Lion Schulz

Hi! I am a PhD student at the Max Planck Institute For Biological Cybernetics where I am part of Peter Dayan's Department of Computational Neuroscience.

I am broadly interested in the successes and failures of natural and artificial intelligence. My current research mainly focuses on metacognition and information search. In other words: I try to understand how agents become confident in their decisions, and how they should (and do) use this confidence to decide whether they need to collect more information. I am interested in both the basic computations underlying these processes as well as how they relate to real-world beliefs and behaviour, for example in mental disorders or polarisation.

Before my PhD, I obtained an MSc in Cognitive and Decision Sciences from University College London where I worked with Steve Fleming. Prior to that, I did a BSc in Psychology at TU Dresden where I worked in the lifespan developmental neuroscience lab of Shu-Chen Li.

Feel free to reach out to me via Twitter or Email.



Metacognitive Computations for Information Search: Confidence in Control
Schulz, L., Fleming, S. M., & Dayan, P.
biorXiv | [link]


Dogmatism manifests in lowered information search under uncertainty
Schulz, L., Rollwage M., Dolan, R.J., & Fleming, S.M.
PNAS | [link]

Short CV


since 2019: PhD in Neuroscience, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics

2018 - 2019: MSc in Cognitive and Decision Sciences, University College London

2015 - 2018: BSc in Psychology, Technische Universität Dresden


2018 - 2019: Graduate Researcher, Wellcome Center for Human Neuroimaging, Metacognition Group (Steve Fleming)

2018: Intern, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, IMPRG NeuroCode (Nicolas Schuck)

2016 - 2018: Research Assistant, TU Dresden, Chair of Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience (Shu-Chen Li)


Lion Schulz
Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
Max-Planck-Ring 8
72076 Tübingen, Germany