1. Salter, A. W., Young, A. T. (2023). The Medieval Constitution of Liberty: Political Foundations of Liberalism in the West. Lansing, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.


Journal Articles

83. Callais, J. T., Young, A. T. (forthcoming). Revolutionary Constitutions: Are They Revolutionary in Terms of Constitutional Design? Public Choice.

82. Bologna Pavlik, J., Young, A. T. (2023). Historical Representative Assembly Experiences and Constitutionalism Today. Comparative Economic Studies 65. 665-680.


81. Young, A. T. (2023). The Limits of Generality for Constitutional Design. Journal of Institutional Economics 19(6), 837-851.


80. Young, A. T. (2023). Costly Discrimination and Ethnic Conflict: The Case of the Liberian Civil Wars. Journal of Private Enterprise 38, 49-69.


79. Callais, J. T., Young, A. T. (2023). A Rising Tide that Lifts All Boats: An Analysis of Economic Freedom and Inequality Using Matching Methods. Journal of Comparative Economics. 51(2), 744-777.


78. Bologna Pavlik, J., Jahan, I., Young, A. T. (2023). Do longer constitutions corrupt? European Journal of Political Economy 77.


77. Young, A. T. (2022). Consent or Coordination? Assemblies in Early Medieval Europe. International Review of Law and Economics 72.


76. Bologna Pavlik, J., Powell, B., Young, A. T. (2022). Does Aid Cause Changes in Economic Freedom? Southern Economic Journal 89(1), 90-111.


75. Grier, R., Young, A. T.. Grier, K. B. (2022). The Causal Effects of Rule of Law & Property Rights on Fiscal Capacity. European Journal of Political Economy 74.


74. Young, A. T. (2022). The Peace of God. Rationality and Society 34(1), 28-55.


73. Callais, J., Young, A. T. (2022). Does Rigidity Matter? Constitutional Entrenchment and Growth. European Journal of Law and Economics 53(1), 27-62.


72. Bologna Pavlik, J., Young, A. T. (2022). Sorting out the Aid-Corruption Nexus. Journal of Institutional Economics 18(4), 637-653.


71. Acevedo, R., Mora, J., Young, A. T. (2022). The Government Spending Multiplier in Latin American Countries: Does the Institutional Environment Matter? Journal of Financial Economic Policy 14(4), 476-489.


70. Callais, J., Young, A. T. (2021). Does Constitutional Entrenchment Matter for Economic Freedom? Contemporary Economic Policy. 39(4), 808-830.


69. Bologna Pavlik, J., Young, A. T. (2021). The Legacy of Representation in Medieval Europe for Incomes and Institutions Today. Southern Economic Journal. 88(1), 414-448.


68. Levy, D., Young, A. T. (2021). Promise, Trust, and Betrayal: Costs of Breaching an Implicit Contract. Southern Economic Journal. 87(3), 1031-1051.


67. Young, A. T. (2021). Carolingians at the Doorstep: The Maturing Limited Access Order of Early Medieval Europe. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society. 34(1), 1-19.


66. Young, A. T. (2021). The Political Economy of Feudalism in Medieval Europe. Constitutional Political Economy. 32, 127-143.


65. Tarabar, D., Young, A. T. (2021). What Constitutes a Constitutional Amendment Culture? European Journal of Political Economy. 66.


64. Dove, J. A., Young, A. T. (2021). What is a Classical Liberal Constitution? Independent Review. 26(3), 

63. Higgins, M. J.,, Lacombe, D., Sell, B., Young, A. T. (2021). Evaluating the Effects of Small Business Administration Lending on Growth. Small Business Economics. 57, 23-45.


62. Bologna Pavlik, J., Young, A. T. (2020). Medieval European Traditions in Representation and State Capacity Today. Economics of Governance. 21, 133-186.


61. Young, A. T. (2019). How Austrians can Contribute to Constitutional Political Economy (and Why They Should). Review of Austrian Economics. 32, 281-293.


60. Dove, J. A., Young, A. T. (2019). US State Constitutional Entrenchment and Default in the Nineteenth Century. Journal of Institutional Economics. 15(6), 963-982.


59. Bologna Pavlik, J., Young, A. T. (2019). Did Technology Transfer More Rapidly East-West than North-South? European Economic Review. 119, 216-235.


58. Young, A. T. (2019). The Carolingians, the Church, and the Medieval Constitution. The Social Science Journal. 56(3), 358-366.


57. Salter, A. W., Young, A. T. (2019). Polycentric Sovereignty: The Medieval Constitution, Governance Quality, and the Wealth of Nations. Social Science Quarterly. 100(4), 1241-1253


56. Salter, A. W., Young, A. T. (2018). Would a Free Banking System Stabilize NGDP Growth? Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance. 70(November), 21-25


55. Salter, A. W., Young, A. T. (2018). A Theory of Self-Enforcing Monetary Constitutions with Reference to the Suffolk System, 1825-1858. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. 156(December), 13-22.


54. Heckelman, J. C., Young, A. T. (2018). How Global is Globalization? Journal of Regional Analysis & Policy. 48(3), 83-93.


53. Salter, A. W., Young, A. T. (2018). Medieval Representative Assemblies: Collective Action and the Antecedents of Limited Government. Constitutional Political Economy. 29(2), 171-192.


52. Young, A. T. (2018). Hospitalitas: Barbarian Settlements and Constitutional Foundations of Medieval Europe. Journal of Institutional Economics. 14(4), 715-737.


51. Young, A. T., Zuleta, H. (2018). Do Unions Increase Labor Shares? Evidence from U.S. Industry-Level Data. Eastern Economic Journal. 44(4), 558-575. 

50. Young, A. T., Tackett, M. Y. (2018). Globalization and the Decline in Labor Shares: Exploring the Relationship beyond Trade and Financial Flows. European Journal of Political Economy. 52(March), 18-35.

49. Harger, K. R., Young, A. T., Hall, J. C. (2017). Globalization, Institutions, and Income Convergence. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy. 47(2), 110-125.

48. Schlosky, M. T., Young, A. T. (2017). Can Foreign Aid Motivate Institutional Reform? An Evaluation of the HIPC Initiative. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Economic Policy. 6(2), 242-258. 

47. Young, A. T. (2017). How the City Air Made Us Free: The Self-Governing Medieval City and the Bourgeois Revaluation. Journal of Private Enterprise. 32(Winter), 31-47.

46. Young, A. T., Tarabar, D. (2017). Liberalizing Reforms and the European Union: Accession, Membership, and Convergence. Southern Economic Journal. 83(4), 932-951.

45. Young, A. T., Naghsh Nejad, M. (2016). Want Freedom, Will Travel: Emigrant Self-Selection according to Institutional Quality. European Journal of Political Economy. 45(S), 71-84.

44. Bologna, J., Lacombe, D. J., Young, A. T. (2016). A Spatial Analysis of Incomes and Institutional Quality: Evidence from US Metropolitan Areas. Journal of Institutional Economics. 12(1): 191-216.

43. Young, A. T., Bologna, J. (2016). Crises and Government: Some Empirical Evidence. Contemporary Economic Policy. 34(2): 234-249.

42. Young, A. T., Zuleta, H. (2016). Golden Rules for Wages. Southern Economic Journal. 83(1): 253-270.

41. Young, A. T.. (2016). What does it take for a roving bandit settle down? Theory and an illustrative history of the Visigoths. Public Choice, 168(1), 75-102.

40. Mulholland, S. E., Young, A. T. (2016). Occupational licensing and interstate migration. Cato Journal. 36(1): 17-31.

39. Young, A. T. (2015). Choosing political rules under rule utilitarianism: Constitutional political economy and the moral foundations of capitalism. Journal of Economics and Finance Education. 14(2): 86-92.

38. Young, A. T., Wiseman, T. (2015). Is Foreign Aid a a Pure Public Good for Donor Country Citizens?. Constitutional Political Economy, 26(4), 421-433.

37. Sheehan, K., Young, A. T. (2015). It's a Small World After All: Internet Access and Institutional Quality. Contemporary Economic Policy, 33(4), 649-667.

36. Young, A. T. (2015). From Caesar to Tacitus: Changes in Early Germanic Governance circa 50 BC-50 AD. Public Choice. 164(3): 357-378.

35. Young, A. T., Olson, E. (2015). Discretionary Monetary Policy, Quantiative Easing, and the Decline in US Labor Share. Economics and Business Letters, 4(2), 63-78.

34. Young, A. T., Sheehan, K. (2014). Foreign Aid, Institutional Quality, and Growth. European Journal of Political Economy. 36: 195-208.

33. Young, A. T., Levy, D. (2014). Explicit Evidence of an Implicit Contract. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization. 30(4): 804-832.

32. Young, A. T. Choosing Political Rules under Rule Utilitarianism: Constitutional Political Economy and the Moral Foundations of Capitalism. Journal of Economics and Finance Education.

31. Young, A. T., Wiseman, T., Hogan, T. (2014). Changing Perceptions of Maturity Mismatch in the US Banking System: Evidence from Equity Markets. Southern Economic Journal. 81(1): 193-210.

30. Young, A. T., Wiseman, T. (2014). Religion: Productive or Unproductive?. Journal of Institutional Economics. 10(1): 21-45.

29. Young, A. T., Lawson, R. A. (2014). Capitalism and Labor Shares: A Cross-Country Panel Study, 1970 to 2010. European Journal of Political Economy. 33: 20-36.

28. Young, A. T., Dove, J. A. (2013). Policing the Chain Gang: Panel Cointegration Analysis of the Stability of the Suffolk System, 1825-1858. Journal of Macroeconomics. 37: 182-196.

27. Young, A. T., Higgins, M. J., Levy, D. (2013). Heterogeneous Convergence. Economics Letters. 120(2): 238-241.

26. Wiseman, T., Young, A. T. (2013). Economic Freedom, Entrepreneurship, & Income Levels: Some US State-Level Empirics. American Journal of Entrepreneurship. 6(1): 100-119

25. Young, A. T., Sobel, R. (2013). Recovery and Reinvestment Act Spending at the State Level: Keynesian Stimulus or Distributive Politics. Public Choice. 155(3): 449-468.

24. Young, A. T. (2013). US Elasticities of Substitution and Factor-Augmentation at the Industry Level. Macroeconomic Dynamics. 17(4): 861-897.

23. Young, A. T., Zuleta, H. (2013). Remeasuring Labour's Share. Applied Economics Letters. 20(6): 549-553.

22. Zuleta, H., Young, A. T. (2013). Labor Shares in a Model of Induced Innovation. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics. 24: 112-122.

21. Young, A. T. (2012). The Time Structure of Production in the US: 2002-2009. Review of Austrian Economics.

20. Young, A. T. (2011). Do US Federal Revenues and Expenditures Respond Asymmetrically to Budgetary Disequilibria?. Applied Economics Letters.

19. Young, A. T. (2011). Illustrating the Importance of Austrian Business Cycle Theory: A Reply to Murphy, Barnett, and Block; A Call for Quantitative Study. Review of Austrian Economics.

18. Higgins, M. J., Young, A. T., Levy, D. (2010). Robust Correlates of County-Level Growth in the United States. Applied Economics Letters, 17(3), 293-296.

17. Young, A. T. (2010). One of the Things We Know that Ain't So: Why US Labor's Share is not Relatively Stable. Journal of Macroeconomics, 32(1), 90-102.

16. Young, A. T., Shughart, W. F. (2010). The Consequences of the US DOJ's Antitrust Activities: A Macroeconomic Perspective. Public Choice, 142(3-4), 409-422.

15. Young, A. T., Subrick, J. R. (2010). Nobelity and Novelty: Finn Kydland and Edward Prescott's Contributions Viewed from Vienna. Review of Austrian Economics, 23(1), 35-53.

14. Young, A. T. (2009). Tax-Spend or Fiscal Illusion? Allowing for Asymmetric Revenue Effects in Expenditure Error-Correction Models. Cato Journal, 29(3), 469-485.

13. Young, A. T., Du, S. (2009). Did Leaving the Gold Standard Tame the Business Cycle? Evidence from NBER Reference Dates and Real GDP. Southern Economic Journal, 76(2), 310-327.

12. Young, A. T. (2009). A Capital-Based Theory of Secular Growth: Reply to Engelhardt. Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, 12(2), 63-67.

11. Higgins, M. J., Young, A. T., Levy, D. (2009). Federal, State, and Local Government: Evaluating their Separate Roles in US Growth. Public Choice, 139(3-4), 493-507.

10. Young, A. T. (2009). A Capital-Based Theory of Secular Growth. Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, 12(1), 36-51.

9.  Young, A. T. (2008). Replacing Incomplete Markets with a Complete Mess: Katrina and the NFIP. International Journal of Social Economics, 35(8), 561-568.

8.  Young, A. T., Higgins, M. J., Levy, D. (2008). Sigma Convergence versus Beta Convergence: Evidence from U.S. County-Level Data. Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 40(5), 1083-1093.

7.  Young, A. T., Blue, A. K. (2007). Retail Prices during a Change in Monetary Regimes: Evidence from Sears, Roebuck Catalogs, 1938-1951. Managerial and Decision Economics, 28(7), 763-775.

6.  Higgins, M. J., Levy, D., Young, A. T. (2006). Growth and Convergence across the U.S.: Evidence from County-Level Data. Review of Economics and Statistics, 88(4), 671-681.

5.  Young, A. T. (2005). Reallocating Labor to Initiate Changes in Capital Structure: Hayek Revisited. Economics Letters, 89(3), 275-282.

4.  Young, A. T. (2004). Labor's Share Fluctuations, Biased Technical Change and the Business Cycle. Review of Economic Dynamics, 7(4), 916-931.

3.  Levy, D., Young, A. T. (2004). 'The Real Thing':  Nominal Price Rigidity of the Nickel Coke, 1886-1959. Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 36(4), 765-799.

2.  Block, W., Young, A. T. (1999). Enterprising Education: Doing Away with the Public School System. International Journal of Value-Based Management, 12(3), 195-207.

1.  Schap, D., Young, A. T. (1999). Enterprise and Biodiversity: Do Market Forces Yield Diversity of Life?. Cato Journal, 19(1), 49-67.

Book Chapters

6. Young, A. T. (forthcoming). "Polycentric Sovereignty in Medieval Western Europe: Incentives for Liberty and Information to Follow Through." in Edward                      Stringham (Ed.) Oxford Handbook of Private Enterprise. Oxford University Press.

5. Young, A. T., Padilla, E. L. (2019). "Foreign Aid and Recipient State Capacity". In Nabamita Dutta and Claudia Williamson (Eds.) Lessons on Foreign Aid and            Economic Development. Palgrave Macmillan.

4. Mandzik, A., Young, A. T. (2019). "Religion and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: Unbundling Religious Institutions". In Joshua Hall and Sara Harper (Eds.) Economic     and Political Institutions and Development. Springer. 

3. Young, A. T. (2018). "When Roving Bandits Settle Down: Club Theory and the Emergence of Government". In Richard Wagner (Ed.) James M. Buchanan.           Springer.

2. Young, A. T. (2014). "Homer Economicus: The Simpsons and Economics" In Joshua Hall (Ed.), Twenty Dollars Can Buy Many Peanuts! Money and The        Simpsons (pp. pp. 41-51). Stanford, CA:  Stanford University Press.

Book Review

Young, A. T. (2010). In Laura Razzolini (Ed.), Book Review: The Invisible Hook (3rd ed., vol. 76). Richmond, VA: Southern Economic Journal.