The Haplotree Information Project (non-profit) is an experimental, interactive and user friendly way to visualize a variety of Y-DNA and mtDNA haplotrees.
A phylogenetic tree or a haplotree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics. The taxa joined together in the tree are implied to have descended from a common ancestor, "Adam" for Y-DNA and "Eve" for mDNA.
A haplotree is the fastest way to get introduced to the human journey and the genetic relationships between human beings, close or far to your self. If you already have done genealogy and you have a family tree and a "most distant ancestor" in the root of the tree the next step is probably to order a DNA-test that will give you a haplotype and place you somewhere in a haplotree.
From Africa to Asia to northeast Europe
The common direct paternal ancestor of all men alive today was born in Africa between 300,000 and 150,000 years ago. When humans left Africa, they migrated across the globe in a web of paths that spread out like the branches of a tree, each limb of migration identifiable by a marker in our DNA. Paternal ancestors to haplogroup N made a turn through Central-Asia and South-East Asia. Many from this lineage moved inland and settled in southern Asia. Others moved on and eventually turned west. Early inhabitants of Siberia experienced a population bottleneck where only a few descendant lines survived the harsh living conditions. Around 10,000 years ago, the populations in Siberia began to grow and expand once more. Some from this group then continued west into northeastern Europe.
Today, this lineage remains in some East Asian populations. In the male population of Tokushima, Japan, it is between 1 and 2 percent of the population. In Taiwan, it contributes to 2 to 4 percent of male lineages. Moving west, it is 10 percent of the Sojot, 16 percent of the Khakassian, 25 percent of the Koryaks, and 27 percent of the Tofalar. It is 80 to 94 percent of Yakut male lineages. Toward Europe, it is 31 percent of Estonians, 42 percent of Latvians, 37 percent of Lithuanians, and about 6 percent of Ukrainians. In Finland, it contributes to between 58 and 77 percent of the male population. In Norway, it is between 5 and 7 percent of the male population.
Haplogroup U5 is found throughout Europe with an average frequency ranging from 5% to 12% in most regions. U5a is most common in north-east Europe and U5b in northern Spain. Nearly half of all Sami and one fifth of Finnish maternal lineages belong to U5. Other high frequencies are observed among the Mordovians (16%), the Chuvash (14.5%) and the Tatars (10.5%) in the Volga-Ural region of Russia, the Estonians (13%), the Lithuanians (11.5%) and the Latvians in the Baltic, the Dargins (13.5%), Avars (13%) and the Chechens (10%) in the Northeast Caucasus, the Basques (12%), the Cantabrians (11%) and the Catalans (10%) in northern Spain, the Bretons (10.5%) in France, the Sardinians (10%) in Italy, the Slovaks (11%), the Croatians (10.5%), the Poles (10%), the Czechs (10%), the Ukrainians (10%) and the Slavic Russians (10%). Overall, U5 is generally found in population with high percentages of Y-haplogroups I1, I2, and R1a, three lineages already found in Mesolithic Europeans. The highest percentages are observed in populations associated predominantly with Y-haplogroup N1c1 (the Finns and the Sami), although N1c1 is originally an East Asian lineage that spread over Siberia and Northeast Europe and assimilated indigenous U5 maternal lineages.
U5 is rarer in South Caucasus (3.5%), Iran (3%), Turkey (3%), Syria, Lebanon, Iraq and Egypt (all around 1.5%). It is only found at trace frequencies (<1%) in Jordan and the Arabian peninsula. In North Africa, U5 peaks in Morocco (4%), followed by Libya (3.5%), Tunisia and Algeria (both 2%).
U5 is also found in Central Asia and Siberia, where it was brought chiefly by the Indo-European migrations. U5 is most common in Tajikistan (7.5%), followed by Uzebekistan (3.5%), Turkmenistan (2.5%), Kyrgyzstan (2.5%), Kazakhstan (2.5%), among the Altaians (2%) and the Buryats (2%), and further east as far as Mongolia (1%).