I will upload replication data from ongoing research as they are accepted for publication. This page also serves as a repository for resources on subnational politics in India. The sources are also available as supplemental materials to my dissertation at the Brown Digital Repository:

Electoral Data

This file contains data on parties forming the ruling alliance, chief ministers, and vote & seat share of each party in state assembly elections for all major Indian states from 1951 to 2015. I use data from the Election Commission of India, newspaper reports and secondary sources. Please feel free to contact me if you discover any errors.

Suggested citation: Chakrabarti, Poulomi. 2019. “One Nation, Many Worlds: Varieties of Developmental Regimes in India.” PhD Dissertation, Providence RI: Brown University.

State Government Budgets

The files below are scanned/pdf copies of state budgets (State Finance Reports from the Department of Economic and Policy Research) for the last 70 years collected from Reserve Bank of India (RBI) archives in Mumbai. Reports from 2002 onwards are also available on the RBI website.

1950s: 1950 | 1951 | 1952 | 1953 | 1954 | 1955 | 1956 | 1957 | 1958 | 1959

1960s: 1960 | 1961 | 1962 | 1963 | 1964 | 1965 | 1966 | 1967 | 1968 | 1969

1970s: 1970 | 1971 | 1972 | 1973 | 1974 | 1975 | 1976 | 1977 | 1978 | 1979

1980s: 1980 | 1981 | 1982 | 1983 | 1984 | 1985 | 1986 | 1987 | 1988 | 1989

1990s: 1990 | 1991 | 1992 | 1993 | 1994 | 1995 | 1996 | 1997 | 1998 | 1999

2000s: 2000 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009

2010s: 2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019

Government Speeches

The Annual Governor’s Speech at the State Legislative Assemblies in India is a valuable source of systematic data on public policy that currently remains untapped by social scientists. It can be especially useful to trace programs targeted towards specific groups that expenditure-based measures cannot capture. Unlike political speeches that tend to be rhetorical, this speech is prepared by career bureaucrats and presents the major policy initiatives of the year and sets the agenda for assembly debates. I collected more than 300 speeches (1960-2015) from the proceedings of State Assembly Debates from State Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) Libraries in the state capitals of Bihar, Punjab, Gujarat, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh, the Parliament Library in New Delhi, and the Library of Congress in Washington DC. In addition to supporting research on subnational politics, these documents can allow for external verification and replication. I will upload the speeches once they are scanned (some examples are included below):

Newspaper and Current Periodical Reading Room, Library of Congress, Washington DC

Data on Religion and Caste (Caste-Code)

South Asian last names can sometimes indicate the religious and caste identity of individuals. I put together a dataset of common last names and their respective caste/religious affiliation. In the absence of any official enumeration of caste, this “caste code” can be useful in estimating aggregate patterns on ethnicity, especially as data-scraping and big data techniques allow us to access population-level datasets. The dataset currently covers about 96% of the voters in Delhi (based on the 2013 electoral rolls) and I have tested it to select cases of majority Hindu and Muslim neighborhoods for a recent project. I am happy to share the dataset for academic research.

Articles and Books

Research for my book project led me to collect hundreds of books and articles on subnational politics in India. I could use only a fraction of these, but the materials may be useful for scholars of Indian politics, particularly for those working on my cases – Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Punjab, and Tamil Nadu. I am sharing two main sources of secondary research:

  1. Annotated bibliographies on the political economy of development of the following states. This includes journal articles and books, as well as unpublished theses, working papers, policy reports, and relevant op-eds.

  1. Excerpts of books on comparative subnational politics and my cases. The pdfs include the table of contents, the introduction chapter, and index pages. I have taken care to observe copyright regulations in sharing the contents online, but please contact me if I might be in violation of any laws.

Comparative Subnational Politics


Tamil Nadu




Himachal Pradesh


I am thankful to Aliza Elkin, Pranav Gupta, and Katharine Mccoy for their help in cataloguing the references and preparing the pdfs.

Other Datasets

Here are some other sources on subnational politics in India that I found useful:

  1. EOPP Indian States Data by Timothy Besley and Robin Burgess at LSE. Includes state-level data on land reforms, politics, poverty and inequality, public finance, and socio-economic indices from 1957 to 2002.

  2. India Human Development Survey-II by Sonalde Desai and Reeve Vanneman at the University of Maryland. A nationally representative survey of 42,152 households across India in 2004-05. Topics include health, education, employment, marriage, fertility, gender, social capital, infrastructure and local government.

  3. Francesca Jensenius at the University of Oslo has put together an excellent dataset on national and state elections in India from 1961 to 2015.

  4. The Trivedi Centre for Political Data (TCPD) at Ashoka University maintains data on Indian elections from 1962 onwards.

  5. Aaditya Dar at the Indian School of Business has compiled an extensive list of publicly available datasets on politics and development in India.

Header: Balapitiya, Sri Lanka