Mohamed Taher



1. Real-Time Reference Interview (Synchronous Environments)

Abels, Eileen and Liebscher, P (1998),  “A New Challenge for Intermediary-Client Communication: The Electronic Network”, Reference Librarian, 41/42.

Abels, E. G. and Liebscher, P (1994). “Intermediary-client Communication: Provision of Remote Reference Services,” in   IOLS '94: Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference on Integrated Online Library Systems. (Medford, NJ: Learned Information, Inc). Pp 1-7

Ammentorp, Steen (2001, May 30 – June 1), “Ask a Librarian: Web-Based Reference Question Services: A model for Development” in 11th NI&D Conference. Spring for information, Reykjavik. [Online]. Available:  (2002, March 6)

Archer, S. B. and Cast, M (1999), "Going Where the Questions Are: Using Media to Maintain Personalized Contact in Reference Service in Medium-Sized Academic Libraries." The Reference Librarian, no. 65: 39-50.

Auster, E (1983), “User Satisfaction with the Online Negotiation Interview: Contemporary Concern in Traditional Perspective,” RQ 23 (1): 47-59.

Barcellos, Silvia (2000, October 16-17), “Understanding intermediation in a digital environment: An exploratory case study,” in Facets of Digital Reference Service: The Virtual Reference Desk Second Annual Digital Reference Conference, [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6).

D'Angelo, B. J. and Maid, B. M (1998), Service from a Distance: The Use of Information Technologies in Support of Off-campus Students,” in Proceedings from CAUSE 98,. [Online.]   Available: (2002, March 6).

Eichler, L. and Halperin, M (2000, June). "LivePerson: Keeping Reference Alive and Clicking." Econtent. [Online]. Available (2002, March 6).

Folger, Kathleen M. (1997), “The Virtual Librarian: Using Desktop Videoconferencing to Provide Interactive Reference Assistance,” 1997 ACRL conference paper [Online].  Available (2002, March 6)

Giannini, Tula (1999), “Rethinking the Reference Interview -- from Interpersonal Communication to Online Information Process,” in Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting; 36: 373-80. [Online]. Abstract Available: ( (2002, March 6)

Henderson, T. A (1994), “MOOving Towards a Virtual Reference Service,” The Reference Librarian 41-42: 173-84.

Janes, J., D. Carter, A. Lagace, M. McLennen, S. Simcox (1999). Establishing Online Reference Services: The Internet Public Library Handbook. (New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers)

Kasowitz, A. S (1998, October 30), “Promoting Information Problem Solving in Digital Reference Responses.   [Online.]   Available: (2002, March 6)

Kisby, Cynthia and others (June 1999), “Extended Reference Service in the Electronic Environment (Personalized Electronic Research Consultation at the University of Central Florida),” Information Technology and Libraries, 18 (2): 92-95.

LaBounty, V (1997), “Reference Desk on the Internet.”   Book Report 16 (2): 19.

Lagace, N (1998)   “The Internet Public Library’s ‘Ask a question worldwide reference service.’”   Art Documentation 17 (1): 5-7.

Lagace, N., & McClennen, M. (1998), “Questions and Quirks: Managing an Internet-Based Distributed Reference Service,” Computers in Libraries, 18 (2): 24-28.

Lagace, Nettie and McClennen, Michael (1998), "QRC: We Call It Quirk," Computers in Libraries. 18 (2): 26-27

Langlois, Greg (2001, July 2), "A Need to Know: Library of Congress creates global network to track down answers to tough questions", Federal Computer Week. [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6).

Lankes, R. David (1998), "AskA's: Lessons Learned from K-12 Digital Reference Services," Reference & User Services Quarterly. 38 (1): 63-71.

Lankes, R. D (1998), “ TheVirtual Reference Desk: Building Human Expertise into Information Systems” in Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, Vol. 35: 81-90 (Medford, NJ: Information Today).

Lankes, R. D (1998). Virtual Reference Desk Interviews.   [Online.]  Available: (2002, March 6).

Lessick, S., K. Kjaer, and Clancy, S (1997), “Interactive Reference Service (IRS) at UC Irvine: Expanding Reference Service beyond the Reference Desk,” [Online.].   Available: (2002, March 6)

Lipow, Anne G. (1999, January). "Serving the Remote User: Reference Service in the Digital Environment." Keynote address at the Ninth Australasian Information Online & On Disc Conference and Exhibition, Australian Library and Information Association. (2002, March 6)


McGeachin, R (1999), "Videoconferencing and Remote Application Sharing for Distant Reference Service." The Reference Librarian, (65): 51-60.


McGlamery, Susan and Steve Coffman (2000), "Moving Reference to the Web." Reference & User Services Quarterly 39 (4): 380-386.

McKiernan, Gerry (2002, March 6). LiveRef(sm): A Registry of Real-Time Digital Reference Services. - - [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6).

“Michigan Offers Videoconference Access to Reference Librarian,” (1996, July 26) Chronicle of Higher Education, sec. A21.

Morgan, Eric Lease (1999, August 30). See You a Librarian Final Report. [Online]. Available (2002, March 6)

National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001, April 25-26): Invitational Workshop On Networked Reference Services. Washington, DC.  [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Ormes, Sarah (1998, January), "Public Libraries Corner: Ask A Librarian," Ariadne 13 July 30, 1998. (2002, March 6)
(This article also appeared in Library Technology 3.2 (1998). March 9, 1998.
(2002, March 6))

Pagell, R. A (1996), “The Virtual Reference Librarian: Using Desktop Videoconferencing for Distance Reference.”   Electronic Library 14 (1): 21-26.

Ryer, Mary Ann; Nebeker, Birte (1999), “Implementing an ‘Ask a 

Librarian’ Electronic Reference Service,” Community & Junior College Libraries, 9 (1): 21-34. [Online]. Abstract Available: (2002, March 6)

Schneider, Karen G. (2000, November), “The Distributed Librarian: Live, Online, Real-Time Reference (The Internet Librarian),” American Libraries, [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Stahl, J. R (1998), “‘Have a Question? Click Here’: Electronic Reference at the National Museum of American Art.”   Art Documentation 17 (1): 10-12.


Stahl, Joan and Kresh, Diane (2001, Spring), "Online, Virtual, E-mail, Digital, Real Time: The Next Generation of Reference Services" Art Documentation, 20 (1): 26-30. [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Straw, Joseph E. (2000, Summer). “A Virtual Understanding: The Reference Interview and Question Negotiation in the Digital Age,” Reference & User Services Quarterly; 39 (4): 376-79. [Online]. Abstract Available: ( (2002, March 6)

Tibbo, H.R (1995). Interviewing techniques for remote reference: electronic versus traditional environments. American Archivist, 58(3), 2940-310.

Tinnin, N., J. Buckstead, and K. Richardson (1998), “Remote Reference by Microcomputer: Setup and Installation”, in Proceedings of the Off-Campus Library Services Conference. 1: 299-312

University of North Texas (, February 27, 2002 ). Online Reference Help Desk. (2002, March 6)

Weise, Freida O., and Marilyn Borgendale (1986, October), “EARS: Electronic access to reference service”. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 74: 300-304.

Weissman, Sara K (1997, July 2). E-ref Characteristics. (2002, March 6)

Westwood, K (1997), “Lights! Camera! Action!”   American Libraries 28 (1): 43-45.

White, Marilyn Domas (1999, July). Ed. Analyzing electronic question/answer services: Framework and evaluations of selected services. College of Library and Information Services, University of Maryland, College Park, MD. p. 78. (CLIS Technical Report no. 99-02). [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Zick, Laura (2000, May 1). The work of information mediators: A comparison of librarians and intelligent  software agents. First Monday, 5(5) [Online]. Available:  (2002, March 6).


2. Non-Real Time Reference Interview (Asynchronous Environments)

Abels, Eileen (1996), “The e-mail reference interview, “ RQ, 35(3), 345-358.

Anderson, C (1989), “Using Technology: The Electronic Reference Desk, Wilson Library Bulletin 64: 86-7+.

Billings, H., I. E. Carver, and D. Racine (1994), “Remote Reference Assistance for Electronic Information Resources over Networked Workstations.”   Library Hi Tech 12, no. 1: 77-86.

Bonham, Miriam (1987, October), “Library services through electronic mail.” College & Research Libraries News, 48(9): 537-538.

Botts, Carroll, and Bauerschmidt, Rebecca (1999, Summer), “Reference issues exploration: Electronic mail reference service,” in LI813XM, Emporia State University SLIM-NM. [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Brandt, D. Scott (2000, November/December), “E-mail makes the world go 'round,” Computers in Libraries, 20(10). [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Bristow, Ann (1992, November), “Academic reference service over electronic mail,” College & Research Libraries News, 53(10): 631-3.

Bristow, Ann, and Mary Buechley (1995, July/August), “Academic reference service over e-mail: an update,” College & Research Libraries News, 56(7): 459-462.

Buck, C (1999, Fall). Electronic mail reference services. Student project (LIBR 500, SLAIS, U of British Columbia) [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Bushallow-Wilber, Laura, Gemma DeVinney and Fritz Whitcomb (1996), “Electronic mail reference service: a study,” RQ, 35(3): 359-363.

Butler, John T  (1993, March), "A Current Awareness Service Using Microcomputer Databases and Electronic Mail." College & Research Libraries 54, (2): 116-123.

Cargill, Jennifer (1992, September), “The Electronic Reference Desk: Reference Service in an Electronic World,” Library Administration & Management; 6(2): 82-85. [Online]. Abstract Available: (, (2002, March 6)

Clausen, Helge (1991, April) "Electronic Mail as a Tool for the Information Professional." The Electronic Library 9 (2): 73-83.

Conducting the reference interview by e-mail and the intranet (2000, June 12). (Panel Presentation -- presenters include: Eileen G. Abels, Colleen Shannon, Eileen Deegan, and Ann R. Sweeney). Special Libraries Association Annual Conference. [Online]. Available:  (2002, March 6)

Deardorff, Thomas C. and Anne Olivia Garrison (1997).  "Developing an Automated Current Awareness Program Using Microcomputers and Electronic Mail." Technical Services Quarterly 14 (4): 11-12.

Fishman, Diane L (1998, Spring), “Managing the virtual reference desk: How to plan an effective e-mail reference system. Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 17(1), 1-10.

Fogg, A (1999, August). "The University of Ballarat's Development of an Electronic Reference Form." In CAVAL Reference Interest Group Forum. [Online]. Available (2002, March 6)

Frank, Ilene B (1998)   “E-mail Reference Service at the University of South Florida: A Well-kept Secret.” Art Documentation 17 (1): 8-9, 44.

Garnsey, Beth A., and Ronald R. Powell (2000, Spring), “Electronic mail reference services in the public library,” Reference & User Services Quarterly, 39(3), 245-???

Garton, Laura, and Barry Wellman (1995) “Social impacts of electronic mail in organizations: A review of the research literature,” Communication Yearbook 18: 434-453.

Glausiusz, Josie A. and Penelope A. Yates-Mercer(1990),  "Some Impacts of Electronic Mail on Information Services."  Journal of Information Science 16 (4): 249-256.

Goetsch, Lori, and others (1999), Electronic Reference Service. Washington, DC., Association of Research Libraries, (SPEC Kit 251). [Online]. Available:  (2002, March 6)

Hahn, Karla (1997). An investigation of an e-mail-based help service. (College Park, MD: College of Library and Information Services, University of Maryland). (CLIS TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 97-03) [Online]. Available:  (2002, March 6)

Haines, A (1999), "Web Forms: Improving, Expanding, and Promoting Remote Reference Services." College & Research Libraries. 60 (4): 271-272.

Howard, Ellen H., and Terry Ann Jankowski (1986, January), “Reference services via electronic mail,” Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 74: 300-304.

Hull, Theodore J., and Margaret O. Adams (1995),  “Electronic Communications for Reference Services: A Case Study,” Government Information Quarterly. 12(3), 297-308.

Jensen, Ann, and Julie Sih (1995, September/October), “Using e-mail and the Internet to teach users at their desktops,” Online, 19(5), 82-86. [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Jesudason, Melba (2000), “Outreach to Student-Athletes through E-mail Reference Service,” RSR: Reference Services Review; 28 (3): 262-67. [Online]. Abstract Available: ( (2002, March 6)

Johnson, Pat and Grusin, Ann (1995, Summer / Fall / Winter), “Personal Service in an Impersonal World: Throwing Life Preservers to Those Drowning in an Ocean of Information,” Georgia Librarian 32: 45-49.

Kesselman, M (1995), "Beyond the Desk: Enhanced Reference Staffing for the Electronic Library." Reference Services Review. 23 (1): 22-23.

Lay, Teresa M (1999, May). E-mail Reference in Ohio Public Libraries. (Kent State University). Master's Research Paper,

Lee, K (1996), “E-mail Reference Service . . . HUH? (Helping other Hoosiers at Monroe County Public Library)” Indiana Libraries 15 (2): 57-61.

Mann, Thomas, “Reference Service, Human Nature, Copyright and Offsite Service-in a ‘Digital Age’? ” Reference and User Services Quarterly 38 (Fall 1998): 55-61

Moss, M (1997), "Reference Services for Remote Users." Katharine Sharp Review. 5 [Online]. Available (2002, March 6).

O'Neill, Nancy (1999, September-October), “E-mail Reference Service in the Public Library: A Virtual Necessity,” Public Libraries, 38(5), 302-303,305.

Osei-Bonsu, M, (1998), “Electronic Mail (E-Mail) and Information Delivery in Ghana,” Journal of Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery & Information Supply 9(2), 63-80.

Pal, Gabriel, Jim Brett, Tom Flemming, and Michael Ridley (1989), “Providing electronic library reference service: Experience from the Indonesia-Canada Tele-Education project,” Journal of Academic Librarianship, 15(5), 274-278.

Philip, Brenda (1997, March). MayIhelpyou@theelectronicreferencedesk?: An examination of the past, present and future of electronic mail reference service. [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Powell, Carol A. and Bradigan, Pamela S. (2001, winter), “E-Mail Reference Services: Characteristics and Effects on Overall Reference Services at an Academic Health Sciences Library”  Reference & User Services Quarterly. 41: 2

Tomer, L (1994), “MIME and Electronic Reference Services.”   The Reference Librarian 41/42: 347-73.

Toronto Public Library: Online Reference. (E-mail Reference service is available here. Reference questions are divided into two categories, kids and adult. Please select one of the options below). [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Turcotte, Dawna (1998, March 27). Electronic mail and the library patron. (University of Alberta SLIS).Student paper..[Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

University of South Florida (1999). E Mail Reference Questions. (2002, March 6)

Veeder, Stacy B (1995), ”Electronic mail and privacy,” Journal of Academic Librarianship, 21(2), 123-126..

Whitaker, Becki (1989), “Electronic mail in the library: A perspective,” Library Trends, 37 (3): 357-65.

White, Marilyn Domas (2000, July), “Questioning behavior on a consumer health electronic list,” Library Quarterly, 70(3), 302-34.

Why e-mail Only? (October 06, 2001) (This site is a work in progress trying to provide everything by e-mail as a comprehensive reference tool showing the e-mail only user how to make the most of the Internet). [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Young Research Library, Reference & Instructional Services, UCLA., Los Angeles.  E-mail Reference Service Guidelines. [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)


3. Reference Interview, Generalia

Bates, Mary Ellen (1997, September 15) The Art of the Reference Interview, presented at Online World. [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Bates, Mary Ellen (1998, July), "Finding the Question Behind the Question," Information Outlook, [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Bennett, B. A (1998), “Gendered Questions: Asking for Directions on the Information Highway.”   Knowledge Quest 2 (2): 24-25.

Bennett, B. A (1998),   “Handling the Quirky Questions: A Model for Reference Service.”   Knowledge Quest 26 (2): 59-60.

CORE (n.d.). California Opportunities for Reference Excellence. Reference Interview Practice. [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Coffman, S. and Saxton, M. L (1999), “Staffing the Reference Desk in the Largely-digital Library.”   Reference Librarian 66: 141-161.

Cowan, H (1996)   “‘Ask-the-Expert’ Internet Sites.”   Electronic Learning 16 (3): 22.

Deputy, Michele M (1995). A Study of Librarians' Attitudes Toward the Reference Interview. Master's Research Paper, Kent State University, 42. p. [Online]. Abstract Available: ( (2002, March 6)

Dewdney, Patricia; and Michell, Gillian (1996, Summer) “Oranges and Peaches: Understanding Communication Accidents in the Reference Interview,” RQ, v35 (4): 520-23,526-36. [Online]. Abstract Available: ( (2002, March 6)

Dworaczek, Marian (2001, September25). Electronic Sources of Information: A Bibliography.. [Online]. Available: September25 2001 (2002, March 6)

Ekhaml, L (1999), “Ask an Expert with Style,” School Library Media Activities Monthly 15 (6): 27-30.

Halldorsson, Egill A. and Marjorie E. Murfin (September 1977), "Performance of Professionals and Nonprofessionals in the Reference Interview," College & Research Libraries: 385-395.

Jennerich, Elaine Z. and Edward J. Jennerich (1997). The Reference Interview As A Creative Art, 2nd ed. (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited)

Jimmy Ghaphery - Education and Outreach Services, Reference Interview. VCU Libraries, Virginia Commonwealth University[Online]. Available:  (2002, March 6)

Katz, Bill and Fraley, Ruth A (1987).  Reference Services Today: From Interview to Burnout (Reference Librarian Series, No 16) by (New York, Haworth Press) (Reviews available from (2002, March 6)

Lathwell, Marie (1994). The Reference Interview: Is It Essential in the Provision of Public Library Reference Service? Master's Research Paper. (Kent State University), 36p [Online]. Abstract Available:  ( (2002, March 6)

Lipow, A. G (1999), "'In Your Face' Reference Service." Library Journal. 124, no. (13): 50+.

Lockely , Lucy (2001). Paraprofessional Training: The Reference Interview. [Online]. Available:  (2002, March 6)

Middleton, Michael (2000, October 24-26), “Self service: what is the function of the new intermediary?” in Capitalising on Knowledge: The Information Profession in the 21st Century. Annual Conference of the Australian Library and Information Association. [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Moody, Janette and Elizabeth Carter (1999, Summer),  "Application of the cognitive Interview by the Reference Librarian," Reference & User Services Quarterly. 38 (i4): 389 (7)

Munoz, Joanna Lopez (1977, Spring), "Significance of Nonverbal Communication in the Reference Interview." RQ, 220-224.

Nardi, Bonnie A. and Vicki L. O'Day (1998, October), "Application and Implications of Agent Technology for Libraries" The Electronic Library, 16 (5):  325-337.

Nichols, Mary Ellen (1993). Patron Survey of User Satisfaction with Library Services: Relationship between Librarian Behaviors during the Reference Interview and User Satisfaction. M.L.S. Research Paper, (Kent State University). 59p.  [Online]. Abstract Available: ( (2002, March 6)

OCLC: Reference Interview: The key to the reference process[Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

OCLC. The Six Pieces of Evidence: What information should you get from the reference interview? [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Oder, Norman. (2001, February 1), “The Shape of E-Reference” Library Journal. 126 (2): 46-50.  (Future of the Library Series).

Online Northwest 2000: Resources. (January 3, 2002). Web-based Reference Services. (2002, March 6)

Parus, Dale J., (1996, Winter), “The Reference Interview: Communication and the Patron”, The Katharine Sharp Review 2 [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Reference Interview. [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6) (Because of the similarity between the reference and the reader advisory interviews, it is useful to begin discussion of the reader advisory interview by reviewing some of the basic aspects of the reference interview. Note too that reader advisory work may be done in the reference department)

Reference Interview: Finding out what the patron needs. [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6) (The reference interview is a formal term for the mutual exchange of questioning and answering we all experience when we are working with a person who has come into the library). (2002, March 6)

Reference Interview Resources. [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Richardson, J., J. Fletcher, et al. (2000). "AskA" Electronic Reference: strategies for creating effective query services. AusWeb2K, The Sixth Australisan World Wide Web Conference, Cairns. (2002, March 6)

Ross, Catherine (2002). Conducting the Reference Interview: A How to Do It Manual for Librarians. (New York, Neal Schuman).


Ross, Catherine Sheldrick and Nilsen, Kirsti (2000),Has the Internet Changed Anything in Reference? The Library Visit Study, 

Phase 2 Reference & User Services Quarterly. 40:2, 

Roysdon, C and Elliott, L. L., (1998, Fall):  “Electronic Integration of Library Services Through a Campuswide Network,” RQ 28: 82-93.

Schneider, Karen G. (2000, January), “My patron wrote me a letter: The joy of e-mail reference,” American Libraries, 31(1) 96-??. . [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)

Schilling-Eccles, Katherine, and Joseph J. Harzbecker, Jr. (1998, Winter), “The use of electronic mail at the reference desk: Impact of a computer mediated communication technology on librarian-client interactions,” Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 17(4), 17-27..

Sloan, Bernie (1999). E-mail Reference Sites. [Online]. Available:  (2002, March 6)

Sloan, Bernie (1997, December 16). Service Perspectives for the Digital Library: Remote Reference Services. (2002, March 6)


Sloan, Bernie (2001, October 12). The Reference Interview in the Digital Library: A Bibliography. [Online]. Available:  (2002, March 6)

(I am in the process of compiling a bibliography on the reference interview in the context of digital reference services. At present I am including every item I run across, some of which I haven’t yet reviewed, i.e., I am in the process of seeing what’s out there. Some entries deal with the digital reference interview specifically, and some treat the issue relatively substantively, even though it's not the major focus of the article.)

Sloan, Bernie (2002, March 13). Digital Reference Services: A Bibliography. [Online]. Available: sloan/digiref.html (2002, March 6)

Smith, Karin (1999, September 6), “Delivering reference services to users outside the library,” in 1999 & Beyond: Partnerships & Paradigms (Program of the Reference & Information Services Section, Australian Library and Information Association Conference). [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)


Smith, LL (1991), “Evaluating the Reference Interview: A Theoretical Discussion of the Desirability and Achievability of Evaluation. RQ, 31(1): 75-81. (This article reviews the reference interview evaluation literature and determines whether accurate evaluation methods are feasible).

Stacey-Bates, and Kristine K. (2000 Fall), “Ready-reference resources and e-mail reference on academic ARL Web sites,” Reference and User Services Quarterly, 40(1), 61-73..

Staley, Laura (1998, Summer), “E-mail reference: Experiences at City University,” PNLA Quarterly, 62(4), 20-21. [Online]. Available:  (2002, March 6)

Still, Julie, and Frank Campbell (1993), “Librarian in a box: The use of electronic mail for reference,” Reference Services Review 21 (1): 15-18.

Summers, Robin (1998, Spring), 

“Meeting Education Information Needs Through Digital Reference,” Art Documentation, 17(1): 3-4+


Tennant, Roy (1999, June 15), "Of Human and Humane Assistance." Library Journal 124: 30, 34.


Tenopir, Carol (1998, November), "The Impact of Digital Reference on Librarians and Library Users." Online 22 (6): 84.


Tudor, Jan Davis.(n.d). Integrating Internet Resources with Traditional Online Services. [Online]. Available. (includes slides, and ‘That Good ‘Ole Reference Interview’) (2002, March 6)


Viles, Ann (1999, August 23). “The virtual reference interview: Equivalencies,” International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, Discussion Group on Reference Work Report. 65th IFLA General Conference, Bangkok. [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)


Wasik, J. M (2000, May) "Asking the Experts: Digital Reference and the Virtual Reference Desk." D-Lib Magazine. 6, no.5 (2000). [Online]. Available (2002, March 6)


Wasik, Joann M. Comp. (2001, April 4). Digital Reference Resources,  [Online]. Available: (2002, March 6)



Wasik, J. M. and Lankes, R. D (1999), “The Virtual Reference Desk: Supporting Education through a Network of Human Expertise,” in Internet Librarian ’99 Conference Proceedings.   (Medford, N.J.: Information Today, Inc). Pp. 198-202


Weissman, Sara (2000, January), "Why Do Electronic Reference?" NetConnect (supplement to Library Journal,  p. 28

White, Marilyn Domas (1998, September). Questions in Reference Interviews. Journal of Documentation 54 (4) :443-65. [Online]. Abstract Available: ( (2002, March 6)

Friday 8 March, 2002
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