Additional Historical References to "Segmented Sleep"

“Sleep: Historical and Cultural Perspectives,” in F. Cappuccio, M.Miller, and S. Lockley, eds., Sleep, Health and Society ( Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018), 163-170.
“The Inquiry,” BBC World News, June 29, 2017
“The 15 Most Interesting People in Sleep.” Van Winkle’s, June 1, 2017
•“History of Sleep: What Was Normal,” News-Medical, May 17, 2017
"Segmented Sleep in Preindustrial Societies," Sleep, March 2016, 715-716.
Arianna Huffington, "My Q and A with Roger Ekirch on the Way We Sleep, and How It's Changed Over the Centuries,” Huffington Post, June 24, 2015.
“Connecting the Segments (of Sleep),” Past & Present, March 19, 2015
“The Modernization of Western Sleep: Or, Does Insomnia Have a History?” Past & Present, February 2015, 149-192.
“Sleep Medicine in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance,” in S. Chokroverty and Michel Billiard., eds. Sleep Medicine (New York: Springer Science, 2015), 63-67.
“Segmented Sleep,” Harper’s Magazine, August 2013, 35-37.
How Much Sleep Do You Really Need," May 5, 2013, Huffington Post
“Why Do We Get Insomnia?” The Why Factor, BBC World Service, Mar. 22, 2013
“Sleep,” The Why Factor, BBC World Service, Mar. 15, 2013
Interview on “Backstory,” NPR, March 8, 201310 Fun Facts About Sleep You Didn't Kno" Geobeats, 2013
"Zzzzzzs the Day,” April 28-29, 2012, Wall Street Journal
“Nineteenth-Century Sleep Violence Cases,” Dec 2011, Sleep Medicine Clinics
“Supernatural Terrors Tamed,” Aug. 1, 2010, New York Times
• "Violence in the Land of Sleep,” Mar. 23, 2010, New York Times
• "Dreams Deferred,” Feb. 19, 2006, New York Times“A Fitful History of Sleep,” Talk of the Nation, NPR February 20, 2006

The following excerpts are drawn from novels, letters, poems, essays, travel accounts, newspapers, court records, periodicals, etc., related to segmented sleep that have not been quoted in the texts of my previous publications. Rather than just passing references to segmented or biphasic sleep, of which there are more than one thousand uncovered to date, most of these excerpts, however challenging at times their terminology, reinforce with additional detail the argument that this pattern of human slumber consisted of two intervals, bridged by a period of wakefulness, with most persons, following a normal bedtime, naturally awakening after the “first sleep” - unless it was prematurely disturbed (e.g. by another individual or by noise) – around midnight or in the first hours of morning. As several examples illustrate, a small minority of persons deliberately chose not to take a second sleep, though these “exceptions to the rule” often, in fact, suggest the prevalence of biphasic slumber, dominant in the Western world until the mid- to late nineteenth century. I have posted the following references, for the most part, roughly in chronological order.

A few final points. First, the characteristics of this pattern of sleep were subject to variation, all the more during its transformation, as I have written, over the course of the nineteenth century. Most obviously, for many persons, their "first sleep“ by the 1820s had begun to slowly expand, at the expense of their "second sleep" and the intervening period of wakefulness. By the end of the century, "second sleep" among most urban residents, for example, represented little more than turning over in one's bed for an extra ten minutes or so of slumber. Among other factors determining the pace of consolidation over the course of the 1800s were social class and urbanization. Even then, the sleep of such "outliers" as William Dean Howells and William James as late as the early 1900s still resembled the biphasic sleep of their forbears. Second, a useful analogy to bear in mind in analyzing these references is that of a jigsaw puzzle. Rather than any single reference providing a detailed description of segmented sleep - its stages, dynamics, and timing - collectively these and numerous other fragments from primary sources leave no doubt as to the major features of this pattern of slumber or its prevalence. As in a jigsaw puzzle of a dog, for instance, the absence of scattered pieces cannot be construed to suggest instead the image of a cat. Third, it is noteworthy that many of these excerpts, along with references in my publications, were phrased as if the terms "first" and "second" sleep were utterly familiar to readers and listeners. Fourth, a corollary of this last point is that many of the published texts, particularly numerous medical texts, were written for a broad readership. Fifth, for those who remain unpersuaded by my research, I would respectfully ask that you provide equally voluminous evidence that a consolidated pattern of preindustrial sleep was the norm in Western societies. It is anachronistic at best merely to assume that the sleep to which people have aspired to achieve since the Industrial Revolution can be extrapolated backward to explain the sleep of premodern communities.

Foreign passages, not previously available in English, were translated with the aid of Deepl and Google. Thank you for your interest in my research! I will continue to supplement this list as I come across additional references.

*Glenn Reed Storey, “All Rome Is at My Bedside: Nightlife in the Roman Empire,” in Nancy Gonlin and April Nowell, eds. Archaeology of the Night: Life After Dark in the Ancient World 2018), pp. 327-329.

“The Romans appeared to have recognized Ekirch’s (2001, 2005) division of sleep into two main periods, which demonstrated how common it was in European history for people to go to sleep at nightfall and then, around midnight, to get up for a while (perhaps an hour or two) to talk, write, do chores, have sex, and so on, and then go to sleep again to arise at dawn. The first sleep, as Ekirch defines it, was indeed referred to by the Romans. It is even mentioned by Thucydides (History of the Peloponnesian War 7.43), who says apo protou hypnou (“after first sleep”). The Romans called it primus somnus (“first sleep”), prima nox (“first night”—this is used heavily by military writers such as Julius Caesar and the historian Livy to describe attacks soon after nightfall)—concubia nox (“lying down in bed at night”), prima sopor “first sleep”), or prima quies (“first quiet, or sleep”). References to the first sleep are found all the way from Ennius, the earliest Roman poet (Annals 2.27 in the second century BCE) who used the phrase noctu concubia (“bedding down time of night”), through Plautus, Livy, Cicero, Pliny the Elder, and others, all the way to Macrobius (Saturnalia 1.3.12 and following) and Sidonius Apollinaris in the fifth century CE. . . . . The phrase_medio curriculo noctis (‘the mid-course of the night’) could be the designation for that break in sleep identified by Ekirch (2001, 2005). So, these passages strongly suggest the pattern of a first sleep, followed by a ‘mid-course’ interval and then a second period of sleep.”

* Jeremy Penner, “Nocturnal Prayer in the Dead Sea Scrolls,” Studia Liturgica, 44 (2014), note 7, p. 236.

For the term “first sleep” (protos hupnos), see, e.g., Thucydides, Hist.,; Plutarch, Lysander 28.3 and Nicias 5.3; Aristophanes, The Wasps 31; Lucian, Toxaris or Friendship 17.2. In Themistocles 28.4, Plutarch writes, “in the night, in the middle of [or “in between”] the sleeps”. Sophocles, Ajax 285: “…dead of night (achras nuchtos), when the evening lamps no longer burned.” Suidas explains the phrase achras nuchtos as peri prōton hupnon (“around first sleep”). Cf. A. Adler, ed., Svidae Lexicon (Paris: Lipsiae, 1928–38), 1:88 [Adler #957]. In a recent article William Holladay has argued that the Hebrew noun trdmh carries with it a connotation of “first sleep:” William Holladay, “Indications of Segmented Sleep in the Bible,” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 69 (2007): 215–221."

*Apuleius (c.124-c.170 AD), The XI Bookes of the Golden Asse, William Addington trans. (1566).

When midnight came, that I had slept my first sleepe, I awaked with sodein feare, and sawe the Moone shining bright."*

* Rutebeuf (fl.1245-1285), Complete Works [1260], “De la Griesche d’Yver," p. 72.

“I start my lamentable story: a poor story! Poor brains, poor memory gave me God, the king of glory, and poor income, and cold on the ass when the wind hits me, the wind blows me away and very often at any moment I feel the wind. The grièche had promised me everything she brings me: she pays me recta, she pays me everything, for a penny she gives me back a pound of extreme poverty. Poverty fell on me again: its door was always open to me, I was always in it, I never got out. In the rain I get wet, if it is hot, I sponge myself: I am rich! I only sleep my first sleep. I can't count my fortune: I have nothing. God makes the seasons come to an end for me: summer, the black fly bites me, winter, the white fly. I am like wild wicker or like a bird on a branch: in summer, I sing in winter, I cry, I lament, I strip myself like the tree from the orchard at the first frost.” [Such was his poverty and presumably wretched living conditions, Rutebeuf was able to “only sleep my first sleep.”]

*Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375), The Novels and Tales . . . (London, 1684), p.360.

“Very true it is Madam, that among other studies at Paris, I learned the Art of Negromancy, the depth whereof I am as skilfull in, as any other scholar whatsoever. . . . Madam, of necessity I must make an image of tin, in name of him whom you desire to recall. Which when I have sent you, the Moon being then in her full, and your self stript stark naked, immediately after your first sleep, seven times you must bathe your self with it in a swift running River. Afterward, naked as you are, you must climb upon some tree, or else upon an uninhabited house top, where standing dreadless of any peril, and turning your face to the north, with the image in your hand, seven times you must speak some certain words, as I will deliver to you in writing.”

*Erasmus (1466-1536) to Johann Choler, Bâle, ca. August, 1535, To Johann Choler, Bâle, ca. August, 1535, La correspondance d'Érasme (University Press : Brusseles, 1982, XI), p. 252.

“However little it was, I had shown it by books published before I reached the Italian border, by the Adages, a few dialogues by Lucien and two tragedies by Euripides published in Paris. Concerning tragedies, people have spread the completely false rumor that they were by Rodolphe Agricola (who, like me, is recognized to have been a very learned man) and that I had stole the manuscript for them - but to see. And I owned, publish under my name. What could be more treacherous? At that time, I was not even dreaming of Rodolphe's library, and many of those are still alive who have seen how I accomplished this work, without being able to give it all the care it should have taken, but [during] hours of the afternoon, walking, while my families ate, sometimes in bed, while waiting for the second sleep. More than once I have luckily written a hundred lines in a row. If we say that the translations are not happy, I will hardly disagree, but they do not contain a syllable which is not mine. And I didn't use any translation, any commentary.” [Erasmus justified his written translations against the allegation of plagiarism by citing intervals of time during the day and night when he was at work, including the period "sometimes in bed, while waiting for the second sleep."]

*John Foxe (1516-1587), Actes and monuments (London 1583).

“This dronken priest sitting at supper, was so dronke that he coulde not tell what he did, or els feyned himselfe so dronke of purpose, the better to accomplishe hys intended mischiefe. So it followed that this wretch, after hys first sleep, rose out of his bed and brake all the glasse windowes in his chamber, threwe downe the stone, and rent all his hostes bookes that he founde.”

*Hans Wilhelm Kirchhof (1525/-1602) Library of the Literary Association in Stuttgart, p. 166

“The most comfortable time to visit the enemy in the camp is before midnight and in the first sleep.”

* Bacon, Francis (1561-1626), The Works of Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, Viscount St. Alban, And Lord High Chancellor of England (London, 1765) I, pp. 152, 428.

“For which I have compounded an ointment of excellent odour, which I call Roman ointment; vide the receipt. The use of it would be between sleeps; for in the latter sleep the parts assimilate chiefly.”

“Once in the week, or at least in the fortnight, to take the water of mithridate distilled, with three parts to one, or strawberry water to allay it; and some grains of nitre and saffron, in the morning between sleeps.”

*Gideon Lomax (1565?-1659), Delaun Reviv'd, Vix. A Plain and Short Discourse of that Famous Doctor's Pills, their use and Virtues With Choice Receipts (1680).

"You may take half over night, and the rest next morning; but, the old and best way is, to take them after the first sleep, or at any time from one or two a clock till seven, eight or nine, in the morning, take them alone, or in the pap of an Apple, Egg poched, Beer, Ale, Coffee, Tea, or other liquor you can best swallow them in."

*Tobias Venner (1577-1660), Viae Rectae ad Vitam Longam (London, 1623), p. 8.

“It is best to lye first on the left side, that the meats may the better descend to the bottome of the stomacke, which toward the left side is chiefly situated, and the alimentary juice be the more easily conceived in the liver; and after the first sleep to turn to the right side; for this change doth greatly ease the body.”

*Kent, Elizabeth Grey, Countess of (1582-1651), A Choice Manual, Or Rare Secrets in Physick and Chirurgery (1687).

“The Spirit made of Diasatyrion magis gretum, prescribed in the last London Dispensatory, comforteth and much restoreth decay∣ed nature, strengtheneth the weak back, increaseth seed, and advanceth generation, being taken thrice a day a spoonful at a time, that is, in the morning fasting, at four in the afternoon, and last at bedward, with this caution, that the weak parties abstain from venereal acts till after their first sleep.”

*Walwyn, William (1600-1681), A Touch-Stone for Physick (1667).

How a Cordial could help the Toothach? I said, by extinguishing the venom that caused it; and it was rather questionable, what a real Cordial Medicine could not do. Nay then, says he, If you are so confident, pray let me have one. So I gave him onely two ounces of one I had good experience of, half to be taken that night at resting time, a little warm'd in his hand; and the other part, if he needed it, after his first sleep.

*Moyse Charas (1619-1698), Pharmacopée royale galénque et chimique (London, 1678).

“These Pills purge very strongly thick Flegm out of the Stomach, and the lower part of the Belly; as also from the Brain: They disburthen the Lungs, and give ease to the Asthmatic, and those that are troubled with old Coughs, through toughness of Flegm. The dose is from a scruple to a dram, as also to four scruples, for them that are of a strong Constitution. They are to be taken after the first sleep, or early in the morning.”

*Johann Peter Titz (1619-1689), German Poems (1888), p. 10.

“Now it was about the time that the cattle and the men were silent, when in the first sleep one tends to lie deepest.”

*Hans Jakob Christoph von Grimmelshausen (1622-1676), The Adventurous Simplicissimus (1912), p. 109.

“In my first sleep came four rogues disguised with frightful devils' masks into my room and to my bed, and there they capered around like mountebanks.”

*Newcastle, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of (1623-1673) (London, 1662).

If you are troubled with melancholly vapours, arising from crude humours, you must take as soon as you wake after your first sleep, a draught of Wormwood-wine, then lye to sleep again, and then half an hour before you rise, drink a draught of Jelly-broth, and after you have been up an hour and half, eate a White-wine-caudle, then a little before a dinner, take a Toste and Sack,

* Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, Marchioness of Sévigné, (1626-1696), Correspondence (Paris, 1675), I, p. 598.

“We can not travel more sadly than I do. This is the fourth time I have written to you; without what would I have become? Here is what kills me a little, it is that after my first sleep, I hear two o'clock ring, and instead of going back to sleep, I put the stew with bitter chicory; it boils until the end of the day to ride in a coach.[Rather than retire after her first sleep and hearing a bell ring two o’clock, she makes a medicinal brew of chicory, a reported source of physical and mental well being.]

*Boyle, Robert (1627-1691), Medicinal Experiments, Or, A Collection of Choice and Safe Remedies (London, 1693).

"MIX up 15 Grains, or if the Distemper be but slight, 10 Grains, of pouder'd Rhubarb with half a Dram of Diascordium, and let the Patient take it either going to Bed, or early in the Morning after his first sleep."

* Charles Perrault (1628-1703), Parallel of the Ancients and Moderns . . . (Paris, 1688-1697), IV.

“Let's stay there, it would be wrong to ask more for the first time. But I have to tell you before than to dispose of my opinion of all our dispute; I put it this morning in ver [ ? ], having not been able to go back to sleep after my first sleep.”

*Isaac Barrow (1630-1677), The Theological Works of Isaac Barrow, (1830), I, pp. xxi, xxiv-xxv.

He yielded the day to his public business, and took from his morning sleep many hours, to increase his stock of Sermons, and write his Treatise of the Pope's Supremacy. Dr. Polk states, ‘He was unmercifully cruel to a lean carcass, not allowing it sufficient meat or sleep. During the winter months, and some part of the rest, he rose always before it was light, being never without a tinder-box and other proper utensils for that purpose. I have frequently known him, after his first sleep, rise, light, and after burning out his candle, return to bed before day.’"

*Anton Ulrich (1633-1714), Works (2012), p. 641

“But he was still in his first sleep when someone suddenly entered the sleep chamber, whereupon he woke up, and in the clearness of the lamps, which were hanging far from the bed, recognized King Vologeses.”

*Lauquel sont contenues ses plus rares expériences pour diverses maladies, principalement des femmes, avec leurs embellissemens (Paris, 1635).

“They [pills] are taken in the evening four or five hours after the meal, or for the better in the morning after the first sleep, or in the morning.”

*S. Bradwell, Physick for the Sicknesse (1636).

“Make Pils of 8. 10. or 12. graines a piece; and take 2 or 3. at a time; either at bed time, or after the first sleep.”

Alfred Cecil Buckland, Letter on the Importance, Duty, and Advantages of Early Rising (London, 1820), p.177.

“The most excellent Bishop Ken [1637- 1711] used to follow the practice of rising immediately on awaking from his first sleep, and taking his lute as an accompaniment to his voice, he commenced his devotions with a solemn hymn of praise.”

*Abraham a Sancta Clara (1644-1709), Der Christliche Welt-Weise (2016), p. 335.

“The Schalck [?] got up in his first sleep, and led the fat cow out of the barn.”

*Guy Miege, (1644-1718?) New dictionary French and English (London,1677).

“To awake one out of his first sleep: éveiller quêcun dans son premier sommeil.”

*P. Corneille Blessebois (1646-1697), Satirical Works (1676).

“He urged her to give them his opinion of what they would do with the little creature that had come to the flood, which had no life, and of the way the Pn would come out of it. In order to disengage himself from this, Dorimene, who was much distressed, greased his leg with three beautiful golden louis. Then the concierge's wife, who does everything for money, spoke to them in these terms:, 'I don't see that there is anything to be embarrassed about, nor that you should worry so much about so little,' she told them. As soon as the night has provided half of her career, and the men are in the arms of their second sleep, it will be necessary to carry this too soon to the door of some innocent.”

*Eberhard Werner Happel (1647-1690), Afrikanischer Tarnolast (1983), p.467

“I took my camp under a beautiful shady tree. I rested in my first sleep in the middle of the night. A mighty roar of many wild animals awakened me.

*H. Ellis, Pseudochristus: Or, A True and Faithful Relation of the Grand Impostures, Horrid Blasphemies, Abominable Practises Gross Deceits; Lately Spread Abroad and Acted in the County of Southampton (1650).

And after that he was departed, and she gone to bed, and waking after her first sleep, she was full of joy and singing, so was also the woman who lay there with her, who had brought this William Franklin unto her: This their singing was heard by a neighbor, who coming to them said they were Witches.

*G. Fidge, The English Gusman (1652).

“Allen being free from trou∣ble as he thought, yet spared no horse flesh to be out of the way: but being twenty miles off that place: now thought himself safe: where after supper he went to bed; he had not taken his first sleep before there were search made all over the Town for such men.”

*L.P., The Witch of the Woodlands, Or, the Coblers New Translation (1655).

“After that Robin the Cobler had taken his first sléep, he awaked, and turning himselfe on the other side, he sent for his Bed-fellow, but she was not there; and having gotten all the Bed-room to himselfe, he began to wonder with himselfe about the passages which had hapned to him the night before, and there∣withall he bethought himselfe how he might use a meanes to get away before the old Witch his new-made Landlady came backe againe to him, for he supposed that she had gone forth to fetch companie to cut his throat.”

*E. Maynwaringe, Tutela Sanitatis Sive Vita Protracta the Protection of Long Life. (1664).

Take them after your first sleep; or halfe the dose when you go to bed, the rest at 5 or 6 of the clock next morning; in so doing you will not be called up before your due time to rise. When you are up, drink some warm posset-drink, and walk about the house.”

* Cautionary Rules for Preventing the Sickness; Published by Order of the Lord Mayor (London, 1665), p. 6.

“Three are the dose, to be taken after the first sleep, and thin broth or posset-drink to be drank three hours after.”

*Fürsten-Spiegel Order Monarchia (1673), p. 383.

[The] servant determined to murder the good pious lord in the first sleep and thereby to become the owner of the money believed found by him.”

*Christopher Jelinger, Usury stated; Three treatises (London, 1679).

“So as that I dare not omit the practice of that famous saying of that sweet Singer of Israel, which I use every night, as I awake out of my first sleep; whan I awake I am still with thee, or as the Hebrew also will bear it, I will be still with thee, Psal. 139.18. And I must even marry my self anew to Christ, because I do dayly break Wedlock with him, and he bids me to return to him again, Jer. 3.1. Which makes me then say, I will return to my first Husband, for then it was better with me than now it is, Hos. Nor can I leave undone any of my other Nocturnal exercises, but must also feed by Faith upon the bread of life, which is my Saviour Christ.”

* Koran (London, 1688).

IN the Name of God, gracious and mercifull. O thou Fearfull! Arise by night, pray to God at midnight, untill two third parts of the night, and more. Read the Alcoran, and meditate thereon, observe what it contains; al∣though it be tendious to thee, thou wilt best comprehend it after thy first sleep, because thou in the day hast affairs that divert thee. Remember thou the name of God, forsake the world to worship him, he is Lord of the West, and East, there is no god but God, take him for thy protector: be not impatient at what the wicked say; separate thy self from their society, without fear, leave me to punish them; is there any one that is able to defend them?

*John Hancocke (d.1728), Febrigugum Magnum: Or, Common Water . . . (London, 1723), p. 29.

“When I went to Bed I drank a glass of water, and set another by me to drink after my first sleep.”

*The Complete Family-Piece: and, Country Gentleman, and Farmer’s Best Guide (London, 1737), p. 50.

"“With half a dram of dioscordium, and let the patient take it either going to bed, or early in the morning after his first sleep.”

* A History of the Lives and Sufferings of the Principal English Protestant Martyrs . . . (London, 1746), p. 460.“And that night, (as he had done all the way,) he eat his meat quickly, and slept his first sleep soundly, as it was reported by them of the guard . . . . After his first sleep he continued in prayer until the morning . . . .”

* Mercure de France (Paris, 1753-1754).

With respect to his private life, this is what this historian tells us about it. Marshal slept little after his first sleep, he awakens his Secretaty who LYING choit [?] the feet of his bed, and he dictated to him what he had intended to make during the day: then he went back to sleep, and his [Secretary?] had himself read what he had dictated. He often entrenched or rejoined, according to the new ideas that had come to him. It was then, continues the same historian, that he destined the officers to the various things to which he had intended to employ them. "

*Stefano Egido Petroni (b.1770), Corso di Lingua Italiana (London, 1826), p. 47-48.

"You sleep then very soundly?"

"Yes, particularly in my first sleep."

*Richard Vassall Fox (1773-1840), Souvenirs diplomatiques de lord Holland (Paris, 1851).

After his first nap, he settled and explained with a relaxed head all the arrangements for the next day. Then, after a second sleep which repaired his strength, he supervised the execution of the orders he had given at night, without the secondary details coming to interrupt or delay the last instructions he had to give.

*The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, July 7, 1773

“Q. What o'clock did you go to bed that night?

Burn. Almost twelve.

Q. What part did you lie in?

Burn. The middle room; there are two rooms upon one floor.

Q. Where did Mrs. Whitefield lie?

Burn. In the fore room.

Q. How came you to be up so late?

Burn. My husband was in liquor, and I dare not then disturb him till he has had his first sleep.”

*Dr. William Cullen to William Turnbull, August 1775?, The Cullen Project, Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh.

"During this journey he may take the infusion of Bark with a dose of his acid drops twice a day, and at bed time he may take three, four or five of the pectoral pills also ordered below. He may also continue to take either before or after his first sleep the anodyne he has been in use to take for some time past."

*Anja Schumann “Time to sleep? On the relationship between Night and Rest in the Early Modern Military” (2018)

“Military theoretical treatises of the 17th and 18th century suggested using the enemy's need for sleep to one's own strategic advantage. Hans Friedrich von Fleming emphasized that a

good commander should first of all consider a favorable time for the attack in order to

to hit the enemy unprepared in a state of sleep or at least in a state of fatigue. . . .

[Joachim Heinrich] Campe's treatise on sleep [1788]: ‘The first sleep is more perfect and more solid, so that something is not easily awakened from it, that does not act very strongly on the nerves, e.g. a sudden bang, a sudden bang, a sharp pain.’”

*Agathon-Jean-François Fain (1778-1837), Memoirs of Baron Fain, First Secretary of the Cabinet of the Emperor (Paris, 1908).

“The Emperor rose in the night after his first sleep; it was usually about two o'clock in the morning; dressed in a simple white bazin robe in the summer, and white fleece in the winter, and surrounded by a madras, he went into his study and devoted these silent hours to the great business which the training of the day it had not allowed him to go deeper as he pleased. It was also the time he chose to control at will, to the help of the accounts he had on his table, sometimes the details of an administration, sometimes the detail of another. If day came to surprise him in his meditations, he asked for a bath. He was reclined at five o'clock in the morning and his last awakening was no later than seven o'clock. He was dressing then. One will not be sorry to see Napoleon in this situation of the common life.”

*Bernhard Severin Ingemann (1789-1862) Writings (1844), p. 132.

“At the same time as this was going on in the outer part of the tent, the king was still asleep in his first sleep.”

*M. Eugène de Monglave (1796-1878), Mon parrain Nicolas, I (Paris 1824).

“It was a great day; eight o'clock [a.m.] had been ringing for a long time; Delie, taking advantage of her aunt's second sleep, had gone to Aspasie's house, and Augustus did not appear.

*Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1888), Diaries 1828 to 1879 (2004), p. 152.

“It is a matter of taste; I prefer the first sleep on the sofa than that in bed.”

*George Sand (1804-1876), The Marquis de Villemer (1861), p. 195.

“He had to be back before his brother, whom he saw calm and who seemed asleep, had come out of his first sleep.”

*Charles Buck, ed., Anecdotes, Religious, Moral, and Entertaining, II (London, 1805), pp. 103-104.

"After the friar's first sleep, he was surprised with hearing a constant whispering kind of noise, at which he was exceedingly frightened."

*Rev. J. Collinson, The Life of Thuanus (London, 1807), p. 234.

“[N. Le Fevre] devoted himself to a course of uninterrupted study. His biographer, M. Le Begue, relates this particularity in his manner of life: ‘After waking from his first sleep, he regularly left his bed, and, wrapping a monk’s hood round his head, in winter, exployed two hours in prayer and reading. He then enjoyed a light sleep, and arose again, in summer, with the dawn of day, and in winter at five or six o’clock.”

*Othello-Travestie: In Three Acts with Burlesque Notes . . . (London, 1813), p. 65.

“’your first sleep.’” . . . “The meaning is this: - human sleep is dividable into distinct portions of time: - the first of these is naturally most remedial to the frame: - consequently a disturbance from its balm is the more distressing.”

*The Observant Pedestrian Mounted or a Donkey Tour to Brighton (London, 1815), II, p. 23.

“I had just waked out of my first sleep, and heard the clock strike two, when the quick and repeated call of watch! fire! watch! gave me, I confess, a momentary alarm.”

*Vastin Lespy (1817-1897), Bearnaise grammar; followed by a French Vocabulary-Bearn (Verona, 1858).

“The one who. wants to examine witnesses, he must do each one in particular, and not together, know: at what time did the fact happened, whether it was morning, or prime, or third, or noon, or time of none, or of vespers, or night, or first sleep, or midnight, or hour of singing cock, or morning time, or dawn of day; in what place; in what month, or week, or day; what weather it was, if it was raining, if it was windy, if it was snowing, if it was hot, if it was thundering.”

*Ann Ryley, Fanny Fitz-York, Heiress of Tremorne (London, 1818), III, p. 417.

“A bright sun, and clothes of every description suited for the morning, tempted her to rise; though she was doubtful whether any of the family, except servants, would be stirring at nine o’clock. ‘Nine o’clock!’ exclaims some sluggard of fashion, ‘why, I am in my first sleep at that hour!'”

*Major-General Pillet, Views of England, During a Residence of Ten Years; Six of Them as a Prisoner of War (Boston, 1818), p. 137.

“It is reckoned that in England, at least three or four women are annually executed for murdering or poisoning their husbands. The assassination is generally performed in bed. A wife who suffers from the brutality of her drunken husband, seizes him in that state, and during his first sleep."

*Richard Graves, The Spiritual Quixote: Or. The Summer’s Ramble of Mr. Geoffrey Wildgoose (n.p., 1820), II, p.56.

The two travelers were but just got into their first sleep, when Nan the cook, who happened to have a nocturnal intrigue with the hostler, slipped up to Wildgoose ' s bed side , and calling the hostler two or three times in a low voice, disturbed Wildgoose.”

*The Arabian Nights, trans. Mr. Galland (Paris, 1822), IX.

“The captain of the robbers, however, at the exit of the stable, went to give his people the order of what they had to do. Starting from the first vase to the last [where each hid], he said to each one: "When I cast small stones from the room where I am lodged, do not fail to make an opening, by slitting the vase from the top to the top. down with the knife with which you are equipped, and come out; immediately I will be yours. The knife he was talking about was sharp and sharp for this purpose.That done, he returned; and as he had come to the kitchen door, Morgiane took the light, and she led him to the room she had prepared for him, where she left him, after having asked if he needed something else. To avoid suspicion, he extinguished the light shortly afterwards, and went to bed fully clothed, ready to get up as soon as he had taken his first nap."

*Miscellaneous Articles," Inverness Courier, December 9, 1824.

"In Summer, if one would taste a second sleep to perfection, let him jump our of bed, wash his hands and face, and then returning to the place whence he came, compose himself again to slumber."

* Joseph Briand, Complete Manual of Hygiene, or Treaty of the means to preserve one's health; written according to the doctrine of Prof. Hallé . . . (Paris, 1826).

Not every season, every moment of the day is equally conducive to the accomplishment of the conjugal act. The time of the awakening of nature, the spring is for the man, as for all the other beings, the season where the desires are more alive, and where the life, long time repressed towards the internal organs, asks to be to spread outside. During the winter, the long nights, the more prolonged rest, the plethora which results from it, invite also sometimes to the approximation of the sexes; and, after spring, it may be the most favorable season. On the contrary, the great heat of summer and autumn, and the debilitating causes more multiplied at the approach of winter, make it a law to be more reserved then. The night is generally more suitable than the day, and the moment of waking after the first sleep is preferable at any other hour, because all the organs are then rested of the day's work and that the rest of the night will be able to repair the forces [one's strength]. Towards the hour of noon, on the contrary, and during all the time of the day when the senses are open to a crowd of external impressions, where the body is fatigued, where the mind is distracted, coitus enervates much more. Moreover, what is most important to avoid is to perform this act immediately after a copious meal and when the stomach is still loaded with food; for we have seen the most serious indispositions, and sometimes the apoplexy, resulting from the disturbance then experienced by the digestive functions.

* Étienne Gaussens (1813-1896), Éloges de M. le Cte de Marcellus ; Mgr d'Aviau, archevêque de Bordeaux ; M. l'abbé Lacroix, supérieur du grand séminaire de Bordeaux ; M. l'abbé Lalanne, archiprêtre de St-Estèphe ; Mgr Du Bourg, archevêque de Besançon ; M. l'abbé Rauzan, supérieur des missions de France ; M. le Vte de Chateaubriand ; Mgr Frayssinous, évêque d'Hermopolis ; M. l'abbé Duburg, curé de St-Michel de Bordeaux ; M. l'abbé Lacombe, supérieur du petit séminaire de Bordeaux ; S. É. le cardinal de Cheverus,... par M. l'abbé Gaussens,... (Bordeaux, 1854).

“On the night of the 8th to the 9th of March, 1826, d'Aviau, after a first sleep, which was not ordinarily very long, awoke; he wanted Mgr to know, before getting up to begin his prayers, what time it was. He approached his night light too much with his curtains, which caught fire.”

*"Literature," London Atlas, March 18, 1827.

"Scenes and occurrences in Cafer-Land form in short most agreeable and instructive reading for about six hours, at twice. A scientific student will give them a morning. A merchant on Blackheath or Wadsworth Common will give them the evenings of a week, over his tea, at nine until he falls asleep at ten. The country gentleman will consume more than one rainy day over them. A boy greedy of adventure and novel excitement will sit up with them with a stolen candle, and before his brother's first sleep is out, he will have hunted several lions . . . ."

*Notes of a Bookworm: Or Selections From the Portfolio of a Literary Gentleman (London, 1828), p. 220.

“If thou desirest to take the best advantage of thyself, especially in matters where the ifancy [imagination] is most employed, keep temperate diet, use moderate exercise, observe seasonable and set hours for rest, and let the end of thy first sleep raise thee from thy repose; then hath thy body the best temper; thy soul the least incumbrance; then no noise shall disturb thine ear; no object shall divert thine eye; then, if ever, shall thy sprightly fancy transport thee beyond the common pitch, and shew the magazine [repertoire] of high invention.”

*"The Barber of Madrid," The Newcastle Magazine (1829).

"It was near midnight, and Peter was just sinking into his second sleep, when he was, rather unceremoniously, awakened by Martha, who told him he was sent for to perform a certain operation on a corpse."

*"Births, Deaths, Marriages, and Obituaries," Ipswich Journal, Jan.14, 1837.

"A few days since Mrs. Coleman, formerly residing in St. Mary's parish, Maldon, met with the following melancholy death at [Chelsea?]. She had retired to rest at the time her son was from home, and when she awoke from her first sleep, she felt anxious for him, not being aware that he was then in bed . . . ."

*Gotthilf Heinrich von Schubert, Journey to the East in 1836 and 1837 (1840) I, p. 403

“Soon after midnight the first sleep of my chamber neighbors, who had already gone to rest at 7:00, seemed to have ceased; everyone sang loudly, some also to eat, after 1 o'clock they fell silent again, between 4 and 5.”

*James Raymond Wellsted, Tavels in Arabia (London, 1838), I, p.157.

“All Orientals are early risers: the Arabs go to bed about ten, and their first sleep is over shortly after midnight. The poorer class repose upon mats upon the ground ; those of better condition, upon rude bedsteads of four legs ,having the frame crossed by ropes.”

*Carlow Assizes, July 16, 1838, Dublin.

" Hugh Macan examined by Mr. O'Dowd - Went to bed about ten o'clock that night, and got up after he had taken the first sleep, to see a cow that was about to calve."

"The Extensive Robbery of the Horsham Bank," Morning Chronicle, March 12, 1840.

"I generally go to bed soon, but my first sleep is not long, my time of waking between one and two o'clock in the morning."

*"Multiple News Items," Standard, December 29, 1840.

"On the night in question, he (Lee) called her several times when he thought she had taken her first sleep. . . . "

"Twenty-four Hours in London," Westmorland Gazette, August 28, 1841.

"Let us glance, superficially and cursorily, at the industry of a London twenty-four hours. Towards midnight, and by the time you have attained the luxurious oblivion of your first sleep . . ."

*Honore de Balzac, The Two Brothers (Boston,1904 [1842]) p.83.

"It happened every now and then that he was what gamblers call 'cleaned out.' Driven by the irresistible

necessity of having his evening stake of ten francs, he plundered the household, and laid hands on his brother's money and on all that Madame Descoings or Agathe left about. Already the poor mother had had a dreadful vision in her first sleep: Philippe entered the room and took from the pockets of her gown all the money he could find. Agathe pretended to sleep, but she passed the rest of the night in tears."

* J.B. Demangeon, Intellectual physiology, or the Spirit of man considered in its physical and moral causes, according to the doctrine of Gall, Spurzheim, and other authors, with a comparative comparison of the instincts which replace intelligence in the brutes (1843).

“The most excited still pursue their functions, that those who are less so have already left entirely theirs: hence the dreams of the first sleep, which are due to the partial activity of the brain or of some organs (...) But if, at the moment when one goes to bed, all the organs are in a sort of general relaxation and that none is exalted by a particular excitement, then the sleep is quiet by the generality of their rest . . . . The intellectual organs that have been least fatigued or those who dominate by their more considerable development, those that are used to exercise the most, as well as those which are destined to perceive impressions which chance leads to the first, resume their activity before the others: hence the dreams of the last sleep, dreams which are all the more clear and distinct, that is to say, all the more more similar to the ideas of the waking state."

"The State of Public Affairs," Chester Chronicle, July 26, 1844.

"Lord Aberdeen, the man who in the Duke of Wellington's government, permitted the Russians to cross the Balkans, and the French to occupy Algiers; and during whose second sleep of official existence, we are quite likely to see a Russian protectorate of Constantinople."

[Interesting example of the application of "second sleep" to a political career, so familiar presumably was the term . See also the March 19, 1861, Standard.]

*"Recollections of the Burschenschaft of Germany," Dublin University Magazine, January 1847.

"The last burger of Hirschorn, having warmed his toes as well as he could, was about to tumble into bed, when a tremendous shouting for help rose above the wind, and a carriage rattling furiously through the streets of the town, drew up at the door of that ancient and respectable Gasthaus which rejoices in the name of the Goat and Thunderbolt. The Wirth (family patriarch) had long before turned in, and was in the middle of his second sleep, when he was awakened by the agreeable information that a large party of persons were below."

*"The Spanish Court and People," Cork Examiner, March 26, 1847

"Her Majesty goes to bed about the hour Don Francisco is thinking of getting up. She goes very much about the city and its environs in the day, and tries to drown care and reflection in excitement and chance. Her midnights are spent in masquerading and dancing - she is very fond of the latter amusement - though very fat and one of the most awkward dancers in Spain; and by the time the Prince is out of his first sleep, is enjoying herself at the supper-table."

"Captain Washington's," John O'Groat Journal, December 24, 1847.

"He 'exmamined' Banff, Macduff, the intervening creeks, arrived at Fraserburgh before the inhabitants had got well through their second sleep."

*Guérin, Eugénie de Guerin , Lettres d'Eugénie de Guérin [1847], p. 496.

Friday. Monday August 3. I was coming out of my second sleep, when Henri came into my room with your letter in hand.

*Varieties," Derby Mercury, January 3, 1849.

"On which side of the bed am I, my dear? enquired a jolly votary of Bacchus, awakening from his first sleep: under it, Tommy."

* D. de. Monestrol, Conservation of health: a handbook of hygiene for the use of all . . . (Paris, 1851).

“It may happen that, in spite of all the hygienic precautions, in spite of the exercise during the day, one experiences, after a first sleep, agitation, heat, worries in the legs, an uneasiness which does not allow to back to sleep.”

*Journal des villes et des campagnes, Oct. 18, 1851.

“Before you close your eyes, do not forget to make sure the fresh water jugs are within your reach, because you are sure to wake up after your first nap with a thirst.”

*District News," Hereford Times, July 2, 1853.

"Occurring too, about midnight, when most of the inhabitants had just commenced their first sleep, it was peculiarly startling."

*St. James's Chronicle, December 19, 1854.

"About 10 p.m. yesterday, the wind came round to the north, the heavens displayed a bright moon and a cheering company of stars, the air was cuttingly cold, and all promised a fine frosty morrow; but alas! before our first sleep was over, the old state of things returned upon our disappointed camp, and we have had another damp drizzling twelve hours."

*"Pimlico Bell-Ringing," Dumfries and Galloway Standard, August 15, 1855.

"They are big, sonorous bells, and they break out frantically at all hours of the day, and, indeed, of the night. They clash and jangle a man out of his second sleep, they drown his voice at breakfast, and they intrude their abominable noise upon him at all hours thenceforth,"

* Le Courrier de Bourges : journal politique, littéraire, industriel et agricole des départements du Centre, April 29, 1857.

“Yesterday evening at about eleven o'clock, the Sieur Désiré Pasquet, one of the inhabitants of the rue Charlet, perceiving after a first sleep that his lemma [a theorem or proof?] had left his bed, gets up in haste and hastens to make the most minute researches in the house and around….” [further access blocked on Gallica]

*"Memoires et Journal sur la Vie et les Ouvrages de Bossuet," Edinburgh Review, 107 (January, 1858), p.219.

"After he became Bishop of Meaux, he ever lay with a lamp by his bedside; his first sleep was usually four hours, after which, even in the severest winter, he arose, put on two dressing gowns, and placing a bear-skin wrapper over his legs, recited matins and lauds amid the stillness of the night; he then went to study his dockets of papers; his portfolios, his pen, paper, and inkstand were in readiness on his desk; his easy-chair placed in front, his books of reference on other chairs on each side. He studied until overcome with fatigue, after which he went again to bed."

*"A Lark," Kilkenny Moderator, Setpember 22, 1858.

"The whole town was locked in Mopheous. In vain did he knock and pull at the bell. The ladies were not yet out of their first sleep."

*A. Castillon, New butterfly hunt (Paris, 1858).

“The same thought arises simultaneously in the mind of Fritz and the idiot, when, after having recovered and rested a little, they perceived these degraded walls. ‘There must be some interesting discoveries to be made in these ruins, thought the artist; the night is beautiful, the moon resplendent, I will see it at midnight.’ ‘There must be,’ thought Jooss, "many nocturnal butterflies in this old carcass; I'll think about that after my first nap.’ Our two explorers, without communicating their thoughts, therefore retired early in the lodging to them, in order to take a first account of sleep; but how to sleep, alas! in a full hostel, where some are shouting, or the other fleeing, where everyone comes and goes, with the kindness of the German rollers. This hustle and bustle is, moreover, perfectly rendered by this rich description of onomatopoeia, of a poet already quoted. ‘Men swear, women quarrel, children" shout, dogs bark, cats mew, the clock "rings, the chopper bangs, the broiler pan, the spit-latch creaks, the fountain cries, the bottles sobs The windows shudder, the diligence passes under the vault like a thunder.’ Sleep with all this. This, indeed, was impossible for our painter and our farm boy. The two of them, at a little distance from each other, got up and made their way, spanning with great difficulty and many scratches the bristles and thorns of the old clerical mansion.”

*Alphonse de Calonne (1818-1902), Revue contemporaine (Paris, 1858).

"From the king of France to the country guard, every civil servant is a clerk of the people, and at all hours of the day and night this clerk must be ready to serve his master. In any case, Father Caron had his minute of courage. He went straight to the bed of the prefect, who slept from that good first sleep, so good and gentle for those who do not always have a second sleep, and police prefects are among them. [Such were his responsibilities.] Caron, who did not want to rush the awakening, was obliged to repeat several times the not very varied means of waking a man without often astonishing him a little, without often making him very angry. He stirred chairs, he coughed; he stirred again, he coughed harder. The prefect did not open his eyes again. Finally he dared to call by name the first magistrate of Paris, extreme perilous but sure way to get directly to the goal so desired and so feared.”

"Odds and Ends," Glasgow Herald, January 17, 1859.

"One spring morning, just about day-break, the good folks of Kilwinning were startled from their second sleep."

*Julia Kavanagh (1824-18770), Seven Years and Other Tales (1860), p. 100.

"'The best sleep is the last,' said Charlotte. 'I like the first best,' replied Marie. 'Perhaps your early dreams are the pleasantest,' said Charlotte, smiling. 'Perhaps they are,' retorted Marie. 'They may refer to your early years and triumphs,' continued Charlotte sweetly. 'Ah! well,' sighed Marie, 'if early sleep makes early dreams, you may well like the last sleep best. You need not dream of your husband, the poor man.'"

"Multiple News Items," Standard, March 19, 1861.

"But an impulse has been given which it was vain to hope to arrest; public opinion, once aroused, refused to subside into a second sleep." .

[Example of the application of "second sleep" to a political controversy. See also Chester Chronicle, July 26, 1844].

*"Foreign Miscellany," Hampshire/Portsmouth Telegraph," June 29, 1861.

"He asked to be allowed to go away, as there was no motive for detaining him. He was told, however, that the thing was impossible without the orders of the Prefect of Police, and that it was too early to disturb that functionary, who probably was then entering on his second sleep. . . . it was then near five o'clock."

[As explained in "The Modernization of Western Sleep," "first sleep during the second half of the 19th century, if not in some instances earlier, had often expanded, thereby pushing back and shortening the time of both wakefulness and one's second sleep, particularly in urban areas.]

*Norman MacLeod (1812-1872), "The Old Lieutenant and His Son," Good Words, II (December, 1861), p. 345.

"The necessity of Ned choosing a profession began to dawn upon the Captain's mind one night after he awoke from his first sleep, which generally happened about midnight."

*Jules Duval (1813-1870), Raymond Gayrard, graveur et statuaire : biographies aveyronnaises (Rodez, 1866).

“What about my eighty years old? Since childhood, my life has been so regulated. I get up every morning at five o'clock, and, with rare exceptions, go to bed at eight o'clock. After my first sleep, which does not last until midnight, I read, then, silencing my imagination, I try to go back to sleep. This is how my old age goes, light and pleasant.”

*"Proposed Division of the Day, [For next London Season)," Leeds Mercury, June 19, 1868

"Early Tea Restorative

Second Sleep

Get up. Time uncertain


*Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, July 31, 1868

"On Tuesday night last, at almost half-past eleven, just as the inhabitants were in their first sleep, some reapers returning from their work discovered a large uninhabited house, belonging to Messrs Pulman, of this place, to be on fire."

*Anonymous, "A Sleeping Preacher," Chamber's Journal of Popular Literature, Science and Arts (1872), 100.

"So he took a text, and prepared himself to preach from it three or four days before he put it in practice; and when sufficiently prepared, would sit up in bed, after his first sleep, and delivered what appeared to him a very excellent sermon."

*Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences, agriculture, arts and belles-lettres of Aix (Aix-en-Provence, 1873).

“In addition, it is such a beautiful, so beautiful and correct place that it has been greatly envied me, nevertheless I thank the graceful influences of what they seem to have wanted such a rare piece that almost without shirt you have been reserved to be in its luster among your rich volumes. I dedicate it to you and give heart and soul, greatly unpleasant not to be more liberal and grateful to the place of such a worthy gentleman; so well done and so deserving and all the more so that I have taken care to please you in everything. There you are drinking the pencils of the sisters Sr. Adam of Crapone, and of Soleriis, having them as drawn from the sculpture by the force of my imagination after my first sleep, His library was composed of remarkable works by the choice of editions, the beauty of the paper and the richness of bindings. The library of Aix possesses the original edition of Urcoeus Codrus, orations, epistoloe, silvoe, etc., having belonged to Grolier. The dishes of this volume bound in red morocco are covered with elegant arabesques. On one of them we read in letters of gold: J ° Grolerii and amicorum; on the other: Portio mea dominates sit in terra viventium.”

*Musters, George Chaworth. 1873. At Home with the Patagonians. London: J. Murray.

As I had drunk in moderation, I thought it about time to clear, so, on the plea of looking after my horse, retired and re-read my letters, which any one may imagine, although not coming from my relations, were of great interest. After my departure no more liquor was given away, El Sourdo selling two bottles for a young horse or a silver-sheathed knife, so that he soon found himself a rich man. By midnight all the liquor was exhausted and many drunk, but no disturbances occurred worthy of mention, all arms having previously been stowed away safely. I was roused from my first sleep by a lady from a neighbouring toldo, who wished to embrace me, and, with feminine curiosity wanted to know the contents of my letters. She was, I am sorry to say, in an advanced stage of intoxication, so after giving her a smoke, Orkeke, who had roused up and was dying of laughter, politely showed her the door.

*"Richeleiu," Temple Bar: A London Magazine for Town and Country Readers (November 1875), p. 344.

"His ordinary life was one of unceasing labor. He usually retired to rest at eleven o'clock, but slept for only three or four hours. His first sleep passed, he had his porfolio brought to him in bed, and either wrote himself or dictated to a secretary. At six o'clock he went to sleep again, but rose between seven and eight."

* Liverpool Daily Post, September 16, 1876

“It appears that Stephens had been several hours bed. when, waking from his first sleep, he fancied should like dip into the venison pie, and forthwith had gone down into the larder, where, in searching for the pie, knocked down the dish, with one or two more.”

*Auckland Daily Southern Cross, October 7, 1876

“He is for forever carrying on some fresh form of crusade. He persuades people that the ‘second sleep’ in the morning is a fatal indulgence.”

*York Herald, 25 Aug. 25, 1880

"This morning, in the course of very early hours which would be spent in first sleep but for the exigencies of Parliament and the Press, there were a few minutes of lively agitation."

*Reminder (Paris), January 8, 1881

“The next morning, the general's valet de chambre, on entering his house to wake him up, was astonished to see his room seen from above. The general had just got up and seen this disorder himself. It must be said that the general (let's be polite) has the ear more than a little hard. The seven hundred thousand francs worth of jewels and jewels that the secretary contained in the book had disappeared. The general told his valet de chambre that he had risen a moment, about eleven o'clock, after his first sleep; that everything was then in order around him; that his lamp burned as usual in the place where he puts it every night. The theft had not been committed before half-past eleven or midnight. The police were immediately notified.”

*Olive Schreiner, The Story of an African Farm (London, 1883), I, pp.7-8.

Only in one of the outbuildings that jutted from the waggon-house there was some one who was not asleep. The room was dark; door and shutter were closed; not a ray of light entered anywhere. The German overseer, to whom the room belonged, lay sleeping soundly on his bed in the corner, his great arms folded, and his bushy grey and black beard rising and falling on his breast. But one in the room was not asleep. Two large eyes looked about in the darkness, and two small hands were smoothing the patchwork quilt. The boy, who slept on a box under the window, had just awakened from his first sleep. He drew the quilt up to his chin, so that little peered above it but a great head of silky black curls and the two black eyes.

* Leon Cladel (1832-1892), [The] Second Mystery of the Incarnation (1883), p. 4.

“Read the whole letter again. - I know it by heart; I saw nothing of what you prophesy. - You do not know it enough. - I read it at least ten times. Re-read it an eleventh, during the night, after your first sleep.”

*Northern Weekly Gazette, 15 December 1883

“I wish you had wrote me a note after your first sleep. There would have been your sublime double-distilled, treble-refined wit.”

*Bangalore Spectator, 27 February 1885

“In Asthma one Cigarette bed time or after the first sleep will give a comfortable night' s rest.”

*"A Case of Spiritual Possession," The Antiquary, 21 (February 1890) - taken from early 1700's manuscript, Woodrow, xxviii.

"The 24th of february at night he appeared in the shape of a naked man, before the bed where she was lying; she seeing him thus, as she was rising to pray between one and two, after her first sleep (as was her ordinary)."

*"John Wesley's Cipher: The Man Who Deciphered It," The Review of Reviews, London, November 1909.

"I slept soundly and woke early. Then I went to sleep again, and in my second sleep in the early hours of the morning I was told, I know not by whom, that the key letter which would enable me to solve everything stood for R."

*Bulletin of Ecclesiastical Literature (Toulouse, January 1927).

“It was a time when he thoroughly studied the Scriptures and the Fathers. He took from Metz, from the first years, a habit which he kept alive. Every night, after a first sleep, he got up, worked for several hours, and went back to bed. Sometimes he would let him be surprised by the day at his desk.”

*L'Africain : hebdomadaire illustré, September 6, 1931.

“War is a science: the maneuver conceived, Napoleon prepared it in its least details. He himself dictated the oretres which were then reproduced and distributed by Berthier; his fostering, where he did not like new faces, was broken with his habits; his officers appointed many, with the services, and there they took the direction of the rear; There is, however, far from this figure, - to the imposing mass which was G.Q.G. in 1918. These officers, 5 were often detached to corps d'armies to search for information. After a first sleep, when all the reports were ready, around 1 o'clock. In the morning, Napoleon gave his orders for the day. Nothing escaped his genius: organization and command of the army . . . .”

*Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (Edward Evan). 1937. Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

‘This is another unpleasant dream that Kisanga dreamt. He was sitting on his bed when rain began to pour in the evening. It poured steadily for a long time and then completely ceased. Those two women who were inmates of his homestead went to a feast, and only Kisanga remained in the homestead with another girl. They made a good fire in their huts and prepared their beds. One of them lay down on one side of the fire and the other lay down on the other side. They were in their first sleep when something happened to Kisanga. He dreamt a dream in which many little stones poured on his head like drops of rain, and his body pained him as though he were pricked by thorns. He opened his eyes in sleep, but could not rise from his couch. These stones fell all over his body and poured down on his eyes. This thing raised him on his couch and placed him on high in the fork of a tree. He remained up on high and looked downwards, and the sight was horrible to him. He began to lose his hold on the tree and fell into a deep pool, and his entrails came out of the side of his body and he carried them in his hand. This became horrible to him and he awoke from sleep and shivered in terror. This affair is that bad dream that Kisanga dreamt.

* Silvestre Emarges, “Christmas time and legends,” Country Life, December 1938. “The good holiday of Christmas is the one they prefer among all, and even those who are called: wolf heads, look at her with a joy that comes upon them from the depths of. centuries. It's their holiday, always populated by a crowd of shepherds and villagers. The angels speak first to the peasants. Divine poverty smiles upon them through her tears in the crib, on the straw of wheat, between the mixed breath of the donkey and the ox, to the sound of musettes and old women. The promise takes the form of a star, which crosses the roof, which leans over the floor, in a long ray. It is a long time since the workers of the earth woke up in the middle of the night after a first sleep, bothered by the worry, the insatiable desire for a harvest which will reward their labors; but this Christmas night they are awakened by the only love which blossoms under the features of a child half naked, trembling with cold as the poorest.”

*Akiga, Rupert East, and International Institute Of African Languages And Cultures. 1939. “Akiga’s Story: The Tiv Tribe as Seen by One of Its Members.” In . London, New York [etc.]: Oxford University Press.

“‘Going tsav’ means going out in the night and doing the deeds of the mbatsav . It does not happen only at night; in the day-time, too, if tsav strongly impels ( 1 ) him, a man will go out and so obtain relief. But the night is the real time for going tsav. The hours in which the mbatsav are most active are, in the day-time, when the sun begins to show his strength, and in the night, either at dusk or after men have had their first sleep". p. 376

*Colbacchini, Antonio, Cesar Albisetti, Ivana Lillios, and Brazil (State) Missao Salesiana Matto Grosso. 1942. “The Eastern Bororo Orarimogodogue of the Eastern Plateau of Mato Grosso.” In Brasiliana (Grande Formato), vol. 4:454. Rio De Janiero, Brazil: Companhia Editora Nacional. Hunter gatherers

His grandmother was in the habit of sleeping alone in the hut, on the other side of the fire. Since she did not look kindly upon what the grandson was doing, she got up one night and step by step went close to the young man and began to disturb his sleep, making certain noises, which produce a bad odor, near the nose of the young man who was sleeping. . . . The following day, he got up as if nothing had happened and began to repair his arrows, and made still one more with a triangular point called raparoga . When night came, he hid it under the mat and, lying down, pretended to be asleep. Once the fire was out, therefore quite dark, he took out the arrow and prepared for the blow.Then the old woman, who had already had her first sleep, [Page 389] got up and very slowly came near the grandson. When she was leaning down in order to do as usual, she was pierced by the arrow with the triangular point by the lad, with such violence that her intestines came out and she died.

*Maybury-Lewis, David. 1967. Akwẽ-Shavante Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

In the meantime the basis of their diet, apart from roots, was palmito and nuts. These are also year-round staples. Palmito is [Page No Page Number] [Page 45] the Brazilian word for the edible shoots of the palm tree of that name (Chamacrops sp.), which is found all over the interior of the country. These shoots are often used as a vegetable by Brazilians and are even exported to the larger cities. Shavante collect the shoots in lengths and eat the younger ones (as well as the heart of the thicker ones) raw. They also collect palm shoots as much as six inches thick, which are usually cooked in an earth oven. This process takes a long time, so that on occasion the shoots may be put into the earth oven at night and taken out again the following morning. Alternatively, the Shavante get up after their first sleep and settle down to eating the cooked plants.

*Velzen, H. U. E. Thoden van, and Wilhelmina van Wetering. 1991. “The Great Father and the Danger: Religious Cults, Material Forces, and Collective Fantasies in the World of the Surinamese Maroons.” In Caribbean Series, xiv, 451. Leiden, The Netherlands: KITLV Press horticulturalists ho

Akalali launched his attack on Gaan Boli with a surprise visit to the village in July 1973. No reasons for his call were given in advance, but they soon became plain on the first night of his stay. At about ten o’clock at night, villagers were disturbed in their first sleep, and summoned to the main Gaan Gadu shrine. By the light of an oil lamp, the startled villagers saw Akalali, in trance, untie the sacred bundle from its plank.

*Petra Ostenrieder, Living and working in Oettingen 1600-1800 (1993), p. 66.

“Night watchmen and gatekeepers were also checked. The fire regulations provide for a monthly check ‘at the time when all people and residents are in the first sleep between 11 and 12 o'clock.’"