Takashi S. Kohyama

甲山 隆司

Plant and forest ecology; species coexistence; tree architecture; tree demography

Census team at Tomakomai "Green Tunnel" Plot (since 1994)

8 October 2018

Research Interest

I am interested in solving possible mechanisms that promote coexistence of tree species in natural forests. To tackle this question, I am examining inter- and intra-specific variation in tree allometry and demography in various forest ecosystems. My main concern is the role of one-sided competition among individual trees for light in forest structure, proposing "forest architecture hypoyy es" (1993) , "stratification theory" (2009), and "foliage partitioning mechanism" (2012)

Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University


ResearcherID (Publons): A-4031-2012

ORCID ID: 0000-0001-7186-8585

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researchmap (Japanese/English)


  • March 1978___ Bachelor of Science, Faculty of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University

  • March 1980___ Master of Science, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University

  • March 1983___ Doctor of Science, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University

  • April 1983–Mar.ch 1985___ Post-Doctoral Fellow, Kyoto University

  • April 1985–April 1987___ Lecturer, Faculty of Education, Kagoshima University

  • May 1987–September 1991___ Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, Kagoshima University

  • October 1991–March 1994___ Associate Professor, Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University

  • September 1991–March 1992___ JSPS Visiting Scholar, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge

  • September 1992___ Recipient, Botanical Society Award of Young Scientists (Botanical Society of Japan)

  • July 1994–March 2005___ Professor, Laboratory of Regional Ecosystem Science, Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University

  • August 1998–July 1999___ Bullard Fellow, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University

  • April 2000–March 2008___ Group leader, senior researcher, and adviser, Ecosystem Change Research Program, Frontier Research Center for Global Change, JAMSTEC

  • 2001–2007___ Science Committee, International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, International Science Council

  • April 2005–March 2019___ Professor, Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecology, Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, & Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University

  • March 2014___ Recipient, The 12th Ecological Society of Japan Award

  • April 2019– ____ Professor Emeritus, Hokkaido University


  1. Kohyama, T. S., Potts, M. D., Kohyama, T. I., Niiyama, K., Yao, T. L., Davies, S. J. and Sheil, D. 2020. Trade-off between standing biomass and productivity in species-rich tropical forest: evidence, explanations and implications. Journal of Ecology108(6), 2571-2583. http://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13485

  2. Masuda, Y., Yamanaka, Y., Hirata, T., Nakano H., and Kohyamaa, T.S. 2020. Inhibition of competitive exclusion due to phytoplankton dispersion: a contribution for solving Hutchinson's paradox. Ecological Modelling, 430, 109089. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2020.109089

  3. Chen, X., Kohyama, T.S. and Cannon, C.H. 2020. Fruit development of Lithocarpus (Fagaceae) and the role of heterochrony in their evolution. Journal of Plant Research, 133, 217–229. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-020-01168-1

  4. Kohyama, T.S., Kohyama, T.I. and Sheil, D. 2019. Estimating net biomass production and loss from repeated measurements of trees in forests and woodlands: formulae, biases and recommendations. Forest Ecology and Management, 433, 729-740. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.11.010

  5. Tiwari, R.M., Akutsu, K., Shrestha, B.B. and Kohyama, T.S. 2019. Altitude-dependent variation in biomass and wood production of subalpine Abies spectabilis forest in eastern Himalaya. Eurasian Journal of Forest Research, 21(1), 1-10. DOI: 10.14943/EJFR.21.1.1

  6. Chen, X., Kohyama, T.S. and Cannon, C.H. 2018. Associated morphometric and geospatial differentiation among 98 species of stone oaks (Lithocarpus). Plos One, 13(6), e0199538.

  7. Kohyama, T.S., Kohyama, T.I. and Sheil, D. 2018. Definition and estimation of vital rates from repeated censuses: choices, comparisons and bias corrections focusing on trees. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 9, 809-821. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12929

  8. Fujinuma, J., Potts, M.D., Abd Rahman, K., Harrison, R.D., Abd Razak, and Kohyama, T.S. 2018. Modular, hollow culms of rain-forest bamboos explain their persistence across a wide range of light environments. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 34, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467418000032

  9. Tiwari R.M., Shrestha, B.B. and Kohyama, T.S. 2017. Topographic and anthropogenic factors shaping subalpine Abies spectabilis forest in Langtang National Park, eastern Himalaya. Eurasian Journal of Forest Research, 20, 1-9. https://eprints.lib.hokudai.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2115/67940/1/01EJFR20_Ravi.pdf

  10. Miyata, R. and Kohyama, T.S., 2016. Light-exposed shoots of seven coexisting deciduous species show common photosynthetic responses to tree height. Oecologia, 182, 373-383. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-016-3664-8

  11. Kohyama, T.S., Potts, M.D., Kohyama, T.I., Abd Rahman K., and Ashton, P.S., 2015. Demographic properties shape tree size distribution in a Malaysian rain forest. American Naturalist, 185, 367-379. https://doi.org/10.1086/679664

  12. Iida, Y., Kohyama, T.S., Swenson, N.G., Su, S.-H., Chen, C.-T., Chiang, J.-M., and Sun, I-F., 2014. Linking functional traits and demographic rates in a subtropical tree community: the importance of size dependency. Journal of Ecology, 102, 641-650. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12221

  13. Song, K., Kohyama, T.S., and Da, L.J., 2014. Transition patterns across an evergreen-deciduous broad-leaved forest ecotone: the effect of topographies. Journal of Vegetation Science, 25, 1257-1266. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.12156

  14. Atikah, T.D., Rahajoe, J.S. and Kohyama, T.S., 2014. Differentiation in architectural properties and functional traits of forest-floor saplings among heath, peat swamp, and mixed dipterocarp forests. Tropics, 22, 157-167. https://doi.org/10.3759/tropics.22.157

  15. Iida, Y., Poorter,L., Sterck,F.J., Kassim, A.R., Potts, M.D., Kubo, T. and Kohyama, T.S., 2014. Linking size-dependent growth and mortality with architectural traits across 145 co-occurring tropical tree species. Ecology, 95, 353-363. https://doi.org/10.1890/11-2173.1

  16. Orou Matilo, A.T.B., Iida, Y. and Kohyama, T.S., 2013. Tree species composition and stand structure of woody savanna in Dahomey Gap. Tropics, 22, 39-57. https://doi.org/10.3759/tropics.22.39

  17. Grubb, P.J., Bellingham, P.J., Kohyama, T.S., Piper, F.I. and Valido, A., 2013. Disturbance regimes, gap-demanding trees and seed mass related to tree height in warm temperate rain forests worldwide. Biological Reviews, 88, 701-744. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12029

  18. Pontius, R.G.Jr., Gao, Y., Giner, N.M., Kohyama, T., Osaki, M. and Hirose, K. 2013. Design and Interpretation of Intensity Analysis Illustrated by Land Change in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Land, 2, 351-369. https://doi.org/10.3390/land2030351

  19. Kohyama, T.S. and Takada, T., 2012. One-sided competition for light promotes coexistence of forest trees that share the same adult height. Journal of Ecology, 100, 1501-1511. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02029.x

  20. Iida, Y., Poorter, L., Sterck, F., Kassim, A. R., Kubo, T., Potts, M. & Kohyama, T. S., 2012. Wood density explains architectural differentiation across 145 co-occurring tropical tree species. Functional Ecology, 26, 274-282. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2435.2011.01921.x

  21. Miyata, R., Kubo, T., Nabeshima, E. and Kohyama, T.S., 2011. Common allometric response of open-grown leader shoots to tree height in co-occurring deciduous broad-leaved trees. Annals of Botany, 108, 1279-1287. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcr228

  22. Iida, Y., Kohyama, T.S., Kubo, T., Kassim, A.R., Poorter, L., Sterck, F. and Potts, M.D., 2011. Tree architecture and life-history strategies across 200 co-occurring tropical tree species. Functional Ecology, 25, 1260-1268. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2435.2011.01884.x

  23. Kohyama, T. and Takada, T., 2009. The stratification theory for plant coexistence promoted by one-sided competition. Journal of Ecology, 97, 463-471. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01490.x

  24. Shiodera, S., Rahajoe, J.S. and Kohyama, T., 2008. Variation in longevity and traits of leaves among co-occurring understorey plants in a tropical montane forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 24, 121-133. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467407004725

  25. Nishimura, T.B., Suzuki, E., Kohyama, T. and Tsuyuzaki, S., 2007. Mortality and growth of trees in peat-swamp and heath forests in Central Kalimantan after severe drought. Plant Ecology, 186, 165-177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-006-9154-z

  26. Sato, H., Itoh, A. and Kohyama, T., 2007. SEIB-DGVM: A new dynamic global vegetation model using a spatially explicit individual-based approach. Ecological Modelling, 200, 279-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.09.006

  27. Miyamoto, K., Rahajoe, J.S., Kohyama, T. and Mirmanto, E., 2007. Forest structure and primary productivity in a Bornean heath forest. Biotropica, 39, 35-42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2006.00231.x

  28. Kohyama, T., Urabe, J., Hikosaka, K., Shibata, H., Yoshioka, T., Konohira, E., Murase, J. and Wada, E., 2007. Terrestrial ecosystems in monsoon Asia: scaling up from shoot module to watershed. In: Canadell J, Pataki D, Pitelka L (eds), Terrestrial Ecosystems in Changing World, pp. 285-296. The IGBP Series, Springer, Berlin. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-32730-1_23

  29. Kohyama, T., 2006. The effect of patch demography on the community structure of forest trees. Ecological Research, 21, 346-355. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-006-0168-8

  30. Kubo, T. and Kohyama, T., 2005. Abies population dynamics simulated by a functional-structural tree model.. Ecological Research, 20, 255-269. DOI: 10.1007/4-431-29361-2_2

  31. Kohyama, T., 2005. Scaling up from shifting gap mosaic to geographic distribution in the modeling of forest dynamics. Ecological Research, 20, 302-312. DOI: 10.1007/4-431-29361-2_7

  32. Takahashi, K., Seino, T. and Kohyama, T., 2005. Plastic changes of leaf mass per area and leaf nitrogen content in response to canopy openings in saplings of eight deciduous broad-leaved tree species. Ecological Research, 20, 17-23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-004-0003-z

  33. Kohyama, T., Kubo, T. and Macklin, E., 2005. Effect of temporal autocorrelation on apparent growth rate variation in forest tree census data and an alternative distribution function of tree growth rate. Ecological Research, 20, 11-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-004-0007-8

  34. Rahajoe, J.S. and Kohyama, T., 2003. The relationship between N,P returned via litter production and nutrient use efficiency of heath and peat swamp forests in Central Kalimantan. Tropics, 13, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.3759/tropics.13.1

  35. Mirmanto, E., Tsuyuzaki, S. and Kohyama, T., 2003. Investigation of the effects of distance from river and peat depth on tropical wetland forest communities. Tropics, 12, 287-294. https://doi.org/10.3759/tropics.12.287

  36. Rahajoe, J.S. and Kohyama, T., 2003. Effects of forest fire on leaf litter decomposition of two dominant species (Tristaniopsis obovata and Calophyllum pulcherrimum) in a heath forest of south Kalimantan. Tropics, 12, 277-286. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tropics/12/4/12_4_277/_pdf

  37. Akashi, N., Kohyama, T., and Matsui, K., 2003. Lateral and vertical crown associations in mixed forests. Ecological Research, 18, 455-461. DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-1703.2003.00569.x

  38. Kohyama, T., Suzuki, E., Partomihardjo, T., Yamada, T., and Kubo, T., 2003. Tree species differentiation in growth, recruitment and allometry in relation to maximum height in a Bornean mixed dipterocarp forest. Journal of Ecology, 91, 797-806. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.2003.00810.x

  39. Miyamoto, K., Suzuki, E., Kohyama, T., Seino, T., Mirmanto, E. and Simbolon, H., 2003. Habitat differentiation among tree species with small-scale variation of humus depth and topography in a tropical heath forest of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467403003067

  40. Nishimura, T.B. and Kohyama, T., 2002. Formation and maintenance of community boundaries in a sub-alpine forest landscape in northern Japan. Journal of Vegetation Science, 13, 555-564. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2002.tb02082.x

  41. Norby, R.J., Ogle, K., Curtis. P.S., Badeck, F.-W., Huth , A., Hurtt, G.C., Kohyama, T. and Penuelas, J., 2001. Aboveground growth and competition in forest gap models: an analysis for studies of climatic change. Climatic Change, 51, 415-447. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012510619424

  42. Takahashi, K., Seino, T., and Kohyama, T., 2001. Responses to canopy openings in architectural development of saplings in eight deciduous broad-leaved tree species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 31, 1336-1347. https://doi.org/10.1139/x01-069

  43. Takenaka, A., Takahashi, K. and Kohyama, T., 2001. Optimal leaf display and biomass partitioning for efficient light capture in an understorey palm, Licuala arbuscula. Functional Ecology, 15, 660-668. https://www.jstor.org/stable/826693

  44. Kohyama, T., Suzuki, E., Partomihardjo, T. and Yamada, T., 2001. Dynamic steady state of patch-mosaic tree-size structure of a mixed dipterocarp forest regulated by local crowding. Ecological Research, 16, 85-98. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1703.2001.00374.x

  45. Kubo, T., Kohyama, T., Potts, M.D. and Ashton, P.S., 2000. Mortality rate estimation, when inter-census intervals vary. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 16, 753-756. https://doi.org/10.1017/S026646740000170X

  46. Takahashi, K. and Kohyama, T., 1999. Size-structure dynamics of two conifers in relation to understorey dwarf bamboo: a simulation study. Journal of Vegetation Science, 10, 833-842. https://doi.org/10.2307/3237308

  47. Kohyama, T. Suzuki, E., Aiba, S. and Seino, T., 1999. Functional differentiation and positive feedback enhancing plant biodiversity. Biology of Biodiversity (ed. by M. Kato), pp. 179-191. Springer, Tokyo. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-65930-3_12

  48. Kohyama, T. and Takada, T., 1998. Recruitment rates in forest plots: Gf estimates using growth rates and size distributions. Journal of Ecology, 86, 633-639. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.1998.00286.x

  49. Aiba, S. and Kohyama, T. , 1997. Crown architecture and life-history traits of 14 tree species in a warm-temperate rain forest: significance of spatial heterogeneity. Journal of Ecology, 85, 611-624. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2960532.pdf

  50. Takahashi, T. and Kohyama, T. , 1997. Crown architecture of two understory palm species of the genus Licuala in a tropical rain forest. Plant Species Biology, 12, 35-41 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-1984.1997.tb00154.x

  51. Kohyama, T. and Aiba, S., 1997. Dynamics of primary and secondary warm-temperate rain forests in Yakushima Islands. Tropics, 6, 383-392. https://doi.org/10.3759/tropics.6.383

  52. Kohyama, T., 1996. The role of architecture in enhancing plant species diversity. Biodiversity: an ecological perspective (ed. by T. Abe, S.A. Levin and M. Higashi), pp. 21-33. Springer, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-1906-4_3

  53. Bellingham, P.J., Kohyama, T. and Aiba, S., 1996. The effects of a typhoon on Japanese warm- temperate rain forests. Ecological Research, 11, 229-247. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02347781

  54. Aiba, S. and Kohyama, T., 1996. Tree species stratification in relation to allometry and demography in a warm-temperate rain forest. Journal of Ecology, 84, 207-218. https://doi.org/10.2307/2261356

  55. Kohyama, T. and Shigesada, N., 1995. A size-distribution-based model of forest dynamics along a latitudinal environmental gradient. Vegetatio, 121, 117-126. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-0343-5_11

  56. Nakashizuka, T. and Kohyama, T., 1995. The significance of the asymmetric effect of crowding for coexistence in a mixed temperate forest.. Journal of Vegetation Science, 6, 509-516. https://doi.org/10.2307/3236349

  57. Turner, I.M., Gong, W.K., Ong, J.E., Bujang, J.S. and Kohyama, T., 1995. The architecture and allometry of mangrove saplings. Functional Ecology, 9, 205-212. https://doi.org/10.2307/2390566

  58. Kohyama, T., 1995. Spatial and temporal patterns of subalpine Abies forests in Central Japan. In E.O. Box, ed., Vegetation Science in Forestry, pp. 391-407. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

  59. Kohyama, T., Suzuki, E. and Hotta, M., 1994. Spatial distribution pattern of representative tree species in a foothill rain forest in West Sumatra. Tropics, 4, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3759/tropics.4.1

  60. Kohyama, T. and Grubb, P.J., 1994. Below- and above-ground allometries of shade-tolerant seedlings in a Japanese warm-temperate rain forest. Functional Ecology, 8, 229-236. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2389906?origin=crossref&seq=1

  61. Kohyama, T., 1994. Size-structure-based models of forest dynamics to interpret population- and community-level mechanisms. Journal of Plant Research, 107, 107-116. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02344537

  62. Kohyama, T., 1993. Size-structured tree populations in gap-dynamic forest - the forest architecture hypothesis for the stable coexistence of species. Journal of Ecology, 81, 131-143.

  63. Mukhtar, E., Suzuki, E., Kohyama, T. and Rahman, M., 1992. Regeneration process of a climax Calophyllum cf. soulattri in tropical rain forest of West Sumatra. Tropics, 2, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.3759/tropics.2.1

  64. Kohyama, T., 1992. Density-size dynamics of trees simulated by a one-sided competition multi-species model of rain forest stands. Annals of Botany, 70, 451-460. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a088502

  65. Kohyama, T., 1992. Size-structured multi-species model of rain forest trees. Functional Ecology, 6, 206-212. https://doi.org/10.2307/2389756

  66. Suzuki, E. and Kohyama, T., 1991. Spatial distribution of wind-dispersed fruits and trees of Swintonia schwenkii (Anacardiaceae) in a tropical forest of West Sumatra. Tropics, 1, 131-142. https://doi.org/10.3759/tropics.1.131

  67. Kohyama, T., 1991. Simulating stationary size distribution of trees in rain forests. Annals of Botany, 68, 173-180. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a088236

  68. Kohyama, T., 1991. A functional model describing sapling growth under a tropical forest canopy. Functional Ecology, 5, 83-90. https://doi.org/10.2307/2389558

  69. Kohyama, T. and Hotta, M., 1990. Significance of allometry in tropical saplings. Functional Ecology, 4, 515-521. https://doi.org/10.2307/2389319

  70. Kohyama, T., Hara, T. and Tadaki, Y., 1990. Patterns of trunk diameter, tree height and crown depth in crowded Abies stands. Annals of Botany, 65, 567-574. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a087970

  71. Kohyama, T. and Hara, T., 1989. Frequency distribution of tree growth rate in natural forest stands. Annals of Botany, 64, 47- 57. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a087807

  72. Kohyama, T., 1989. Simulation of the structural development of warm-temperate rain forest stands. Annals of Botany, 63, 625-634. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a087791

  73. Kohyama, T., 1988. Etiology of 'Shimagare' dieback and regeneration in subalpine Abies forests of Japan. GeoJournal, 17, 201-208. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02432923

  74. Kohyama, T., 1988. A function describing all-sized trunk diameter distribution in warm-temperate rain forests. Botanical Magazine, Tokyo, 101, 207-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02488897

  75. Kohyama, T., 1987. Significance of architecture and allometry in saplings. Functional Ecology, 1, 399-404. https://doi.org/10.2307/2389797

  76. Kohyama, T., 1987. Stand dynamics in a primary warm-temperate rain forest analyzed by the diffusion equation. Botanical Magazine, Tokyo, 100, 305-317. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02492837

  77. Kohyama, T. and Hotta, M.,1986. Growth analysis of Sumatran Monophyllaea, possessing only one leaf throughout perennial life. Plant Species Biology, 1, 117-125. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-1984.1986.tb00020.x

  78. Kohyama, T., 1986. Tree size structure of stands and each species in primary warm-temperate rain forests of southern Japan. Botanical Magazine, Tokyo, 99, 267-279. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02489543

  79. Kohyama, T., 1984. Regeneration and coexistence of two Abies species dominating subalpine forests in central Japan. Oecologia, 62, 156-161. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00379008

  80. Kohyama, T., 1983. Seedling stage of two subalpine Abies species in distinction from sapling stage: a matter-economic analysis. Botanical Magazine, Tokyo, 96, 49-65. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02489574

  81. Kohyama, T., 1982. Studies on the Abies population of Mt. Shimagare II. Reproductive and life history traits. Botanical Mag.azine, Tokyo, 95, 167-181. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02488583

  82. Kohyama, T. and Fujita, N., 1981. Studies on the Abies population of Mt. Shimagare I. Survivorship curve. Botanical Magazine, Tokyo, 94, 55-68. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02490203

  83. Kohyama, T., 1980. Growth pattern of Abies mariesii saplings under conditions of open-growth and suppression. Botanical Magazine, Tokyo, 93, 13-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02489483