their multitude shall be innumerable; and they shall leave what they have to a still more numerous posterity, to whom, and to whose posterity, I give the dominion of all the land, and their posterity shall fill the entire earth and sea, so far as the sun beholds them: but do not thou fear any danger, nor be afraid of the many labors thou must undergo, for by my providence I will direct thee what thou art to do in the time present, and still much more in the time to come."
 [XIX.ii.284] Haec itaque deus iacob praedixit: Ille uero laetus effectus in his quae uiderant, fuerantque promissa glorificauit illos lapides, quippe cum tantorum bonorum factum ei illic fuisset alloquium. Uorumque fecit, immolaturum se super eos, si adquirens uitam impassibilem remearet: deoque promissum ex soluit denuo remeans. Nam et ipsum agrum honorandum esse decreuit ibique bethel nomen imposuit, quae diuinas hostias latina lingua significat.  [284] Ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ὁ θεὸς Ἰακώβῳ προαγορεύει: ὁ δὲ περιχαρὴς γενόμενος ἐπὶ τοῖς ἑωραμένοις καὶ κατηγγελμένοις φαιδρύνει τε τοὺς λίθους ὡς τηλικούτων ἀγαθῶν ἐπ᾽ αὐτοῖς προρρήσεως γεγενημένης καὶ εὐχὴν ποιεῖται θύσειν ἐπ᾽ αὐτῶν, εἰ κτησάμενος βίον ἀπαθὴς ἐπανίοι, τῷ θεῷ δεκάτην τῶν πεπορισμένων ποιεῖσθαι οὕτως ἀφικόμενος, τίμιόν τε κρίνει τὸ χωρίον ὄνομα αὐτῷ Βηθὴλ θέμενος, σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο θείαν ἑστίαν κατὰ τὴν τῶν Ἑλλήνων γλῶτταν.  3. Such were the predictions which God made to Jacob; whereupon he became very joyful at what he had seen and heard; and he poured oil on the stones, because on them the prediction of such great benefits was made. He also vowed a vow, that he would offer sacrifices upon them, if he lived and returned safe; and if he came again in such a condition, he would give the tithe of what he had gotten to God. He also judged the place to be honorable and gave it the name of Bethel, which, in the Greek, is interpreted, The House of God.
 [XIX.iii.285] Procedens autem ad mesopotamiam: longo tempore peruenit in charram, pastoresque in suburbanis inueniens et pueros adulescentulos et uirgines ad quendam puteum aquam haurituros, morabatur cum eis potum quaerens et uerba cum eis habens percontabaturque ab eis si nossent quendam laban, adhuc si superessent. Illi uero omnes se nosse dixerunt, talemque esse uirum qui ignorari non posset, eiusque filiam una cum eis pascere gregem quam mirabantur non esse praesentem. Dicentes ei ab ipsa integrius cognoscere poteris quaecumque de illo audire desideras. Haec itaque illis dicentibus, adstitit puella cum pastoribus qui una descenderant, ei quae iacob ostenderunt dicentes. Peregrinus iste uenit de patre tuo consulens. Illa uero laeta facta per infantiam per propter praesentiam reuqirebat eum quis esset et ad eos unde uenisset, et qua causa fuisset adductus, orabatque simul ut esset possibile praestandi ei quibus uenisset egens.  [285] Προϊὼν δὲ ἐπὶ τῆς Μεσοποταμίας χρόνῳ παρῆν εἰς τὴν Χαρράν, καὶ ποιμένας ἐν τοῖς προαστείοις καταλαβὼν καὶ παῖδας ἐφήβους καὶ παρθένους ὑπέρ τινος ἱδρυμένους φρέατος συνδιέτριβεν αὐτοῖς χρῄζων ποτοῦ εἴς τε λόγους αὐτοῖς ἀφικνούμενος ἀνέκρινεν αὐτούς, εἰ τυγχάνουσι Λάβανόν τινα παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς εἰδότες ἔτι περιόντα. [286] οἱ δὲ πάντες ἐπίστασθαί τε ἔφασαν, οὐ γὰρ εἶναι τοιοῦτον ὥστε ἀγνοεῖσθαι, καὶ συμποιμαίνειν αὐτοῖς θυγατέρα αὐτοῦ, ἣν θαυμάζειν ὅτι μήπω παρείη: παρὰ γὰρ ταύτης μεμαθήκεις ἂν ἀκριβέστερον ὅσα περὶ αὐτῶν ἀκοῦσαι ποθεῖς.” ταῦτα δ᾽ αὐτῶν ἔτι λεγόντων παρῆν ἡ παῖς σὺν τοῖς ἐπικατιοῦσι τῶν ποιμένων. [287] καὶ δεικνύουσι τὸν Ἰάκωβον αὐτῇ λέγοντες, ὡς ξένος οὗτος ἥκοι τὰ περὶ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτῆς ἀναπυνθανόμενος. ἡ δὲ ἡσθεῖσα ὑπὸ νηπιότητος τῇ παρουσίᾳ τοῦ Ἰακώβου ἀνέκρινεν αὐτόν, τίς τε ὢν καὶ πόθεν ἥκοι πρὸς αὐτοὺς καὶ ὑπὸ τίνος χρείας ἠγμένος, ηὔχετο δὲ δυνατὸν εἶναι αὐτοῖς παρέχειν ὧν ἀφικνεῖται δεόμενος.  4. So he proceeded on his journey to Mesopotamia, and at length came to Haran; and meeting with shepherds in the suburbs, with boys grown up, and maidens sitting about a certain well, he staid with them, as wanting water to drink; and beginning to discourse with them, he asked them whether they knew such a one as Laban, and whether he was still alive. Now they all said they knew him, for he was not so inconsiderable a person as to be unknown to any of them; and that his daughter fed her father's flock together with them; and that indeed they wondered that she was not yet come, for by her means thou mightest learn more exactly whatever thou desirest to know about that family. While they were saying this the damsel came, and the other shepherds that came down along with her. Then they showed her Jacob, and told her that he was a stranger, who came to inquire about her father's affairs. But she, as pleased, after the custom of children, with Jacob's coming, asked him who he was, and whence he came to them, and what it was he lacked that he came thither. She also wished it might be in their power to supply the wants he came about.
 [XIX.iv.288] Iacob autem non propter cognationis causam: neque propter fauorem praeientem, sed propter amorem puellae uictus ostupescebat pulchritudinem eius, talem esse conspiciens ut paucae mulierum ita florent. Et ait ad te mihi patremque tuum si tamen filia es laban familiaritas est ex antiqua [m]ea tuaque generatione consistens. De thare enim abraham et haran et nachor filii sunt progressi, bathuel autem tuus auus filius est nachor de abraham autem et sarra, quae nata est de aran. Isaac meius est pater. Uicinum autem et nouum cognationis pignus inuicem possidemus. Rebecca autem mater mea, laban patris tui soror est. Ex [e]odem simul patre et matre progenita consobrini siquidem sumus ego et tu. Nunc autem inueniens uos amplector antiquamque nobilitatem renouaturus adsisto. Illa uero recordata sicut iuuenibus solet accidere quae praeaudisset a patre de rebecca et parentes sciens eius nomen desiderantes audire, propter paternum fauorem ad lacrimas adducta est, et amplexata iacaob quem cum osculata fuisset, perducere maxima delectatione optabat ad patrem omnibusque domesticis memoriam matris eius esse dicebat. Impenditque ei totius boni retributionem eumque ad patrem iam uenire iubebat, et sequi se praecedentem, nec eius delectatione fraudari amplius illo tardante poterat.  [288] Ἰάκωβος δὲ οὐχ ὑπὸ τῆς συγγενείας οὐδὲ τῆς διὰ ταύτην εὐνοίας, ἀλλ᾽ ἔρωτι τῆς παιδὸς ἡττηθεὶς ἐκπέπληκτό τε τοῦ κάλλους ὁρῶν οὕτως ἔχουσαν, ὡς ὀλίγαι τῶν τότε γυναικῶν ἤνθουν, καὶ φησίν: “ἀλλ᾽ ἐμοὶ πρὸς σὲ καὶ πατέρα τὸν σόν, εἴπερ Λαβάνου παῖς τυγχάνεις, οἰκειότης ἐστὶ πρεσβυτέρα τῆς τε σῆς καὶ ἐμῆς γενέσεως: [289] ἐκ Θάρρου γὰρ Ἅβραμος καὶ Ἀρράνης καὶ Ναχώρης ἦσαν υἱοί, ὧν Βαθουῆλος ὁ σὸς πάππος Ναχώρου γίνεται παῖς, Ἁβράμου δὲ καὶ τῆς Ἀρράνου Σάρρας Ἴσακος ὁ ἐμὸς πατήρ. ἔγγιον δὲ καὶ νεώτερον τοῦθ᾽ ἡμεῖς τῆς συγγενείας ὁμήρευμα ἔχομεν πρὸς ἀλλήλους: [290] Ῥεβέκκα γὰρ μήτηρ ἐμὴ Λαβάνου πατρὸς τοῦ σοῦ ἀδελφὴ πατρός τε τοῦ αὐτοῦ καὶ μητρός, ἀνεψιοὶ δ᾽ ἐσμὲν ἡμεῖς ἐγώ τε καὶ σύ. καὶ νῦν δεῦρο ἥκω ἀσπασόμενός τε ὑμᾶς καὶ τὴν προϋπ [291] άρχουσαν ἡμῖν συγγένειαν ἀνανεωσόμενος.” ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ μνήμης, ὁποῖα φιλεῖ συντυγχάνειν τοῖς νέοις, προπεπυσμένη παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς τὰ περὶ τῆς Ῥεβέκκας καὶ τοὺς γονεῖς εἰδυῖα ποθοῦντας αὐτῆς τὸ ὄνομα ὑπὸ τῆς περὶ τὸν πατέρα εὐνοίας ἔνδακρυς γενομένη περιβάλλει τὸν Ἰάκωβον, [292] καὶ κατασπασαμένη τὴν εὐκταιοτάτην καὶ μεγίστην ἡδονὴν αὐτὸν κομίσαι τῷ πατρὶ καὶ τοῖς ἐπὶ τῆς οἰκίας ἅπασιν ἔλεγεν ἐπὶ τῇ μνήμῃ τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ κειμένῳ καὶ πρὸς μόνῃ ταύτῃ τυγχάνοντι: φανεῖσθαι δ᾽ αὐτῷ παντὸς ἀντάξιον ἀγαθοῦ. χωρεῖν τε ἐκέλευεν ἤδη πρὸς τὸν πατέρα καὶ ἕπεσθαι πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡγουμένῃ καὶ τῆς ἡδονῆς μὴ ἀφαιρεῖσθαι τὸ πλέον αὐτὸν βραδύνοντα.   5. But Jacob was quite overcome, not so much by their kindred, nor by that affection which might arise thence, as by his love to the damsel, and his surprise at her beauty, which was so flourishing, as few of the women of that age could vie with. He said then, "There is a relation between thee and me, elder than either thy or my birth, if thou be the daughter of Laban; for Abraham was the son of Terah, as well as Haran and Nahor. Of the last of whom [Nahor] Bethuel thy grandfather was the son. Isaac my father was the son of Abraham and of Sarah, who was the daughter of Haran. But there is a nearer and later cement of mutual kindred which we bear to one another, for my mother Rebeka was sister to Laban thy father, both by the same father and mother; I therefore and thou are cousin-germans. And I am now come to salute you, and to renew that affinity which is proper between us." Upon this the damsel, at the mention of Rebeka, as usually happens to young persons, wept, and that out of the kindness she had for her father, and embraced Jacob, she having learned an account of Rebeka from her father, and knew that her parents loved to hear her named; and when she had saluted him, she said that "he brought the most desirable and greatest pleasures to her father, with all their family, who was always mentioning his mother, and always thinking of her, and her alone; and that this will make thee equal in his eyes to any advantageous circumstances whatsoever." Then she bid him go to her father, and follow her while she conducted him to him; and not to deprive him of such a pleasure, by staying any longer away from him.

 [XIX.v.293] Haec dicens, ducebat eum ad laban cognitusque ab auunculo, et ipse sine formidine inter amicos erat, et illis delectationem maximam conferebat, inopinabiliter eis ostensus. Post non paucos itaque dies laban se gaudere sequidem in eius maxime praesentia, et ultra quam possit indicare sermone dicebat. Causam uero pro qua uenisset, patrem matremque senes derelinquens et eius p[rae]sentiae solaciis indigentes, ab eo quaerebat, p[rae]biturumque se omnia quibus opus haberet, iacob autem omnem ei causam narrabat ei dicens Isaac fuisse geminos filios se et esau quem dum pro paternis ortationibus matris sapientia fefellisset, illum se interficere uoluisse dicebat: tamquam ablato sibi a deo regno et bonis quae pater obtasset, et hanc fuisse causam suae praesentiae, materno mandato facto. Omnibus enim nobis inquid sunt fratres, sed mater illius amplius cognationem metuens, [11v] ita mihi prospexit quae [quod] utique solum munimen meae praesentiae indicauit. Unde deum respiciens, in praesentibus sum securus.  [293] Ταῦτ᾽ εἰποῦσα παρῆγεν αὐτὸν πρὸς τὸν Λάβανον, καὶ γνωρισθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ μήτρωος αὐτός τε ἀδεὴς ἦν ἐν φίλοις γενόμενος κἀκείνοις πολλὴν ἡδονὴν παρεῖχεν ἀδοκήτως ἐπιφανείς. [294] μετὰ δὲ οὐ πολλὰς ἡμέρας ὁ Λάβανος χαίρειν μὲν ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ παρόντι μειζόνως ἢ ὡς τῷ λόγῳ δηλώσειεν ἔλεγε, τὴν δ᾽ αἰτίαν δι᾽ ἣν ἀφῖκται μητέρα τε καὶ πατέρα πρεσβύτας καταλιπὼν καὶ θεραπείας τῆς παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ δεομένους ἀνεπυνθάνετο: παρέξειν γὰρ αὐτῷ καὶ πρὸς ἅπασαν ἐπαμύνειν χρείαν. [295] Ἰάκωβος δὲ πᾶσαν αὐτῷ τὴν αἰτίαν διηγεῖτο λέγων Ἰσάκῳ γενέσθαι παῖδας διδύμους αὐτόν τε καὶ Ἡσαῦν, ὃν ἐπεὶ τῶν τοῦ πατρὸς εὐχῶν διήμαρτε σοφίᾳ τῆς μητρὸς εἰς αὐτὸν γενομένων, ἀποκτεῖναι ζητεῖν αὐτὸν ὡς ἀφῃρημένον τῆς παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ βασιλείας καὶ ἀγαθῶν ὧν ὁ πατὴρ ηὔξατο. [296] ταύτην τε εἶναι τὴν αἰτίαν τῆς ἐνθάδε παρουσίας κατὰ τὴν τῆς μητρὸς ἐντολήν: πᾶσί τε γὰρ ἡμῖν ἀδελφοὶ τυγχάνουσι καὶ πλέον τοῦ κατ᾽ ἐκείνους συγγενοῦς ἡ μήτηρ προσλαμβάνει. ἔρυμα δὲ τῆς ἐμῆς, φησίν, ἀποδημίας σέ τε καὶ τὸν θεὸν ποιούμενος θαρρῶ τοῖς παροῦσι.”   6. When she had said thus, she brought him to Laban; and being owned by his uncle, he was secure himself, as being among his friends; and he brought a great deal of pleasure to them by his unexpected coning. But a little while afterward, Laban told him that he could not express in words the joy he had at his coming; but still he inquired of him the occasion of his coming, and why he left his aged mother and father, when they wanted to be taken care of by him; and that he would afford him all the assistance he wanted. Then Jacob gave him an account of the whole occasion of his journey, and told him, "that Isaac had two sons that were twins, himself and Esau; who, because he failed of his father's prayers, which by his mother's wisdom were put up for him, sought to kill him, as deprived of the kingdom which was to be given him of God, and of the blessings for which their father prayed; and that this was the occasion of his coming hither, as his mother had commanded him to do: for we are all [says he] brethren one to another; but our mother esteems an alliance with your family more than she does one with the families of the country; so I look upon yourself and God to be the supporters of my travels, and think myself safe in my present circumstances."
 [XIX.vi.297] Laban autem et propter parentes promisit omnem se ei participare clementiam, et propter matrem, cuius fauore licet absentis, studium suum circa eum se dicebat ostendere. Gregis scillicet eum curam  habiturum constituere se dicebat et p[rae]ponendum his exobtabat, uolentemque ad proprios remeare parentes, cum talibus donis et honoribus dimittendum, qualibus talis cognatus iuste promeriturus esset. Iacob autem libenter haec audiens, donec esset quidem apud eos hunc laborem ferre se gratissime se respondit: Mercedem uero pro tali labore, rachel nuptias postulauit, cum etiam propter alia honore digno apud eum haberetur, et maxime quod [quia] ministra eius fuisset aduentus. Amor namque huiusmodi uerba facere conpellebat. Laban autem gauisus in his annuit ei puellae nuptias nec alium generum meliorem sibi obtasse uenturum, si tamen aliquantum apud eo[u]m maneret tempus. A chananaeos [enim] non se missurum filiam quando etiam de sororis poenitentiam se agere dicebat quod eam ibidem direxisset. Cum uero iacob hoc fieri consentiret: septem promisit annos. Tantum enim iudicauit socero ministrandum uirtutis suae praebens experimentum, ut qui[s] esset magis cognosceretur. Laban uero suscipiens sermonem, transacto tempore p[ro]posuit epulas nuptiarum. Nocte uero superueniente, ignorante iacob collocauit ei alteram filiarum rachel seniorem, et non decoram aspectum. Ille uero per ebrietatem et noctem ei permixtus, die facto apud laban de iniustitia querebatur, qui dandam ueniam necessitati poscebat: ob quam talia gesserat. Non enim per malignitatem ei liam dedisse, sed alia maiori causa uictum se hoc fecisse dicebat, quae[uod] tamen inpedire non posset: sed amanti daturum se eam post septem  annos alios promittebat. Consensit ergo iacob, nihil scilicet aliud amor puelllae facere permittebat. Et praeteritis aliis septem annis rachel accepit uxorem.  [297] Λάβανος δὲ καὶ διὰ τοὺς προγόνους ὑπισχνεῖται πάσης αὐτῷ μεταδώσειν φιλανθρωπίας καὶ διὰ τὴν μητέρα, πρὸς ἣν τὴν εὔνοιαν διὰ τῆς περὶ αὐτὸν σπουδῆς ἐνδείξεσθαι καὶ μὴ παρούσης: ποιμνίων τε γὰρ αὐτὸν ἐπιμελητὴν καταστήσειν ἔφασκε καὶ προνομῆς ἀντὶ τούτων ἀξιώσειν, καὶ πρὸς τοὺς ἰδίους ἀπαλλάττεσθαι γονεῖς βουλόμενον μετὰ δώρων ἐπανήξειν καὶ τιμῆς ὅσης εἰκὸς ἦν τυχεῖν τὸν οὕτω συγγενῆ. [298] Ἰακώβου δὲ ἀσμένως ταῦτα ἀκούσαντος καὶ φήσαντος ἡδέως πάντα μένων παρ᾽ αὐτῷ πόνον εἰς ἡδονὴν ὑπομενεῖν τὴν ἐκείνου, μισθὸν δὲ ὑπὲρ τούτου λαβεῖν ἀξιοῦντος τὸν Ῥαχήλας γάμον διά τε τὰ ἄλλα τιμῆς ἀξίας παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ τυγχάνειν οὔσης, καὶ ὅτι διάκονος τῆς πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀφίξεως γένοιτο: ὁ γὰρ τῆς παιδὸς ἔρως αὐτὸν ἠνάγκασε ποιήσασθαι τοὺς περὶ τούτου λόγους. [299] Λάβανος δὲ ἡσθεὶς τούτοις ἐπινεύει τὸν γάμον αὐτῷ τῆς παιδὸς οὐκ ἄλλον ἀμείνω γαμβρὸν εὐξάμενος ἐλθεῖν: εἰ μέντοι παρ᾽ αὐτῷ μένοι τινὰ χρόνον, τοῦτο ποιήσειν: εἰς γὰρ Χαναναίους οὐκ ἂν πέμψαι τὴν θυγατέρα: μεταμέλειν γὰρ αὐτῷ καὶ τοῦ τῆς ἀδελφῆς κήδους ἐκεῖ συναφθέντος. [300] τοῦ δ᾽ Ἰακώβου τούτοις συγχωροῦντος ἑπτὰ ἐτῶν χρόνον συντίθεται: τοσάδε γὰρ αὐτῷ κέκριται θητεῦσαι τῷ πενθερῷ, ἵνα τῆς ἀρετῆς πεῖραν δοὺς ἐπιγνωσθῇ μᾶλλον τίς εἴη. καὶ προσδεξάμενος τὸν λόγον Λάβανος τοῦ χρόνου διελθόντος προυτίθει τὴν εὐωχίαν τῶν γάμων. [301] νυκτὸς δ᾽ ἐπιγενομένης οὐδὲν προῃσθημένῳ τῷ Ἰακώβῳ παρακατακλίνει τὴν ἑτέραν τῶν θυγατέρων πρεσβυτέραν τε τῆς Ῥαχήλας καὶ τὴν ὄψιν οὐκ εὐπρεπῆ. συνελθὼν δ᾽ ἐκεῖνος ὑπὸ μέθης καὶ σκότους εἶτα μεθ᾽ ἡμέραν γνοὺς ἀδικίαν ἐπεκάλει Λαβάνῳ. [302] ὁ δὲ συγγνώμην ᾐτεῖτο τῆς ἀνάγκης, ὑφ᾽ ἧς ταῦτα πράξειεν: οὐ γὰρ κατὰ κακουργίαν αὐτῷ τὴν Λείαν παρασχεῖν, ἀλλ᾽ ὑφ᾽ ἑτέρου μείζονος νενικημένον. τοῦτο μέντοι γ᾽ οὐδὲν ἐμποδίζειν πρὸς τὸν Ῥαχήλας γάμον, ἀλλ᾽ ἐρῶντι δώσειν ταύτην μετ᾽ ἄλλην ἑπταετίαν. πείθεται δ᾽ ὁ Ἰάκωβος, οὐδὲν γὰρ ἕτερον αὐτῷ ποιεῖν ὁ τῆς κόρης ἔρως ἐπέτρεπε, καὶ διελθούσης ἄλλης ἑπταετίας τὴν Ῥαχήλαν παρέλαβεν.   7. Now Laban promised to treat him with great humanity, both on account of his ancestors, and particularly for the sake of his mother, towards whom, he said, he would show his kindness, even though she were absent, by taking care of him; for he assured him he would make him the head shepherd of his flock, and give him authority sufficient for that purpose; and when he should have a mind to return to his parents, he would send him back with presents, and this in as honorable a manner as the nearness of their relation should require. This Jacob heard gladly; and said he would willingly, and with pleasure, undergo any sort of pains while he tarried with him, but desired Rachel to wife, as the reward of those pains, who was not only on other accounts esteemed by him, but also because she was the means of his coming to him; for he said he was forced by the love of the damsel to make this proposal. Laban was well pleased with this agreement, and consented to give the damsel to him, as not desirous to meet with any better son-in-law; and said he would do this, if he would stay with him some time, for he was not willing to send his daughter to be among the Canaanites, for he repented of the alliance he had made already by marrying his sister there. And when Jacob had given his consent to this, he agreed to stay seven years; for so many years he had resolved to serve his father-in-law, that, having given a specimen of his virtue, it might be better known what sort of a man he was. And Jacob, accepting of his terms, after the time was over, he made the wedding-feast; and when it was night, without Jacob's perceiving it, he put his other daughter into bed to him, who was both elder than Rachel, and of no comely countenance: Jacob lay with her that night, as being both in drink and in the dark. However, when it was day, he knew what had been done to him; and he reproached Laban for his unfair proceeding with him; who asked pardon for that necessity which forced him to do what he did; for he did not give him Lea out of any ill design, but as overcome by another greater necessity: that, notwithstanding this, nothing should hinder him from marrying Rachel; but that when he had served another seven years, he would give him her whom he loved. Jacob submitted to this condition, for his love to the damsel did not permit him to do otherwise; and when another seven years were gone, he took Rachel to wife.

 [XIX.vii.303] Erant enim ambabus ministrae quas dederat pater, zelfan quidem liae, rachel autem balla. Non quidem ancillae sed subditae. Et liae magna erat solicitudo de amore uiri, quem habebat circa sororem, superabatque [se] existentibus filiis honorandum et exorabat continue deum. Natoque masculo filio  et propter hoc conuerso ad eum uiro ruben filium nominauit: eo quod dei miseri ei fuisset concessus, hoc enim signifcat istud nomen, habuit autem post tempora etiam alios tres filios. Simeon, quod nomen significat exaudibilem fuisse ei deum.  Deinde leui quasi firmator societatis. Post hunc iudas quod gratiarum significat actionem. Rachel autem metuens ne propter copiam partus sororis, minorem apud uirum partem haberet, collocauit cum iacob suam famulam ballam ex qua nascitur dan, quod a deo iudicatum latina lingua signifcat. Et post hunc neptalim, tamquam ex machinationibus eo quod contra partus sororis copiam arte fuerit usa. Hoc autem et alia fecit contra opus sororis, denuo machinata. Collocauit autem ei et ipsa suam famulam, et natus est de zelpha filius gad: quod quis poterit appellare fortuitum. Et post hunc aser quod beatificum potest dici quia liae gloriam cumulauit. Cum autem ruben senior filiorum liae matri mandragorae me[a]la portaret: rachel aspiciens dari [sibi] poscebat, quia cupierat cibum. Illa uero [non] consentiente, sed sufficere ei dicebat, quod eam uiri honore priuasset. Rachel mitigans sororis iram, concessuram, se ei dicebat, ut cum ea uir illa nocte dormiret, qua hoc percipiente munus, iacob autem cum lia dormiuit. Rusus ergo nati sunt ei filii, isachar quidem quod significat mercedem factum. Zabulon quod indicat fauoris pignus ad eam nata est autem dina filia. Post haec uero tempora natus est et rachel filius ioseph quod indicat augmentum alicuius facienedum.  [303] Ἦσαν δ᾽ ἑκατέραις θεραπαινίδες τοῦ πατρὸς δόντος Ζελφὰ μὲν Λείας Ῥαχήλας δὲ Βάλλα, δοῦλαι μὲν οὐδαμῶς ὑποτεταγμέναι δέ. καὶ τῆς Λείας ἥπτετο δεινῶς ὁ πρὸς τὴν ἀδελφὴν ἔρως τοῦ ἀνδρὸς προσεδόκα τε παίδων γενομένων ἔσεσθαι τιμία ἱκέτευέ τε τὸν θεὸν διηνεκῶς. [304] καὶ γενομένου παιδὸς ἄρρενος καὶ διὰ τοῦτο πρὸς αὐτὴν ἐπεστραμμένου τοῦ ἀνδρὸς Ῥούβηλον ὀνομάζει τὸν υἱόν, διότι κατ᾽ ἔλεον αὐτῇ τοῦ θεοῦ γένοιτο: τοῦτο γὰρ σημαίνει τὸ ὄνομα. τεκνοῦνται δὲ αὐτοῖς καὶ τρεῖς ἕτεροι μετὰ χρόνον: Σεμεών, ἀποσημαίνει δὲ τὸ ὄνομα τὸ ἐπήκοον αὐτῇ τὸν θεὸν γεγονέναι, εἶτα Λευίς, κοινωνίας οἷον βεβαιωτής, μεθ᾽ ὃν Ἰούδας, εὐχαριστίαν τοῦτο δηλοῖ. [305] Ῥαχήλα δὲ φοβουμένη, μὴ διὰ τὴν εὐτεκνίαν τῆς ἀδελφῆς ἥττονος παρὰ τἀνδρὸς μοίρας τυγχάνῃ, παρακατακλίνει τῷ Ἰακώβῳ τὴν αὑτῆς θεραπαινίδα Βάλλαν. ἐγένετο δὲ παιδίον ἐξ αὐτῆς Δάν, θεόκριτον ἄν τινες εἴποιεν κατὰ τὴν Ἑλλήνων γλῶτταν: καὶ μετ᾽ αὐτὸν Νεφθάλεις, μηχανητὸς οἷον, διὰ τὸ ἀντιτεχνάσασθαι πρὸς τὴν εὐτεκνίαν τῆς ἀδελφῆς. [306] τὸ δ᾽ αὐτὸ καὶ Λεία ποιεῖ πρὸς τὸ τῆς ἀδελφῆς ἔργον ἀντιτεχνασαμένη: παρακατακλίνει γὰρ τὴν αὑτῆς θεράπαιναν γίνεταί τε καὶ ἐκ τῆς Ζελφῆς υἱὸς Γάδας, τυχαῖον ἄν τις καλέσειεν αὐτόν, καὶ μετ᾽ αὐτὸν Ἄσηρος, μακαριστὴς λέγοιτ᾽ ἂν ἐξ ὧν πρὸς εὔκλειαν προσελάμβανε. [307] Ῥουβήλου δὲ τοῦ πρεσβυτάτου τῶν υἱῶν Λείας μανδραγόρου μῆλα κομίζοντος τῇ μητρί, Ῥαχήλα θεασαμένη παρακαλεῖ μεταδοῦναι δι᾽ ἐπιθυμίας τοῦ βρώματος γενομένη. τῆς δ᾽ οὐ πειθομένης, ἀρκεῖσθαι δ᾽ αὐτὴν ἀξιούσης, ὅτι τῆς τιμῆς αὐτὴν ἀφέλοιτο τῆς παρὰ τοῦ ἀνδρός, Ῥαχήλα πεπαίνουσα τὸν θυμὸν τῆς ἀδελφῆς παραχωρήσειν αὐτῇ τἀνδρὸς ἔλεγε κοιμησομένου παρ᾽ αὐτῇ κατ᾽ ἐκείνην τὴν ἑσπέραν. [308] τῆς δὲ προσιεμένης τὴν χάριν Ἰάκωβος συγκαθεύδει τῇ Λείᾳ Ῥαχήλᾳ χαριζόμενος. πάλιν οὖν γίνονται παῖδες αὐτῇ, Ἰσσαχάρης μὲν σημαίνων τὸν ἐκ μισθοῦ γενόμενον, Ζαβουλὼν δὲ ἠνεχυρασμένον εὐνοίᾳ τῇ πρὸς αὐτήν, θυγάτηρ δὲ Δεῖνα. χρόνοις δ᾽ ὕστερον καὶ Ῥαχήλᾳ γίνεται Ἰώσηπος υἱός: προσθήκην γενησομένου τινὸς δηλοῖ.  8. Now each of these had handmaids, by their father's donation. Zilpha was handmaid to Lea, and Bilha to Rachel; by no means slaves, 35 but however subject to their mistresses. Now Lea was sorely troubled at her husband's love to her sister; and she expected she should be better esteemed if she bare him children: so she entreated God perpetually; and when she had borne a son, and her husband was on that account better reconciled to her, she named her son Reubel, because God had had mercy upon her, in giving her a son, for that is the signification of this name. After some time she bare three more sons; Simeon, which name signifies that God had hearkened to her prayer. Then she bare Levi, the confirmer of their friendship. After him was born Judah, which denotes thanksgiving. But Rachel, fearing lest the fruitfulness of her sister should make herself enjoy a lesser share of Jacob's affections, put to bed to him her handmaid Bilha; by whom Jacob had Dan: one may interpret that name into the Greek tongue, a divine judgment. And after him Nephthalim, as it were, unconquerable in stratagems, since Rachel tried to conquer the fruitfulness of her sister by this stratagem. Accordingly, Lea took the same method, and used a counter-stratagem to that of her sister; for she put to bed to him her own handmaid. Jacob therefore had by Zilpha a son, whose name was Gad, which may be interpreted fortune; and after him Asher, which may be called a happy man, because he added glory to Lea. Now Reubel, the eldest son of Lea, brought apples of mandrakes 36 to his mother. When Rachel saw them, she desired that she would give her the apples, for she longed to eat them; but when she refused, and bid her be content that she had deprived her of the benevolence she ought to have had from her husband, Rachel, in order to mitigate her sister's anger, said she would yield her husband to her; and he should lie with her that evening. She accepted of the favor, and Jacob slept with Lea, by the favor of Rachel. She bare then these sons: Issachar, denoting one born by hire: and Zabulon, one born as a pledge of benevolence towards her; and a daughter, Dina. After some time Rachel had a son, named Joseph, which signified there should be another added to him.

 [XIX.viii.309] Hoc ergo tempus quod sunt anni uiginti  pascebat soceri greges, [12r] post quod rogabat ut sumptis uxoribus ab eo discederet. Socero autem haec non permittente, latenter hoc facere cogitabat: uxoresque requirebat quid de profectione tractarent. Illis autem discidere libenter habentibus, rachel et simulacra deorum quos colere patria lex erat pariter furata cum lia sorore fugiebat. Et utriusque pueri et puellae cum filiis, et quaecumque possessio eis erat. Ducebat autem iacob etiam gregum medietatem non respiciente laban. Rachel ergo deorum simulacra portabat, licet docuisset eam iacob huiusmodi honorem spernendum. Ut si compraehenderentur  sequente patre: ueniam illa ad haec confugiens impetraret.  [309] Τοῦτον ἅπαντα τὸν χρόνον, ἔτη δ᾽ ἐστὶν εἴκοσιν, ἐποίμαινε τῷ πενθερῷ: μετὰ τὸν δ᾽ ἠξίου τὰς γυναῖκας ἀναλαβὼν ἀπαλλάττεσθαι πρὸς αὑτόν: τοῦ δὲ πενθεροῦ μὴ συγχωροῦντος κρύφα τοῦτο ποιεῖν ἐπενόει. [310] τῶν γυναικῶν οὖν ἀπεπειρᾶτο, πῶς ἔχοιεν πρὸς τὴν ἀποδημίαν, τῶν δ᾽ ἐχουσῶν ἡδέως Ῥαχήλα καὶ τοὺς τύπους τῶν θεῶν, οὓς σέβειν πατρίους ὄντας νόμιμον ἦν, συνανελομένη συναπεδίδρασκε μετὰ τῆς ἀδελφῆς οἵ τε ἑκατέρων παῖδες καὶ αἱ θεραπαινίδες σὺν τοῖς υἱοῖς εἴ τέ τις ἦν κτῆσις αὐταῖς. [311] ἐπήγετο δὲ Ἰάκωβος καὶ τῶν βοσκημάτων τὴν ἡμίσειαν Λαβάνου μὴ προεγνωκότος. τοὺς δὲ τύπους ἐπεφέρετο τῶν θεῶν ἡ Ῥαχήλα καταφρονεῖν μὲν τῆς τοιαύτης τιμῆς τῶν θεῶν διδάξαντος αὐτὴν Ἰακώβου, ἵνα δ᾽ εἰ καταληφθεῖεν ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτῆς διωχθέντες ἔχοι τούτοις προσφυγοῦσα συγγνώμης τυγχάνειν.   9. Now Jacob fed the flocks of Laban his father-in-law all this time, being twenty years, after which he desired leave of his father-in-law to take his wives and go home; but when his father-in-law would not give him leave, he contrived to do it secretly. He made trial therefore of the disposition of his wives what they thought of this journey;—when they appeared glad, and approved of it. Rachel took along with her the images of the gods, which, according to their laws, they used to worship in their own country, and ran away together with her sister. The children also of them both, and the handmaids, and what possessions they had, went along with them. Jacob also drove away half the cattle, without letting Laban know of it beforehand But the reason why Rachel took the images of the gods, although Jacob had taught her to despise such worship of those gods, was this, That in case they were pursued, and taken by her father, she might have recourse to these images, in order obtain his pardon.

 [XIX.ix.312] Laban autem post primum diem congoscens iacob discessum simul et filiarum  multanimo mala perpessus persequebatur maxima uirtute circumdatus, et septima die in quodam colle procul eos collocatos inuenit. Et tunc aequidem quia erat uespara requieuit. Uisio autem ei apparuit monens. Quatenus sumens generum atque filias conquiescerent et nihil in eos per furore praefumeret, sed ut pacta faceret cum iacob, quod si eius contempnens paucitatem aggrederetur cum eo pugnare, ei se auxilium dicebat illa uisio praebituram. Laban autem dum huiuscemodi factum a deo fuisset alloquium: otto die iacob euocans et manifestans [ei] uisionem cui credens a[d ] talia declinasset, coepit eum culpare dicens. Quoniam eum et pauperem uenientem ad se, et omnium suscepit indigentem cunctam eique suae possessionis praebuerit ubertatem. Nam et filias meas inquid coniunxi tibi, fauorem tuum circa nos per haec augendum esse confidens. Tuum uero neque matris tuae aut communionis quam circa me per cognationem habens neque uxorum quas duxisti pudorem gerens, neque filiorum quorum sum auus. Lege apud me usus es belli, possessionem quidem meam auferens, filiabus autem genitorem suum fugere persuadens, et sacra quoque paterna diripiens. Domi utique portaturus quae et a meis parentibus honorata sunt, et a me religione ipsa coluntur. Et haec quidem qui nec expugnantes inimicos suos faciunt. Tu perpetrasti cognatus et sororis quidem meae filius, filiarum uero maritus peregrinusque et coepulator meus domui meae nequaquam talia ingerere dubitasti. Cum haec dixisset laban laban ita satis faciebat iacob dicens. Ego non solum deum patriae desideraui sed etiam omnes una cognatos, et post tantum tempus dignum est me ad propria remeare. Pro praeda uero quod dicis alio iudicante, tu potius inuenieris iniustus, cum te deceret gratias nobis soluere pro his quae a me custodia et facta maiora sunt. Quomodo in hoc iustitia non priuaris cum mihi ingratus existis, cur partem eius paruam sumentes abscessimus, filiae uero tuae non mea malignitate sequuta sunt, sed iusta deuotione quam scimus uxoribus legitmis circa uiros posse competere. Sequuntur itaque non tantum me quantum filios. Et haec quidem ipse dicebat ne aliquid gereretur, incongruum, quaerebatur autem accusationemque faciebat, quia cum matris eius uideretur esse germanus, et filias ei inuxisset, imperiis eum uulnerasset aspetrimis. Uiginti annis eum detinens. Et alia quidem nuptiarum occasione fecisset quae licet fuissent crudelia leuiter sustinuisset, peiora tamen facta post nuptias quae [qui] libet etiam inimicum effugeret. Reuera enim ualde crudeliter laban usus est iacob uidens enim deum ad quodcumque uoluisset praestabilem, promittebat enim ut quicquid enim natum fuisset ei praeberet. Interdum quicquid procederit album aliquando [uero] quaeque nigra nascerentur. Crescente autem sub nomine iacob gregum partu. Aliquando quidem fidem de praesenti non custodiebat, aliquando autem in alterum annum praebiturum se esse dicebat: eo quod uideret multitudinem gregum abundare, cum in futuro tantam fore potius desperaret. Fallbebatque rursus in his quae nata conspiceret.  [312] Λάβανος δὲ μεθ᾽ ἡμέραν πρώτην γνοὺς τήν τε Ἰακώβου ἀναχώρησιν καὶ τῶν θυγατέρων δεινοπαθῶν ἤλαυνεν ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν μετὰ δυνάμεως ἐπειγόμενος, καὶ καθ᾽ ἑβδόμην ἡμέραν ἐπί τινος λόφου λαμβάνει προκαθιδρυμένους. [313] καὶ τότε μέν, ἑσπέρα γὰρ ἦν, ἡσύχαζεν: ὄναρ δὲ ὁ θεὸς ἐπιστὰς αὐτῷ παρῄνεσε λαβόντι τὸν γαμβρὸν καὶ τὰς θυγατέρας ἠρεμεῖν καὶ μηδὲν εἰς αὐτοὺς ὑπὸ θυμοῦ τολμᾶν, σπονδὰς δὲ ποιεῖσθαι πρὸς Ἰάκωβον, αὐτὸς λέγων ἐκείνῳ συμμαχήσειν, εἰ καταφρονήσας αὐτοῦ τῆς ὀλιγότητος χωρήσειεν αὐτῷ διὰ μάχης. [314] Λάβανος δὲ τοιαύτης αὐτῷ προρρήσεως γεγενημένης μεθ᾽ ἡμέραν τὸν Ἰάκωβον εἰς λόγους προκαλεσάμενος καὶ δηλώσας αὐτῷ τὸ ὄναρ, ἐπεὶ πρὸς αὐτὸν ἦλθε πεισθείς, ἤρξατο κατηγορεῖν αὐτοῦ προφέρων, ὅτι καὶ πένητα αὐτὸν ἐλθόντα πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ πάντων ἄπορον ὑπεδέξατο καὶ παράσχοι πᾶσαν ἀφθονίαν τῆς αὑτοῦ κτήσεως: καὶ γὰρ καὶ θυγατέρας ἐμὰς συνέζευξα τὴν εὔνοιάν σου τὴν πρὸς ἡμᾶς τούτοις αὐξήσεσθαι λογιζόμενος. [315] σὺ δὲ οὔτε τῆς μητρὸς τῆς σαυτοῦ καὶ ἧς ἔχεις πρὸς ἐμὲ συγγενείας οὔτε γυναικῶν ἃς ἔγημας αἰδῶ ποιησάμενος, οὐδὲ τέκνων ὧν εἰμι πάππος φροντίσας, ἐχρήσω μοι πολέμου νόμῳ, κτῆσιν μὲν ἄγων τὴν ἐμὴν θυγατέρας δὲ ἀναπείσας ἀποδρᾶναι τὸν γεγεννηκότα, [316] ἱερά τε πάτρια βαστάσας οἴχῃ φερόμενος ὑπό τε τῶν ἐμῶν τιμηθέντα προγόνων καὶ ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ θρησκείας τῆς αὐτῆς ἐκείνοις ἀξιωθέντα: καὶ ταῦτα ἃ μηδὲ οἱ πολεμήσαντες τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ἔδρασαν ὁ συγγενὴς σὺ καὶ τῆς μὲν ἀδελφῆς τῆς ἐμῆς υἱός, θυγατέρων δὲ τῶν ἐμῶν ἀνήρ, ξένος δὲ καὶ ἐφέστιος τῆς ἐμῆς οἰκίας γεγενημένος ἔδρασας.” [317] ταῦτα εἰπόντος Λαβάνου Ἰάκωβος ἀπελογεῖτο μὴ μόνῳ πατρίδος ἔρωτα τὸν θεόν, ἀλλὰ καὶ πᾶσιν ἐμφῦσαι, καὶ μετὰ τοσοῦτον χρόνον καλῶς ἔχειν αὐτὸν κατελθεῖν εἰς ταύτην. [318] “ὑπὲρ δὲ τῆς λείας ἧς ἐγκαλεῖς, φησίν, ἀδικῶν αὐτὸς ἂν εὑρεθείης ἐπ᾽ ἄλλῳ κριτῇ: ὑπὲρ γὰρ ἧς ἐχρῆν σε χάριν ἡμῖν ἔχειν καὶ φυλαχθείσης ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν καὶ πλείονος γεγενημένης, ὑπὲρ ταύτης πῶς οὐ διαμαρτάνεις τῶν δικαίων χαλεπαίνων ἐμοί, εἰ μοῖραν αὐτῆς ὀλίγην λαβόντες ἔχομεν. περὶ μέντοι γε τῶν θυγατέρων ἴσθι μὴ κατ᾽ ἐμὴν κακουργίαν ἀπαναστήσαντος ἀκολουθεῖν, ἀλλὰ κατ᾽ εὔνοιαν δικαίαν, ἣν γυναιξὶ γαμεταῖς πρὸς τοὺς συνοικοῦντας εἶναι συμβέβηκεν: ἕπονται τοίνυν οὐχ ὡς ἐμοὶ τοσοῦτον, [319] ὅσον τοῖς παισὶν αὐτῶν.” καὶ ταῦτα μὲν ὑπὲρ τοῦ μηδὲν ἀδικεῖν αὐτὸς ἔλεγε, προσενεκάλει δὲ καὶ κατηγορίαν ἐποιεῖτο, ὅτι μητρὸς ὢν ἀδελφὸς τῆς αὐτοῦ καὶ συζεύξας αὐτῷ τὰς θυγατέρας ἐπιτάγμασιν ἐκτρυχώσειε χαλεποῖς, εἴκοσιν ἐτῶν ἀριθμὸν ἐν αὐτοῖς κατασχών. καὶ τὰ μὲν προφάσει τῶν γάμων ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ γενόμενα καίπερ ὄντα χαλεπὰ κουφότερα ἔφασκε, χείρω δὲ τὰ μετὰ τοὺς γάμους καὶ ἅ τις ἂν ἔπαθεν ἐχθρὸς ἔφυγε. [320] καὶ γὰρ σφόδρα κακούργως ὁ Λάβανος ἐχρήσατο τῷ Ἰακώβῳ: ὁρῶν γὰρ αὐτῷ τὸν θεὸν πρὸς ὅτι θελήσειε συλλαμβανόμενον ὑπισχνεῖτο τῶν τεχθησομένων αὐτῷ παρέξειν ἔσθ᾽ ὅτε μὲν ὅτι καὶ γένοιτο λευκόν, ποτὲ δ᾽ αὖ τὰ μέλανα τῶν γεννωμένων. [321] πληθυόντων δὲ τῶν ἐπ᾽ ὀνόματι τῷ Ἰακώβου τικτομένων, τὴν μὲν εἰς τὸ παρὸν οὐκ ἐφύλαττε πίστιν, εἰς ἔτος δὲ παρέξειν ἐπηγγέλλετο διὰ τὸ ἐποφθαλμιᾶν τῷ πλήθει τῆς κτήσεως, ἐπαγγελλόμενος μὲν διὰ τὸ δυσέλπιστον γενέσθαι τοσαῦτα, ψευδόμενος δὲ ἐπὶ γενομένοις.  10. But Laban, after one day's time, being acquainted with Jacob's and his daughters' departure, was much troubled, and pursued after them, leading a band of men with him; and on the seventh day overtook them, and found them resting on a certain hill; and then indeed he did not meddle with them, for it was even-tide; but God stood by him in a dream, and warned him to receive his son-in-law and his daughters in a peaceable manner; and not to venture upon any thing rashly, or in wrath to but to make a league with Jacob. And he him, that if he despised their small number, attacked them in a hostile manner, he would assist them. When Laban had been thus forewarned by God, he called Jacob to him the next day, in order to treat with him, and showed him what dream he had; in dependence whereupon he came confidently to him, and began to accuse him, alleging that he had entertained him when he was poor, and in want of all things, and had given him plenty of all things which he had. "For," said he, "I have joined my daughters to thee in marriage, and supposed that thy kindness to me be greater than before; but thou hast had no regard to either thy mother's relations to me, nor to the affinity now newly contracted between us; nor to those wives whom thou hast married; nor to those children, of whom I am the grandfather. Thou hast treated me as an enemy, driving away my cattle, and by persuading my daughters to run away from their father; and by carrying home those sacred paternal images which were worshipped by my forefathers, and have been honored with the like worship which they paid them by myself. In short, thou hast done this whilst thou art my kinsman, and my sister's son, and the husband of my daughters, and was hospitably treated by me, and didst eat at my table." When Laban had said this, Jacob made his defense—That he was not the only person in whom God had implanted the love of his native country, but that he had made it natural to all men; and that therefore it was but reasonable that, after so long time, he should go back to it. "But as to the prey, of whose driving away thou accusest me, if any other person were the arbitrator, thou wouldst be found in the wrong; for instead of those thanks I ought to have had from thee, for both keeping thy cattle, and increasing them, how is it that thou art unjustly angry at me because I have taken, and have with me, a small portion of them? But then, as to thy daughters, take notice, that it is not through any evil practices of mine that they follow me in my return home, but from that just affection which wives naturally have to their husbands. They follow therefore not so properly myself as their own children." And thus far of his apology was made, in order to clear himself of having acted unjustly. To which he added his own complaint and accusation of Laban; saying, "While I was thy sister's son, and thou hadst given me thy daughters in marriage, thou hast worn me out with thy harsh commands, and detained me twenty years under them. That indeed which was required in order to my marrying thy daughters, hard as it was, I own to have been tolerable; but as to those that were put upon me after those marriages, they were worse, and such indeed as an enemy would have avoided." For certainly Laban had used Jacob very ill; for when he saw that God was assisting to Jacob in all that he desired, he promised him, that of the young cattle which should be born, he should have sometimes what was of a white color, and sometimes what should be of a black color; but when those that came to Jacob's share proved numerous, he did not keep his faith with him, but said he would give them to him the next year, because of his envying him the multitude of his possessions. He promised him as before, because he thought such an increase was not to be expected; but when it appeared to be fact, he deceived him.
 [XIX.x.322] De sacris autem furatis iussit inquisitionem fieri. Cum accepisset autem laban perscrutando potestatem: rachel autem audiens posuit idola in stratorio cameli que[i] et [12v] portabat eam et sedens dicebat naturalem sibimet purgationem imminere. Et laban quidem cessauit amplius perscrutari, non credens filiam quia cum tali passione accedere posset ad idola. Fecitque cum iacob foedus, in nullo eorum se memoriam quae gesta fuerant habiturus. Sed et ille dilecturum se filias eius, et has pollicitationes fecerunt super montes quosdam in quibus columnam statuerunt sub scemate arae, unde collis ipse dicitur galaad ex quo actenus galaaditen terram appellant. Et cum factis pactionibus immolassent, laban quidem reuersus est,   [322] Περὶ μέντοι τῶν ἱερωμάτων ἐκέλευεν ἔρευναν ποιεῖσθαι: δεξαμένου δὲ Λαβάνου τὴν ἔρευναν Ῥαχήλα πυνθανομένη κατατίθησι τοὺς τύπους εἰς τὴν σάγην τῆς φερούσης αὐτὴν καμήλου: ἐκαθέζετο δὲ φάσκουσα τὴν κατὰ φύσιν κάθαρσιν αὐτῇ ἐνοχλεῖν. [323] καὶ Λάβανος μὲν ἀφίσταται τῆς ἐπὶ πλεῖον ἐρεύνης οὐκ ἂν οἰηθεὶς τὴν θυγατέρα μετὰ τοιούτου πάθους τοῖς τύποις προσελθεῖν, ποιεῖται δ᾽ ὅρκους πρὸς Ἰάκωβον οὐδενὸς αὐτῷ μνησικακήσειν τῶν γενομένων, ἀλλὰ κἀκεῖνος ἀγαπήσειν αὐτοῦ τὰς θυγατέρας. [324] καὶ τὰς πίστεις τὰς ἐπὶ τούτοις ἐποιήσαντο ὑπὲρ ὀρῶν τινων, ἐφ᾽ οἷς στήλην ἀνέθεσαν κατὰ βωμοῦ σχῆμα, ὅθεν Γαλάδην λέγεται βουνός, ἀφ᾽ οὗ καὶ νῦν Γαλαδηνὴν καλοῦσι τὴν γῆν. ἑστιαθέντων δὲ ἐπὶ τοῖς ὅρκοις ὁ μὲν Λάβανος ἀνέζευξεν.  11. But then, as to the sacred images, he bid him search for them; and when Laban accepted of the offer, Rachel, being informed of it, put those images into that camel's saddle on which she rode, and sat upon it; and said, that her natural purgation hindered her rising up: so Laban left off searching any further, not supposing that his daughter in such circumstances would approach to those images. So he made a league with Jacob, and bound it by oaths, that he would not bear him any malice on account of what had happened; and Jacob made the like league, and promised to love Laban's daughters. And these leagues they confirmed with oaths also, which the made upon certain as whereon they erected a pillar, in the form of an altar: whence that hill is called Gilead; and from thence they call that land the Land of Gilead at this day. Now when they had feasted, after the making of the league, Laban returned home.

 

[XX.i.325]
 iacob autem in chananaeam procedenti, subinde uisiones apparebant, de futuro ei spem optimam pollicentes. Et locum quidem illum appellauit dei castrum. Uolens autem nosse quid eius cogitaret frater, singula cogniturus cum integrita te praemisit. Metuensque propter priscam suspicionem, p[rae]cepit his quos mittebat, ut dicerent esau, quia iacob putans iniustum esse ut hic te irascente couuiueret, de prouincia sponte discessit, et nunc sufficiens esse tempus putans reconciliationis reuersus est, uxores et filios ducens cum diuitiis adquisitis, et cum preciosis rebus semetipsum tibimet traditurum. Quia maxime fore bonum iudicat ut cum fratre fruatur his quae ei sunt a diuinitate conlata. Et illi quidem haec indicauerunt. Esau uero laetus effectus est: fratri cum quadrigentis occurrit armatis. Iacob autem audiens uenire eum in occursum sibi cum tantis armatis expauit. Deo tamen spem salutis suae commisit et prouidentiam rerum praesentiam fecit, quatenus et ipse suos sine passione seruaret, inimicisque praeualeret, si aliquid iniustum facere uoluissent. Distribuens ergo qui cum eo erant, alios quidem p[rae]mittebat: alios autem post tergum proxime sequi iubebat. Ut si uim paterentur qui praemissi fuerant insistente fratre, refugium sequentes haberent, et omnes qui cum eo erant hoc modo disponens, misit quosdam munera fratri deportantes. Erant enim iumenta quae mittebantur et multitudo quadrupedum uariorum quae grata suscipientibus forent, eo quod illic rarius haec haberent. Mittebantur autem diuersis uicibus, ut frequenter ad uenientibus multi esse uiderentur [putarentur]. Placabat autem per dona iram eius, uel si adhuc aliqua indignatio remansisset sed etiam sermonibus blandis iubebat uti quos mittebat ad eum.
 

[325] Ἰακώβῳ δὲ εἰς τὴν Χαναναίαν προϊόντι φαντάσματα συνετύγχανεν ἀγαθὰς ἐλπίδας ὑπαγορεύοντα περὶ τῶν ἐς ὕστερον: καὶ τὸν μὲν τόπον ἐκεῖνον προσαγορεύει θεοῦ στρατόπεδον, βουλόμενος δὲ εἰδέναι, τί ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ φρονεῖ, τοὺς γνωσομένους ἕκαστα μετὰ ἀκριβείας προύπεμψε δεδιὼς αὐτὸν διὰ τὴν προτέραν ὑποψίαν. [326] ἐνετέλλετο δὲ τοῖς πεμπομένοις λέγειν πρὸς τὸν Ἡσαῦν, ὅτι νομίσας Ἰάκωβος ἄδικον συνδιαιτᾶσθαι αὐτοῦ τῇ ὀργῇ τῆς χώρας ἑκὼν ὑπεξέλθοι, καὶ νῦν τὸν χρόνον ἱκανὸν ἡγούμενος εἶναι διαλλάκτην ἐπανήκοι γυναῖκάς τε καὶ παῖδας ἐπαγόμενος μετὰ τοῦ πορισθέντος βίου, μετὰ τῶν τιμιωτάτων ἑαυτὸν ἐκείνῳ παραδιδούς, ὅτι κρίνοι μέγιστον ἀγαθὸν τὸ τῷ ἀδελφῷ συμμεταλαμβάνειν τῶν ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ δεδομένων. [327] καὶ οἱ μὲν ταῦτα ἐδήλουν, Ἡσαῦς δὲ περιχαρὴς γίνεται καὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ ὑπήντα σὺν ὁπλίταις τετρακοσίοις. καὶ Ἰάκωβος πυνθανόμενος ἥκειν αὐτὸν ὑπαντησόμενον μετὰ τοσούτων ἦν περίφοβος, τῷ μέντοι θεῷ τὴν ἐλπίδα τῆς σωτηρίας ἐπέτρεπε καὶ πρόνοιαν εἶχεν ἐκ τῶν παρόντων, ὅπως αὐτὸς ἀπαθὴς σώζοι τοὺς σὺν αὑτῷ κρατήσας τῶν ἐχθρῶν εἰ θέλοιεν ἀδικεῖν. [328] νείμας οὖν τοὺς σὺν αὑτῷ τοὺς μὲν προύπεμπε, τοὺς δὲ λειπομένους ἆσσον ἐκέλευσεν ἀκολουθεῖν, ὅπως εἰ βιασθεῖεν οἱ προπεμφθέντες ἐπιθεμένου τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ, καταφυγὴν ἔχοιεν τοὺς ἑπομένους. [329] καὶ τοῦτον διατάξας τοὺς σὺν αὑτῷ τὸν τρόπον πέμπει τινὰς δῶρα κομίζοντας τἀδελφῷ: ὑποζύγια δὲ ἦν τὰ πεμπόμενα καὶ πλῆθος τετραπόδων ποικίλων, ἃ δὴ τίμια τοῖς ληψομένοις ἔμελλεν ἔσεσθαι παρὰ τὸ σπανίζειν αὐτῶν. [330] ἦσαν δὲ οἱ πεμφθέντες ἐκ διαλειμμάτων, ἵνα συνεχέστερον ἐντυγχάνοντες πολλοὶ δοκῶσιν: ἀνήσειν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν δωρεῶν τῆς ὀργῆς, εἰ διαμένοι τεθυμωμένος: ἔτι μέντοι καὶ λόγοις χρηστοῖς ὁμιλεῖν πρὸς αὐτὸν εἴρητο τοῖς πεμπομένοις.
 CHAPTER 20. Concerning The Meeting Of Jacob And Esau.

1. Now as Jacob was proceeding on his journey to the land of Canaan, angels appeared to him, and suggested to him good hope of his future condition; and that place he named the Camp of God. And being desirous of knowing what his brother's intentions were to him, he sent messengers, to give him an exact account of every thing, as being afraid, on account of the enmities between them. He charged those that were sent, to say to Esau, "Jacob had thought it wrong to live together with him while he was in anger against him, and so had gone out of the country; and that he now, thinking the length of time of his absence must have made up their differences, was returning; that he brought with him his wives, and his children, with what possessions he had gotten; and delivered himself, with what was most dear to him, into his hands; and should think it his greatest happiness to partake together with his brother of what God had bestowed upon him." So these messengers told him this message. Upon which Esau was very glad, and met his brother with four hundred men. And Jacob, when he heard that he was coming to meet him with such a number of men, was greatly afraid: however, he committed his hope of deliverance to God; and considered how, in his present circumstances, he might preserve himself and those that were with him, and overcome his enemies if they attacked him injuriously. He therefore distributed his company into parts; some he sent before the rest, and the others he ordered to come close behind, that so, if the first were overpowered when his brother attacked them, they might have those that followed as a refuge to fly unto. And when he had put his company in this order, he sent some of them to carry presents to his brother. The presents were made up of cattle, and a great number of four-footed beasts, of many kinds, such as would be very acceptable to those that received them, on account of their rarity. Those who were sent went at certain intervals of space asunder, that, by following thick, one after another, they might appear to be more numerous, that Esau might remit of his anger on account of these presents, if he were still in a passion. Instructions were also given to those that were sent to speak gently to him.

 [XX.ii.331] Haec disponens per totum diem, nocte ueniente mouebat suos. Cumque torrentem quendam nomine ioboc transiret iacob ibi remanenti uisio quaedam apparuit cum qua luctabatur. Illa utique uisione certaminis initium faciente, quae etiam uoce usa est simul et uerbis laetarique monens eum in his quae facta uidebantur, nec modico se praeualuisse crederet, sed grandem angelum dei uicisse. Et hoc signum arbitrari magnorum sibi fore bonorum. Et quia numquam eius deficeret genus: nec fortiorem hominum quemquam illius esse uirtutis. Praecepitque eum uocari israel quod hebraica lingua signifcat reluctantem angelum sacrum, haec igitur iacob poscente illa uisio p[rae]dicebat. Qui sentiens esse angelum dei, rogabat ut quam partem habiturus esset ei significaret. Et uisio quidem cum dixisset ista disparuit. Laetatus autem in his iacob: fanuel locum denominauit. Cumque ei propter certamen dolor fuisset exortus circa neruum latum, et ipse abstinuit eo cibo, et propter illum neque nobis est comestibilis. Proximum uero iam audiens esse fratrem: iussit p[rae]cedere utramque coniugem seorsum cum suis ancillis, ut delonge conspicerent opera uirorum pugnantium, si hoc uoluisset esau. Fratrem autem sibi proximum uenientem ipse salutauit: nihil dolose de eo cogitantem. Et esau amplexus eum requirebat de multitudine filiorum et mulierum.Et cum cognouisset ipse quidem uenire eos rogabat ad patrem. Iacob autem excusante eos deiu mentorum labore discessit in sairan, illic enim commorabatur. Appellauitque uillam de sua scilicet hyrsuta capillatura.  [331] Ταῦτα συνθεὶς διὰ πάσης τῆς ἡμέρας νυκτὸς ἐπιγενομένης ἐκίνει τοὺς σὺν αὑτῷ: καὶ χειμάρρουν τινὰ Ἰάβακχον λεγόμενον διαβεβηκότων Ἰάκωβος ὑπολελειμμένος φαντάσματι συντυχὼν διεπάλαιεν ἐκείνου προκατάρχοντος τῆς μάχης ἐκράτει τε τοῦ φαντάσματος, [332] ὃ δὴ καὶ φωνῇ χρῆται καὶ λόγοις πρὸς αὐτὸν χαίρειν τε τοῖς γεγενημένοις παραινοῦν καὶ μὴ μικρὸν κρατεῖν ὑπολαμβάνειν, ἀλλὰ θεῖον ἄγγελον νενικηκέναι καὶ σημεῖον ἡγεῖσθαι τοῦτο μεγάλων ἀγαθῶν ἐσομένων καὶ τοῦ μηδέποτε τὸ γένος ἐκλείψειν αὐτοῦ, μηδὲ ὑπέρτερον ἀνθρώπων τινὰ τῆς ἰσχύος ἔσεσθαι τῆς ἐκείνου. [333] ἐκέλευσέ τε καλεῖν αὐτὸν Ἰσραῆλον, σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο κατὰ τὴν Ἑβραίων γλῶτταν τὸν ἀντιστάτην ἀγγέλῳ θεοῦ. ταῦτα μέντοι προύλεγεν Ἰακώβου δεηθέντος: αἰσθόμενος γὰρ ἄγγελον εἶναι θεοῦ, τίνα μοῖραν ἕξει σημαίνειν παρεκάλει. καὶ τὸ μὲν φάντασμα ταῦτ᾽ εἰπὸν ἀφανὲς γίνεται. [334] ἡσθεὶς δὲ τούτοις Ἰάκωβος Φανουῆλον ὀνομάζει τὸν τόπον, ὃ σημαίνει θεοῦ πρόσωπον. καὶ γενομένου διὰ τὴν μάχην ἀλγήματος αὐτῷ περὶ τὸ νεῦρον τὸ πλατὺ αὐτός τε ἀπέχεται τῆς τούτου βρώσεως καὶ δι᾽ ἐκεῖνον οὐδὲ ἡμῖν ἐστιν ἐδώδιμον. [335] Πλησίον δ᾽ ἤδη τὸν ἀδελφὸν πυνθανόμενος κελεύει προϊέναι τῶν γυναικῶν ἑκατέραν κατ᾽ αὐτὴν μετὰ τῶν θεραπαινίδων, ἵνα πόρρωθεν ἀφορῷεν τὰ ἔργα τῶν ἀνδρῶν μαχομένων, εἰ τοῦτο θελήσειεν Ἡσαῦς, προσεκύνει δ᾽ αὐτὸς τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἐγγὺς αὐτῷ γενόμενον οὐδὲν περὶ αὐτοῦ δόλιον φρονοῦντα. [336] καὶ ὁ Ἡσαῦς ἀσπασάμενος αὐτὸν ἀνήρετο τῶν παίδων τὸν ὄχλον καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας, ἠξίου τε τότε μαθὼν περὶ αὐτῶν τὸ πᾶν καὶ αὐτὸς συμβαδίζειν αὐτοῖς πρὸς τὸν πατέρα, Ἰακώβου δὲ προφασιζομένου τὸν κόπον τῶν ὑποζυγίων ὑπεχώρησεν εἰς Σάειραν: ἐνταῦθα γὰρ ἐποιεῖτο τὴν δίαιταν προσαγορεύσας τὸ χωρίον ἀπὸ τῆς αὑτοῦ τριχώσεως [δασεῖαν].

 2. When Jacob had made these appointments all the day, and night came on, he moved on with his company; and, as they were gone over a certain river called Jabboc, Jacob was left behind; and meeting with an angel, he wrestled with him, the angel beginning the struggle: but he prevailed over the angel, who used a voice, and spake to him in words, exhorting him to be pleased with what had happened to him, and not to suppose that his victory was a small one, but that he had overcome a divine angel, and to esteem the victory as a sign of great blessings that should come to him, and that his offspring should never fall, and that no man should be too hard for his power. He also commanded him to be called Israel, which in the Hebrew tongue signifies one that struggled with the divine angel. 37 These promises were made at the prayer of Jacob; for when he perceived him to be the angel of God, he desired he would signify to him what should befall him hereafter. And when the angel had said what is before related, he disappeared; but Jacob was pleased with these things, and named the place Phanuel, which signifies, the face of God. Now when he felt pain, by this struggling, upon his broad sinew, he abstained from eating that sinew himself afterward; and for his sake it is still not eaten by us.
3. When Jacob understood that his brother was near, he ordered his wives to go before, each by herself, with the handmaids, that they might see the actions of the men as they were fighting, if Esau were so disposed. He then went up to his brother Esau, and bowed down to him, who had no evil design upon him, but saluted him; and asked him about the company of the children and of the women; and desired, when he had understood all he wanted to know about them, that he would go along with him to their father; but Jacob pretending that the cattle were weary, Esau returned to Seir, for there was his place of habitation, he having named the place Roughness, from his own hairy roughness.


 [XXI.i.337] Iacob autem uenit ad scenas, id est, ad tabernacula quae actenus si uocantur. Unde in sicimam quoque profectus est quae ciuitas est chananaeorum. Sicemitis autem festiuitatem habentibus, dina quae fuit filia iacob, sola transiuit ad ciuitatem emptura ornamentum prouincialium mulierum. Uidens autem eam,  [13r] sichem regis emmor filius eam corrupit abreptam et amore confectus depraecabatur patrem ut ei puellam acciperet in uxorem. Ille uero consentiens uenit ad iacob, supplicans ut filio suo sichem dinam lege coniungeret. Iacob autem neque contradicere ualens propter dignitatem supplicantis, neque legitimum iudicans alieniginae filiam copulare, petit concedendum sibi ut delibaret de quibus poscebat. Abscessit ergo rex, sperans iacob nuptias filio suo concessurum. Iacob autem filiis indicans et corruptionem sororis et supplicationem emmor, petebat cogitandum esse quid fieret. Et plurimi quidem tacebant consilium non inuenientes. Symeon autem et leui puellae fratres ex eadem matre nati, huiusmodi sibi constituerunt ad inuicem actionem. Ut cum esset festiuitas et sicimitae epulis uterentur, noctanter primis custodiis ad sistentes dormientes occiderent. Et uenientes in ciuitatem interficerent omnem masculum, et regem cum eis, et filium eius, solisque parcerent mulieribus. Haec autem efficientes praeter conscientiam patris reuocauerunt dinam.
 

[337] Ἰάκωβος δὲ ἀφίκετο εἰς τὰς ἔτι νῦν Σκηνὰς λεγομένας, ὅθεν εἰς Σίκιμον παρῆν: Χαναναίων δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἡ πόλις. τῶν δὲ Σικιμωτῶν ἑορτὴν ἀγόντων Δεῖνα, θυγάτηρ ἦν Ἰακώβου μόνη, παρῆλθεν εἰς τὴν πόλιν ὀψομένη τὸν κόσμον τῶν ἐπιχωρίων γυναικῶν. θεασάμενος δ᾽ αὐτὴν Συχέμμης ὁ Ἐμμώρου τοῦ βασιλέως υἱὸς φθείρει δι᾽ ἁρπαγῆς καὶ διατεθεὶς ἐρωτικῶς ἱκετεύει τὸν πατέρα λαβεῖν αὐτῷ πρὸς γάμον τὴν κόρην. [338] ὁ δὲ πεισθεὶς ἧκε πρὸς τὸν Ἰάκωβον δεόμενος τῷ παιδὶ αὐτοῦ Συχέμμῃ συζεῦξαι Δεῖναν κατὰ νόμον. Ἰάκωβος δὲ οὔτ᾽ ἀντιλέγειν ἔχων διὰ τὸ ἀξίωμα τοῦ παρακαλοῦντος οὔτε νόμιμον ἡγούμενος ἀλλοφύλῳ συνοικίζειν τὴν θυγατέρα ἠξίωσεν ἐπιτρέψαι αὐτῷ βουλὴν ἀγαγεῖν περὶ ὧν παρακαλεῖ. [339] ἀπῄει μὲν οὖν ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐλπίζων Ἰάκωβον παρέξειν τὸν γάμον, Ἰάκωβος δὲ τοῖς παισὶ δηλώσας τήν τε φθορὰν τῆς ἀδελφῆς καὶ τοῦ Ἐμμώρου τὴν δέησιν ἠξίου βουλεύεσθαι τί δεῖ ποιεῖν. οἱ μὲν οὖν πλείους ἡσύχαζον γνώμης ἀποροῦντες, Σεμεὼν δὲ καὶ Λευὶς ὁμομήτριοι τῆς κόρης ἀδελφοὶ συντίθενται πρὸς ἀλλήλους τοιάνδε τινὰ πρᾶξιν: [340] οὔσης ἑορτῆς καὶ τῶν Σικιμιωτῶν εἰς ἄνεσιν καὶ εὐωχίαν τετραμμένων νύκτωρ πρώτοις ἐπιβαλόντες τοῖς φύλαξι κτείνουσι κοιμωμένους καὶ παρελθόντες εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἀναιροῦσι πᾶν ἄρρεν καὶ τὸν βασιλέα σὺν αὐτοῖς καὶ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ, φείδονται δὲ τῶν γυναικῶν. πράξαντες δὲ ταῦτα δίχα τῆς τοῦ πατρὸς γνώμης ἐπανάγουσι τὴν ἀδελφήν. 
 CHAPTER 21. Concerning The Violation Of Dina's Chastity.

1. Hereupon Jacob came to the place, till this day called Tents [Succoth]; from whence he went to Shechem, which is a city of the Canaanites. Now as the Shechemites were keeping a festival Dina, who was the only daughter of Jacob, went into the city to see the finery of the women of that country. But when Shechem, the son of Hamor the king, saw her, he defiled her by violence; and being greatly in love with her, desired of his father that he would procure the damsel to him for a wife. To which desire he condescended, and came to Jacob, desiring him to give leave that his son Shechem might, according to law, marry Dina. But Jacob, not knowing how to deny the desire of one of such great dignity, and yet not thinking it lawful to marry his daughter to a stranger, entreated him to give him leave to have a consultation about what he desired him to do. So the king went away, in hopes that Jacob would grant him this marriage. But Jacob informed his sons of the defilement of their sister, and of the address of Hamor; and desired them to give their advice what they should do. Upon fills, the greatest part said nothing, not knowing what advice to give. But Simeon and Levi, the brethren of the damsel by the same mother, agreed between themselves upon the action following: It being now the time of a festival, when the Shechemites were employed in ease and feasting, they fell upon the watch when they were asleep, and, coming into the city, slew all the males as also the king, and his son, with them; but spared the women. And when they had done this without their father's consent, they brought away their sister.
 [XXI.ii.341] Iacob autem factorum magnitudinem admiranti et filiis irascenti, deus adsistens iussit eum confidere, et purificantem tabernacula sacrificia celebrare, quae prius cum iret in mesopotamiam pro somnii apparitione de uouerat. Cum igitur purgaret suos, laban deos inuenit. Neque enim sciebat rachel furasse et quia deos celasset in terra sub arbore quadam. Hos ergo exinde tollens sacrificabat in bethel, ubi somnium uidera[e]t, cum mesopotamiam prius iret,  [341] Ἰακώβῳ δὲ ἐκπλαγέντι πρὸς τὸ μέγεθος τῶν γεγονότων καὶ χαλεπαίνοντι πρὸς τοὺς υἱοὺς ὁ θεὸς παραστὰς ἐκέλευσε θαρρεῖν, ἁγνίσαντι δὲ τὰς σκηνὰς θυσίας ἐπιτελεῖν, ἃς τὸ πρῶτον ἀπιὼν εἰς τὴν Μεσοποταμίαν ἐπὶ τῇ ὄψει τοῦ ὀνείρου ηὔξατο. [342] ἁγνίζων οὖν τοὺς ἑπομένους ἐπιτυγχάνει τοῖς Λαβάνου θεοῖς, οὐ γὰρ ἠπίστατο ὑπὸ τῆς Ῥαχήλης κλαπέντας, καὶ αὐτοὺς ἔκρυψεν ἐν Σικίμοις εἰς γῆν ὑπό τινα δρῦν, ἀπάρας τε τοὐντεῦθεν ἐν Βαιθήλοις ἔθυεν, ὅπου τὸ ὄνειρον ἐθεάσατο χωρῶν πρότερον ἐπὶ τῆς Μεσοποταμίας.  2. Now while Jacob was astonished at the greatness of this act, and was severely blaming his sons for it, God stood by him, and bid him be of good courage; but to purify his tents, and to offer those sacrifices which he had vowed to offer when he went first into Mesopotamia, and saw his vision. As he was therefore purifying his followers, he lighted upon the gods of Laban; [for he did not before know they were stolen by Rachel;] and he hid them in the earth, under an oak, in Shechem. And departing thence, he offered sacrifice at Bethel, the place where he saw his dream, when he went first into Mesopotamia.
 [XXI.iii.343] hinc enim proficiscens, uenit in effrata ubi rachel ex partu mortuam sepeliuit, quae sola inter cognatos in hebron honore sepult[ur]ae habere non meruit. Et cum ualde fleuisset filium ex ea natum beniamin appelauit, propter dolorem qui ob eum matri prouenerat: Isti sunt ergo omnes filii iacob masculi quidem duodecim, femina uero una horum  octo legitimi. De lia quidem sex: duo uero de rachel, quattuor uero de famulis, bini ex utraque, quorum et nomina dixi superius.   [343] Ἐντεῦθεν δὲ προϊὼν ἐπεὶ κατὰ τὴν Ἐφραθηνὴν γίνεται, ἐνθάδε Ῥαχήλαν ἐκ τοκετοῦ θανοῦσαν θάπτει μόνην τῶν συγγενῶν τῆς ἐν Νεβρῶνι τιμῆς οὐ τυχοῦσαν. πενθήσας δὲ μεγάλως τὸ ἐξ αὐτῆς παιδίον Βενιαμὶν ἐκάλεσε διὰ τὴν ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ γενομένην ὀδύνην τῇ μητρί. [344] οὗτοι Ἰακώβου παῖδες οἱ πάντες, ἄρρενες μὲν δώδεκα θήλεια δὲ μία. τούτων ὀκτὼ γνήσιοι, ἐκ Λείας μὲν ἕξ, δύο δὲ ἐκ Ῥαχήλης, τέσσαρες δὲ ἐκ τῶν θεραπαινίδων δύο ἐξ ἑκατέρας, ὧν καὶ τὰ ὀνόματα πάντων προεῖπον.  3. And when he was gone thence, and was come over against Ephrata, he there buried Rachel, who died in child-bed: she was the only one of Jacob's kindred that had not the honor of burial at Hebron. And when he had mourned for her a great while, he called the son that was born of her Benjamin, because of the sorrow the mother had with him. These are all the children of Jacob, twelve males and one female.--Of them eight were legitimate,--viz. six of Lea, and two of Rachel; and four were of the handmaids, two of each; all whose names have been set down already.


 [XXII.1.345] Uenit ergo hinc in ebron ciuitatem positam inter chananaeos. Illic autem isaac com[con]morabatur et paululum quidem pariter uixerunt. Rebecca autem iacob uiuam non comperit. Moritur autem et isaac non post multum quam filius eius aduenerat, et sepultus est a filiis cum uxore in hebron ubi erat eius sepultura parentum. Fuit autem isaac deo uir carus et multa eius prouidentia dignus post abraham patrem suum et ualde longaeuus. Cumque uixisset centum et octoginta quinque annis cum uirtute, defunctus est.
[FLAVII IOSEPPI ANTIQUITATIS IUDAICAE]

EXPLICIT LIBER PRIMUS
 

[345] Παρῆν δ᾽ ἐντεῦθεν ἐπὶ Νεβρῶνα πόλιν ἐν Χαναναίοις κειμένην: ἐκεῖ δὲ Ἴσακος τὴν δίαιταν εἶχε: καὶ βραχέα μὲν ἀλλήλοις συνδιατρίβουσι: τὴν γὰρ Ῥεβέκκαν Ἰάκωβος οὐ κατέλαβε ζῶσαν. θνήσκει δὲ καὶ Ἴσακος οὐ μετὰ πολὺ τῆς ἀφίξεως τοῦ υἱοῦ καὶ ταφῆς ἔτυχεν ὑπὸ τῶν παίδων σὺν τῇ γυναικὶ ἐν Νεβρῶνι μνημείου προγονικοῦ ἐν αὐτῇ τυγχάνοντος αὐτοῖς. [346] ἐγένετο δὲ Ἴσακος ἀνὴρ θεοφιλὴς καὶ προνοίας πολλῆς ἠξιωμένος ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ μετὰ Ἅβραμον τὸν πατέρα, πολυχρονιώτατος δέ: βιώσας γὰρ ἔτη πέντε καὶ ὀγδοήκοντα πρὸς τοῖς ἑκατὸν μετὰ ἀρετῆς οὕτως ἀπέθανεν.
 CHAPTER 22. How Isaac Died, And Was Buried In Hebron.

From thence Jacob came to Hebron, a city situate among the Canaanites; and there it was that Isaac lived: and so they lived together for a little while; for as to Rebeka, Jacob did not find her alive. Isaac also died not long after the coming of his son; and was buried by his sons, with his wife, in Hebron, where they had a monument belonging to them from their forefathers. Now Isaac was a man who was beloved of God, and was vouchsafed great instances of providence by God, after Abraham his father, and lived to be exceeding old; for when he had lived virtuously one hundred and eighty-five years, he then died.
     
     

Comments