Chronologies



MONARCHS: chronological lists

The following lists represent an attempt to provide a detailed and accurate account of the chronological and genealogical sequence of monarchs from earliest times to the present in various historically significant areas.  Over time coverage will be gradually extended to include additional monarchies and the various lists are occasionally revised and updated.  Since this is an informal publication, annotation, original research, and any bibliographical or reference notation are kept at a minimum.  Political formations that never attained sovereign (independent) status are generally not included in this presentation.

The monarchs are listed in chronological order with a short note regarding their succession to the throne.  A short introduction is intended to provide a very basic overview of each monarchy and supply some relevant notes.  Names are presented in a standardized form reflecting current vernacular usage, or in a faithful and consistent (even if "pedantic") transliteration if the vernacular does not employ a form of the Latin alphabet.  

See note on transliteration.

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The Ancient Near East and Persia

Earlier rulers of Mesopotamia (traditional kinglists, chronology uncertain)

Rulers of Assyria and Babylonia: chronology 1671-539 BC 

Earlier rulers of Egypt (traditional kinglists, chronology uncertain)

Rulers of Egypt: chronology 1540-310 BC

Rulers of Elam: chronology ?-520 BC

Rulers of the Hittites (Hatti) and select "Neo-Hittite" states: chronology c.1600-c.700 BC

Rulers of Mittani (Hanigalbat): chronology c.1550-c.1250 BC

Rulers of Israel and Judah: chronology 1030-586 BC

Rulers of Damascus and select "Aramaean" states: chronology ?-c.700 BC

Rulers of Urartu: chronology c.860-c.600 BC

Rulers of Media: chronology c.700-c.550 BC

Rulers of Phrygia and Lydia: chronology c.750-c.547/30 BC

Rulers of Persia: Achaemenid Empire: chronology 559-329 BC

Rulers of Persia: Arsacid (Parthian) Empire: chronology 247 BC-AD 228

Rulers of Persia: Sasanid (Neo-Persian) Empire: chronology 224-651

 

The Hellenistic World and the Clients of Rome

Rulers of Mycenaean Greece (traditional kinglists, chronology uncertain)

Rulers of Sparta: chronology 1195-192 BC

Rulers of Macedon: chronology 718-148 BC

Rulers of Egypt: the Ptolemies: chronology 306-30 BC

Rulers of Syria: the Seleucids: chronology 306-30 BC

Rulers of Pergamon: the Attalids: chronology 283-129 BC

Rulers of Epirus: chronology 429-157 BC

Rulers of Gela and Syracuse: chronology 505-214 BC

Rulers of Armenia: chronology 366 BC-AD 428

Rulers of Bithynia: chronology 326-74 BC

Rulers of Bosporus: chronology 438 BC-AD 370

Rulers of Cappadocia: chronology 334 BC-AD 17

Rulers of Cilicia: chronology 64 BC-AD 72

Rulers of Commagene: chronology 170 BC-AD 72

Rulers of Galatia and Paphlagonia: chronology 59-25/6 BC

Rulers of Iberia and Lazica: chronology 200 BC-AD 580

Rulers of Pontus: chronology 450 BC-AD 64

Rulers of Thrace: chronology 450 BC-AD 46

Rulers of Judaea (Hasmoneans and Herodians): chronology 166 BC-AD 92

Rulers of Roman client states in Syria and Mesopotamia: chronology 169 BC-AD 106

Rulers of Numidia and Mauretania: chronology 220 BC-AD 40

 

The Roman Empire and its Successors

Roman and Byzantine emperors: chronology 27 BC-AD 1453 (Roman rulers at Rome, Constantinople, Nicaea, Trebizond, Thessalonica, in Epirus, in Morea)

 

Barbarian Europe

Rulers of the Anglo-Saxons: chronology c.455-829 (Kent, East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria, Sussex, Essex, Wessex)

Early Briton Rulers: chronology c.400-889/1412 (Britons, Welsh, Dal Riata Scots, Picts, Strathclyde)

Rulers of the Bavarians: chronology c.555-788

Rulers of the Burgundians: chronology c.400-613

Rulers of the Franks: chronology c.460-751

Rulers of the Gepids: chronology c.450-567

Rulers of the Lombards: chronology c.500-774

Rulers of the Ostrogoths: chronology c.450-554 (including Odoaker)

Rulers of the Suevi: chronology 406-585

Rulers of the Thuringians: chronology c.460-719

Rulers of the Vandals: chronology c.400-534

Rulers of the Visigoths: chronology c.395-714

Rulers of the Western Steppes: chronology c.375-1584 (Huns, Bulgars, Avars, Khazars)

 

Medieval and Modern Europe

The Papacy: chronology 32-(present)

Rulers of Albania: chronology c.1190-1946

Rulers of Aragon: see Spain

Rulers of Austria: chronology 976-1918 (including Carinthia, Carniola, Gorizia, Illyria, Istria and Merania, Styria, and Tyrol)

Rulers of Belgium: chronology 1549-(present)

Rulers of Bohemia: chronology 870-1918 (including Moravia and Great Moravia)

Rulers of Bosnia and Hercegovina: chronology 1254-1477

Rulers of Bulgaria: chronology 629-1946

Rulers of Burgundy: chronology 751-1806

Rulers of Byzantium: see Roman and Byzantine emperors

Rulers of Castile: see Spain

Rulers of Courland: see Latvia

Rulers of Croatia and Slavonia: chronology 818-1945

Rulers of Denmark: chronology 909-(present) (including Hedeby/Haithabu)

Rulers of England: see Great Britain

Rulers of Finland: chronology 1250-1918

Rulers of France: chronology 751-1870 (including Aquitaine, Brittany, Ducal and Comital Burgundy)

Rulers of Galicia and Lodomeria: chronology 987-1918

Rulers of Germany: chronology 751-1918 (including German kings and emperors, and various German principalities)

Rulers of Great Britain and the United Kingdom: chronology 802-(present) (including England, Scotland, Wales, Moray, Strathclyde, Man, the Isles; see also Viking rulers in Britain)

Rulers of Greece: chronology 1832-1973

Rulers of Holy Roman Empire: chronology 800-1806 (for fuller list of monarchs see Germany; for component states see Germany, Italy, Burgundy, Austria, etc.)

Rulers of Hungary: chronology 895-1944

Rulers of Ireland: chronology 445-1183 (see also Great Britain for 1183-1929)

Rulers of Italy: chronology 774-1946 (including Savoy, Sardinia, Italy, Naples, Sicily, Two Sicilies, and early modern north-Italian principalities; see also the Papacy and Venice)

Rulers of Kiev: see Russia

Rulers of Latvia: chronology 1561-1795

Rulers of Liechtenstein: chronology 1608-(present)

Rulers of Lithuania: chronology 1204-1918

Rulers of Leon: see Spain

Rulers of Luxembourg: chronology 963-(present)

Rulers of Majorca: see Spain

Rulers of Monaco: chronology 1297-(present)

Rulers of Montenegro: chronology c.971-1918 (including Zeta/Dioclea)

Rulers of Moldavia: see Romania

Rulers of Moravia: see Bohemia

Rulers of Naples: see Italy

Rulers of Navarre: see Spain

Rulers of the Netherlands: chronology 1549-(present)

Rulers of Norway: chronology c.800-(present) (including Vestfold)

Rulers of Poland: chronology 963-1915

Rulers of Portugal: chronology 1093-1910

Rulers of Russia: chronology 882-1917 (including Kiev, Vladimir-Suzdal', Muscovy, Tver', Rjazan', Nižnij Novgorod)

Rulers of Romania: chronology 1324-1947 (including Wallachia, Moldavia, Transylvania)

Rulers of Sardinia: chronology c.1000-1720 (for the Savoyard rulers after 1720 see Italy)

Rulers of Scotland: see Great Britain

Rulers of Serbia: chronology c.840-1945 (including Yugoslavia)

Rulers of Sicily: see Italy

Rulers of Spain: chronology 718-(present) (including Asturias, León, Castile, Navarre, Aragón, Barcelona/Catalonia, Majorca; for Muslim rulers see Islamic World below)

Rulers of Sweden: chronology 930-(present)

Rulers of Transylvania: see Romania

Rulers of the Two Sicilies: see Italy

Rulers of Venice: chronology 726-1797

Rulers of the Vikings in Britain and Ireland: chronology 853-1471 (including Dublin, Waterford, York, East Anglia, Orkney)

Rulers of Wallachia: see Romania

Rulers of Yugoslavia: see Serbia

 

Crusader States and the Christian East

Rulers of Medieval Armenia: chronology 806-1437 (including Ani, Kars, Loṙi, Tarōn, Vaspurakan, Siunia/Syunik', Xač'ēn; see also Cilician Armenia)

Rulers of Medieval and Modern Georgia: chronology 813-1867 (including Iberia, K'art'li, Kaxet'i, Abasgia/Ap'xazet'i, Imeret'i, Guria, Meschia/Mesxet'i/Samc'xe)

Rulers of Cilician Armenia: chronology 1080-1393

Rulers of the Crusader States in "Outremer": chronology 1099-1489 (including Jerusalem, Cyprus, Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli)

Rulers of the Latin Empire in "Romania": chronology 1204-1387 (including Constantinople, Thessalonica, Achaea/Morea, Athens, Bodonitsa, Salona, Naxos, Cephalonia)

Rulers of Ethiopia (Abyssinia): chronology c.1150-1975 (including Shoa/Shewa and Tigray)

 

The Islamic World

Rulers of the Islamic Caliphate: chronology 630-1924 (including Rāšidūn caliphs at Medina, Umayyads at Damascus, ‘Abbāsids at Baghdad and Cairo, Ḥāšimites in the Hijaz, Fāṭimids in Maghrib and at Cairo, Umayyads at Córdoba)

Rulers of Muslim Spain: chronology 756-1492

Rulers of Muslim Sicily and Crete: chronology 827-1091

Rulers of Morocco: chronology 789-(present)

Rulers of Algeria: chronology 761-1555

Rulers of Tunisia: chronology 795-1957

Rulers of Medieval and Modern Egypt: chronology 868-1953

Rulers of Medieval and Modern Syria: chronology 905-1920 (see also Egypt)

Rulers of Hijaz and Jordan: chronology 966-1925 and 1921-(present)

Rulers of Najd and Saudi Arabia: chronology c.1720-(present)

Rulers of Yemen: chronology 818-1970

Rulers of Azerbaijan and Muslim Caucasia: chronology c.760-1834 (see also Medieval and Modern Persia)

Rulers of Medieval and Modern Iraq: chronology 820-1958 (see also Syria, Caucasia, Turkey, and Persia)

Rulers of Medieval Persia: chronology 945-1508

Rulers of Medieval and Modern Afghanistan: chronology 977-1973

Rulers of Modern Persia / Iran: chronology 1501-1979

Rulers of Medieval Turkey and the Ottoman Empire: chronology 1081-1924

Rulers of Muslim India: chronology 1206-1947/1955 (Delhi, the Great Mughals, and Muslim successor states until integration into the Indian Republic or Pakistan)

Mongol Rulers in Central Asia: chronology 1227-1920

Mongol Rulers in the Western Steppes: chronology 1227-1845



The Far East

Rulers of Bhutan: chronology 1634-(present)

Rulers of Cambodia: chronology c.550-(present)

Rulers of China: chronology c.1600 BC-AD 1912

Rulers of the Eastern Steppes: chronology 209 BC-AD 923 (Xiongnu, Xianbei/Tungus, Rouran, Tujue/Gök Turks, Tugishi/Türgish, Huihu/Uyghurs)

Rulers of Japan: chronology 40 BC-(present)

Rulers of Korea: chronology 57 BC-AD 1910

Rulers of Early India: chronology c.540-c.650 (including Mauryas, Sungas, Kanvas, Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Indo-Parthians, Kushanas, Hunas, and Satavahanas)

Rulers of Medieval and Modern India: chronology c.300-1947/1951 (non-Muslim rulers from the Guptas until integration into the Indian Republic or Pakistan)

Muslim Rulers of India (see under Islamic World above)

Rulers of Mongolia: chronology 1206-1924

Mongol Rulers in Central Asia (see under Islamic World above)

Mongol Rulers in Persia (see Medieval Persia above)

Mongol Rulers in the Western Steppes (see under Islamic World above)

Rulers of Nepal: chronology 1347-2008

Rulers of Siam and Thailand: chronology 1238-(present)

Rulers of Sikkim: chronology 1642-1975

Rulers of Tibet and Ladakh: chronology c.600-1959

 

The New World

Rulers of Brazil: chronology 1815-1889

Rulers of Mexico: chronology c.1250-1867

Rulers of Peru (Incas): chronology c.1200-1781

 

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