The Canadian Geography Learning Framework

A Learning Framework for K-12 Geography in Canada

What is the Canadian Geography Framework?

At present, geography curricula in Canada differ across the provinces and territories. A single, comprehensive, and up-to-date learning framework is therefore necessary, such that Canadian educators have the information and resources they need to design enriched lessons that cover all the things that make Canada unique. Canadian Geographic Education (Can Geo Education), a standing committee of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society and the national voice for geographic education in Canada, has designed the Canadian Geography Framework for this purpose.

The specific goals of the Framework are to:

Help educators identify the essential geographic concepts, thinking practices and skills fundamental to the development of geographically literate citizens

Complement the existing provincial and territorial curricula by expanding the core geographic teachings within these documents

Enhance the breadth and depth of geographic education across the nation

Establish specific benchmarks and competencies by grade cohort for what is taught in the name of geography

The Framework consists of five key components:

  • The Geographically Informed Citizen
  • Geographic Inquiry
  • Geospatial Skills
  • Concepts of Geographic Thinking
  • Competencies by Grade Cohort

Learn more about the Learning Framework here!

Who can use the Framework?

This learning framework was developed primarily as a resource for classroom teachers, and in particular, those responsible for teaching K-12 geography. This resource may also be useful to:

  • Faculties of education
  • Pre-service teachers
  • Ministries of education
  • Provincial and territorial curriculum consultants and educational program developers
  • Non-profit organizations that create learning materials with a national scope
  • School publishers
  • Museums, science centres, and other education organizations
  • Academic researchers
  • Educational tour and travel companies
  • Parents and the general public

Who developed the Framework?

The core writing team consisted of regional representatives from the Canadian Geographic Education Executive. This included the following co-chairs and committee members:


  • Paul VanZant (Ontario)
  • Connie Wyatt Anderson (Manitoba)


  • Andrew Kitchen (Saskatchewan)
  • Lynn Moorman (Mount Royal University, Calgary, Alberta)
  • Janet Ruest (British Columbia)
  • John Trites (Nova Scotia)
  • Kim Wallace (Ontario)

Additional members of the following organizations were also involved in the development of this resource:

This project was supported and funded by: