ELIZA-Realted Resources

Fundamental ELIZA papers:


Weizenbaum, J. (1966). ELIZA: A computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine. Communications of the ACM, 9, 36-45.


Weizenbaum, J. (1967). Contextual Understanding by Computers, Communications of the ACM, Volume 10, Number 8, August, 1967.


SLIP (and related underlying technologies):


Weizenbaum, J. (1963). Symmetric List Processor. Communications of the ACM, 6(9), 524-536.


A 1961 computer primer for the MAD language, by Elliott Organick.


A copy of the MAD-SLIP manual from the 7090 user's guide. (This was extracted from this University of Michigan 7090 executive manual, which in turn attributes the SLIP writeup to Yale.)


FORTRAN ASSEMBLY PROGRAM (FAP) for the IBM 709/7090 (Computer History Museum)


Computer Power and Human Reason:


Weizenbaum, J. (1976). Computer Power and Human Reason: From Judgment to Calculation, London: Penguin.


An intersting discussion of Weizenbaum's 1976 "Computer Power and Human Reason", that touches many times on ELIZA, can be found here: https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/1045264.1045265


Experiments using ELIZA carried out by Lorch, McGuire, and Quarton c.1967:


Man-machine natural language exchanges based on selected features of unrestricted input—I. The development of the time-shared computer as a research tool in studying dyadic communication. Gardner C. Quarton, Michael T. McGuire, Stephen Lorch. J. Psychiat. Res. 5(2), 1967.


Man-machine natural language exchanges based on selected features of unrestricted input—II. The use of the time-shared computer as a research tool in studying dyadic communication. Michael T. McGuire, Stephen Lorch, Gardner C. Quarton. J. Psychiat. Res. 5(2), 1967.


Other materials:

Adam Gordon Bell interviewed Jeff Shrager (founder of ElizaGen.org) on his CoResursive podcast


THE PROMISE OF THE DOCTOR PROGRAM: EARLY AI AT STANFORD (Computer History Museum)


Follow-on Educational Applications of ELIZA and OPL at MIT:

The Computer History Museum has generously created a PDF of The 1968 ELIZA Scriptwriter's Manual, by Paul R. Hayward.  This document helps to fill out a little-known branch in the genealogy of ELIZA which, soon after it was initially created (in 1965), teachers at MIT, esp. Dr. Hayward, sought to apply it in education. The relevant CHM archive entry is here: https://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102683842. Interestingly, the version of ELIZA described in this document is greatly extended from the original, including what appears to be a MAD-SLIP interpreter built into the ELIZA scripting language.  

Here's is Hayward's 1967 MIT Bachelor's thesis, entitled "FLEXIBLE DISCUSSION UNDER STUDENT CONTROL IN THE ELIZA COMPUTER PROGRAM", which includes extensive advanced ELIZA scripts.

Edwin F. Taylor (1967) The ELIZA Program: Conversational Tutorial. IEEE International Convention Record, Vol. 5, Part 10, p. 8. (This document is provided by explicit permission from IEEE. We thank them for their contribution.)

Edwin F. Taylor (1968) Automated Tutoring and Its Discontents. American Journal of Physics 36, 496 (1968); doi: 10.1119/1.1974953 (This document is provided by explicit permission from the American Association of Physics Teachers. We thank them for their contribution.) 

Here are two documents that describe and discuss the SLIP-based "OPL" language, created by Weizenbaum, and used in the above work: Weizenbaum (1964) OPL-I: An open ended programming system within CTSS, and Weizenbaum (1966) Online User Languages.