DNA


 

DNA Overview

"This theory is supported by Anthony Hoskins’ Y-DNA being classified as a member of the I1 Haplogroup. According to current scientific understanding, this haplogroup did not originate in the British Isles, but rather in southern Denmark around 6000 years ago. In addition, Anthony’s specific haplotype was still located in that area around 500 AD based on close matches found in Denmark during modern times. Therefore, this match indicates that Anthony Hoskins' male ancestor was still living on the Jutland peninsula around 500 AD." ( From the Anthony Hoskins Speculation/Theory)
 
 
DNA analysis exposes the history book written in our chromosomes. This genetic information can provide insights into our ancient ancestors far beyond our imaginations of only a couple of decades ago . This project has used Y-DNA to discover more about Anthony Hoskins and his direct male ancestors. Y-DNA is appropriate for this area of research because the Y chromosome is passed from father to son. (See video below entitled: Human Y-Chromosome along with Terry Barton's You-Tube Explanation.).  
Specifics relating to Anthony Hoskins' Y-DNA signature are listed below. Fortunately, it is a Y-DNA pattern that is easily identified and contains enough unique values that false matches should not occur. Next to the Anthony Hoskins Signature section, there is a table showing Hoskins descendants that match this signature.
 
Until recently, all of these matches have been considered descendants of Anthony Hoskins. However, in December of 2008, a match was discovered from a descended of Henry Hoskins of Cork, Co. Ireland. This find is exciting because it indicates two early American family founders, who shared a recent common male ancestor in England, came to America independently. This is a new idea which has not been widely discussed previously and represents a major discovery for this project.

Finally, at the end of this page, newsfeeds and blog articles are listed. These articles change over time and provide interesting information on the most current news in genetic anthropology.


 

Human Y-chromosome

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 
  
The Y chromosome is the sex-determining chromosome in most mammals, including humans. In mammals, it contains the gene SRY, which triggers testis development, thus determining sex. The human Y chromosome is composed of about 60 million base pairs.
 
In humans, the Y chromosome spans 58 million base pairs (the building blocks of DNA) and represents approximately 0.38% of the total DNA in a human cell. The human Y chromosome contains 86[5] genes, which code for only 23 distinct proteins. Traits that are inherited via the Y chromosome are called holandric traits.
 
The two most common types of genetic genealogy tests are Y-DNA (paternal line) and mtDNA (maternal line) genealogical DNA tests.

These tests involve the comparison of certain sequences of DNA pairs of individuals in order to estimate the probability that they share a common ancestor in a genealogical time frame and, through the use of a Bayesian model published by Bruce Walsh, to estimate the number of generations separating the two individuals from their most recent common ancestor.

Y-DNA research involves short tandem repeat (STR) and, sometimes, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) testing of the Y-chromosome. The Y-chromosome is present only in males and reveals information on the strict paternal line. These tests can provide insight in the recent (via STRs) and ancient (via SNPs) genetic ancestry. A Y-chromosome STR test will reveal a haplotype, which should be similar among all male descendants of a male ancestor. SNP tests are used to assign people to a paternal haplogroup, which defines a genetic population.

In human genetics, a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y chromosome (called Y-DNA).  The Y Chromosome Consortium has established a system of defining Y-DNA haplogroups by letters A through to T, with further subdivisions using numbers and lower case letters.
 
Y-chromosomal Adam is the name given by researchers to a theoretical male who is the most recent common patrilineal (male-lineage) ancestor of all living humans. Estimations of the date of this common ancestor have varied significantly in different studies.
 
The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of I1 (Anthony Hoskins Haplogroup) lived from 4,000 to 6,000 years ago somewhere in the far northern part of Europe, perhaps Denmark, according to professor Ken Nordtvedt of Montana State University. His descendants are primarily found among the Germanic populations of northern Europe and the bordering Uralic and Celtic populations,
although even in traditionally German demographics I1 is overshadowed by the more prevalent Haplogroup R.
 
 
 

Terry Barton's Y-DNA YouTube explanation

Terry Barton's Y-DNA YouTube explanation

DNA Links   

 

Haplogroup I1

Time of origin                 2,000 to 4,000 BC
Place of origin                Scandinavia
Ancestor                        I
Defining mutations            M253, M307, P30, P40
Highest frequencies           People of Northern Europe

                                             (Norwegian,Swedish, English, Danish, German,

                                    Scottish, Irish)

I1a weathered the last Ice Age in Balkan Refugia. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), around 13,000 years ago, the I1a clan moved northward into Scandinavia, where it appears at high frequency today*.
* Spencer Wells. Deep Ancestry.

Meanwhile, from 13,000 to 7,000 years ago, broad-leaved woodlands also spread northward, from southern Spain, Italy, & Greece, northward across the British Isles and into Scandinavia*.
* Philip Brooks. Prehistoric Peoples, pg. 31.

CONCLUSION: I1a moved northwards along with the woodlands' edge. So, the I1a clan were "Scrub hunters", adapted to the light woods & scrub along the advancing "tree line".


Anthony Hoskins DNA Signature 

 

  • The Anthony Hoskins” Y-DNA signature belongs to Haplogroup I1.  (This was previously referred to as I1a. However, due to nomenclature changes in 2008, I1a is now referred to as I1.)
    • SNP testing was performed through Enthnoacestry with the following SNP’s identified: EA, January 2006: M227 ancestral (negative), P38 derived (positive), P40 derived (positive), M223 ancestral (negative), M253 derived (positive), P37 ancestral (negative).
  • I1a/I1  originated in Northern Germany and Scandinavia.
    • Origins of I1/I1a are in Northern Germany and Scandinavia (Not native to British Isles.) see Rootsi: Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe  (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75:128–137, 2004)
  • The Anthony Hoskins” Y-DNA originated in the land of the Angles.  (Southern Jutland peninsula / Schleswig)
    • The Dr. Stephen Oppenheimer’s analysis of Robert Haskins Y-DNA markers through EnthnoAncestry, February, 12th, 2007.
  • The (Anthony) Hoskins DNA signature is a rare signature which seems to uniquely identify a small group of genetically related individuals.   
    • The signature values are a subset of Haplogroup I1a/I1 (This haplogroup occurs at the rate of 20% in the population of eastern England),DYS388=16 (4.5% of the I1 population have this value…rare), DYS464=12,14,16,16, (3.5% of the I1 population have this value…rare)  When these rare values occur together, the probability of non-related random match is extremely low.
    • From the FTDNA, Ancestry and SMGF databases which consist of approximately 170,000 Y-DNA entries, all the individuals matching the above combination of genetic markers have names based on Hoskins. (e.g. Haskins, Hoskins, Haskin and Hoskin).  (Of course, this is not to say that all entries based on the name Hoskins have this unique signature.)  This signature appears to uniquely identify this group of genetically related individuals.
  • Additional close matches from just outside the Hoskins DNA signature (Haplogroup of  I1 with DYS388=16 along with other common markers, but not DYS464=12,14,16,16). These close matches should provide an indication of overall movement of genetically related individual at a time prior to the advent of surnames.  (Approx. 14th century in England.)  (See: attached spreadsheet for complete listing of close names and their markers.)
    • Denmark
      • Jens PEDERSEN birth abt. 1661 of Aarhus, Denmark  (At 75%, 34 generations, approx 1054 years to TMRCA (Time since the most recent common ancestor).  This means there is
        a 75 percent chance that the common male ancestor lived within the last 1,054 years. Based on common migration patterns along with other continental matches, this common male ancestor lived in the Denmark region.)  This entry shows this specific haplotype was still located in that area around 500 AD to 900 AD based on close matches found in Denmark during modern times. 
    •  Normandy
      • GAGNON, Normandy area, (At 75%, 41 generations, approx 1271 years to TMRCA.)
      • Barron, Normandy, match of 23 out of 25 markers
      • Sir John Lea, Esq. match of 33 out of 37 markers
      • Eric William Piggott match of 33 out of 37 markers
    •  Wales
      • Welsh names
        • Morgan, Jones, Pugh, Roberts, and Williams

Anthony Hoskins DNA Comparision Table

Anthony Hoskins DNA

Proof of Robert Haskins' descent from Anthony Hoskins     

These Y-DNA facts are based on a sample from Robert J. Haskins. He is being used as a proxy for Anthony Hoskins based on the following record of descent:

1. Robert Haskins' great-grandfather, Seth F. Haskins was born in South Canaan, CT in 1844. 
2. His father, Ezekiel Seymour Hoskins, was the grandson of Shubael Hoskins, b. 1733 in Simsbury, CT. (There are wills, land records and cemetery information documenting this relationship along with family letters.)
3. In the book entitled: The Phelps Family of America, Shubael is listed as the son of Daniel Hoskins and Elizabeth Phelps of Simsbury.
4. Daniel Hoskins is known as the son of Robert Hoskins of Simsbury d. 1729. (There is some discussion about the father of Daniel. Some documents indicate Daniel was the son of John Hoskins. Regardless, both  John and  Robert Hoskins are listed as sons of Anthony Hoskins of Windsor.
5. Robert Hoskins is the son of Anthony Hoskins of Windsor d. 1707. Wills mention Robert as the son of Anthony and he inherited the land in Simsbury that Anthony received for his participation in the King Philip’s War.
6. All the facts above are consistent with the Puritan settlement of Connecticut. (Simsbury was founded by people from Windsor and many of the families that settled in the Canaan area were from Simsbury.) 
 

Comments