Technology’s Impacts on Memory:

Myths, Facts, and What It Means for Higher Education


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Miller, M.D. (2014). Minds Online: Teaching Effectively with Technology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Miller, M.D. (2019, February 7). A new replication study revives the question: Is taking notes by hand really better for students? [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Morehead, K., Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (2019, February 4). How much mightier is the pen than the keyboard for note-taking? A replication and extension of Mueller and Oppenheimer (2014). Educational Psychology Review.

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Tamir, D. I., Templeton, E. M., Ward, A. F., & Zaki, J. (2018). Media usage diminishes memory for experiences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 76(February), 161–168.

Thornton, B., Faires, A., Robbins, M., & Rollins, E. (2014). The mere presence of a cell phone may be distracting: Implications for attention and task performance. Social Psychology, 45(6).

Wilmer, H. H., Sherman, L. E., & Chein, J. M. (2017). Smartphones and cognition: A review of research exploring the links between mobile technology habits and cognitive functioning. Frontiers in Psychology.

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