Four-Day School Week Resource Center

from Missouri State University College of Education

Map of Missouri Four-Day School Week Districts (Link) Updated for 2022-2023 (New adoptions for 2022-2023 shown in black) Estimated 141 Missouri public (non-charter) schools using 4-day school week for 2022-2023

List of Missouri Four-Day School Week Districts With Contact Information-Updated for 2022-2023 (Link)

Historial List of Missouri Four-Day Week Schools Update for 2021-2022 (129 school districts)


Research, News, and Resources on the Four-day Week Topic

Does Four Equal Five? Implementation and Outcomes of the Four-Day School Week by Rebecca Kilburn, Andrea Phillips, Celia Gomez, Louis Mariano, Christopher Doss, Wendy Troxel, Emily Morton, and Kevin Estes. The RAND Corporation. October, 2021. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RRA373-1.html

School districts see 'positive impact' from four-day week by Deborah Gertz Husar. The Herald-Whig (Quincy, Illinois), November 26, 2022. https://www.whig.com/education/school-districts-see-positive-impact-from-four-day-week/article_8f6cd12a-6b99-11ed-b61d-235082432adc.html

Four-Day School Week In Missouri-An Update by Dr. Jon Turner from Show-Me Education Podcast (Heart of the Ozarks RPDC-University of Missouri), November 16, 2022. https://anchor.fm/showmeedu/episodes/Ep-28--Four-Day-School-Week-e1qncjb?%24web_only=true&_branch_match_id=659174380608204139&utm_source=web&utm_campaign=web-share&utm_medium=sharing&_branch_referrer=H4sIAAAAAAAAA8soKSkottLXLy7IL8lMq0zMS87IL9ItT03SSywo0MvJzMvWT9VPzy3xCszKyzUqTQIAg4VbZjAAAAA%3D

Moberly Schools Consider the Four-Day School Week: An Interview With Dr. Jon Turner from Missouri State University. November 10, 2022. KRES Radio (Moberly). https://soundcloud.com/user-502567008/dr-jon-turner-interview-111022

Long days, long weekends: the four-day week takes off in US schools by Susie Armitage. The Guardian, September 26, 2022. https://www.theguardian.com/education/2022/sep/26/four-day-school-week-teachers-students-parents

What the research says about 4-day school weeks by Jill Barshay. KQED/MindShift & The Hechinger Report. August 29, 2022. https://www.kqed.org/mindshift/59801/what-the-research-says-about-4-day-school-weeks

Missouri's top educator hesitant about the four-day school week by Emily Manley. Fox2 St. Louis (television), August 29, 2022. https://fox2now.com/news/missouri/missouris-top-educator-hesitant-about-four-day-school-week/ ***There are factual errors in this story about the four-day week, but worth listen for Dr. Vandeven's comments.

Instructional Time in U. S. Public Schools: Wide Variation, Causal Effects, and Lost Hours by Matthew Kraft and Sarah Novicoff. EdWorking Paper No. 22-653, September 2022 (Brown University). https://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/Kraft%20Novicoff%202022%20Learning%20Time.pdf

A Multi-State, Student-Level Analysis of the Effects of the Four-Day School Week on Student Achievement and Growth by Emily Morton, Paul Thompson, and Megan Kuhfeld. EdWorkingPaper No. 22-630-Annenberg-Brown University, August 2022. https://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/ai22-630.pdf

A close look at the four day school week and its increasing popularity in Missouri. Interview with Dr. Jon Turner, Missouri State University, September 1, 2022. MissouriNet (radio)-https://www.missourinet.com/2022/08/30/a-close-look-at-four-day-school-weeks-and-its-increasing-popularity-in-missouri/


141 Missouri and 25 Kansas districts have four-day school weeks this year. Here’s where. Kansas City Star, August 23, 2022. https://www.kansascity.com/news/local/education/article264703479.html


Another symptom of the teacher shortage: 1 in 4 Missouri school districts now have a 4-day week by Kate Grumke (interview with Dr. Jon Turner, Missouri State University). . St Louis Public Radio, August 8, 2022.. https://news.stlpublicradio.org/education/2022-08-08/another-symptom-of-the-teacher-shortage-1-in-4-missouri-school-districts-now-have-a-4-day-week

Rural Texas districts struggling to attract teachers are switching to four-day school weeks by Brian Lopez. The Texas Tribune, July 19, 2022. https://www.texastribune.org/2022/07/19/texas-schools-four-day-weeks/

The Four-Day School Week Grows in Missouri with Dr. Jon Turner from Missouri State University. Missouri State Teachers Association podcast "MSTA Presents. July 27, 2022 https://mstapresents.podbean.com/e/episode-5-four-day-school-week/

Rural explosion in four-day school week aimed at recruiting teachers by D. C. Benincasa. Columbia Missourian, June 8, 2022. https://www.columbiamissourian.com/2500below/rural-explosion-in-four-day-school-week-aimed-at-recruiting-teachers/article_b95a4fae-e218-11ec-992d-b39d2e550cfa.html?utm_medium=social&utm_source=email&utm_campaign=user-share

The Latest Perk Schools Are Using to Attract Teachers: 4-Day Weeks. Education Week, June 29, 2022. https://www.edweek.org/leadership/the-latest-perk-schools-are-using-to-attract-teachers-4-day-weeks/2022/06

MSU professor discusses the four-day school week, and why some smaller Missouri school districts have already made the switch. Radio interview with Dr. Jon Turner, Missouri State University, KSMU-NPR "Making Democracy Work". June 7, 2022 https://www.ksmu.org/show/making-democracy-work/2022-06-07/msu-professor-discusses-the-four-day-school-week-and-why-some-smaller-missouri-school-districts-have-already-made-the-switch

A record 128 Missouri school districts--25 percent--switch to four-day weeks by Claudette Riley. Springfield News-Leaders, March 6, 2022. https://www.news-leader.com/story/news/education/2022/03/06/record-128-missouri-school-districts-25-percent-switch-to-four-day-weeks/6694742001/

Keeping Up With The Joneses: District Adoption of the Four-Day School Week in Rural Missouri by J. Cameron Anglum and Aaron Park. AREA Open, March, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1177/23328584211002842

Impacts of the four-day school week on high school achievement and educational engagement by Paul Thompson, Emily Tomayko, Katherine Gunter, and John Schuna. Education Economics, December 27, 2021. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09645292.2021.2006610

4-Day School Weeks: New Research Examines the Benefits and Drawbacks by Stephen Sawchuck. Education Week, October 7, 2021. https://www.edweek.org/leadership/4-day-school-weeks-new-research-examines-the-benefits-and-drawbacks/2021/10

Seneca schools have success with 4-day school week. KSN-News (Joplin, Missouri), February 28, 2022. https://www.fourstateshomepage.com/news/local-news/seneca-4-day-school-week/

Impact of a Four-Day School Week On Student Discipline and Attendance in Missouri: A Quantitative Study by Angelina Rowden. Doctorate Dissertation, Missouri Baptist University, December 2021. https://www.proquest.com/openview/7dc8f89fbd99e26669d530142d161e26/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y

Only a Matter of Time? The Role of Time in School on Four-Day School Week Achievement Impacts by Paul N. Thompson and Jason Ward. IZA Institute of Labor Economics Discussion Paper Series, June 2021. http://ftp.iza.org/dp14461.pdf

Keeping Up With the Joneses: District Adoption of the 4-Day School Week in Rural Missouri by J. Cameron Anglum & Aaron Park. AERA Open, January-December 2021, Vol 7, No 1. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/23328584211002842

A record 105 Missouri school districts-20 percent-embrace four-day weeks by Claudette Riley in Springfield News-Leader. October 1, 2020. https://www.news-leader.com/story/news/education/2020/10/02/growing-number-missouri-school-districts-fair-grove-four-day-weeks/3493754001/

Are All Four-Day School Weeks Created Equal? A National Assessment of Four-Day School Week Policy Adoption and Implementation, Paul N. Thompson, Katherine Gunter, John M. Schuna Jr. and Emily J. Tomayko. Education Finance and Policy, May 2020, https://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/edfp_a_00316?journalCode=edfp

Effects of Four-Day School Weeks on Physical Education Exposure and Childhood Obesity in Journal of Physical Activity and Health by Emily J. Tomayko, Katherine B. Gunter, John M. Schuna Jr. and Paul N. Thompson https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32805713/

Adolescent Health Behaviors in Schools with 4‐ Versus 5‐Day School Weeks in Journal of School Health, August 2020, by Whitney Israel, Christine Mulitauopele, Ming Ma MD, Arnold H. Levinson PhD, Lauren Cikara, Ashley Brooks‐Russell PhD, in the Journal of School Health, August 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12941

Urban Institute advocates for four-day school week option for urban students. "Making Education and Employment Work for High School Students: A Toolkit for Systems That Support Young People with Adult Responsibilities, with Benefits for All". (June, 2020). https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/102413/making-education-and-employment-work-for-high-school-students.pdf

The Rural Voice-Podcast of the National Rural Education Association, Interview with Dr. Jon Turner about the Four-day School Week in the United States February 2020 nrea.simplecast.com/episodes/s01e04-the-four-day

The Four-day School Week Continues to Grow in Missouri, KY3 News-Springfield, February 6, 2020 https://www.ky3.com/content/news/Its-a-trend--more-schools-going-to-four-day-weeks-567635661.html

WBUR-Boston (NPR) "On Point"-Grading the four-day school week featuring Missouri State's Dr. Jon Turner and Paul Hill of the University of Washington-Bothell (May 30, 2019) https://www.wbur.org/onpoint/2019/05/30/four-day-school-week-missouri-colorado

Turner, J. Finch, K., & Uribe-Zarain, X. (2019). Three Midwest Rural School Districts’ First Year Transition to the Four Day School Week: Parents’ Perspectives. The Rural Educator (The Journal of the National Rural Education Association), 40(1). https://journals.library.msstate.edu/index.php/ruraled/article/view/529 (Download PDF)

Turner, J., Finch, K., & Uribe-Zarain, X. (2018). The Economics of a Four-Day School Week: Community and Business Leaders’ Perspectives. Applied Economics and Finance, 5(2), 168-174. http://redfame.com/journal/index.php/aef/article/view/2947 (Download PDF)

Thompson, P. (2019). Does a Day Lost Equal Dollars Saved? The Effects of Four-Day School Weeks on School District Expenditures. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3475804

The Four-Day School Week Districts Continues to Grow in Missouri, Jon Scott Turner, Kim Finch, Ximena Uribe-Zarain, MSTA School and Community, Winter 2018 http://www.ourdigitalmags.com/publication/?i=465974#{%22issue_id%22:465974,%22page%22:10}

Turner, J., Finch, K., & Ximena, U. (2017). Staff Perspectives of the Four-Day School Week: A New Analysis of Compressed School Schedules. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 6(1), 52-62. http://redfame.com/journal/index.php/jets/article/view/2769 (Download PDF)

Effects of Four-Day School Weeks on Student Achievement: Evidence from Oregon. March, 2019. Paul N. Thompson, Oregon State University and IZA. http://ftp.iza.org/dp12204.pdf

The Today Show (NBC) January 21, 2019. Is the four-day school week the next trend in education? https://www.today.com/video/is-a-4-day-school-week-the-next-trend-in-education-1429370435885

The four-day school week: Research behind the trend. Harvard Kennedy School Journalist Resource page. https://journalistsresource.org/studies/society/education/four-day-school-week-research

What this school district learned from a 4-day school week from PBS NewsHour (August 28, 2018)

Ordway, D. (2018). The four-day school week: Research behind the trend. Retrieved from https://journalistsresource.org/studies/society/education/four-day-school-week-research

Tharp, T., Matt, J., & O’Reilly, F. (2016). Is the Four-Day School Week Detrimental to and Student Success?. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(3), 126-132.http://www.redfame.com/journal/index.php/jets/article/view/1308

Heyward, G. (2018, June 01). What Do We Actually Know about the Four-Day School Week? Retrieved from https://www.crpe.org/publications/what-do-we-actually-know-about-four-day-school-week

The Four-Day School Week: Impact on Student Academic Performance (The Rural Educator, 2011) Paul M. Hewitt and George S. Denny http://epubs.library.msstate.edu/index.php/ruraleducator/article/view/160

What Savings Are Produced by Moving to a Four-Day School Week? Griffith, Michael https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED520160

Does Shortening the School Week Impact Student Performance? Evidence from the Four-Day School Week D. Mark Anderson and Mary Beth Walker https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2008999

The Four-Day School Week: Nine Years Later http://ceep.indiana.edu/pdf/PB_V10N6_2012_EPB.pdf

Four-day school weeks: Longer weekends, but less learning? by Maureen Downey, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, March 22, 2018 https://www.myajc.com/blog/get-schooled/four-day-school-weeks-longer-weekends-but-less-learning/oNBK1DQu5A61E2HaMxUqdJ/

Editorial from the Editorial Board of St. Louis Post-Dispatch on January 14, 2019. Young futures hang in the balance as Warren County adopts four-day school week. https://www.stltoday.com/opinion/editorial/editorial-young-futures-hang-in-the-balance-as-warren-county/article_ee9f9902-3239-51f0-ac40-1a3521f58e39.html#tncms-source=johncombest.com

Inside The Four-Day School: Is District's Approach the Next Trend Education? The Today Show (NBC-News). January 21, 2019 https://www.today.com/video/is-a-4-day-school-week-the-next-trend-in-education-1429370435885

It's a trend: More schools going to four-day weeks (KY3 News-Springfield) February 6, 2020 https://www.ky3.com/content/news/Its-a-trend--more-schools-going-to-four-day-weeks-567635661.html

Parents outraged by Chattooga County School Board's Decision to Lengthen School Week (WRCB-TV, Georgia) January 18, 2019 http://www.wrcbtv.com/story/39817373/parents-outraged-by-chattooga-co-school-boards-decision-to-lengthen-school-week#.XEUrCLWPE4l.mailto

Colorado now has more school districts on four-day weeks than any place in the nation — with little research on the benefits --The Colorado Sun, August 27, 2019 https://coloradosun.com/2019/08/27/four-day-school-weeks-in-colorado/

Webinar recorded September 9, 2019. Missouri Four-Day Week Collaborative discussion includes topics like the impact of the later start date law on four-day week districts, new collaborative professional development sessions, and free dual enrollment classes for four-day high school students from Missouri State. https://missouristate.zoom.us/recording/share/D1X0DvsvEDDmZtTLFHYcsw8UP-x_9f08k1xbOeuax1iwIumekTziMw?startTime=1568039713000

RESOURCES FOR SCHOOLS CONSIDERING THE FOUR-DAY SCHOOL WEEK

We are often contacted by schools who are considering a switch to the four-day week. These schools often ask if we have any resources that other schools have used to explore the transition. Below you will find some resources that have been shared with us and may be helpful as examples from other school districts.

Basic Four-Day Week Handout for Meetings (Click)

Warren County (Warrenton) Missouri School Board Presentation (leading up to vote on four-day week)

Forsyth Parent Survey (prior to vote to go to four-day week)

Forsyth School Community Presentation

Ralls County Schools Staff/Faculty Benefit Changes (specifically documents related to changes made to sick day, vacation, and personal day policies)

The Hallsville School District ultimately decided not to adopt the four-day school week the year they created this website (although they have since made the transition to the four-day week), however the website they created to document their process of consideration of the four-day week may be helpful. Visit this site here.

Independence School District Four-Day School Week Information Center-during the fall and winter of 2022-2023, Independence (with over 14,000 students) began considering a four-day school week. This website contains a wealth of information about their proposal including proposed calendars, 5th day plans, and surveys. https://www.isdschools.org/four-day-instructional-week-resource-center/

Sample of Parent Survey We Used As Part of Our Research at Missouri State


Contact information:

Dr. Jon Turner, Associate Professor of Counseling, Leadership, and Special Education

Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri

JonSTurner@MissouriState.edu