Uncomplicated ureteral stones ≤10 mm
α-blockers maybe given.
We may observe the patient for four to six weeks before any intervention.
First line for mid or distal ureteral stones.
An option for upper ureteral stone especially > 10 mm.
For suspected cystine or uric acid stones.
Compared to SWL, URS has a better chance of achieving stone-free status with a single procedure, but has higher complication rates.
We may offer α-blockers and antimuscarinic therapy to reduce stent discomfort, if one is placed.
Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL)
An option for upper ureteral stones.
Recurrent Calcium Stones
Thiazide diuretics- if high urine calcium, or normal work up.
Potassium citrate- if low urinary citrate or normal work up.
Allopurinol- if there is hyperuricosuria.
Uric Acid Stones
Tiopronin - is a cystine-binding drug.
For patients who did not respond to citrate.