The D'Esposito Cognitive Neuroscience and Neurology Lab was established in 1993 within the Department of Neurology at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Later, in 2000, it relocated to the University of California, Berkeley. The lab explores the neural foundations of high-level cognitive processes, including working memory and cognitive control. We employ diverse experimental methods, such as functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and event-related potentials (ERP), in healthy individuals and patients with neurological disorders to identify the neural substrates and temporal dynamics associated with various cognitive functions. The lab particularly emphasizes investigating cognitive functions linked to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Another essential aspect of our research is to explore the role of the dopaminergic system in working memory and cognitive control. To achieve this, we conduct pharmacological studies administering dopaminergic drugs to healthy individuals, perform dopamine positron emission tomography (PET) studies in healthy individuals, and study Parkinson’s disease patients to understand the impact of dopamine on cognition. Furthermore, the lab applies the knowledge gained from their basic research to develop and implement cognitive therapeutic approaches for patients with executive function deficits such as traumatic brain injury as well as healthy elderly individuals. Lastly, the lab focuses on methodological research, striving to develop enhanced techniques for the analysis of fMRI and TMS data.