Additional Historical References to "Segmented Sleep"

The following excerpts are drawn from novels, letters, poems, essays, travel accounts, newspapers, court records, periodicals, etc., related to segmented sleep that have not been quoted in the texts of my previous publications. Rather than just passing references to segmented or biphasic sleep, of which there are upwards of two thousand uncovered to date, most of these excerpts document with additional detail the argument that this pattern of human slumber consisted of two intervals, bridged by a period of wakefulness, with most persons, following a normal bedtime, naturally awakening after the “first sleep” - unless it was prematurely disturbed (e.g. by another individual or by noise) – around midnight or in the first hours of morning. As several examples illustrate, a small minority of persons deliberately chose not to take a second sleep, though these “exceptions to the rule” often, in fact, suggest the prevalence of biphasic slumber, dominant in the Western world until the mid- to late nineteenth century. regardless of season or latitude, save for northern Scandinavia. I have posted these excerpts, for the most part, roughly in chronological order. Several final points. 

FIRST, the characteristics of this pattern of sleep were subject to variation. As a French essayist observed in 1752, "The time of the first sleep is not the same for everyone." For example, the upper classes, as I have written, often went late to bed, not arising finally until late morning. Significantly, however, their sleep still appears to have been segmented. Furthermore, as I noted in “Sleep We Have Lost”:  “Not all people, of course, including the great, who experienced two intervals of slumber, slept according to the same timetable. The later at night that individuals went to bed, the later they stirred after their initial sleep; or, if they retired past midnight, they would likely not have awakened at all until dawn. Thus in ‘The Squire's Tale,’ ‘Canacee’ slept ‘soon after evening fell’ and subsequently awakened in the early morning following ‘her first sleep’; whereas her companions, staying up much later, ‘lay asleep till it was fully prime’ (daylight). Similarly, William Baldwin's sixteenth-century satire Beware the Cat recounts a quarrel between the protagonist, ‘newly come unto bed,’ and two roommates who ‘had already slept’ their ‘first sleep."'

SECOND, variations in the timing and length of "first" and "second sleep" were most dramatic during their transformation, as I've emphasized, over the course of the nineteenth century. For many persons, their "first sleep“ by the 1820s had begun to slowly expand, at the expense of their "second sleep" and the intervening period of wakefulness. By the end of the century, "second sleep" among most urban residents, for example, represented little more than turning over in one's bed for an extra ten minutes or so of slumber. Among other factors determining the pace of consolidation over the course of the 1800s were social class and urbanization. Even then, the sleep of such "outliers" as William Dean Howells and William James as late as the early 1900s still resembled the biphasic sleep of their forbears.

THIRD, for a variety of reasons, references are more numerous to "first" than to "second" sleep, also known, for example, as “morning," "latter,  or “last” sleep.” Sometimes, we are merely informed that an individual, after awakening from their first sleep, returned to their bed or went back to sleep after an intervening period of wakefulness. In addition, references often relate that persons were awakened prematurely during their first sleep due to activity and noise, either inside or outside the home - a much more common happenstance than in the early morning hours preceding dawn when such sources of disturbed sleep were less frequent . Then, too, some references refer to an occurrence "after" a person's first sleep, as it was more commonly phrased than "before" one's second sleep. As to when a person awakened for good, excerpts simply referred to dawn or morning rather than stating "after" an individual's second sleep.


FOURTH, the intervening period of consciousness – which Francis Bacon termed “between sleeps’” and Robert Louis Stevenson  called a “nightly resurrection”- bore no common name, other than the generic term”‘watch” or “watching” to indicate a period of wakefulness that stemmed, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, “from disinclination or incapacity for sleep.”  

FIFTH, a useful analogy to bear in mind in analyzing these references is that of a jigsaw puzzle. Rather than any single reference providing a detailed description of segmented sleep - its stages, dynamics, and timing - collectively these and numerous other fragments from primary sources leave no doubt as to the major features of this pattern of slumber or its prevalence. As in a jigsaw puzzle of a dog, for instance, the absence of scattered pieces cannot be construed to suggest instead the image of a cat. 

SIXTH, it is noteworthy that many of these excerpts, along with references in my publications, were phrased as if the terms "first" and "second" sleep were utterly familiar to readers and listeners. 

SEVENTH, a corollary of this last point is that many of the published texts, particularly numerous medical texts, were written for a broad readership. 

EIGHTH, for those who remain unpersuaded by my research, I would respectfully ask that you consider producing an equally voluminous body of evidence that a consolidated pattern of preindustrial sleep was the norm in Western societies, rather than a far less frequent occurrence. It is anachronistic at best merely to assume that the sleep to which people have aspired to achieve since the Industrial Revolution can be extrapolated backward to explain the sleep of premodern communities. 

NINTH, a handful of excerpts employ the terms "first sleep" and "second sleep" as metaphors, particularly in political contexts - thereby suggesting the ubiquity of these terms in everyday life.

Foreign passages, not previously available in English, were translated with the aid of Deepl and Google. I will continue to supplement this list as I come across further references. Thank you for your interest in my research! 



*Glenn Reed Storey, “All Rome Is at My Bedside: Nightlife in the Roman Empire,” in Nancy Gonlin and April Nowell, eds. Archaeology of the Night: Life After Dark in the Ancient World 2018), pp. 327-329.

“The Romans appeared to have recognized Ekirch’s (2001, 2005) division of sleep into two main periods, which demonstrated how common it was in European history for people to go to sleep at nightfall and then, around midnight, to get up for a while (perhaps an hour or two) to talk, write, do chores, have sex, and so on, and then go to sleep again to arise at dawn. The first sleep, as Ekirch defines it, was indeed referred to by the Romans. It is even mentioned by Thucydides (History of the Peloponnesian War 7.43), who says apo protou hypnou (“after first sleep”). The Romans called it primus somnus (“first sleep”), prima nox (“first night”—this is used heavily by military writers such as Julius Caesar and the historian Livy to describe attacks soon after nightfall)—concubia nox (“lying down in bed at night”), prima sopor “first sleep”), or prima quies (“first quiet, or sleep”). References to the first sleep are found all the way from Ennius, the earliest Roman poet (Annals 2.27 in the second century BCE) who used the phrase noctu concubia (“bedding down time of night”), through Plautus, Livy, Cicero, Pliny the Elder, and others, all the way to Macrobius (Saturnalia 1.3.12 and following) and Sidonius Apollinaris in the fifth century CE. . . . . The phrase_medio curriculo noctis ('the mid-course of the night’) could be the designation for that break in sleep identified by Ekirch (2001, 2005). So, these passages strongly suggest the pattern of a first sleep, followed by a 'mid-course’ interval and then a second period of sleep.”

* Jeremy Penner, “Nocturnal Prayer in the Dead Sea Scrolls,” Studia Liturgica, 44 (2014), note 7, p. 236.

For the term “first sleep” (protos hupnos), see, e.g., Thucydides, Hist.,; Plutarch, Lysander 28.3 and Nicias 5.3; Aristophanes, The Wasps 31; Lucian, Toxaris or Friendship 17.2. In Themistocles 28.4, Plutarch writes, “in the night, in the middle of [or “in between”] the sleeps”. Sophocles, Ajax 285: “…dead of night (achras nuchtos), when the evening lamps no longer burned.” Suidas explains the phrase achras nuchtos as peri prōton hupnon (“around first sleep”). Cf. A. Adler, ed., Svidae Lexicon (Paris: Lipsiae, 1928–38), 1:88 [Adler #957]. In a recent article William Holladay has argued that the Hebrew noun trdmh carries with it a connotation of “first sleep:” William Holladay, “Indications of Segmented Sleep in the Bible,” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 69 (2007): 215–221."

*Apuleius (c.124-c.170 AD), The XI Bookes of the Golden Asse, William Addington trans. (1566).

"When midnight came, that I had slept my first sleepe, I awaked with sodein feare, and sawe the Moone shining bright."

* Rutebeuf (fl.1245-1285), Complete Works [1260], “De la Griesche d’Yver," p. 72.

“I start my lamentable story: a poor story! Poor brains, poor memory gave me God, the king of glory, and poor income, and cold on the ass when the wind hits me, the wind blows me away and very often at any moment I feel the wind. The grièche had promised me everything she brings me: she pays me recta, she pays me everything, for a penny she gives me back a pound of extreme poverty. Poverty fell on me again: its door was always open to me, I was always in it, I never got out. In the rain I get wet, if it is hot, I sponge myself: I am rich! I only sleep my first sleep. I can't count my fortune: I have nothing. God makes the seasons come to an end for me: summer, the black fly bites me, winter, the white fly. I am like wild wicker or like a bird on a branch: in summer, I sing in winter, I cry, I lament, I strip myself like the tree from the orchard at the first frost.” [Such was his poverty and presumably wretched sleeping conditions, Rutebeuf was able to “only sleep my first sleep.”]


*Franco Mormando, The Preacher's Demons: Bernardino of Siena and the Social Underworld of Early Renaissance Italy (Chicago, 1999), p.272, n.118.


"Behold in the first sleep she opens the door of the garden, and comes out ungarnished and all ungroomed, and begins to make her signs and her conjurations and to cry out, and to call the devil."

[An elderly woman, as witnessed at night by her godson in the Italian village of Lucca,  c.1425]


*Erasmus to Johann Choler, Bâle, ca. August, 1535, To Johann Choler, Bâle, ca. August, 1535, La correspondance d'Érasme (University Press : Brusseles, 1982, XI), p. 252.

“However little it was, I had shown it by books published before I reached the Italian border, by the Adages, a few dialogues by Lucien and two tragedies by Euripides published in Paris. Concerning tragedies, people have spread the completely false rumor that they were by Rodolphe Agricola (who, like me, is recognized to have been a very learned man) and that I had stole the manuscript for them - but to see. And I owned, publish under my name. What could be more treacherous? At that time, I was not even dreaming of Rodolphe's library, and many of those are still alive who have seen how I accomplished this work, without being able to give it all the care it should have taken, but [during] hours of the afternoon, walking, while my families ate, sometimes in bed, while waiting for the second sleep. More than once I have luckily written a hundred lines in a row. If we say that the translations are not happy, I will hardly disagree, but they do not contain a syllable which is not mine. And I didn't use any translation, any commentary.” [Erasmus justified his written translations against the allegation of plagiarism by citing intervals of time during the day and night when he was at work, including the period "sometimes in bed, while waiting for the second sleep."]


*John Foxe (1516-1587), Actes and monuments (London 1583).

“This dronken priest sitting at supper, was so dronke that he coulde not tell what he did, or els feyned himselfe so dronke of purpose, the better to accomplishe hys intended mischiefe. So it followed that this wretch, after hys first sleep, rose out of his bed and brake all the glasse windowes in his chamber, threwe downe the stone, and rent all his hostes bookes that he founde.”

*Hans Wilhelm Kirchhof (1525/-1602) Library of the Literary Association in Stuttgart, p. 166

“The most comfortable time to visit the enemy in the camp is before midnight and in the first sleep.”

* Bacon, Francis (1561-1626), The Works of Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, Viscount St. Alban, And Lord High Chancellor of England (London, 1765) I, pp. 152, 428.

“For which I have compounded an ointment of excellent odour, which I call Roman ointment; vide the receipt. The use of it would be between sleeps; for in the latter sleep the parts assimilate chiefly.”

“Once in the week, or at least in the fortnight, to take the water of mithridate distilled, with three parts to one, or strawberry water to allay it; and some grains of nitre and saffron, in the morning between sleeps.”


*Gideon Lomax (1565?-1659), Delaun Reviv'd, Vix. A Plain and Short Discourse of that Famous Doctor's Pills, their use and Virtues With Choice Receipts (1680).

"You may take half over night, and the rest next morning; but, the old and best way is, to take them after the first sleep, or at any time from one or two a clock till seven, eight or nine, in the morning, take them alone, or in the pap of an Apple, Egg poched, Beer, Ale, Coffee, Tea, or other liquor you can best swallow them in."

*Tobias Venner (1577-1660), Viae Rectae ad Vitam Longam (London, 1623), p. 8.

“It is best to lye first on the left side, that the meats may the better descend to the bottome of the stomacke, which toward the left side is chiefly situated, and the alimentary juice be the more easily conceived in the liver; and after the first sleep to turn to the right side; for this change doth greatly ease the body.”

*Richard Saunders, Physiognomie, and Chiromancie, Metoposcopie . . . (London, 1671), p. 241.


“Or secondly it proceeds from the concoction of the aliment in the stomach; which concoction so long as it endureth, so long it promoteth and nourisheth the first ſleep. From hence it is that the first ſleep is more vehement by reason of the more gross exhalations, and more turbulent, by reason of the impurity of vapours; but the morning sleep is more sweet, light, and apt for dreams, by reason of the more pure vapours, and the more rare and perlucid exhalation.

*Kent, Elizabeth Grey, Countess of (1582-1651), A Choice Manual, Or Rare Secrets in Physick and Chirurgery (1687).

“The Spirit made of Diasatyrion magis gretum, prescribed in the last London Dispensatory, comforteth and much restoreth decayed nature, strengtheneth the weak back, increaseth seed, and advanceth generation, being taken thrice a day a spoonful at a time, that is, in the morning fasting, at four in the afternoon, and last at bedward, with this caution, that the weak parties abstain from venereal acts till after their first sleep.”

*Walwyn, William (1600-1681), A Touch-Stone for Physick (1667).

"How a Cordial could help the Toothach? I said, by extinguishing the venom that caused it; and it was rather questionable, what a real Cordial Medicine could not do. Nay then, says he, If you are so confident, pray let me have one. So I gave him onely two ounces of one I had good experience of, half to be taken that night at resting time, a little warm'd in his hand; and the other part, if he needed it, after his first sleep."

*Moyse Charas (1619-1698), Pharmacopée royale galénque et chimique (London, 1678).

“These Pills purge very strongly thick Flegm out of the Stomach, and the lower part of the Belly; as also from the Brain: They disburthen the Lungs, and give ease to the Asthmatic, and those that are troubled with old Coughs, through toughness of Flegm. The dose is from a scruple to a dram, as also to four scruples, for them that are of a strong Constitution. They are to be taken after the first sleep, or early in the morning.”

*Johann Peter Titz (1619-1689), German Poems (1888), p. 10.

“Now it was about the time that the cattle and the men were silent, when in the first sleep one tends to lie deepest.”

*Hans Jakob Christoph von Grimmelshausen (1622-1676), The Adventurous Simplicissimus (1912), p. 109.

“In my first sleep came four rogues disguised with frightful devils' masks into my room and to my bed, and there they capered around like mountebanks.”

*Newcastle, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of (1623-1673) (London, 1662).

"If you are troubled with melancholly vapours, arising from crude humours, you must take as soon as you wake after your first sleep, a draught of Wormwood-wine, then lye to sleep again, and then half an hour before you rise, drink a draught of Jelly-broth, and after you have been up an hour and half, eate a White-wine-caudle, then a little before a dinner, take a Toste and Sack."

* Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, Marchioness of Sévigné, (1626-1696), Correspondence (Paris, 1675), I, p. 598.

“We can not travel more sadly than I do. This is the fourth time I have written to you; without what would I have become? Here is what kills me a little, it is that after my first sleep, I hear two o'clock ring, and instead of going back to sleep, I put the stew with bitter chicory; it boils until the end of the day to ride in a coach.[Rather than retire after her first sleep and hearing a bell ring two o’clock, she makes a medicinal brew of chicory, a reported source of physical and mental well being.]

*Boyle, Robert (1627-1691), Medicinal Experiments, Or, A Collection of Choice and Safe Remedies (London, 1693).

"MIX up 15 Grains, or if the Distemper be but slight, 10 Grains, of pouder'd Rhubarb with half a Dram of Diascordium, and let the Patient take it either going to Bed, or early in the Morning after his first sleep."

* Charles Perrault (1628-1703), Parallel of the Ancients and Moderns . . . (Paris, 1688-1697), IV.

“Let's stay there, it would be wrong to ask more for the first time. But I have to tell you before than to dispose of my opinion of all our dispute; I put it this morning in ver [ ? ], having not been able to go back to sleep after my first sleep.”

*Isaac Barrow (1630-1677), The Theological Works of Isaac Barrow, (1830), I, pp. xxi, xxiv-xxv.

He yielded the day to his public business, and took from his morning sleep many hours, to increase his stock of Sermons, and write his Treatise of the Pope's Supremacy. Dr. Polk states, 'He was unmercifully cruel to a lean carcass, not allowing it sufficient meat or sleep. During the winter months, and some part of the rest, he rose always before it was light, being never without a tinder-box and other proper utensils for that purpose. I have frequently known him, after his first sleep, rise, light, and after burning out his candle, return to bed before day.’"

*Anton Ulrich (1633-1714), Works (2012), p. 641.

“But he was still in his first sleep when someone suddenly entered the sleep chamber, whereupon he woke up, and in the clearness of the lamps, which were hanging far from the bed, recognized King Vologeses.”

*Lauquel sont contenues ses plus rares expériences pour diverses maladies, principalement des femmes, avec leurs embellissemens (Paris, 1635).

“They [pills] are taken in the evening four or five hours after the meal, or for the better in the morning after the first sleep, or in the morning.”

*S. Bradwell, Physick for the Sicknesse (1636).

“Make Pils of 8. 10. or 12. graines a piece; and take 2 or 3. at a time; either at bed time, or after the first sleep.”

*Dirk Burger van Schoorel, Cronyk van Medenblik (1726).


“1637, August 21, towards midnight, a very frightful weather arose (while the men lay in their first sleep) of real lightning and cruel thunders.”

*Abraham a Sancta Clara (1644-1709), Der Christliche Welt-Weise (2016), p. 335.

“The Schalck [?] got up in his first sleep, and led the fat cow out of the barn.”

*Guy Miege, (1644-1718?) New dictionary French and English (London,1677).

“To awake one out of his first sleep: éveiller quêcun dans son premier sommeil.”

*P. Corneille Blessebois (1646-1697), Satirical Works (1676).

“He urged her to give them his opinion of what they would do with the little creature that had come to the flood, which had no life, and of the way the Pn would come out of it. In order to disengage himself from this, Dorimene, who was much distressed, greased his leg with three beautiful golden louis. Then the concierge's wife, who does everything for money, spoke to them in these terms:, 'I don't see that there is anything to be embarrassed about, nor that you should worry so much about so little,' she told them. As soon as the night has provided half of her career, and the men are in the arms of their second sleep, it will be necessary to carry this too soon to the door of some innocent.”

*Eberhard Werner Happel (1647-1690), Afrikanischer Tarnolast (1983), p.467.

“I took my camp under a beautiful shady tree. I rested in my first sleep in the middle of the night. A mighty roar of many wild animals awakened me.

*H. Ellis, Pseudochristus: Or, A True and Faithful Relation of the Grand Impostures, Horrid Blasphemies, Abominable Practises Gross Deceits; Lately Spread Abroad and Acted in the County of Southampton (1650).

"And after that he was departed, and she gone to bed, and waking after her first sleep, she was full of joy and singing, so was also the woman who lay there with her, who had brought this William Franklin unto her: This their singing was heard by a neighbor, who coming to them said they were Witches."

*G. Fidge, The English Gusman (1652).

“Allen being free from trouble as he thought, yet spared no horse flesh to be out of the way: but being twenty miles off that place: now thought himself safe: where after supper he went to bed; he had not taken his first sleep before there were search made all over the Town for such men.”

*L.P., The Witch of the Woodlands, Or, the Coblers New Translation (1655).

“After that Robin the Cobler had taken his first sléep, he awaked, and turning himselfe on the other side, he sent for his Bed-fellow, but she was not there; and having gotten all the Bed-room to himselfe, he began to wonder with himselfe about the passages which had hapned to him the night before, and there withall he bethought himselfe how he might use a meanes to get away before the old Witch his new-made Landlady came backe againe to him, for he supposed that she had gone forth to fetch companie to cut his throat.”

*E. Maynwaringe, Tutela Sanitatis Sive Vita Protracta the Protection of Long Life. (1664).

"Take them after your first sleep; or halfe the dose when you go to bed, the rest at 5 or 6 of the clock next morning; in so doing you will not be called up before your due time to rise. When you are up, drink some warm posset-drink, and walk about the house.”

* Cautionary Rules for Preventing the Sickness; Published by Order of the Lord Mayor (London, 1665), p. 6.

“Three are the dose, to be taken after the first sleep, and thin broth or posset-drink to be drank three hours after.”

*Fürsten-Spiegel Order Monarchia (1673), p. 383.

[The] servant determined to murder the good pious lord in the first sleep and thereby to become the owner of the money believed found by him.”

*Christopher Jelinger, Usury stated; Three treatises (London, 1679).

“So as that I dare not omit the practice of that famous saying of that sweet Singer of Israel, which I use every night, as I awake out of my first sleep; whan I awake I am still with thee, or as the Hebrew also will bear it, I will be still with thee, Psal. 139.18. And I must even marry my self anew to Christ, because I do dayly break Wedlock with him, and he bids me to return to him again, Jer. 3.1. Which makes me then say, I will return to my first Husband, for then it was better with me than now it is, Hos. Nor can I leave undone any of my other Nocturnal exercises, but must also feed by Faith upon the bread of life, which is my Saviour Christ.”

* Koran (London, 1688).

"IN the Name of God, gracious and mercifull. O thou Fearfull! Arise by night, pray to God at midnight, untill two third parts of the night, and more. Read the Alcoran, and meditate thereon, observe what it contains; although it be tendious to thee, thou wilt best comprehend it after thy first sleep, because thou in the day hast affairs that divert thee. Remember thou the name of God, forsake the world to worship him, he is Lord of the West, and East, there is no god but God, take him for thy protector: be not impatient at what the wicked say; separate thy self from their society, without fear, leave me to punish them; is there any one that is able to defend them?"

*Paul Scarron, The whole comical works . . .  (London, 1700), p.8.


“After her first Sleep, Madam la Rapiniere had a mind to go where Kings are fain to go themselves in Person; her Husband wak'd at the same time, and tho' he had not recover'd [from] his Drunkenness, he found himself alone; he call'd his Wife, nobody answer'd : whereupon he grew Jealous, fell in a Passion, and instantly rose out of his Bed in a Fury.”

*Edward Ward, The pleasures of matrimony, intermix'd with variety of merry and delightful stories (London, 1703), p.8.

“Three hours after Supper, he [the physician] bid the Gentleman go to Bed, lie close to his Wife, and sleep out his first Sleep ; after that, to enter into Amorous Discourse with his Wife, as awake as himself: and when he had so heightened his Discourse to fall to his Work [i.e. perform his duty].”

“That his [David’s] Mind was so full of GOD, and the Cares and Delights of his Religion, that a little sleep served his turn; even in the Night-watches, when he awak'd from his first Sleep, he would rather meditate and pray than turn him and go sleep again.”

*William Salmon, The family dictionary, or, Household companion . . . (London, 1710), p. 141.


Diarrhae: Mix 15 Grains, or it the Distemper be but light, ten grains of the Pouder of Rubarb, with half a Dram of Diacodium, and take it either going to Bed, or early in the Morning after the first Sleep.”

*An essay towards a more easie and safe method of cure in the small pox (n.p., 1714).

 “I was to drink the Posset-drink; half of it at going into bed, and the other half after my first Sleep.”

*London Jests . . . (London, 1720).

“A merry Fellow, awaking after his first Sleep, finds that Thieves had broke through his House, and very bufie searching what they could find.”

*John Aubrey, comp., Miscellanies . . . . (London, 1721).

“The jaundice is Cured, by putting the Urine after the first Sleep, to the Ashes of the Ash-tree, Bark of Barberries.”

*John Dennis, Original Letters, Familiar, Moral and Critical (London, 1721), II, p. 400.

“So that methinks Portius might reasonably have interpreted this Caution of Sempronius, as a Reprimand for his own extravagant and unreasonable Passion, and not have construed it as a Design to fend him on an April Errand to harangue a poor Parcel of drunken Sots before they were out of their first Sleep.”

*Albertus Magnus, De secretis mulierum . . . .  (London, 1725), p.89.

“But this Urine ought to be taken immediately after the first Sleep, and Care ought to be had, that it be not changed by any Accident, as Sickness, or gross Food.”

*John Hancocke (d.1728), Febrigugum Magnum: Or, Common Water . . . (London, 1723), p. 29.

“When I went to Bed I drank a glass of water, and set another by me to drink after my first sleep.”

*Charles Sorel, The Comical History of Francion . . . (London, 1727), I.

“An old Woman, who being weary with beating it upon the Hoof, had gone to Bed long before any Company came in. Having had her first Sleep out, she was thoroughly awake by that time Francion had brought his story towards the conclusion.”

*John Cheshire, A Treatise upon the Rheumatism . . . (London, 1735), p.63.


“The Draught order'd after the Vomit, may be taken every Night, going to Bed. And when the Violence of the Distemper begins to lessen, the following Bolus must be taken, going to Bed, or after the first Sleep.

*The Complete Family-Piece: and, Country Gentleman, and Farmer’s Best Guide (London, 1737), p. 50.

"“With half a dram of dioscordium, and let the patient take it either going to bed, or early in the morning after his first sleep.”

*The Surprizing Life and Death of Doctor John Faustus . .  . (London, 1740?), p. 64.


“After he had slept his first Sleep, and in the Twenty third Year past of his Time, that he had a great Desire to lie with fair Helena of Greece.”

* A History of the Lives and Sufferings of the Principal English Protestant Martyrs . . . (London, 1746), p. 460.

“And that night, (as he had done all the way,) he eat his meat quickly, and slept his first sleep soundly, as it was reported by them of the guard . . . . After his first sleep he continued in prayer until the morning . . . .”

*The History of Charlotte Summers, the Fortunate Parish Girl (London, 1750), p. 97

“Why then, Sir, fays Jenny, I waked after my first Sleep, I think it might be about Midnight, and, as I thought, lay awake for some time, and saw Jack come into the Room, not dressed like a Farmer nor a Sailor, but like a young Gentleman with a Sword and laced Waistcoat.”

*C.A. Sainte-Beuve, “[Alexander] Pope as a Poet,” English Portraits (New York, 1875).


“When a thought, a happy, delicate, or lively expression was uttered in his presence or occurred to his mind, he was eager to seize it: ever ardent in pursuit of what was better and most excellent, he collected it drop by drop and did not intentionally suffer an atom to go astray; he wore himself out in so doing; when necessary he got up during the night, and as he could not do anything alone, he caused his servant to get up even in winter, for the purpose of writing down a thought which he feared to lose and which might have escaped him when he awoke again; for more than one of our thoughts, and the best of them, are often drowned and engulfed for ever between our first and second sleep, like the Egyptians in the Red Sea.”

*M.Louis, Lettres sur la Certitude des Signes de la Mort (Paris, 1752).


“The time of the first sleep is not the same for everyone.”

* Mercure de France (Paris, 1753-1754).

"With respect to his private life, this is what this historian tells us about it. Marshal slept little after his first sleep, he awakens his Secretaty who LYING choit [?)]the feet of his bed, and he dictated to him what he had intended to make during the day: then he went back to sleep, and his [Secretary?] had himself read what he had dictated. He often entrenched or rejoined, according to the new ideas that had come to him. It was then, continues the same historian, that he destined the officers to the various things to which he had intended to employ them. "

*Arthur Murphy, The Upholsterer, or What News? (London, 1758), p. 39.

“ I'll be with you before you're out of your first Sleep

   FEEB. Good-night.”

*The Intriguing Coxcomb ; or the Secret History of Sir Edmund Godfrey . . . (London, 1759), I, p. 193.


“When I awoke from my first sleep, I was much furprized to find that my husband was not in bed with me. This awakened my jealousy, I got out of bed, and perceiving some light in Lettice's room, and the door on the jar, I entered in on a sudden, and surprized them both together in amorous dalliance.”

*”Friend to Truth,” Calumny Detected, and Malice Defeated . . . (Exeter, 1760), p. 9.


“The fame Night, between Ten and Eleven o'Clock, came a Couple of Sailors into the Room where I sat drinking, who joined me in partaking of the Fire. They enquired whence I came from? I said, from Gibraltar. They then ask'd if I was Quarter'd in the House? I told them, No, but that I was an entire Stranger. After some Time we all Three went into one large Bed together. After our first Sleep, one of them complain'd how a-thirst he was, and, getting up, said he would have Come Drink if so be there was any in the house.”

*The History of the Proceedings in the Case of Margaret . . . (London, 1761), p. 103.


“John looked like a person just awake from his first sleep, and made some motions towards the back-door, before he recollected that he had some guns ready in the hall.”

*Stefano Egido Petroni (b.1770), Corso di Lingua Italiana (London, 1826), p. 47-48.

"You sleep then very soundly?"

"Yes, particularly in my first sleep."

*John O’Keeffe, The She Gallant . . . (London, 1767), p. 24.


“I fee the coach drive at a devil of a rate. I wish I'd got up behind it. Upon my foul, he'd be a little surprized to fee Thady.  By this time they've taken their first sleep.”



*A Speech, in Behalf of the Constitution, Against the Suspending and Dispensing Prerogative . . . (London, 1767), p. 116.


“But was the conduct of Administration a bit better, or wiser, or more like government, when they were waked out of their first sleep, and goaded on to their duty, by others, to whom their country was more obliged?” [One of several examples of the use of the terms "first" or "second" sleep, given their widespread familiarity, in an altogehter different context from sleep itself.]

*Correspondence of Jeremy Bentham, Volume 1: 1752 to 1776, UCL Press (2017), p.139.

16 September 1770

I begin already to find myself pretty much at home and have fallen in with tolerable alacrity to an arrangement of the time totally differing from my accustomed one, and not at all for the worse, I can assure you. I rise about the time I used to be falling into my second sleep— have my Hair divinified for the day— have finished my Breakfast perhaps by eight.

*Richard Vassall Fox (1773-1840), Souvenirs diplomatiques de lord Holland (Paris, 1851).

"After his first nap, he settled and explained with a relaxed head all the arrangements for the next day. Then, after a second sleep which repaired his strength, he supervised the execution of the orders he had given at night, without the secondary details coming to interrupt or delay the last instructions he had to give."

*The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, July 7, 1773

“Q. What o'clock did you go to bed that night?

Burn. Almost twelve.

Q. What part did you lie in?

Burn. The middle room; there are two rooms upon one floor.

Q. Where did Mrs. Whitefield lie?

Burn. In the fore room.

Q. How came you to be up so late?

Burn. My husband was in liquor, and I dare not then disturb him till he has had his first sleep.”

*Dr. William Cullen to William Turnbull, August 1775?, The Cullen Project, Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh.

"During this journey he may take the infusion of Bark with a dose of his acid drops twice a day, and at bed time he may take three, four or five of the pectoral pills also ordered below. He may also continue to take either before or after his first sleep the anodyne he has been in use to take for some time past."

*The Workes of Aristotle . . . (London, 1777), pp. 357-358.

“When coition is over, some further directions are necessary; and therefore let the vanquished bridegroom (for he must needs be vanquished that has in the encounter lost his artillery) take heed how he retreats too soon out of the field of love, lest he should hereby leave an entrance too open, and some inimick colds should strike into the womb. But after he has given time for the matrix to close up, and make all sure, he may withdraw, and leave the bride unto her first repose; which ought to be with all the calmness that the silent night (and a mind free from all disturbing care) can give, inclining her to rest on her right side, and not removing without great occasion till she has taken her first sleep.” [One of myriad manuals  published in multiple editions from the late seventeenth to the early nineteenth century, falsely attributed to Aristotle, which dispensed advice pertaining to sex, pregnancy, and childbirth among other popular topics.]


*Gentleman’s Magazine, 1782.

“It is generally known that Dr. [Edward] Young, after his first sleep, spent the greatest part of the night in  meditation, and in the composition of his works.”

*Anja Schumann “Time to sleep? On the relationship between Night and Rest in the Early Modern Military” (2018)


“Military theoretical treatises of the 17th and 18th century suggested using the enemy's need for sleep to one's own strategic advantage. Hans Friedrich von Fleming emphasized that a good commander should first of all consider a favorable time for the attack in order to hit the enemy unprepared in a state of sleep or at least in a state of fatigue. . . .[Joachim Heinrich] Campe's treatise on sleep [1788]: ‘The first sleep is more perfect and more solid, so that something is not easily awakened from it, that does not act very strongly on the nerves, e.g. a sudden bang, a sudden bang, a sharp pain.’”


*Ann Sheldon, Authentic and Interesting Memoirs (London, 1790), p. 23.


“Being extremely fatigued, I quietly took my leave, and left the noble Lord and Miss Harvey, who were old acquaintances, to have their chit-chat together. As that lady was to sleep with me, I did not lock the door, but went hastily to bed, and was soon as quiet and unconscious as sound rest could make me. but they were too well pleased with each other's company to follow my example. On waking from my first sleep, I heard some-one snoring by my fide, and, imagining that it might be my friend Miss Harvey.”



*Agathon-Jean-François Fain (1778-1837), Memoirs of Baron Fain, First Secretary of the Cabinet of the Emperor (Paris, 1908).

“The Emperor rose in the night after his first sleep; it was usually about two o'clock in the morning; dressed in a simple white bazin robe in the summer, and white fleece in the winter, and surrounded by a madras, he went into his study and devoted these silent hours to the great business which the training of the day it had not allowed him to go deeper as he pleased. It was also the time he chose to control at will, to the help of the accounts he had on his table, sometimes the details of an administration, sometimes the detail of another. If day came to surprise him in his meditations, he asked for a bath. He was reclined at five o'clock in the morning and his last awakening was no later than seven o'clock. He was dressing then. One will not be sorry to see Napoleon in this situation of the common life.”

*Bernhard Severin Ingemann (1789-1862) Writings (1844), p. 132.

“At the same time as this was going on in the outer part of the tent, the king was still asleep in his first sleep.”

*Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822), “The Indian Serenade”


“I arise from dreams of thee

In the first sweet sleep of night,

When the winds are breathing low,

And the stars are shining bright”



*Charles Lamb (1775-1834), Eliana: Being the Hitherto Uncollected Writings (1867).


“All this, with the dead time of night, as it seemed to me (for I had gone through my first sleep), joined to produce a wicked fancy in me, that the form which I beheld was not my aunt, but some witch.”

*Memoirs of the Right Reverend Simon Willaim Gabriel Brute (1769-1839) (New York, 1860.

"This activity was not merely the effect of temperament, but rather the result of his zeal and dislike of slothfulness.  Naturally, he was fond of retirement and study. He invariably rose after his first sleep. If he felt drowsy afterwards, he would say, as if addressing his body, 'if you want more sleep, you must take it the next time you get a chance.' Rev. Hickey"

*M. Eugène de Monglave (1796-1878), Mon parrain Nicolas, I (Paris 1824).

“It was a great day; eight o'clock [a.m.] had been ringing for a long time; Delie, taking advantage of her aunt's second sleep, had gone to Aspasie's house, and Augustus did not appear."

*Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1888), Diaries 1828 to 1879 (2004), p. 152.

“It is a matter of taste; I prefer the first sleep on the sofa than that in bed.”

*George Sand (1804-1876), The Marquis de Villemer (1861), p. 195.

“He had to be back before his brother, whom he saw calm and who seemed asleep, had come out of his first sleep.”


*Charles Buck, ed., Anecdotes, Religious, Moral, and Entertaining, II (London, 1805), pp. 103-104.

"After the friar's first sleep, he was surprised with hearing a constant whispering kind of noise, at which he was exceedingly frightened."

*Rev. J. Collinson, The Life of Thuanus (London, 1807), p. 234.

“[N. Le Fevre] “devoted himself to a course of uninterrupted study. His biographer, M. Le Begue, relates this particularity in his manner of life. After waking from his first sleep, he regularly left his bed, and, wrapping a monk’s hood round his head, in winter, exployed two hours in prayer and reading. He then enjoyed a light sleep, and arose again, in summer, with the dawn of day, and in winter at five or six o’clock.”

*Othello-Travestie: In Three Acts with Burlesque Notes . . . (London, 1813), p. 65.

“’your first sleep.’” . . . “The meaning is this: - human sleep is dividable into distinct portions of time: - the first of these is naturally most remedial to the frame: - consequently a disturbance from its balm is the more distressing.”

*The Observant Pedestrian Mounted or a Donkey Tour to Brighton (London, 1815), II, p. 23.

“I had just waked out of my first sleep, and heard the clock strike two, when the quick and repeated call of watch! fire! watch! gave me, I confess, a momentary alarm.”

*Vastin Lespy (1817-1897), Bearnaise grammar; followed by a French Vocabulary-Bearn (Verona, 1858).

“The one who. wants to examine witnesses, he must do each one in particular, and not together, know: at what time did the fact happened, whether it was morning, or prime, or third, or noon, or time of none, or of vespers, or night, or first sleep, or midnight, or hour of singing cock, or morning time, or dawn of day; in what place; in what month, or week, or day; what weather it was, if it was raining, if it was windy, if it was snowing, if it was hot, if it was thundering.”

*Ann Ryley, Fanny Fitz-York, Heiress of Tremorne (London, 1818), III, p. 417.

“A bright sun, and clothes of every description suited for the morning, tempted her to rise; though she was doubtful whether any of the family, except servants, would be stirring at nine o’clock. Nine o’clock!’ exclaims some sluggard of fashion, 'why, I am in my first sleep at that hour!'”

*Major-General Pillet, Views of England, During a Residence of Ten Years; Six of Them as a Prisoner of War (Boston, 1818), p. 137.

“It is reckoned that in England, at least three or four women are annually executed for murdering or poisoning their husbands. The assassination is generally performed in bed. A wife who suffers from the brutality of her drunken husband, seizes him in that state, and during his first sleep."

*The Arabian Nights, trans. Mr. Galland (Paris, 1822), IX.

“The captain of the robbers, however, at the exit of the stable, went to give his people the order of what they had to do. Starting from the first vase to the last [where each hid], he said to each one: "When I cast small stones from the room where I am lodged, do not fail to make an opening, by slitting the vase from the top to the top. down with the knife with which you are equipped, and come out; immediately I will be yours. The knife he was talking about was sharp and sharp for this purpose.That done, he returned; and as he had come to the kitchen door, Morgiane took the light, and she led him to the room she had prepared for him, where she left him, after having asked if he needed something else. To avoid suspicion, he extinguished the light shortly afterwards, and went to bed fully clothed, ready to get up as soon as he had taken his first nap."

*Miscellaneous Articles," Inverness Courier, December 9, 1824.

"In Summer, if one would taste a second sleep to perfection, let him jump our of bed, wash his hands and face, and then returning to the place whence he came, compose himself again to slumber."

* Joseph Briand, Complete Manual of Hygiene, or Treaty of the means to preserve one's health; written according to the doctrine of Prof. Hallé . . . (Paris, 1826).

Not every season, every moment of the day is equally conducive to the accomplishment of the conjugal act. The time of the awakening of nature, the spring is for the man, as for all the other beings, the season where the desires are more alive, and where the life, long time repressed towards the internal organs, asks to be to spread outside. During the winter, the long nights, the more prolonged rest, the plethora which results from it, invite also sometimes to the approximation of the sexes; and, after spring, it may be the most favorable season. On the contrary, the great heat of summer and autumn, and the debilitating causes more multiplied at the approach of winter, make it a law to be more reserved then. The night is generally more suitable than the day, and the moment of waking after the first sleep is preferable at any other hour, because all the organs are then rested of the day's work and that the rest of the night will be able to repair the forces. Towards the hour of noon, on the contrary, and during all the time of the day when the senses are open to a crowd of external impressions, where the body is fatigued, where the mind is distracted, coitus enervates much more. Moreover, what is most important to avoid is to perform this act immediately after a copious meal and when the stomach is still loaded with food; for we have seen the most serious indispositions, and sometimes the apoplexy, resulting from the disturbance then experienced by the digestive functions.

* Étienne Gaussens (1813-1896), Éloges de M. le Cte de Marcellus ; Mgr d'Aviau, archevêque de Bordeaux ; M. l'abbé Lacroix, supérieur du grand séminaire de Bordeaux ; M. l'abbé Lalanne, archiprêtre de St-Estèphe ; Mgr Du Bourg, archevêque de Besançon ; M. l'abbé Rauzan, supérieur des missions de France ; M. le Vte de Chateaubriand ; Mgr Frayssinous, évêque d'Hermopolis ; M. l'abbé Duburg, curé de St-Michel de Bordeaux ; M. l'abbé Lacombe, supérieur du petit séminaire de Bordeaux ; S. É. le cardinal de Cheverus,... par M. l'abbé Gaussens,... (Bordeaux, 1854).

“On the night of the 8th to the 9th of March, 1826, d'Aviau, after a first sleep, which was not ordinarily very long, awoke; he wanted Mgr to know, before getting up to begin his prayers, what time it was. He approached his night light too much with his curtains, which caught fire.”

*"Literature," London Atlas, March 18, 1827.

"Scenes and occurrences in Cafer-Land form in short most agreeable and instructive reading for about six hours, at twice. A scientific student will give them a morning. A merchant on Blackheath or Wadsworth Common will give them the evenings of a week, over his tea, at nine until he falls asleep at ten. The country gentleman will consume more than one rainy day over them. A boy greedy of adventure and novel excitement will sit up with then with a stolen candle, and before his brother's first sleep is out, he will have hunted several lions . . . ."

*Notes of a Bookworm: Or Selections From the Portfolio of a Literary Gentleman (London, 1828), p. 220.

“If thou desirest to take the best advantage of thyself, especially in matters where the fancy is most employed, keep temperate diet, use moderate exercise, observe seasonable and set hours for rest, and let the end of thy first sleep raise thee from thy repose; then hath thy body the best temper; thy soul the least incumbrance; then no noise shall disturb thine ear; no object shall divert thine eye; then, if ever, shall thy sprightly fancy transport thee beyond the common pitch, and shew the magazine of high invention.”

*London Evening Standard, August 1 1828.

“The fire commenced ahout one o'clock. All exertions to save the mansion were unavailing, and that all the inmates escaped with their lives may be considered a matter of surprise. Let those accustomed to the busy life of London imagine themselves in the centre of a park, no neighbour nearer than some half mile or more  ‘all nature hushed' — and at or near the solemn hour of midnight— thus situated to be awakened from their first sleep.” [I take this report to mean that in this rural setting, given the distance of the nearest neighbor, although “at or near the solemn hours of midnight – thus situated to be awakended from their first sleep,” none were either aware of the fire or, if they were, were close enough to assist. But in London, some form of aid would have been possible.]

*"The Barber of Madrid," The Newcastle Magazine (1829).

"It was near midnight, and Peter was just sinking into his second sleep, when he was, rather unceremoniously, awakened by Martha, who told him he was sent for to perform a certain operation on a corpse."

* Leon Cladel (1832-1892), [The] Second Mystery of the Incarnation (1883), p. 4.

“Read the whole letter again. - I know it by heart; I saw nothing of what you prophesy. - You do not know it enough. - I read it at least ten times. Re-read it an eleventh, during the night, after your first sleep.”

*Michael Banim, The ghost-hunter and his family (London,1833), pp.93-94

 “His diligent pace was now a run and now a trot, as he passed through the sleeping city: and not many minutes had elapsed before he stopped before a mean-looking house, situated in a narrow lane, branching directly from the main street. Here he knocked and knocked so vigorously, that the neighbourhood echoed to his thumping. After a while, the door was suddenly pulled open; a great woolly head made its appearance, and a voice as gruff and as fierce as that of a mastiff on his nightly post, bayed forth - ‘By the lord of Skerrin and all his dogs, I'll slaughther you! Who are you, an’ what do you want, routin' me out o' my second sleep in this fashion?’”

*"ALLAN GRAY," American Monthly Magazine, vol. 2, no. 2, 1 May 1830, pp. 109.


“Allan would read till his father woke from his first sleep, and repeat his commands to him to go to bed that he might with the dawn.”




*Cecil Hyde: a novel. Vol. 1, Saunders and Otley, 1834


However dissatisfied I might be with my visit to the  Earl, I saw no reason for not

availing myself of the invitation to the Countess’s ball, and accordingly I did not

fail to repair to Grosvenor Square, at that hour of the night when the quiet and

well-behaved part of the population being out of their first sleep the more refined

classes very rationally conclude that it is time to commence their evening’s





* DUNLAP, WILLIAM. "A SCENE ON THE ST. LAWRENCE, Or, a Narrative of what befell Zebadiah

Spiffard, the Water-Drinker, as recounted by him to George Frederick Cooke, the Tradedian." The New-York Mirror, vol. 13, no. 37, 27 Feb. 1836, p. 277.


“After my first sleep, and, as I supposed, after midnight, I heard two persons come into the ca bin and immediately perceived that one was the chaplain, in a state of loquacious inebriety.”




*"The Life, Times, and Characteristics of John Bunyan, Author of the Pilgrim's Progress."

Bisbee's New Monthly and Littell's Spirit of the European Magazines and Annuals,

vol. 2, no. 3, 1 Mar. 1839, pp. 170.


“It should be for ever remembered, also, where Bunyan studied Luther and the Bible at  this

time. It was alternately in  the barns where he slept on straw, and under the lonely trees where

he rested himself. He  ‘watched for the morning,’ upon a bed which had no  attractions, when

he awoke from his first sleep.”


 *Eugene, Sue,"THE WANDERING JEW." The New World, vol. 9, no. 22, 30 Nov. 1844, pp.



“Agricol, are you asleep, my boy? As for me, my first sleep is over. My tongues is devouring me,  like the devil, with  the desire of talking.”


*Leitch Ritchie, Wanderings by the Loire (London, 1833), pp.65-66.

This lady was scandalised at the public intimacy which subsisted between a youth of nineteen and a maid of sixteen. She saw them, in walking to church, lose themselves for an hour together among the trees and vineyards of the valley; and, between her first and second sleep at night, she could hear the voice of Theodore at Leine's window.”

William Dunlap], Thirty Years Ago; or the Memoirs of a Water Drinker (New York, 1836), II, p. 105.

“Mrs. Spiffard on awaking from her first sleep, was alarmed, for her husband’s absence betokened that of Emma.”

"Births, Deaths, Marriages, and Obituaries," Ipswich Journal, Jan.14, 1837.

"A few days since Mrs. Coleman, formerly residing in St. Mary's parish, Maldon, met with the following melancholy death at [Chelsea?]. She had retired to rest at the time her son was from home, and when she awoke from her first sleep, she felt anxious for him, not being aware that he was then in bed . . . ."

*Gotthilf Heinrich von Schubert, Journey to the East in 1836 and 1837 (1840) I, p. 403.

“Soon after midnight the first sleep of my chamber neighbors, who had already gone to rest at 7:00, seemed to have ceased; everyone sang loudly, some also to eat, after 1 o'clock they fell silent again, between 4 and 5.”

*"Leitrim Assizes," Freeman's Journal (Dublin), July 16, 1838.

" Hugh Macan examined by Mr. O'Dowd - Went to bed about ten o'clock that night, and got up after he had taken the first sleep, to see a cow that was about to calve."

* Catholic Telegraph (Cincinnati), Feb. 22, 1840.


“He has been known to return from a day’s mission, find thirty letters on his table, and answer every one before retiring to rest. He made it a rule never to indulge a second sleep the same night; so that, if he happened to awake at one or two in the morning, he instantly arose, fit his candle, and wrote or studied till day-light”.

"The Extensive Robbery of the Horsham Bank," Morning Chronicle, March 12, 1840.

"I generally go to bed soon, but my first sleep is not long, my time of waking between one and two o'clock in the morning."

*London Evening Standard, October12, 1840.

“But the Courrier Francais has the most difficult part to play. … The Courrier, in awakening from its second sleep, discovers that its abuse is to be directed in another quarter, and it accordingly insults the peers as it before insulted the King.” [An additional example of the use of the terms "first" or "second" sleep, given their widespread familiarity, in an altogether different context from sleep itself.]


*London Evenng Standard, December 29, 1840.

“On the night in question lie (Lee) called her several times when he thought she had taken her first sleep, but receiving no answer, he got up to strike a light, but could find neither tinder-box, matches, nor candle.”

*"Twenty-four Hours in London," Westmorland Gazette, August 28, 1841.

"Let us glance, superficially and cursorily, at the industry of a London twenty-four hours. Towards midnight, and by the time you have attained the luxurious oblivion of your first sleep . . ."


* J.B. Demangeon, Intellectual physiology, or the Spirit of man considered in its physical and moral causes, according to the doctrine of Gall, Spurzheim, and other authors, with a comparative comparison of the instincts which replace intelligence in the brutes (1843).

“The most excited still pursue their functions, that those who are less so have already left entirely theirs: hence the dreams of the first sleep, which are due to the partial activity of the brain or of some organs (...) But if, at the moment when one goes to bed, all the organs are in a sort of general relaxation and that none is exalted by a particular excitement, then the sleep is quiet by the generality of their rest . . . . The intellectual organs that have been least fatigued or those who dominate by their more considerable development, those that are used to exercise the most, as well as those which are destined to perceive impressions which chance leads to the first, resume their activity before the others: hence the dreams of the last sleep, dreams which are all the more clear and distinct, that is to say, all the more more similar to the ideas of the waking state."


*”Mode of Living Among the Arabs of Oman,” The Youth’s Instructor and Guardian, III (1839), p.162.

“The Arabs go to bed about ten; and their first sleep is over shortly after midnight.”

*Georgetown Winyah Observer, May 10, 1843.

“Having some unruly cattle that, by the carelessness of a servant, found their way into my wheat field, I concluded a few nights ago as I lay awake, after my first sleep, to get up and see if all was well. . . .The moon was high in the Heavens.”

*Herapath's Railway Journal, June 22, 1844


Why, then, this urgent matter is allowed totally to sleep until on the 29th January, the case is opened by Sir Thomas Wilde. He was heard the whole of that day—he was heard the whole of the subsequent day; and then the matter takes a second sleep and goes into a state of complete repose from the 30th January to the 21st June.  [One of several examples of the use of the terms "first" or "second" sleep, given their widespread familiarity, in an altogehter different context from sleep itself.]

*"The State of Public Affairs," Chester Chronicle, July 26, 1844.

"Lord Aberdeen, the man who in the Duke of Wellington's government, permitted the Russians to cross the Balkans, and the French to occupy Algiers; and during whose second sleep of official existence, we are quite likely to see a Russian protectorate of Constantinople." [An additional example of the use of the terms "first" or "second" sleep, given their widespread familiarity, in an altogehter different context from sleep itself.].]

*"Recollections of the Burschenschaft of Germany," Dublin University Magazine, January 1847.

"The last burger of Hirschorn, having warmed his toes as well as he could, was about to tumble into bed, when a tremendous shouting for help rose above the wind, and a carriage rattling furiously through the streets of the town, drew up at the door of that ancient and respectable Gasthaus which rejoices in the name of the Goat and Thunderbolt. The Wirth (family patriarch) had long before turned in, and was in the middle of his second sleep, when he was awakened by the agreeable information that a large party of persons were below."

*"The Spanish Court and People," Cork Examiner, March 26, 1847.

"Her Majesty goes to bed about the hour Don Francisco is thinking of getting up. She goes very much about the city and its environs in the day, and tries to drown care and reflection in excitement and chance. Her midnights are spent in masquerading and dancing - she is very fond of the latter amusement - though very fat and one of the most awkward dancers in Spain; and by the time the Prince is out of his first sleep, is enjoying herself at the supper-table."


*Launceston-Cornwall Chronicle, September 4, 1847.


“Here she related an anecdote abounding in pathos, concerning the distress of  a certain ‘gudewife,’ who, upon awakening out of her first sleep, was alarmed at the discovery that her ‘gudeman’ was not indulging in slumber at her side. . . . he was actually, and at that very moment, seated in a public house, roaring out for his bare life, something about ‘we won’t go home ‘till morning.’”

"Captain Washington's," John O'Groat Journal, December 24, 1847.

"He 'exmamined' Banff, Macduff, the intervening creeks, arrived at Fraserburgh before the inhabitants had got well through their second sleep."

*Guérin, Eugénie de Guerin, Lettres d'Eugénie de Guérin [1847], p. 496.

'Friday. Monday August 3. I was coming out of my second sleep, when Henri came into my room with your letter in hand."

*Rev. Frank De Witt Talmage, “Talmage Sermon,” Richmond Enquirer, Feb. 18, 1848


“God calls us in the hours of darkness. He call to us as he called Samuel after the first sleep of the night is over, and we suddenly awake and feel that someone is very near to us and speaking.”

*Varieties," Derby Mercury, January 3, 1849.

"On which side of the bed am I, my dear? enquired a jolly votary of Bacchus, awakening from his first sleep: under it, Tommy."

*“Nonconformist,” Douglas Jerrold's Weekly Newspaper, Feb. 10, 1849, pp.197-198.

“Mr. Noel's " Essay on the Union of Church and State," has been to the evangelical clergy and laity of the Establishment, very much like a dose of "cold pig." They have gone to rest on the pillow of the Union —and the time is long past when it behoved them as Christian men to have lift it. The first sleep of conscience, probably with all of them, was troubled and fitful--for it is impossible that so heterogeneous a compilation as the Book of Common Prayer, gulped down without much thought, could be as easily digested. But conscience, like the stomach,  will soon accommodate itself to the exigences of its case, and, after a period of restlessness, sink into profound repose. Alas! alas! the senses they had closed against the loudest knockings of Dissent, are now brought back to unpleasant consciousness, by one who slept on the same bed.” [An additional example of the use of the terms "first" or "second" sleep, given their widespread familiarity, in an altogehter different context from sleep itself.]

*Richard Parker, Aids to English Composition (New York, 1848).


“All the of all ages shows full well well, that when a people are once roused to a sense of injuries, opiates more powerful than man can tell of, are required to lull them to a second sleep.”

*Fanny Beresford, Confessions of a Lady’s Waiting Maid (New York, 1848), p. 89?.

“Another time, the tender couple being in bed, and after their first sleep, Mrs. Solomon would say, languishingly: ‘Swallow. Did you speak, my angel?’”

*Patriot, January 7, 1850, p.7.


“Where, then, has he been – or where, rather has he been sleeping – since the close of that era of classical literature . . . . this classic Rip Van Winkle . . . . But without further questions, which Mr. S. is probably not yet enough out of his first sleep to answer, I beg to furnish him with a few facts.”

*J.H. Dana, “The Drowning Skater,” Watertown Chronicle (Wisconsin), Jan. 23, 1850.


“Before midnight the wind changed to the north-west - for we heard its shrill whistle ere [before] our second sleep.”

* D. de. Monestrol, Conservation of health: a handbook of hygiene for the use of all . . . (Paris, 1851).

“It may happen that, in spite of all the hygienic precautions, in spite of the exercise during the day, one experiences, after a first sleep, agitation, heat, worries in the legs, an uneasiness which does not allow to back to sleep.”

* Richard Vassall Fox, Souvenirs diplomatiques de lord Holland (Paris, 1851).

After his first nap, he settled and explained with a relaxed head all the arrangements for the next day. Then, after a second sleep which repaired his strength, he supervised the execution of the orders he had given at night, without the secondary details coming to interrupt or delay the last instructions he had to give.


*Journal des villes et des campagnes, Oct. 18, 1851.

“Before you close your eyes, do not forget to make sure the fresh water jugs are within your reach, because you are sure to wake up after your first nap with a thirst.”

*British Banner, December 10, 1851

At St. Helena, he [Napoleon] rose at four o'clock, and, throughout life was accustomed to get up an hour, if not two, in the course of the night; he had always two beds in the room; he was found frequently to have changed them before the morning. Lord Holland thinks this habit might have been contracted during his campaigns; and it was of great use to him when on service. His own testimony is important, and is confirmed by all who have had any experience in his twilight meditations. He explained and directed, with a clear head, after his first sleep, all the general arrangements of the ensuing day; and then, after a second and refreshing repose, superintended the execution of them, secure from interruption arising from ordinary business.

*District News," Hereford Times, July 2, 1853.

"Occurring too, about midnight, when most of the inhabitants had just commenced their first sleep, it was peculiarly startling."

*Barbadian, 12 April 1854. 

“A woman named Ruthy Ann, who gave very plain and straightforward testimony, deposed that she is mother of the woman Mary Bella, and that on the night in question, prisoner slept at her house. Having had her first sleep, she woke about midnight, lighted her candle and smoked for some time.”


*St. James's Chronicle, December 19, 1854.

"About 10 p.m. yesterday, the wind came round to the north, the heavens displayed a bright moon and a cheering company of stars, the air was cuttingly cold, and all promised a fine frosty morrow; but alas! before our first sleep was over, the old state of things returned upon our disappointed camp, and we have had another damp drizzling twelve hours."

*"Pimlico Bell-Ringing," Dumfries and Galloway Standard, August 15, 1855.

"They are big, sonorous bells, and they break out frantically at all hours of the day, and, indeed, of the night. They clash and jangle a man out of his second sleep, they drown his voice at breakfast, and they intrude their abominable noise upon him at all hours thenceforth,"

*Thomas Carlyle to [Edward] Fitzgerald, Chelsea, 23 August 1855, in Alfred McKinley Terhune and Annabelle Burdick Terhune, The Letters of Edward Fitzgerald, II (Princeton, 1980), p.177.


“I cannot get to sleep again since I came out of Suffolk: the stillness of Farlingay is unattainable in Chelsea for a second sleep; so I have to be content with the first, which is oftenest about 5 hours, and a very poor allowance for the afflicted son of Adam.”

*Irish Literary Gazette, I (1857), p.282

“'Yerra, Mick,' says I, ‘is it to rob a house you want me get up, an' I jist afther getting into bed. Begorra your in your second sleep,' says he 'for it's two in the morning.’”

* Le Courrier de Bourges : journal politique, littéraire, industriel et agricole des départements du Centre, April 29, 1857.

“Yesterday evening at about eleven o'clock, the Sieur Désiré Pasquet, one of the inhabitants of the rue Charlet, perceiving after a first sleep that his lemma [a theorem or proof?] had left his bed, gets up in haste and hastens to make the most minute researches in the house and around….” 

*"Memoires et Journal sur la Vie et les Ouvrages de Bossuet," Edinburgh Review, 107 (January, 1858), p.219.

"After he became Bishop of Meaux, he ever lay with a lamp by his bedside; his first sleep was usually four hours, after which, even in the severest winter, he arose, put on two dressing gowns, and placing a bear-skin wrapper over his legs, recited matins and lauds amid the stillness of the night; he then went to study his dockets of papers; his portfolios, his pen, paper, and inkstand were in readiness on his desk; his easy-chair placed in front, his books of reference on other chairs on each side. He studied until overcome with fatigue, after which he went again to bed."


*"A Lark," Kilkenny Moderator, Setpember 22, 1858.

"The whole town was locked in Mopheous. In vain did he knock and pull at the bell. The ladies were not yet out of their first sleep."


*A. Castillon, New butterfly hunt (Paris, 1858).

“The same thought arises simultaneously in the mind of Fritz and the idiot, when, after having recovered and rested a little, they perceived these degraded walls. There must be some interesting discoveries to be made in these ruins, thought the artist; the night is beautiful, the moon resplendent, I will see it at midnight.’ There must be,’ thought Jooss, "many nocturnal butterflies in this old carcass; I'll think about that after my first nap.’ Our two explorers, without communicating their thoughts, therefore retired early in the lodging to them, in order to take a first account of sleep; but how to sleep, alas! in a full hostel, where some are shouting, or the other fleeing, where everyone comes and goes, with the kindness of the German rollers. This hustle and bustle is, moreover, perfectly rendered by this rich description of onomatopoeia, of a poet already quoted. Men swear, women quarrel, children" shout, dogs bark, cats mew, the clock "rings, the chopper bangs, the broiler pan, the spit-latch creaks, the fountain cries, the bottles sobs The windows shudder, the diligence passes under the vault like a thunder.’ Sleep with all this. This, indeed, was impossible for our painter and our farm boy. The two of them, at a little distance from each other, got up and made their way, spanning with great difficulty and many scratches the bristles and thorns of the old clerical mansion.”

*Alphonse de Calonne (1818-1902), Revue contemporaine (Paris, 1858).

"From the king of France to the country guard, every civil servant is a clerk of the people, and at all hours of the day and night this clerk must be ready to serve his master. In any case, Father Caron had his minute of courage. He went straight to the bed of the prefect, who slept from that good first sleep, so good and gentle for those who do not always have a second sleep, and police prefects are among them. [Such were his responsibilities.] Caron, who did not want to rush the awakening, was obliged to repeat several times the not very varied means of waking a man without often astonishing him a little, without often making him very angry. He stirred chairs, he coughed; he stirred again, he coughed harder. The prefect did not open his eyes again. Finally he dared to call by name the first magistrate of Paris, extreme perilous but sure way to get directly to the goal so desired and so feared.”

*"FAMILY PETS." Frank Leslie's Budget of Fun, no. 6, 1 June 1859, p. 8.

“Bless the dear children, is is quite a pleasure to see them eat. They’re always hungry, and get up after their first sleep for a cut of cake.”

*"Odds and Ends," Glasgow Herald, January 17, 1859.

"One spring morning, just about day-break, the good folks of Kilwinning were startled from their second sleep."

*Macon Georgia Journal And Messenger, May 18, 1859.


“The early man takes time by the forelock and is always beforehand with his competitor and his enemy, anticipates their designs, and has all his affairs arranged so that they cannot be disturbed or molested. . . . such a man will drop to sleep in his chair at nine o’clock. . . .In married life this habit of being early to bed is worth years of life and happiness. The children are never wakeful till they have got through their first sleep. But after that, if a man has all his repose to get, it will be so often broken as soon to break him down. He will become nervous simply for want of sleep, sleep that he could have got from nine till midnight, unbroken.”

*Julia Kavanagh (1824-1877), Seven Years and Other Tales (1860), p. 100.

"'The best sleep is the last,' said Charlotte. 'I like the first best,' replied Marie. 'Perhaps your early dreams are the pleasantest,' said Charlotte, smiling. 'Perhaps they are,' retorted Marie. 'They may refer to your early years and triumphs,' continued Charlotte sweetly. 'Ah! well,' sighed Marie, 'if early sleep makes early dreams, you may well like the last sleep best. You need not dream of your husband, the poor man.'"

*"Multiple News Items," Standard, March 19, 1861.

"But an impulse has been given which it was vain to hope to arrest; public opinion, once aroused, refused to subside into a second sleep." [An additional example of the use of the terms "first" or "second" sleep, given their widespread familiarity, in an altogehter different context from sleep itself.].

*"Foreign Miscellany," Hampshire/Portsmouth Telegraph," June 29, 1861.

"He asked to be allowed to go away, as there was no motive for detaining him. He was told, however, that the thing was impossible without the orders of the Prefect of Police, and that it was too early to disturb that functionary, who probably was then entering on his second sleep. . . . it was then near five o'clock." [As explained in "The Modernization of Western Sleep," "first sleep during the second half of the 19th century, if not in some instances earlier, had expanded, thereby pushing back and shortening the time of both wakefulness and one's second sleep, particularly in urban areas.]

*Norman MacLeod (1812-1872), "The Old Lieutenant and His Son," Good Words, II (December, 1861), p. 345.

"The necessity of Ned choosing a profession began to dawn upon the Captain's mind one night after he awoke from his first sleep, which generally happened about midnight."

*Robert Smith Surtees (1805-1864), Mr. Romford's Hounds (London, [1864]).


“Mrs. Mountravers, looking at her watch, which however afforded little assistance, for it was standing at half-past two. . . .’Ask if the hounds are coming here to-day,’ replied her ladyship. ‘Yes, my lady,’ said the footman, trotting off, taking care of his shoes as he made for the ricketty, weather-beaten door of the miserable hut. Rat, tat, tat, tat, tat, he went at the frail wooden fabric, as though he were going to demolish it. ‘Who's there?’ roared a stentorian voice, that a westerly wind wafted in full force to the carriage. ‘Please, do the hounds meet here to-day?’ asked the footman in his mild company accents. ‘No, you ass!’ roared the poacher, for it was none other than Giles Snarem, the notorious leader of the night gang, whose second sleep he had thus disturbed." [Though the poacher’s night had become his day, during which he slept, his sleep was still segmented, at least according  the imagination of the novelist.]

*Jules Duval (1813-1870), Raymond Gayrard, graveur et statuaire : biographies aveyronnaises (Rodez, 1866).

“What about my eighty years old? Since childhood, my life has been so regulated. I get up every morning at five o'clock, and, with rare exceptions, go to bed at eight o'clock. After my first sleep, which does not last until midnight, I read, then, silencing my imagination, I try to go back to sleep. This is how my old age goes, light and pleasant.”

*Sydney Empire, June 29, 1866.


“Courting second sleep when the body has had enough for the proper refreshment of its organs, and the preparation of the mind for once more performing the active duties of life, only induces heaviness and headaches. . . . The great Duke of Wellington used to observe, “Have but one sleep, and with the first turn, turn out.”


 *Bacon County Times, November 7, 1868.

“On the night of Friday se'nnight a rather severe shock of an earthquake was felt in this town. It occurred at 10.37 p.m., and had the effect of waking many who had retired to rest from their first sleep. and of alarming others.”

*"Proposed Division of the Day, [For next London Season)," Leeds Mercury, June 19, 1868

"Early Tea Restorative

Second Sleep

Get up. Time uncertain


*Anonymous, "A Sleeping Preacher," Chamber's Journal of Popular Literature, Science and Arts (1872), 100.

"So he took a text, and prepared himself to preach from it three or four days before he put it in practice; and when sufficiently prepared, would sit up in bed, after his first sleep, and delivered what appeared to him a very excellent sermon."

*Biography of the Venerable Mother Anna van den H. Bartholomew . . . (Antwerp, 1872).


“She was also so afraid of missing the choir service that when her first sleep was over, she did not dare fall asleep again for fear she would not wake up in time.”

*Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences, agriculture, arts and belles-lettres of Aix (Aix-en-Provence, 1873).

“In addition, it is such a beautiful, so beautiful and correct place that it has been greatly envied me, nevertheless I thank the graceful influences of what they seem to have wanted such a rare piece that almost without shirt you have been reserved to be in its luster among your rich volumes. I dedicate it to you and give heart and soul, greatly unpleasant not to be more liberal and grateful to the place of such a worthy gentleman; so well done and so deserving and all the more so that I have taken care to please you in everything. There you are using the pencils of the sisters Sr. Adam of Crapone, and of Soleriis, having them as drawn from the sculpture by the force of my imagination after my first sleep. His library was composed of remarkable works by the choice of editions, the beauty of the paper and the richness of bindings. The library of Aix possesses the original edition of Urcoeus Codrus, orations, epistoloe, silvoe, etc., having belonged to Grolier. The dishes of this volume bound in red morocco are covered with elegant arabesques. On one of them we read in letters of gold: J ° Grolerii and amicorum; on the other: Portio mea dominates sit in terra viventium.”

*"Richeleiu," Temple Bar: A London Magazine for Town and Country Readers (November 1875), p. 344.

"His ordinary life was one of unceasing labor. He usually retired to rest at eleven o'clock, but slept for only three or four hours. His first sleep passed, he had his porfolio brought to him in bed, and either wrote himself or dictated to a secretary. At six o'clock he went to sleep again, but rose between seven and eight."

*”Earthquake in San Fransisco,” Auckland Daily Southern Cross, June 7, 1875.


“The first shock was experienced about two o’clock in the morning, and was sharp enough to wake a good many people out of a second sleep.”


* Liverpool Daily Post, September 16, 1876

“It appears that Stephens had been several hours bed. when, waking from his first sleep, he fancied should like dip into the venison pie, and forthwith had gone down into the larder, where, in searching for the pie, knocked down the dish, with one or two more.”


*Auckland Daily Southern Cross, October 7, 1876

“He is for forever carrying on some fresh form of crusade. He persuades people that the second sleep’ in the morning is a fatal indulgence.”

*“Jesebel’s Daughter. By Wilkie Collins,” Glasgow Weekly Mail, 1 November 1879.


“Doctor Dormann taking up his hat, stopped to look at Mother Barbara, fast asleep in her easy chair by the bedside. ‘I must find you a competent nurse tomorrow,’ he said. . . . In the meantime, one of you must sit up with Mr. Keller tonight. If I am not wanted before, I will be with you tomorrow morning.’ I volunteered to keep watch; promising to call Mr. Engelman if any alarming symptoms showed themselves. The old housekeeper, waking after her first sleep, characteristically insisted on sending me to bed, and taking my place.”

*Sutton Journal, September 2,  1880

"Compensation for being disturbed in his second sleep by the chanticleer of Mr. Jones (who keeps fowls at No. 7)  proclaiming the irritating truism that dawn is at hand."

*Reminder (Paris), January 8, 1881

“The next morning, the general's valet de chambre, on entering his house to wake him up, was astonished to see his room seen from above. The general had just got up and seen this disorder himself. It must be said that the general (let's be polite) has the ear more than a little hard. The seven hundred thousand francs worth of jewels and jewels that the secretary contained in the book had disappeared. The general told his valet de chambre that he had risen a moment, about eleven o'clock, after his first sleep; that everything was then in order around him; that his lamp burned as usual in the place where he puts it every night. The theft had not been committed before half-past eleven or midnight. The police were immediately notified.”

*“A True Charity: The London Ragged Schools at Play,” The Country Paper, Sept.30, 1881.


“A wonderful gathering on a lovely August morning, at an hour when fashionable people are just beginning their second sleep.”


*South London Press, March 25, 1882.

“The Duke of Wellington acted on the theory that it was not well to indulge in a second sleep, so that at whatever hour his first sleep ended, he sprang out bed and betook himself to work. . . . Second sleep after a long night’s rest is undesirable; but a habit jumping out of bed dazed and weary in the small hours cannot be recommended for ordinary cultivation.”




*Ballarat Star (Victoria, Australia), July 19, 1882.


“Considerable merriment was created in the Assize Court yesterday, when a fresh colored female informed Mr. Gaunt, the well-known barrister, during cross-examination, that after her first sleep at 3 o’clock in the morning, she got out of bed ‘to have a smoke of the pipe.’ The fair witness further informed court that she was a regular smoker.”




*Aug. de Villéle, “Le Moutardier,” Bulletin de la Société des sciences et arts de l’ille de la Réunion (1887), pp.127-128.


“When the overpowering midnight, inclines man towards a second sleep . . .”


*Glasgow Property Circular, March 8, 1887.

“The Munich correspondent of the Citizen sends to his journal the programme of the first subscription concert for the season given in the city just named. . . .but the hours—seven to nine—would not, of course suit Glasgow audiences. The Munich folks are supposed to be through their first sleep by eleven of the clock.”




*New Brunswick Home News (New Jersey), Mar.  17, 1887.


“In Mr. Howell’s chamber, one large light serves every purpose, while a very little one controlled by a switch in the headboard of the bed illuminates a small electric clock that tells the hours when you get through your first or second sleep.”




*Liverpool Weekly Albion, 23 June 1887                    


But how about the Countess? When she awoke from her first sleep she asked for the child. At first she was told that it was asleep, and could not be disturbed. When this excuse was unavailing she was told that it was ill.”




*Boston Daily Globe, Nov. 30, 1887.


“Last Wednesday night, when good Tautonians were abed and all Rehoboth had started on a second sleep, Deputy 

Sheriff Corey and State Officer Seaver, each in a buggy, went over the same road bent on a somewhat mysterious 

errand. It was after midnight, and the moon had crossed the zenith. . . . They stop before dilapidated, shutterless 

cottage, alight, and entering the yard, keeping close to a broken-down carriage shed, knock at a rude, unpaneled 

door. One knock was not sufficient. Several loud raps were imparted. No response. It was 2 o’clock in the 




*Ashburton Guardian, May 16, 1889.


“Some days before the late disaster at Samoa [the Apia tropical cyclone] the wife of an 

officer at Mare Island awoke from her first sleep, trembling and in tears, and related to her husband a 

fearful dream experience.”

*Birmingham & Ashton Chronicle, August 2, 1890.

"WHEN TO RISE. The fact that we should get up immediately [when] conscious returns is consistent with the 

circumstances that when wakefulness ensues it if Nature's assertion thatsufficient rest has been taken, and 

consequently to induce further sleep is to bring about an unnatural condition. Hence it is a common eperience that 

a second sleep is often followed by headache and a sense of weariness. It is only fair to add that the strict regimen of 

"but one sleep" cannot be safely observed by persons from bad health, or from other causes, have become thevictims of insomnia."

*Frank Modder, “Sinhalese Weights and Measures,” Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 12 (1892), p.193.


“’The time when lamps are lit,’ and ‘the evening meal’ or ‘supper,’ are points of time from which the Singhalese reckon backward and forwards in péyas [twenty minutes?]. ‘The time when a man wakes after his first sleep,’ nindak budiyala eha eruna – generally two péyas – is rather indefinite, varying with the habits of the sleeper, but it is a common expression.”

*"A Case of Spiritual Possession," The Antiquary, 21 (February 1890) - taken from early 1700's manuscript, Woodrow, xxviii.

"The 24th of february at night he appeared in the shape of a naked man, before the bed where she was lying; she seeing him thus, as she was rising to pray between one and two, after her first sleep (as was her ordinary)." 

*Cycling, November 14, 1906.

"To get the best results from sleep, it should be taken regularly; when this is done, the sleeper generally wakens when nature has has refreshed him sufficiently, and according to medical advice, this is the best  time to get up.  A second sleep, unless, of course, one is awakened prematurely, is considered unnecessary and harmful, and very conducive to dreams, which should never enter the slumbers of a well-trained athlete." 

*Perthshire Advertiser, June 5, 1909.

" It is claimed that there is a scientific theory for the basis of the efficacy of undisturbed morning sleep, especially for children and delicate and nervous persons. We have it on the best authority that the vitality of the human frame is at its lowest ebb between two and half-past three in the morning. This, then, being conceded, it would naturally require some hours to restore the equilibrium."

*"John Wesley's Cipher: The Man Who Deciphered It," The Review of Reviews, London, November 1909.

"I slept soundly and woke early. Then I went to sleep again, and in my second sleep in the early hours of the morning I was told, I know not by whom, that the key letter which would enable me to solve everything stood for R."

*Bulletin of Ecclesiastical Literature (Toulouse, January 1927).

“It was a time when he thoroughly studied the Scriptures and the Fathers. He took from Metz, from the first years, a habit which he kept alive. Every night, after a first sleep, he got up, worked for several hours, and went back to bed. Sometimes he would let him be surprised by the day at his desk.”

*L'Africain : hebdomadaire illustré, September 6, 1931.

“War is a science: the maneuver conceived, Napoleon prepared it in its least details. He himself dictated the oretres which were then reproduced and distributed by Berthier; his fostering, where he did not like new faces, was broken with his habits; his officers appointed many, with the services, and there they took the direction of the rear; There is, however, far from this figure, - to the imposing mass which was G.Q.G. in 1918. These officers, 5 were often detached to corps d'armies to search for information. After a first sleep, when all the reports were ready, around 1 o'clock. In the morning, Napoleon gave his orders for the day. Nothing escaped his genius: organization and command of the army . . . .”

* Silvestre Emarges, “Christmas time and legends,” Country Life, December 1938. 

“The good holiday of Christmas is the one they prefer among all, and even those who are called: wolf heads, look at her with a joy that comes upon them from the depths of. centuries. It's their holiday, always populated by a crowd of shepherds and villagers. The angels speak first to the peasants. Divine poverty smiles upon them through her tears in the crib, on the straw of wheat, between the mixed breath of the donkey and the ox, to the sound of musettes and old women. The promise takes the form of a star, which crosses the roof, which leans over the floor, in a long ray. It is a long time since the workers of the earth woke up in the middle of the night after a first sleep, bothered by the worry, the insatiable desire for a harvest which will reward their labors; but this Christmas night they are awakened by the only love which blossoms under the features of a child half naked, trembling with cold as the poorest.”

*Petra Ostenrieder, Living and working in Oettingen 1600-1800 (1993), p. 66.

“Night watchmen and gatekeepers were also checked. The fire regulations provide for a monthly check at the time when all people and residents are in the first sleep between 11 and 12 o'clock.’"