Lion Schulz

Hi! I am a data scientist and leadership trainee at Bertelsmann, Europe's largest media company. I previously completed a PhD at the Max Planck Institute For Biological Cybernetics where I was part of Peter Dayan's Department of Computational Neuroscience.

My research studies how biological and artificial agents come to trust themselves and others, combining methodology from machine learning, behavioral economics, and neuroscience. I am interested in both the basic computations underlying these processes as well as how they relate to real-world beliefs and behaviour, for example in mental disorders, polarisation, or misinformation

Before my PhD, I obtained an MSc in Cognitive and Decision Sciences from University College London where I worked with Steve Fleming.  During my PhD, I was a Fulbright Scholar at MIT, doing research with Rahul Bhui. I also did ML for Limbic.

Feel free to reach out to me via Twitter or Email.


[Google Scholar]


Political Reinforcement Learners
Schulz, L., & Bhui, R.
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | [link]

Detecting and Discouraging Deception via Anomaly Detection
Alon, N., Schulz, L., Barnby, J.M., Rosenschein, J.S. & Dayan, P.
AAAI Workshop on Collaborative AI and Modeling of Humans | [link]

Detecting and Deterring Manipulation in a Cognitive Hierarchy
Alon, N., Schulz, L., Barnby, J., Rosenschein, J.S., & Dayan, P.
arXiv | [link]

Overly deep hierarchical mentalizing produces paranoia: a new formal theory
Alon, N., Schulz, L., Bell, V., Moutoussis, M., Dayan, P. & Barnby, J.
PsyArXiv |[link]


Mechanisms of Mistrust: A Bayesian Account of Misinformation Learning
Schulz, L., Schulz, E., Bhui, R., & Dayan, P.
PsyArXiv | [link]

Between prudence and paranoia: Theory of Mind gone right, and wrong
Alon, N.,* Schulz, L.*, Dayan, P., & Barnby, J.
ICML 2023 Workshop on Theory of Mind in Communicating Agents | [link]

Emergent deception and skepticism via theory of mind
Schulz, L.*, Alon, N.,* Rosenschein, J.S., & Dayan, P.
ICML 2023 Workshop on Theory of Mind in Communicating Agents | [link]

A (Dis-)information Theory of Revealed and Unrevealed Preferences:
Emerging Deception and Skepticism via Theory of Mind
Alon, N.,* Schulz, L.*, Rosenschein, J.S., & Dayan, P.
OpenMind | [link]

Playing repeated games with large language models
Akata, E., Schulz, L., Coda-Forno, J., Oh, S.J., Bethge, M., & Schulz, E.
arXiv | [link]

Metacognitive Computations for Information Search: Confidence in Control
Schulz, L., Fleming, S. M., & Dayan, P.
Psychological Review | [link]


A (dis-) information theory of revealed and unrevealed preferences
Alon, N.,* Schulz, L.*, Rosenschein, J.S., & Dayan, P.
NeurIPS 2022 Workshop on Information-Theoretic Principles in Cognitive Systems | [link]


Dogmatism manifests in lowered information search under uncertainty
Schulz, L., Rollwage M., Dolan, R.J., & Fleming, S.M.
PNAS | [link]



since 2019: PhD in Neuroscience, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics  

2018 - 2019: MSc in Cognitive and Decision Sciences, University College London

2015 - 2018: BSc in Psychology, Technische Universität Dresden 


since 2023: Data Scientist (Future Leaders Program) | Bertelsmann

2023: Machine Learning Scientist (part-time), Limbic

2019 - 2023: Doctoral Researcher, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics (Peter Dayan)

2022 - 2023: Fulbright Scholar, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Rahul Bhui)

2022: Machine Learning Intern, Limbic

2018 - 2019: Graduate Researcher, Wellcome Center for Human Neuroimaging, Metacognition Group (Steve Fleming)

2018: Intern, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, IMPRG NeuroCode (Nicolas Schuck)

2016 - 2018: Research Assistant, TU Dresden, Chair of Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (Shu-Chen Li) 


Lion Schulz
Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
Max-Planck-Ring 8
72076 Tübingen, Germany