Citations & Reviews

Citation statistics (2012)

Total number of citations: 536
Total number of independent citations: 517
Total number of dependent (self-) citations: 19
Books: 71
Journal articles: 221
Papers published in proceedings: 81
PhD dissertations and theses: 56
Electronic sources: 68
Other published documents: 18


Reviews, recensions


Prof. Dr. Jean-Pierre Martineau

Professeur émérite de Psychologie clinique et de psychopathologie

Université Paul Valery Montpellier 3


VASS Zoltan 

«A PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF DRAWINGS AND PAINTINGS»

The SSCA Method: A Systems Analysis Approach


Voici un Manuel de belle main, ceci en considérant le travail scientifique de l’auteur (Docteur PhD et professeur de psychologie à l’université Karoli Gaspar de Budapest) mais aussi de ses destinataires étudiants et praticiens confirmés utilisant les médiations pictographiques dans une intention diagnostique et thérapeutique. Manuel et non pas essai, ni traité, car l’ouvrage, qui est pourtant un somme (927 pages), est maniable, très didactique, mais à l’opposé d’une série de recettes d’application mécaniste, d’un inventaire d’outils. Ceci grâce à la qualité de sa construction (sept chapitres correspondant aux registres de l’approche systémique développée ; glossaire des principales définitions en usage en psychopathologie de l’expression, en psychologie clinique et projective ; index des mots clés et des auteurs ; bibliographie de 769 références ; appendice des test de dessin mis à contribution et guide rédactionnel d’analyse des productions) et au fait que la méthode exposée est soutenue par une modélisation théorique, des exemples et des études de cas qui visent à conjuguer une approche rationnelle, objective,holistique avec une considération structurale, évolutive du sujet acteur, en situation , en relation, ainsi que de sa production. L’auteur met en exergue la « context analysis » et développe « the method of the Seven-Step Configuration.Analysis (SSCA) » à partir d’une revue importante de travaux sur l’expression pictographique ainsi que ses propres données cliniques. Sont ainsi finement conceptualisés, opérationnalisés, illustrés les sept moments qui constituent le travail d’interprétation : « Context analysis ; Process analysis ; Phenomenological analysis ; Iintuitive analysis, Global analysis ; Item analysis ; Essence of picture ».

Je retrouve dans cette démarche transversale à des référentiels psychopathogiques trop souvent opposés, la même veine qui m’avait porté vers la psychologie projective ( ici référée à L.K. Frank (1939), sans omettre les contributions à cette conceptualisation de : Freud, Jung, Minkowska, Corman…et nombre d’auteurs d’Europe centrale et des Etats-Unis) via la Société du Rorschach et des méthodes projectives de langue française et vers la conjugaison de la psychanalyse, de la phénoménologie et de l’anthropologie via les sociétés ( Française et Internationale) de psychopathologie de l’expression et d’art-thérapie.

Ainsi dans ma bibliothèque personnelle l’ouvrage du Dr. Zoltan Vass prend place à coté du « Manuel des techniques projectives en psychologie clinique » de H.Anderson et G.Anderson (1965) et des « Méthodes projectives » de D.Anzieu et C.Chabert, ouvrage régulièrement réédité. Mais encore l’importance que j’accorde à cette contribution éminente de Z.Vass au développement international des médiations projectives n’est pas chez moi étrangère à ce qu’a su initier l’école hongroise de psychanalyse et son chef de file S.Ferenczi, mais aussi L.Szondi (1893-1986), sa théorie des pulsionnels et son test.


Professeur Dr. Jean-Luc Sudres

Professeur de Psychologie (Psychopathologie et Psychologie Clinique)

Habilité à Diriger des Recherches en Psychologie, Docteur en Psychopathologie

Responsable Pédagogique du D.U. Art-thérapies 

Responsable du Centre Universitaire de Consultation Psychologique (CUCP)

Université Toulouse Le Mirail-UFR de Psychologie

 5 allées Antonio Machado -31058 Toulouse Cedex 9, France


"A Psychological interpretation of drawings and painting. The SSCA Method: A systems analysis approach" Zoltan Vass. Ed. Alexandra (Hongrie) 2012.  (In: Newsletter de la SIPE-AT , 2013, 65, p. 7.)


Voilà un autre travail titanesque qui pousse dans l'histoire le méconnu "Expression picturale et psychopathologique". Essai d'analyse et d'automatique documentaire de Claude Wiart (1967). En quelques 927 pages, 673 présentations de dessins de patients et schémas pédagogiques, plus libres et articles étudiés, Zoltan Vass nous livre avec clarté les sept étapes pour interpréter scientifiquement toute sorte d'images (dessins, peintures, gribouillis). Après un long travail allant de la littérature, aux praticiens experts, à la clinique avec le support de l'intelligence artificielle, nous voilà en capacité de répondre plus objectivement aux questions suivantes :


  1. 1.Comment utiliser les contextes soit l'anamnèse et les circonstances d'émergence de l'image.

  2. 2.Comment découvrir les aspects cachés de l'image avec l'analyse des processus à l'œuvre de manière dynamique.

  3. 3.Comment éviter/limiter les projections personnelles avec une description phénomé-nologique impartiale et objective.

  4. 4.Comment réaliser une analyse intuitive en se basant sur des techniques (five features, perceptual focus, questionning attitude, etc.) facilitantes et co-vérifiables.

  5. 5.Comment effectuer une analyse globale et non microscopique de l'image.

  6. 6.Comment prendre en compte les détails particuliers les plus importants.

  7. 7.Comment découvrir l'essence de l'image avec une analyse de configuration.


Tout cela repose sur une arborescence à modalité de système expert. Indubitablement une telle procédure conduit à regarder les images autrement. Gageons que les art-thérapeutes de terrain s'empareront de tout cela dans nos sociétés où clients et employeurs nous demandent d'aller toujours plus vite dans nos approches.


Dr. phil. Hildegard Ameln-Haffke (Rezension)

Leiterin Arbeitsbereich Heilpädagogische Kunsterziehung/Kunsttherapie am Lehrstuhl Allgemeine Heilpädagogik, Department Heilpädagogik und Rehabilitation

Humanwissenschaftliche Fakultät der Universität zu Köln


Vass, Zoltán (2012). A Psychological Interpretation of Drawings and Paintings. The SSCA Method: A Systems Analysis Approach. Pécs: Alexandra. Gebunden, 928 Seiten, davon zahlreiche Abbildungen s/w und farbig, Grafiken und Schaubilder, 17 x 23,5 cm, ISBN 978963297474 3


Dr. habil. Zoltan Vass legt mit seinem neuesten Buch „A Psychological Interpretation of Drawings and Paintings. The SSCA Method: A Systems Analysis Approach“ ein beeindruckendes Kompendium vor, das auf nahezu 1000 Seiten die SSCA (Seven- Step  Configuration  Analysis)  Bildinterpretations-Methode  umfassend  demonstriert und inhaltlich einem breiten therapeutischen und pädagogischen Berufsfeld nahelegt.

Aufgrund seiner Ausführlichkeit und hohen Anschaulichkeit – hunderte Bildbeispiele, Grafiken, die farblich abgesetzten Textteile und abgesetzten Textfelder unterstützen dies – verhilft es dem Anwender zur klaren Einordnung des jeweiligen Interpretationsschrittes auf einer siebenstufigen Leiter der Interpretation: eine systemanalytische   Sicht   auf   den   Untersuchungsgegenstand   Zeichnung   bzw. Gemälde wird deutlich.

Auch wenn es zunächst aufgrund der vielen Seiten schwierig erscheint, diese Methode in der geforderten umfassenden Analyse anzuwenden, so wird schnell deutlich, dass diese Methode zu einer in Therapie, Pädagogik und Beratungseinrichtung objektiven Beurteilung verhelfen kann, ein Schritt ergibt in der Konsequenz den nächsten, es bedarf lediglich der Übung. Schnell wird sich das System einprägen, hat man es ein paar Mal durchgeführt.

Zunächst wird unter Punkt 1 die Kontext-Analyse vorgenommen: Es interessieren phänomenologische Faktoren und Hintergrundinformationen, die zum Entstehen der Gestaltung beigetragen haben. Ein umfassender Blick wird auf den Gestalter, die Gestaltung selbst, den Untersucher und den Kontext gelegt.

In der Prozess-Analyse (Punkt 2) geht es um die genaue Beobachtung der Entstehung des Bildes, der Zeichnung bzw. des Gemäldes. Der Gestalter wird zu seinem Bild befragt und auch weitere Gestaltungen werden mit einbezogen.

Nun folgt unter Punkt 3 die Phänomenologische Analyse, in der formale und inhaltliche    Faktoren   herausgearbeitet   werden,   um   sich   der   psychologischen Bedeutung zu nähern.

Die Intuitive Analyse (Punkt 4) betrifft die Einschätzung der Gestaltungdurch den Untersucher/Forscher. Neben dem Spontaneindruck liefert Vass Adjektive und interessierende Variablen, die den Emotionsgehalt der Gestaltungen bestimmen helfen (er bezieht sich in diesem Untersuchungsschritt auf Wolfgang Sehringer, der 2004 ähnliche Untersuchungsempfehlungen gab).

Punkt 5, die Globale Analyse, stellt den zentralen Untersuchungspunkt für Zoltan Vass dar, dieser umfasst insgesamt fast 200 Seiten des Kompendiums. Unter Punkt 5 werden die zuvor ermittelten Einzelfaktoren wieder als ein Ganzes betrachtet. Es geht  zunächst  um  den  emotional-affektiven  Ton,  der  sich  unterschiedlich präsentieren kann: Der Autor gibt auf Seite 351 acht unterschiedliche Färbungen vor, die auf den nachfolgenden Seiten jeweils ausführlich erklärt werden. Es folgen in der Analyse vier Basis-Aspekte: Form, Bewegung, Positionierung und Farbe. Danach wird die Spontaneität erfasst, der Mal- und Zeichenstil, die Art der Integration von Details, die Harmonie und unterschiedliche Entwicklungsstufen.

Darauf baut Schritt 6, die Item-Analyse auf, die ikonografische, formale und inhaltliche Aspekte wieder zusammenführt.

Alle Interpretationsstufen zusammengefasst münden schließlich in der Aussage, der Essenz der Gestaltung (Stufe 7).

Fazit: Das Buch beeindruckt nicht nur wegen seines Umfanges und der ausführlich und präzis dargestellten Untersuchungsschritte der SSCA-Methode für Zeichnungen und Gemälde, es besticht auch durch die umfangreiche, internationale Referenzliste und die drei informativen Anhänge. Diese runden letztlich das Buch von einem Kompendium zu einem umfassenden Lehrbuch auf.

Das Buch von Dr. habil. Zoltan Vass sollte als Grundlagenwerk in jeder Bibliothek eines Psychologen, Psychiaters, Kunsttherapeuten und Lehrers, dessen berufliches Interesse der Visuellen Gestaltungswelt gewidmet ist, geführt werden.


Prof. Dr. Carlos R. Hojaij

Clínica Psiquiatria Biológica Brasil

Rua Ramos Batista, 152 6º andar

Itaim Bibi 04552-020

São Paulo Brasil

crhojaij@psiquiatriabiologica.com.br

www.psiquiatriabiologica.com.br


[...] fantastic (!!!) book "A Psychological Interpretation of Drawings and Paintings". It is really a book on methodology, an open methodology, but systematic and organised. No doubt it does deserve a world wide publication, for it will be very useful to so many professionals researching and working in art therapy and any one interested in expression and psychology.


Prof. Catherine T. L. SUN

Professor & Head, Department of Counselling and Psychology

Hong Kong Shue Yan University

10 Wai Tsui Crescent, Braemar Hill, Hong Kong

Tel: (852)2806 5145 Fax: (852)2806 8044

President, Asian Professional Counselling Association

President, Asia Pacific Rim Confederation of Counsellors


Psychotherapists customarily use drawings in diagnostic and therapeutic contexts, hence Zoltan’s recently published A Psychological Interpretation of Drawings and Paintings is a valuable sourcebook to behold. In this book, Zoltan presents the Seven-Step Configuration Analysis (SSCA), a systematic approach to the objective evaluation of projective drawings and paintings. The SSCA uses an artificial intelligence model, based on Zoltan’s cumulative research. The SSCA intentionally deviates from a mechanistic approach to the interpretation of projective drawings, believing that there is always much more than meets the eye. Pedagogically, SSCA begins with a step-by-step approach to assist users to come to grips with the basic principles of comprehending drawings and paintings. Imbued within these first steps are practical methods of interpretation, as well as imbedded stimuli to heighten one’s senses to selectively observe what is important in the pictures. Furthermore, attention is also drawn to the drawer’s/subject’s creative/testing behavior to make sense of his/her overall attitudes. All in all, the SSCA is able to effectively and efficiently pinpoint for the therapist the psychological essence of a picture. Zoltan’s book is not only a valuable addition to the collection of books on projective drawing, it opens up avenues for the conducting on empirical research on the long-debated efficacy of projective drawing as diagnostic and therapeutic tools.


Prof. Dr. Lony Schiltz

Head of Research Unit in Clinical Psychology (Hôpital Kirchberg, Luxembourg)

Head of studies of the DESS en Art thérapie de l'Université du Luxembourg

Laboratoire de Recherche en Psychologie Clinique, Psychologie de la Santé et Art Thérapie ( PCSA)

Hôpital Kirchberg, Luxembourg, CHU Université de Heidelberg

9, Rue Edward Steichen, L- 2540 Luxembourg



A Psychological Interpretation of Drawings and Paintings.

The SSCA Method: A Systems Analysis Approach.

by Zoltan Vass



In my quality as head of studies of the “DESS en Art Thérapie de l’Université du Luxembourg” and as head of the research Unit in Clinical Psychology (PCSA) at the Hôpital Kirchberg (CHU University of Heidelberg) in Luxembourg, I have the pleasure to stress the scientific value as well as the pedagogical pertinence of the book. 

It contains a thorough demonstration of the potential of a systemic approach to the analysis of pictures, allowing to use free pictorial productions as a tool of evaluation and research. The Systems Analysis Approach, considering a singular production within its whole personal and situational context, is accurately exposed with the help of a step by step approach to six complementary techniques of analysis. The theoretical considerations of the author are based on his personal experience as well as on a thorough review of the literature existing in the field of projective drawing. 

Last not least, the explanations concerning the six complementary methods of analysis are given in a very didactical manner and the different procedures are illustrated with the help of a great number of practical exercises and concrete examples, helping students getting familiarized with the methodology of rating and interpretation. 

Thus, the book is a good demonstration of the interest of the “hermeneutic circle “, which is the specific approach to truth in the human sciences, creating meaning by a permanent fluctuation between the whole configuration and pertinent details. 

This book will be of great interest for our students in arts therapies and arts psychotherapies and I will recommend it to them.


Dr. Elena Molchanova, MD (Psychiatry)

Associate Professor of Psychology Department

American University of Central Asia

205 Abdymomunov St.

Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic 720040


*Большое спасибо за чудесную книгу. Руководство включено в материалы курса по психологическому тестированию, который  является обязательным для студентов психологического факультета Американского Университета в Центральной Азии. С удовольствием сообщаю Вам и о том, что  книга включена в  электронную библиотеку ресурса "Медицинская  психология в России" ( http://www.medpsy.ru/books/index.php). 

Мне бы хотелось процитировать одного из моих студентов, заявившего, что "Доктор Вашш объясняет природу проективных рисунков как художник и интерпретирует их как ученый". Другой студент заметил, что "книга д-ра Вашша представляется прекрасным экземпляром системного подхода, который, к сожалению, почти позабыт западными психологами". 

Пока и я, и мои студенты в процессе чтения - книга не принадлежит к категории тех работ, которые вполне достаточно прочитать единожды. Я действительно рада, что теперь студенты Американского Университета в Центральной Азии и знающая английский язык аудитория электронного ресурса "Медицинская психология в России" получили возможность читать и перечитывать эту замечательную работу.


*Translation from Russian:


Thank you very much for your book. It is now included in materials for the Psychological Tests electronic course of American University of Central Asia. I am also happy to inform you that now it is a part of electronic library of "Medical Psychology in Russia": http://www.medpsy.ru/books/index.php. Now it is available for the broad post-Soviet auditory able to read in English.

I would like to quote one of my students, who underlined that “Dr. Zoltan Vass explains the nature of projective drawings as an artist and interprets them as a scientist”. Another student mentioned that “this book is a rear and very beautiful example of systemic approach, which is often forgotten by Western psychologists”.

Both I and my students are still in the process of reading it, this manuscript does not belong to the category of written works which are absolutely comprehensible after the first time you have read them. I am glad that the students of American University of Central Asia and all English–speaking auditory of “Medical Psychology in Russia” electronic journal have received the wonderful opportunity to read and re-read your book.


Prof. Dr. Diane Waller MA(RCA) DPhil, FRSA, OBE

Emeritus Professor of Art Psychotherapy, Goldsmiths, University of London

Principal Research Fellow, University of Brighton

Visiting Professor, Centre for Mental Health, Imperial College, London


This is an extraordinary work, all the more important as it is based on your many years of research and of reviewing the literature that exists. It is as you claim different from the work already in the public domain in that it proposes a new, much more complex approach to the interpretation of drawings and paintings.  As I am personally very interested in systems analysis, having used this in my own research, I was inspired to see that you have now applied this to form a new approach, incorporating the notion of process analysis. This is an aspect of the study of drawings and paintings that has been sadly lacking, with far too much emphasis being put onto the drawing outside of its context, leaving us with merely a series of projections of the viewers’ assumptions! I notice that you have incorporated some of the important insights from contemporary art education in detailed observation of the manner in which images are made. This is reassuring as I feel strongly that we can learn much from integrating insights from psychology and art education. I was also glad to see a section on phenomenological analysis.  This is a book that I will keep to hand as a highly valued resource. Of course I am sure that our art psychotherapy and psychoanalytic colleagues are going to be both impressed and helped in their understanding of the images produced by their clients. 

I will be recommending the book to my colleagues in the International Centre for Research in the Arts Therapies at Imperial College as well as to staff at other universities teaching the arts therapies.

 

Donna Betts, PhD, ATR-BC

Assistant Professor

Graduate Art Therapy Program 

The George Washington University

1925 Ballenger Avenue, Suite 250, Alexandria, VA 22314, USA


Dr. Vass’ text is a relevant and timely contribution to the art-based assessment literature. I am impressed with the comprehensive approach of the SSCA Method, which takes into account all components of an assessment session and supports a synthesized approach to the evaluation process. It has already proven to be a valuable resource for my own work.


Prof. Dr. Lianna Polychroniadou-Prinou

Founder of the Hellenic Music Therapy and Creative Expression Society

Vice President of the SIPE

Orfeos 14, Vouliagmeni 16 671, Athens, Greece


*O καθηγητής,  ψυχολογίας του Πανεπιστημίου της Βουδαπέστης, Karolo Gaspar, κύριος Zoltan Vass , υπεύθυνος της σχολής Ψυχολογίας της Οπτικής Έκφρασης,εξαιρετικός επιστήμων, εξέδωσε πρόσφατα το βιβλίο του " A Psychological Interpretation of Drawings and Paintings - The SSCA Method: a Systems Analysis Approach".

Πρόκειται για ένα πολύ σημαντικό  έργο, όπου μέσα  σε 930 σελίδες ο συγγραφέας αναπτύσσει την  θεωρία του και την πρακτική του ως προς την ψυχολογική ανάλυση και την αντικειμενική προσέγγιση ζωγραφικής και  σχεδίων, μέσα απο μία ολιστική αντίληψη που λαμβάνει υπ'οψιν, όλο το σύστημα (το υποκείμενο, τον εξεταστή, την εικόνα και το πλαίσιο) και αποφεύγει τις επι μέρους ερμηνείες.

Η βιβλιογραφία ως προς αυτό το θέμμα είναι εξαιρετικά πλούσια. Το βιβλίο αυτό ωστόσο κενοτομεί διότι παρουσιάζει τα 7 στάδια διαμόρφωσης της ανάλυσης (SSCA : the Seven-Step Configuration Analysis method) μέθοδος  που αποτελεί το αποτέλεσμα της προσωπικής  πολύχρονης, εμπερειστατωμένης έρευνας του συγραφέα.

Η μελέτη αυτή ,με στέρεες επιστημονικές βάσεις,  ευαισθησία, αναλυτική και συνθετική διάσταση,  αποτελεί σημαντικό εγχειρίδιο εργασίας και εργαλείο  διάγνωσης και κατανόησης   για όλους όσοι ενδιαφέρονται και ασχολούνται με τις οπτικες τέχνες  και τις ανθρωπιστικές επιστήμες.


Λιάννα Πολυχρονιάδου Πρίνου

Αντιπρόεδρος Διεθνούς Οργάνωσης Ψυχοπαθολογίας της Εκφρασης

Υπεύθυνη εκπαιδευτικού προγράμματος "Τέχνη-Ψυχολογία-Κοινωνία"


*Translation from Greek:


Doctor Zoltan Vass, Professor of Psychology at the University of Budapest, Karoli Gaspar, Head of the Faculty of the Psychology of Visual Expression, eminent scientist, has published recently his book. 

In this very important book, the author displays in 930 pages his theory and practice concerning the psychological analysis, and objective approach of drawings and paintings through an holistic point of view which takes into consideration the whole system (subject, examiner, picture, situation) and avoids the isolated interpretation of parts. 

The bibliography on this subject is a very rich one. But this book brings the novelty to present the 7 steps configuration analysis method. It is the result of many years of experience and very serious science and analysis.

 This research, with strong scientific backround, sensibility, analytic and synthetic dimention, is a very important textbook and handbook of diagnostics and understanding for all those who are interested and involved in visual arts and human sciensces.


Judit Alvernaz-Nagy, Ph.D.,  

Psychotherapist, Albuquerque, NM 87111, USA


I wanted to let you know how impressed I am by your books “A rajzvizsgalat psichodiagnostikai alapjai – Projekcio, kifejezes, mintazatok” and “A psychological Interpretation of Drawings and Paintings. The SSCA Method: A System Analysis Approach”. Both are incredibly comprehensive in content as well as in resources. I read the Hungarian edition while I was writing my own book “The MetanoiaMentoring Method – Integrative Coaching with Colors” and was fascinated that your research findings and your conclusions drawn from the practice corroborated with mine and as well about your new ideas and implementations of theories. Unfortunately, I couldn’t quote you as much as you’d deserve. (I had a limitation in pages.) Both books present your vast experience in uncountable pictures. I appreciate that the explanations of the drawings/paintings are based on theory as well as your practice. I am very pleased about the improved structure and all the extended topics including the SSCA method in the English book. But the most I value is your holistic approach. Both books are excellent text books and manuals for students, professionals, and individuals who are “only” interested in better understanding visual art. Congratulations!


Prof. Dr. Günsel KOPTAGEL-ILAL

Psychiatrist and Psychoanalyst

Emeritus Professor of Istanbul University

Former Vice-President of the International Society of the Psychopathology of Expression and Art Therapy (SIPE)


RESİMLERİN PSİKOLOJİK YORUMLANMASI*

-SSCA metodu: Sistem Analitik Yaklaşım –

    Zoltan VASS

Alexandra Yaynevi  2012 (www.alexandra.hu)


Budapeştedeki Karoli Gaspar Üniversitesinin Psikoloji Enstitüsü öğretim üyesi Zoltan Vass’ın bu kitabı  ifade ve sanat psikopatolojisi alanında değerli bir yapıttır. İletişim ve görsel anlatım psikolojisini anlamaya önemli bir yardımcıdır. 900 sayfayı aşkın geniş kapsamlı olan bu yapıtta yazarın özel koleksiyonundan 1000’i aşkın resim de sunulmakta ve konu sistem analitik yaklaşımla (SSCA=Seven Steps Configuration Analysis) ele alınarak değişik açılardan iletişimin irdelenmesine ve sözcüksüz iletilen mesajların anlaşılmasına yardımcı olunmaktadır.

Kitap kapsamlı bir kaynak taramasına dayanmakta olup psikoloji ve psikopatoloji alanında değerli bir kaynak oluşturmakta psikologlar, psikiyatristler ve görsel iletişim dünyasının psikolojik yönleriyle ilgilenen herkes için değerli bir başvuru ve el kitabı özelliği taşımaktadır.


  1. *Translation from Turkish:

A PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF DRAWINGS AND PAINTINGS 

The SSCA Method:A Systems Analysis approach   −

By Zoltan VASS

The book is a valuable contribution to the field of psychopathology of expression and art as well as to the understanding of the psychology of communication and visual expression. It is a voluminous work of more than 900 pages with an abundant presentation of pictures  of artistic, nonartistic and casual productions. The matter is treated with systems analysis approach (SSCA= Seven Step Configuration Analysis)  from different aspects of communication and  leads to the understanding of the nonverbally conveyed messages.

The book is based on a vast comprehensive literature review and contains a very generous demonstration of more than 1000 pictures from the rich collection of the author.

This book is indeed the product of an intensive work and a valuable source of information for the psychology and psychopathology of creative and communicative productions. It is a very useful text book and a handbook for psychologists, psychiatrists and all those involved with and interested in the psychological aspects of the visual world.


Art therapy. (2012, December 26). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.

HTP was designed by John Buck and was originally based on the Goodenough scale of intellectual functioning. Buck included both qualitative and quantitative measurements of intellectual ability in the HTP (V). A 350-page manual was written by Buck to instruct the test-giver on proper grading of the HTP, which is more subjective than quantitative. [43] In contrast with him, Zoltán Vass published a more sophisticated approach, based on system analysis (SSCA, Seven-Step Configuration Analysis).


Focusing effect (2014, november 20). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.


The focusing effect (or focusing illusion) is a cognitive bias that occurs when people place too much importance on one aspect of an event, causing an error in accurately predicting the utility of a future outcome. [Zoltán Vass. A Psychological Interpretation of Drawings and Paintings. The SSCA Method: A Systems Analysis Approach. Alexandra Publishing. p. 83. ISBN 978-963-297-474-3. Retrieved 27 August 2013.]