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A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or “tree” showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

For Homo Sapiens the taxa joined together in the tree(s) are implied to have descended from a common ancestor, “Adam” for Y-DNA and “Eve” for mDNA.

Today the root letter names of all haplogroups (Y-DNA or mtDNA) in the tree can run from A to Z. As haplogroups were named in the order of their discovery, they do not reflect the actual genetic relationships.

Read more about Y-DNA and mtDNA on International Society of Genetic Genealogy Wiki.