An Open Letter for Concerned Scholars Regarding the Flores Settlement of 1997

September 13, 2018

Dear Executive and Legislative Branch Officials,

We are a group of scholars from across the country, with wide ranging expertise including in the areas of children’s policy and child well-being. We share immediate concerns for the wellbeing of children who are being held in migrant detention centers in the United States. We implore you to consider the detrimental effects of the Trump Administration’s proposed revisions to the basic safeguards for children that are protected by the Flores Settlement Agreement of 1997. This agreement secures minimum protections for migrant children that are held in custody by the Department of Homeland Security (then Immigration and Naturalization Services).[1] We, the undersigned, demand that all provisions of Flores be upheld and fully implemented, for the specific reasons outlined below.

All children deserve access to basic human rights. The Flores Agreement Settlement requires that children who are detained have a right to basic standards of care. The Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are required by this settlement to implement procedures of care, including basic protections and access to appropriate food, shelter, medical care, education, and legal support. There is evidence that these standards of care are not being provided [2], yet they are essential to childhood well-being. We demand that access to these basic protections--at minimum--are provided to all children in detention.

Children must be cared for in the least restrictive environment. Children cannot and do not flourish in detention. The Flores Settlement Agreement restricts the number of days (3-5) that a child can be detained, and requires that an age-appropriate placement is provided in the least restrictive environment which accounts for special needs (such as mental health issues, medical need, or disability). The U. S. government is required to provide “continuous efforts towards family reunification and release.”[3] The proposed revisions to these rules allow for indefinite detainment of children. This is unacceptable. It is imperative that children’s time in detention be minimized, that placements prioritize a sustained connection with parents, family members, and/or loving caregivers that can provide developmentally appropriate physical and emotional support for these children. If a family placement is not possible, children must be cared for in independently licensed and non-secure placements.

Children crossing the border deserve effective procedures and developmentally appropriate, supportive services. Research indicates that detention efforts and other restrictive deterrent efforts on the border do not stop migration. [4] Government efforts must acknowledge the root causes of migration and implement sustained support for a safe and secure environment in Central America and Mexico. Simultaneously, the U.S. government must expand the options for safe, developmentally appropriate, community-based placements for children who await reunification with their families.

We strongly oppose any changes to the minimum standards of care and protections provided by the Flores Settlement Agreement. The proposed revisions to the Flores Settlement Agreement are detrimental to the mental health, well-being, and development of children and impede their access to legal protections. The role of the government is to protect children, not perpetuate the trauma imposed by insecure care. We urge you to prioritize child wellbeing and preserve the basic protections mandated by the Flores Settlement Agreement. As scholars, practitioners and experts in children’s issues, we implore the Trump Administration to enforce and expand protections for all children who have migrated in an effort to secure their wellbeing and optimal development.

* All signatures represent opinions of the individual, not necessarily their affiliated institution


Jennifer Chappell Deckert, PhD, Bethel College

Megan Finno-Velasquez, PhD, LMSW, New Mexico State University

Tova Walsh, PhD, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Abigail M. Ross, MSW, MPH, Ph.D., Fordham Graduate School of Social Service

Emily Bosk, PhD, Rutgers University

Toni Marie Biskup, University of Alaska, Anchorage

Gail Trujillo Ph.D., Alaska Association for Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health

Ross A Hudson, LICSW,PIP, Alabama Community Care

Sonya Pritzker, University of Alabama

Rebecca Barrett-Fox, Arkansas State University

Frances Julia Riemer, Ph.D., Northern Arizona University

Arturo Gonzalez MD FAAP, Phoenix Children’s Hospital

Jean Toner, MSW, Ph.D., Arizona State University

Lauren Reed, Arizona State University

Claudia G. Cervantes-Soon, Arizona State University

Carol Brochin, Ph.D., University of Arizona

Desiree Vega, Ph.D., LP, University of Arizona

Gloria Negrete-Lopez, MA, University of Arizona

Katharine Zeiders, University of Arizona

Matthew A. Lapierre, University of Arizona

Melissa Barnett, University of Arizona

Patricia Maning, MA, ABD, University of Arizona

Toni Griego Jones, Ph.D., University of Arizona

Marissa O'Neill, MSW, Ph.D., Humboldt State University

Ariana Thompson-Lastad, UC San Francisco

Karen Watson-Gegeo, Ph.D., Anthropology, Education, University of California

Katherine Mason, LCSW, San Francisco Department of Public Health

Wendy Wiegmann, UC Berkeley

Dr. Lisa Kaczmarczyk, Harvey Mudd College

Diana Letourneau, Ph.D., MSW, Adult Literacy XPRIZE

Sandra Ruiz, Ph.D., West Los Angeles College

Brian Riley, M.A., UC Davis

Cati de los Rios, Ph.D., University of California, Davis

Meghan Miller, Ph.D., UC Davis

Sarina Rodriguez, UC Davis

Stewart Teal M.D., University of California, Davis

Ana Celia Zentella, Ph.D., UCSD

Ana K. Soltero Lopez, Ph.D. , CSU, Fresno

Luz Herrera, Ph.D., California State University, Fresno

Travis W. Cronin, Ph.D., LCSW, California State University, Fresno

Jennifer Miller-Thayer, Ph.D., Citrus College

Rachael Stryker, Ph.D., California State University, East Bay

Sarah Taylor, Ph.D., MSW, California State University, East Bay

Toni Naccarato, MSW, Ph.D., California State University, East Bay

Jeffrey T Charlson, UC-Irvine

Jessica Borelli, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine

Satara Armstrong, Brandman University

Sherine Hamdy, Ph.D., University of California

Ross Frank, U.C. San Diego

Tricia Gallagher-Geurtsen, Ed.D., University of California, San Diego

Yen Le Espiritu, Ph.D., University of California, San Diego

Caitlin E. Fouratt, Ph.D., California State University, Long Beach

Christine El Ouardani, Ph.D., California State University, Long Beach

Efren Aguilar, California State University Long Beach

Lauren Heidbrink, Ph.D., MA/MS, California State University, Long Beach

Maria L. Quintanilla, MSW, LCSW, California State University, Long Beach

Stacey Peyer M.S.W, L.C.S.W. , California State University, Long Beach, SSW

Carola Suarez-Orozco, UCLA

Carolina Villamil Grest, MSW, University of Southern California

Cary L Klemmer, USC Suzanne Dworak-Peck, SSW

Cecilia Menjivar, UCLA

Christopher Thompson, M.D., David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Dorian Traube, Ph.D., LCSW, USC Suzanne Dworak-Peck, SSW

Edwin K. Everhart, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles

Eric Greene, Ph.D.,

Isabella Morton, UCLA

Jason Zevin, Ph.D., University of Southern California

Jennifer Manegold, MD, MS, University of California, Los Angeles

João F. Guassi Moreira, MA, University of California, Los Angeles

John Horton, MD, UCLA

Julie A Cederbaum, Ph.D., MSW, MPH, University of Southern California

Laura Halpin, MD Ph.D., UCLA

Leisy Abrego, University of California, Los Angeles

Magaly Lavadenz, Ph.D., Loyola Marymount University

Maya Smolarek, MD, UCLA

Michael Hurlburt, Ph.D., University of Southern California

Michael Mensah, MD, MPH, UCLA Ronald Reagan

Nichole Goodsmith, MD, Ph.D., UCLA Psychiatry

Omar Lopez, MSW, University of Southern California, Suzanne Dworak-Peck,SSW

Oriel María Siu, Ph.D., Loyola Marymount University

Robert Weinstock, MD, UCLA

Shannon Burns, MA, UCLA

Sharon Mooney, MFA, Loyola Marymount University

Sural Shah, UCLA

Teresa L. McCarty, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles

Joanna W. Wong, Ph.D., California State University, Monterey Bay

Marjorie S. Zatz, University of California, Merced

Martha I. Martinez, Ph.D., Sobrato Early Academic Language (SEAL)

Dr. Lynn Goldstein, The Middlebury Institute of International studies (MIIS)

Anna Corwin, Ph.D., Saint Mary's College of California

Amy Sanchez, MA, University of California, Berkeley

Katrina Saba, MD,

Rebecca Chasnovitz, MD, Kaiser Permanente Northern California

Lama Rimawi, MD, Private practice

Ryan Matlow, Ph.D., Stanford University

Jennifer Tilton Ph.D., University of Redlands

Meagan Talbott, Ph.D., UC Davis

Rachel Flamenbaum, Ph.D., California State University Sacramento

Basia Ellis, Ph.D., California State University Sacramento

Armando Barragan, Ph.D., California State University, San Bernardino

Nancy Acevedo-Gil, Ph.D., California State University, San Bernardino

Amy Non, Ph.D., MPH, UCSD

Cristian Aquino-Sterling, Ph.D., San Diego State University

José I. Fusté, Ph.D. , UC San Diego

Marissa Vasquez, Ed.D., San Diego State University

Gina Pfeifle, Ph.D., University of California, San Francisco

Adam Numis, MD, University of California, San Francisco

Alexandra Ross, Ph.D., University of California San Francisco

Amy Beck, MD MPH, University of California San Francisco

Amy Whittle, MD, University of California San Francisco

Antonio Hernandez, BA, University of California, San Francisco

Anya Dubin, MSSW, LCSW, University of California, San Francisco

Aviva Sinervo, Ph.D., San Francisco State University

Besim Uzgil, MD, Ph.D., University of California, San Francisco

Brianna Paul Ph.D., University of California, San Francisco

Carly Demopoulos, Ph.D., University of California-San Francisco

Cristina Benki, Ph.D., University of California, San Francisco

Danielle Roubinov, Ph.D., University of California, San Francisco

Dannielle McBride, MD, Pediatric Practices in San Francisco

Darlene Cagungun, MEA, City and County of San Francisco

Desiree Dieste, LCSW, MPH, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital

Eleanor Chung, MD, UCSF/San Francisco General Hospital

Ellen Laves, MD, University of California San Francisco

Emily Leang, MBA, University of California, San Francisco

Erin Brightwell, MS, CCC-SLP, University of California, San Francisco

Gloria Perez, LVN, MEA, San Francisco General Hospital

Heather Briscoe, MD, University of California, San Francisco

Irina S. Okhremtchouk, Ph.D. , San Francisco State University

Jean Junior, MD MPhil, University of California, San Francisco

Jennifer Tabora, University of California, San Francisco

Jessica Manning, LCSW, UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital

Jonathan Rosa, Ph.D., Stanford University Graduate School of Education

Jose Garcia , University of California, San Francisco

Juan Raul Gutierrez, MD, University of California, San Francisco

Julia Nunan-Saah, Ph.D., San Francisco Neuropsychology, PC

Julian Thomas, MD, University of California, San Francisco

Lilian Alegria, LVN, San Francisco General Hospital

Margaret Gilbreth, MD, University of California, San Francisco

Mariel dela Paz, MSW, University of California, San Francisco

Matthew Pantell, MD, MS,

Melissa J. Hagan, San Francisco State University

Molly Koren, LCSW, ACSW, University of California, San Francisco

Morgan N. Cronin, MD, University of California, San Francisco

Pamela Coxson, Ph.D., University of California San Francisco

Peggy O'Grady, MSW, LCSW, University of California, San Francisco

Shannon Lundy, Ph.D., University of California, San Francisco

Stephany Cox, Ph.D., University of California, San Francisco

Susan Fisher-Owens, MD, MPH, University of California, San Francisco

Tretha Stroughter, San Francisco General Hospital

Vanessa Garcia, University of California, San Francisco

William Martinez, Ph.D., University of California, San Francisco, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychiatry

Ana Leandro, Public Health Department

Anna Aistrich, MPH, Santa Clara County Public Health Department

Joanne Seavey-Hultquist, MSW, San Jose State University

Jovanna Ponco, Santa Clara County Public Health Department

Luis E. Poza, Ph.D., San Jose State University

Pamela Harter,

Eduardo R Munoz-Munoz, Ph.D., San José State University

Michelle F. Ramos Pellicia, Ph.D., California State University San Marcos

Nicole Ramos, Al Otro Lado

Elizabeth Siantz, Ph.D., MSW, University of California, San Diego

Raquel Amezcua-Chandler,

Maria Vazquez, MA, UC Santa Barbara

Danna Baldwin Moreno, University of California, Santa Cruz

Raquel Pacheco , UCSC, Anthropology

Paula S. Baker, MPA, Santa Clara County Public Health Department

Gaby Aguilera Nunez, MD, UCLA

Caroline Hill, LCSW, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital

Cara Bohon, Ph.D., Stanford University

Lucy King, BA, Stanford University

Ramón Antonio Martínez, Stanford University

Tiffany C. Ho, Ph.D, Stanford University

Vera Gribanov, Stanford University

Rebecca Lengnick-Hall , University of Southern California

Angela Rockett Kirwin, College of the Canyons

Barbara J. Dray, Ph.D., Boulder Valley School District

Katherine Dickinson, Ph.D., Colorado School of Public Health

Sarah Brewer, MPA, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus

Ben Kirshner, Ph.D., University of Colorado, Boulder

Caitlin Fine, MA, MEd, University of Colorado, Boulder

Cheryl Higashida, University of Colorado, Boulder

Deborah Palmer, Ph.D.., University of Colorado, Boulder

Donna Goldstein, Ph.D., University of Colorado, Boulder

Jamy Stillman, Ph.D., University of Colorado, Boulder

Johanna B. Maes, Ph.D., University of Colorado, Boulder

Kathryn E. Goldfarb, Ph.D., University of Colorado,Boulder

Mara J. Goldman, Ph.D., University of Colorado,Boulder

Marcia Yonemoto, Ph.D., University of Colorado,Boulder

Matthias Richter, Ph.D., University of Colorado,Boulder

Naomi Y Feiman, MD FAAP, The Pediatric Center

Sandra A. Butvilofsky, Ph.D., University of Colorado, Boulder

Shawhin Roudbari, Ph.D., PE, University of Colorado, Boulder

Silvia Nogueron-Liu, University of Colorado, Boulder

Susan Hopewell, Ph.D., University of Colorado, Boulder

Tracy Ferrell, Ph.D., University of Colorado, Boulder

Victoria Hand, Ph.D., University of Colorado, Boulder

Amanda Campbell, MSW, LCSW, Metropolitan State University of Denver

Cristina Gillanders, Ph.D., University of Colorado, Denver

Donald Gerke, Ph.D., MSW,

Janine Young, MD, FAAP, University of Colorado School of Medicine

Jean Cimino, MPH, IMH-E (Policy), Colorado Association for Infant Mental Health

Jennifer C. Greenfield, Ph.D., MSW, University of Denver

Mark Plassmeyer, MSW, University of Denver

Melissa Berglund, University of Denver

Rebecca Galemba Ph.D., University of Denver

Salvador Armendariz, MA, MSW, University of Denver

Sheila M Shannon, Ph.D., University of Colorado, Denver

Chris Lee, Colorado State University

Lauren Boissy, MPH, Colorado School of Public Health

Rebecca Orsi, Ph.D., School of Social Work, Colorado State University

Madeline Milian, EdD, University of Northern Colorado

Rhoda Smith, Ph.D., MSW, Springfield College

Anne E. Campbell, Ph.D., Fairfield University

Alberto Cifuentes, Jr., LMSW, University of Connecticut, SSW

Alysse Loomis, University of Connecticut

Jenna Powers, MSW, University of Connecticut

Kathryn Libal, Ph.D., University of Connecticut

Megan Berthold, University of Connecticut, SSW

Miriam G. Valdovinos, University of Connecticut

Angela Bellas, MSW, University of Connecticut

Kathleen A Campbell MD, Americares

Dylan Gee, Ph.D., Yale University

James Silk, Yale Law School

Jessica Wilen , Yale University

Stephen Monroe Tomczak, Ph.D., L.M.S.W., Southern Connecticut State University, SSW

Zareena Grewal Ph.D., Yale University

Michele Back, Ph.D., University of Connecticut

Rebecca Campbell, Ph.D., University of Connecticut

Margaret C Holmberg, Ph.D., IMH-E, Alliance for the Advancement of Infant Mental Health

Angela J. Davis, American University Washington College of Law

Billie Kaufman, American University, Washington College of Law

Elisabeth Marsh, MSW, Private Practice

Elliott S Milstein, American University, Washington College of Law

Ira P. Robbins, American University, Washington College of Law

Jeff Hild, J.D., George Washington University School of Public Health

Kristie De Pena, Niskanen Center

Nia I Bodrick MD,MPH, Children's National Health System

Peter Jaszi, American University Law School

Rachel Margolis, MSW, LICSW, University of Maryland, Baltimore, SSW

Rebecca Hamilton, J.D., MPP, American University, Washington College of Law

Scott Freeman, Ph.D., American University

Susan Shepler, Ph.D., School of International Service, American University

Janie Chuang, American University Washington College of Law

Prof. N. Jeremi Duru, American University

Amanda Costello, Ph.D., University of Delaware

Amy L. Huffer, Ph.D., LCSW, IMH-E (IV-C), University of Delaware

Caroline Roben, Ph.D., University of Delaware

Lindsay Zajac, M.A., University of Delaware

Marta Korom, MA, Ph.D. Candidate, University of Delaware

Stevie Schein, Ph.D., University of Delaware

Lucina Uddin, Ph.D., University of Miami

Maria Coady, Ph.D., University of Florida

Ansi Hakkim MD, Jackson Memorial Hospital

Erica D. Musser, Ph.D., licensed clinical psychologist, Florida International University

Shimon Cohen, Florida International University

Grafton H. Hull, Jr., MSW, EdD, University of Utah

Karen Oehme, J.D., Florida State University

Lisa Schelbe , Florida State University

Melissa Radey, Ph.D., MSSW, MA, Florida State University

Alayne Unterberger, FICS

Anna Davidson Abella, Ph.D., University of South Florida

Abigail C Burns, University of Georgia

Jane McPherson, Ph.D., LCSW, University of Georgia

Ruth Harman, University of Georgia

Tatiana Villarreal-Otalora, University of Georgia

Carol M. Worthman, Ph.D., Emory University

Saira Alimohamed, M.D., Grady Health System

Tiffaney Renfro, MSW, MRPL, Emory University

Tammy M Rice, LCSW, ACSW, Dalton State College

Steven Black, Ph.D.,

Susan Young, University of Roehampton, London

Robert J Murphy, Ph.D., MSc, CQSW, Greater London

Maya Uemoto, MPH, University of Hawaii

Michaela Rinkel, Hawaii Pacific University

Suresh Tamang, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Lana Sue Ka'opua, Ph.D., MSW, University of Hawaii-Manoa

Ilima Ho-Lastimosa, MSW, MoA, University of Hawaii

Dr. Liz Mendez-Shannon, MSW, Iowa State University

Sarah Pamperin, Ph.D. Candidate, ISU, Iowa State University

Katherine van Wormer, University of Northern Iowa

Steven Onken, Ph.D., MSSW, University of Northern Iowa

Abby Foreman, PhD, MSW, Dordt College

Ulrike Heldt, Dordt College

Erin Olson , Dordt College

Tammy Faux, MSSW, Ph.D., Wartburg College

Daysi Diaz-Strong, Ph.D.., Aurora University

Saliwe Kawewe, Ph.D., MSW. BSW, Southern Illinois University

Catherine Corr, Ph.D.., University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Bryan G. Miller, Ph.D., Eastern Illinois University

Maria Masud, MS, Modern Languages, DePaul University

Adam Avrushin, JD, Ph.D., Loyola University, Chicago

Ann F. Trettin, The University of Chicago

Arryn Guy, MS, Illinois Institute of Technology

Mariana Ricklefs, Ph.D., National Louis University

Astrid Leon MD , University of Illinois at Chicago

Bill Johnson Gonzalez, Ph.D., DePaul University

Camila Ospina Jiménez MD , UIC

Carolina Barrera-Tobón, Ph.D., DePaul University

Carolina Sternberg, Ph.D., DePaul University, DePaul University

Crystal Ochoa, Loyola University, Chicago

Deanna Behrens, MSME, MD, Advocate Children’s Hospital

Delia Cosentino, Ph.D., DePaul University

Dr. Ann Russo, Ph.D., DePaul University

Dr. Eulàlia P. Abril, University of Illinois at Chicago

Dr. Jasmine Saavedra, D.O., UIC

Dr. Juana Goergen, DePaul University

Dr. Paul Cooper MD, University of Illinois

Dr. Susana S. Martínez, DePaul University

Edward Awh, Ph.D., University of Chicago

Elizabeth Aquino, Ph.D., RN, DePaul University

Elizabeth Jarpe-Ratner, Ph.D., MPH, MST, MidAmerica Center for Public Health Practice at University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health

Ester N. Trujillo, Ph.D., DePaul University

Gary Cestaro, DePaul University

Glen Carman, Ph.D., DePaul University

Ida Salusky, MPH, Ph.D., DePaul University

Jack Lu, Ph.D., MSW, University of Illinois at Chicago

Jennifer Whitelaw, MA, DePaul University

Jesse Mumm, Ph.D., DePaul University

Jill Barbre, MSEd, LCSW, Erikson Institute

John Flores, MD, University of illinois

Jose Perales, M.Ed., ILACHE

JP Prims, University of Illinois at Chicago

Kaela Byers, Ph.D., MSW, Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago

Katherine M Manthei, LPC, Communities In Schools of Chicago

Kathryn E Ringland, Ph.D., Northwestern University

Kenneth Kellner, MD, University of Illinois at Chicago

Krista Thomas, Ph.D. , Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago

Laura Kina, MFA, DePaul University

Lee Ann Huang, MPP, Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago

Linda J. Skitka, Ph.D., University of Illinois at Chicago

Lourdes Torres, DePaul University

Maggie Meza, Loyola University Chicago School of Law

Margaret Miles, LCSW, Concordia University Chicago

Maria Wathen, Loyola University Chicago

Martha McGivern, Ph.D., DePaul University

Mauricio Cifuentes, Ph.D., Loyola University Chicago

Michelle Barnes, MD, University of Illinois at Chicago

Nancy Luna, PsyD, Private Practice

Nathan Dalrymple, MD, University of Illinois

Otunnu, DePaul University

P. Zitlali Morales, Ph.D., University of Illinois at Chicago

Pei-Yuan Tsou, MD, Amita Health

Rebecca Cabezas, Legal Council for Health Justice

Rose J Spalding, Ph.D., DePaul University

Sandra Benedet, Ph.D., DePaul University

Sarah Cohen, Ph.D., Loyola University Chicago

Sarah Shlemon, MSW, Noble Street College Prep

Stacy Papangelis, LCPC, MISA II, Midwest Wellness Center Associates

Wendy Carson, ICDI @CRLN

Yadira Toro, MSW, PEL /TYPE 73, Dominican University

Cheryl Dority, M.A., Chicago City Colleges

John Evar Strid, Northern Illinois University

Chase Bednarz, NREMT, Northwestern University

Helen B. Schwartzman, Ph.D., Northwestern University

Rebecca A. Seligman, Ph.D., Northwestern University

Bridget Boyd MD, Loyola University Health Systems

Hannah Chow, Trinity Health

Julie O'Keefe, MD, Loyola University Medical Center

Mary Jones MD,MJ,MPH, Loyola University Medical Center

Sandra L. Osorio, Ph.D., Illinois State University

Karen A. D'Angelo, MSW, Ph.D., University of Illinois at Chicago

Dr. Portia Adams, Bradley University

Julie Bach, Ph.D., LCSW, MSW, Dominican University

Shannon Wall, BA, MSW, Dominican University

Fred I. Oskin, ACSW, Dominican University, SSW

Krystal A. Smalls, Ph.D., University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

William Schneider, University of Illinois

Cynthia Avers, MA, LPC, NCC, GreenPath Clinic

Shirley Kessler, Ph.D., National-Louis University

Stephen W. Porges, Ph.D., Indiana University

Kim Brian Lovejoy, Indiana University, Purdue University

Margaret E Adamek, Indiana University

Susan D Blum, Ph.D., The University of Notre Dame

Marisa Exter, Ph.D., Purdue University

Trish Morita-Mullaney, Ph.D., Purdue University

Wayne E. Wright, Ph.D., Purdue University

Ashley Palmer, LMSW, University of Kansas School of Social Welfare

Ben Chappell, University of Kansas

Deborah Adams, University of Kansas

Laurie L. Ramirez, MSW, University of Kansas

Megan Paceley, Ph.D., MSW, University of Kansas

Kate Swartley, Bethel College

Tami Radohl, MSW, Ph.D., LSCSW, Park University

Molly Jones-Peterman, LMSW, University of Kansas

Cammie J. Funston, Wichita Public Schools

Rick Wurth, , CHNK Behavioral Health

Stacie Hatfield MA, University of Kentucky

Ashlee Van Schyndel, University of Louisville

Diane Nititham, Ph.D., Murray State University

Marialuisa Di Stefano, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Aisha James, MD, Massachusetts General Hospital

Anahita Hamidi, Ph.D., Boston University

Catherine Solomon, MSW, Ph.D., Boston University

Charles A. Nelson III, Ph.D., Harvard Medical School and Boston Children's Hospital

Christine Leighton, EdD, Emmanuel College

Cristina Brinkerhoff, MA, Boston University

Diane Casey Crowley, MSW, LCSW, Boston University, SSW

Dorothy T. Richardson, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts, Boston

Ed Tronick, U Massachusetts Boston, Harvard Medical School

Eric Fleegler MD MPH, Harvard medical school

Hope Haslam Straughan, Ph.D., MSW, ACSW, Boston University

Jeannie Outerbridge ,BA, Boston University

Jessica Shaw, Ph.D., Boston College

John Paul Horn, MSW, Boston University, SSW

Jorge Delva, Boston University

Judith Scott, Ph.D., LICSW, Boston University

Juliana Scherer, LCSW, Silver Lining Mentoring

Julie Springwater, MSW, Boston University, SSW

Karen Ross, UMASS Boston

Kelsi Carolan, MSW, LICSW, Boston University

Ken Schulman, MSW, Boston University, SSW

Kristina M. Whiton-O'Brien, MSW, LICSW, Boston University, SSW

Lance D. Laird, ThD, Boston University School of Medicine

Laura L Hayman, Ph.D., MSN, UMass Boston College of Nursing & Health Sciences

Lizabeth Roemer, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts, Boston

Louise E Parker, Ph.D., UMASS, Boston

Madi Wachman, MSW, MPH, Boston University

Maria Fernanda Escobar, MPP, Brandeis University

Martha Sola-Visner, Harvard Medical School

Mihoko Maru, MA, MSW, Boston University, SSW

Mindy Lo, MD, Ph.D., Boston Children's Hospital

Neena Schultz, MSW, MPH, Boston University

Shoshanna Ehrlich, J.D., UMASS, Boston

Taylor Hall, MA, ABD, Boston University

Westy A Egmont, DMin, Boston College

Whitney Gecker, MA, Boston University

Jack P. Shonkoff, M.D., Harvard University

John Flournoy, Ph.D., Harvard University

Karlen Lyons-Ruth, Ph.D. , Cambridge Hospital and the Harvard Medical School

Melissa Kline, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Mina Cikara, Ph.D. , Harvard University

Peiwei Li, Lesley University

Sarah Surrain, EdM, Harvard University

Thomas Levenson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

C. Patrick Proctor, Ed.D., Boston College

Martin Scanlan, Boston College

Samantha Teixeira, MSW, Ph.D., Boston College

Thomas M. Crea, Boston College

Ann Easterbrooks. Ph.D., Tufts University

Deborah Wolozin, Ph.D., Psychodynamic Couple & Family Institute of New England

Charlotte Meehan, Wheaton College

Gail Sahar, Ph.D., Wheaton College

Hector Medina, Wheaton College

Kim Miller, Ph.D., Wheaton College

M Gabriela Torres, Ph.D., Wheaton College

Vicki Bartolini, Ph.D., Wheaton College MA

Elspeth Slayter, MSW, Ph.D., Salem State University

David Hernández, Ph.D., Mount Holyoke College

Jennifer Cannella, MSW, LICSW, Western New England University

Jessica Santos. Ph.D., Brandeis University

Susan E. Eaton, EdD, Brandeis University

Teresa Mitchell, Ph.D., Brandeis University

Yaminette Diaz-Linhart, MSW, MPH, Brandeis University

Julie K. Norem, Ph.D., Wellesley College

Erica L. Streit-Kaplan, MSW, MPH, Parenting Through a Jewish Lens

Patricia Moruiarty Strong, Anna Maria College

Carol Vidal, MD, MPH, Johns Hopkins

Marcela Sarmiento Mellinger, MSW, Ph.D., UMBC

Margarita Gómez Zisselsberger, Loyola University Maryland

Giselle A Hass, Psy.D.,

Angelica Montoya Avila, M.A., University of Maryland, College Park

Christina Getrich, Ph.D., University of Maryland

Elizabeth Aparicio, Ph.D., MSW, University of Maryland

Olufunke Pickering MD MBA FAAP, Chase Brexton org

Limaya Atembina, MSW, LMSW, Westat

Lynda Myers, Gallaudet University

Lea Ann Christenson Ph.D., Towson University

Teresa Crowe,Ph.D., LICSW, Gallaudet University

Shelley Cohen Konrad, University of New England

Elizabeth Marie Armstrong, University of Maine

Amy Coha, University of New England

Cyndi Amato, MSW, University of New England

Lori G Power, M.A. Ed.D., University of New England

Susan Fineran Ph.D., LICSW, University of Southern Maine

Amanda Kaufman MD, Integrative Healthcare Providers

Andrea Horvath, Allen Creek Preschool

Ashley Lucas, Ph.D., University of Michigan

Bethany Verbrugge, BSW, University of Michigan, SSW

Betsy Lozoff, University of Michigan

Daniel G. Saunders, Ph.D., University of Michigan

Deb Rhizal, CNM, RN , University of Michigan

Gale R Whittier-Ferguson, Allen Creek Preschool

Helen R. Weingarten, Ph.D., MSW, University of Michigan

Julie Ribaudo, LMSW, IMH-E(IV), University of Michigan

Katherine L. Rosenblum, Ph.D. , University of Michigan

Katie Chappell-Lakin, MMT, Allen Creek Preschool

Kumiko Teitgen, Allen Creek Preschool

Laura Brubacher,

Mallory Mareski, MSW Candidate , University of Michigan

Marcia Healey, Allen Creek Preschool

Meghan Wernimont, M.S., CCC-SLP, Allen Creek Preschool

Nicole Buller, MSW, Allen Creek Preschool

Susan Hunsberger, MA, Ohio State University

Suzanne J. Bayer, MA ED , Allen Creek Preschool

Sydney R Grant, University of Michigan, SSW

Trevor Bechtel, Ph.D., University of Michigan

Karen E. Baker, MSW, Allen Creek Preschool

Kathy Brubaker, RN, MSN, St Joseph Mercy Chelsea

John Kotre, Ph.D., University of Michigan, Dearborn

Christina P. DeNicolo, Wayne State University

Dr. John M. Staudenmaier sj, The University of Detroit Mercy

Gail Gebhart, Wayne State University

Christina Ponzio, Michigan State University

Geneva Smitherman, Ph.D., Michigan State University

Madeline Mavrogordato, Ph.D., Michigan State University

Clarence W. Joldersma, Ph.D., Calvin College

Claudia Beversluis, Ph.D., Calvin College

Elisha Marr, Ph.D., Calvin College

Emily Helder, Ph.D., LP, Calvin College

Jennifer Steiner, Ph.D., Van Andel Institute

John Walcott, Ph.D., Calvin College

Joseph Kuilema, Ph.D., MSW, Calvin College

Kristen Alford, Ph.D., MSW, MPH, Calvin College

Paola Leon, Ph.D., Grand Valley State University

Rachel Venema, Ph.D., MSW, Calvin College

Neil Carlson, Ph.D., Calvin College

Alejandra Medina MA, LPC, NCC, DYOS Counseling

Robert Hutton, BS, Oakland University

Susan Stackpoole, LCSW, BCD, Summit Psychological

Nichole Paradis, LMSW, IMH-E®, Alliance for the Advancement of Infant Mental Health

Sheryl Goldberg, LMSW, ACSW, IMH-E Mentor, Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health

Michelle Webster-Hein,

Jennifer Simmelink McCleary, University of Minnesota Duluth

Sophia Knight, University of Minnesota Duluth

Khaled Mohammed, MD, University of Minnesota

Patricia Sherman, Capella University

Heather Stefanski, MD Ph.D., University of Minnesota Medical School

Alexandra Muhar, MD, University of Minnesota

Amy Esler, University of Minnesota

Andrea Lyle, MD, University of Minnesota

Andrew J. Barnes, MD, MPH, FAAP, University of Minnesota

Antoinette Moran, University of Minnesota

Ariel Stein, MD, University of Minnesota

Arif Somani, MD., University of Minnesota

Arnold L London MD FAAP, University of Minnesota

Ashley Phimister, MD, University of Minnesota

Ben Trappey, MD, University of MInnesota

Benjamin Ryba-White, University of Minnesota

Beth Mittelstet, MD, University of Minnesota

Blanca Caldas, Ph.D., University of Minnesota

Brandon Nathan,MD, University of Minnesota

Brooklyn Leitch, MD, University of Minnesota

Bryan M Jepson, MD, University of Minnesota

Calla Brown, MD, University of Minnesota

Carol J Martin, MD,

Carrie Link, MD, University of Minnesota

Catherine Larson-Nath, MD, University of Minnesota

Cheryl A. Gale, M.D., F.A.A.P., University of Minnesota

Claire Halpert, University of Minnesota

David Valentine, University of Minnesota

Dr. Stephen Knier, D.O., University of Minnesota

Elena Brown, MD, University of Minnesota

Elif Cingi, M.D, M.H.A,

Elisabeth Heal, DO, MSCR, University of Minnesota

Elissa Downs, MD MPH, University of Minnesota

Ellen Block, Ph.D., MSW, St. John's University

Emily Greengard, MD, University of Minnesota

Eric Hoggard MD, University of Minnesota

Erica Ting, MD, University of Minnesota

Erin McHugh MD MPH, University of Minnesota

Faith Myers, University of Minnesota

Heidi Moline, MD, MPH, University of Minnesota

Holly Belgum, MD, University of Minnesota

Ifelayo Ojo, MBBS, MPH, University of Minnesota

Iris Wagman Borowsky, MD, Ph.D., University of Minnesota

James Nixon, MD, MHPE, University of Minnesota

Jennifer Signor, DO, University of Minnesota

Jessica Gaulter, MD, University of Minnesota

Jill Lee APRN, CPNP-AC, University of Minnesota

Joseph P. Neglia, MD, MPH, University of Minnesota

Judith Eckerle, MD, University of Minnesota

Kalli Hess, MD, University of Minnesota

Kate Follese , DO, University of Minnesota

Kate Shafto, MD, FAAP, FACP, University of Minnesota Medical School

Katherine Allen, MD MPH, University of Minnesota

Kelly Dietz, MD, University of Minnesota

Kendra Kelly Martinez, MD, University of Minnesota

Kristina Krohn, MD, University of Minnesota

Lori Helman, Ph.D., University of Minnesota

Lynn A. Gershan, MDCM, University of Minnesota

Maren Olson, MD, MPH, University of Minnesota

Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Ph.D., L.P., ABPdN, University of Minnesota

Margot Zarin-Pass, MD, University of Minnesota

Marie Steiner, MD, University of Minnesota

Mark G. Roback MD, University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital

Matthew Thompson, MD, University of Minnesota

Matthew Yocum, MD, MS, University of Minnesota

Meghan Fanta, MD, University of Minnesota

Melissa Hardy, MD, University of Minnesota Pediatric Residency Program

Michael Nieto, MD, University of Minnesota

Michaela Rokosz, MD, University of Minnesota

Michelle Rene Brechon, APRN, CNM, University of Minnesota Medical Center

Miriam Shapiro, MD, University of Minnesota

Naomi Goloff, MD, FAAP, University of Minnesota

Patricia Hobday, MD, University of Minnesota

Paul Park, MD, University of Minnesota

Phillip Plager, MD, University of Minnesota

Phyllis Gorin MD, University of Minnesota

Rebecca Ameduri, MD, University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital

Rebecca Shlafer, Ph.D., MPH, University of Minnesota

Robert Galvin, MD, University of Minnesota

Sahar Ahmed, MBBS, University of Minnesota

Sandy Liu, MD, University of Minnesota

Sarah Jane Schwarzenberg, MD, University of Minnesota

Sonja Colianni, MD FAAP, University of Minnesota

Sophia Frank, University of Minnesota

Stacy Romero Willson, MD, MPH, University of Minnesota

Tiffany Albrecht, MD, MPH, University of Minnesota

Tori Bahr, MD, University of Minnesota

Vicki Oster, MD, University of Minnesota

William M. Gershan, MD, University of Minnesota

Zachary Shaheen, MD/Ph.D., University of Minnesota

Zujaja Sadiq,MBBS, University of Minnesota

Emily Borman-Shoap, MD, University of Minnesota

Cynthia Ruth Howard, MD, MPH, FAAP, University of Minnesota

Erin Balay, MD, University of Minnesota

Nathan Wegmann DO, MPH, University of Minnesota

Nicole M. Chase, MD, University of Minnesota

Sandra Mayrand, MD,

Sharmila Raghunandan, D.O., MPH, University of Minnesota

Elizabeth Dietz, MD, Allina Health Medical Clinic

Jennifer J Mehmel, MD, Allina Health

Marilyn E. Vigil, AM, Metropolitan State University

Maureen O'Dougherty, Ph.D., Metropolitan State University

Emily Halverson, MD, University of Minnesota

Katherine Policht, MD MBA , University of Minnesota

Lyndsie Marie Schultz, Ph.D., University of Missouri

John D. Cowden, MD, MPH, University of Missouri, Kansas City

Sister Carol Boschert, St. Louis University

Sascha Mowrey, Missouri State University

Thomas L. Rodebaugh III, Ph.D., Washington University in St Louis

Marlys Peck, Ph.D., MSW, University of Central Missouri

Caroline Compretta, Ph.D., University of MS Medical Center

Pedro M Hernandez, Jackson State University

Na Youn Lee, University of Mississippi

Mariana Carrera, Montana State University

Brandy Hadley, Ph.D., Appalachian State University

Allison De Marco, MSW Ph.D., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Kathleen Clarke-Pearson MD FAAP, NC Pediatric Society North Carolina Pediatric Society NORTH CAROLINA

Keely A. Muscatell, Ph.D., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Daniel R. Neuspiel, MD, MPH, FAAP, Atrium Health

Gracelyn Cruden, MA, UNC Chapel Hill

J. H. Pate Skene, JD, Ph.D., Duke University

Jamie L. Schissel, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Shelia M Rittgers, MSW, LCSW, Duke University Health System

Joanne Hessmiller, Ph.D., LCSW, North Carolina A&T State University

Angela Wiseman, NC State

Casey Paul, Ph.D., Meredith College

June W. Hurt, M.Ed., North Carolina State University

Michael Anderson, NCSU/Triangle Math and Science Academy

Nermin Vehabovic , North Carolina State University

Lisa Ortmann, Ph.D., UND

Koyejo Oyerinde, MD, DrPH,

Kara Mitchell Viesca, Ph.D., University of Nebraska Lincoln

Patricia L. Sattler, University of Kansas

Dr. Maryanne Stevens, RSM, College of Saint Mary

Laura L. Heinemann, Ph.D., Creighton University

Lleij Samuel Schwartz, Ed.D., Southern New Hampshire University

Robin Hernandez-Mekonnen, Stockton University Child Welfare Education Institute

Janice Stiglich, Ph.D. Candidate, Rutgers University

Janice Stiglich, Ph.D. Candidate in Childhood Studies, Rutgers University

Katherine Fredricks, MA, Rutgers University

Rosemarie Pena, ABD, Rutgers-Camden

Sheila Cosminsky, Ph.D., Rutgers University

Diane Falk, Stockton University

Catherine Michener, Ph.D., Rowan University

Jennifer C. Santana MS, Coalition of Infant Toddler Educators

Jennifer Ayala, Ph.D., Saint Peter's University

Jennifer C Olmsted Ph.D., Drew University

Mitchell Kahn, Ramapo College of New Jersey

Janey DeLuca,

Angela DeFazio, BA Early Childhood Education, Is It Good for Children, LLC

Adam DiBella, Montclair State University, Center for Autism and Early Childhood Mental Health

Adriane Golden, Montclair State University

Christopher N Matthews, Ph.D., Montclair State University

Irene Dunsavage, Montclair University

Julie Farnum, Ph.D., Montclair State University

Lorri Sullivan, M.Ed, Coalition of Infant Toddler Educators

Maisa Taha, Ph.D., Montclair State University

Barbara Kiley'MA IMH-11, Coalition of Infant/Toddler Educators

Ariana Mangual Figueroa, Rutgers University

Cathryn Potter, Rutgers University, SSW

Douglas Behan, LCSW, Rutgers University

DuWayne Battle, Ph.D., MSW, Rutgers University

Erica Goldblatt Hyatt, DSW, Rutgers University

Jacquelynn Duron, Rutgers University

Jeanne M. Koller, Ph.D., MSW, LCSW , Rutgers University

Jeounghee Kim, MSW, Ph.D., Rutgers University, SSW

Kathleen J. Pottick, MSW, MA, Ph.D., Rutgers University

Lenna Nepomnyaschy, Rutgers University

Rebecca Logue-Conroy, Rutgers University

Samuel C. Jones, DSW, LCSW, Rutgers University, SSW

Rose M. Perez, Ph.D., Fordham University

Jacquelyn Doran Cunningham, Ph.D., Metro Regional Diagnostic and Treatment Center

Jeanne McMahon, MPH, SPAN Parent Advocacy Network

Karun Singh, Ph.D., Rutgers University, SSW

Coleen Vanderbeek, Psy. D., LPC, Purple Dragonfly Therapy Group

Shilpa Pai, MD, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

Terri Buccarelli, MPA, IMH-E, NJ Association for Infant Mental Health

Carolyn E. Tebbetts, M. Ed., NJ Coalition of Infant Toddler Educators

Cynthia Soete, MSEd, IMH-E®, The Coalition of Infant/Toddler Educators (NJ)

Peter Siegel, Ph.D., Montclair State University

Mark Lamar MSW, MBA, LCSW, Rutgers University, SSW

Alex Stelzner, MD, University of New Mexico Children's Hospital

Amy Messex, LCSW, New Mexico Highlands University

Elisa Kawam, MSW, Ph.D., NASW-NM

Evelyn BlanchardL Ph.D., MSW, New Mexico Highlands University, SSW

Helen Robertson,

Jennifer Moore, University of New Mexico

Jessica Goodkind, Ph.D., University of New Mexico

Maria Munguia, Ph.D., LCSW, New Mexico Highlands University, SSW

Theron P. Snell, Ph.D,

Kenneth Ferrone, Catholic Charities of Southern New Mexico

Emma Orta, LMSW, New Mexico State University

Michelle Salazar Perez, New Mexico State University

Monica Montoya, New Mexico State University

Ruth Ortiz, LBSW, MSW, IMH®, New Mexico Association for Infant Mental Health

Stacy Gherardi, New Mexico State University

Leslie Cook, LCSW, PsyD (ABD), New Mexico State University

Alain Bengochea, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Deborah A. Boehm, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Reno

Chenique Rowe, LMSW, College of Saint Rose

Donna McIntosh, MSW, Siena College

Janet Acker, Ph.D., MSSW, MDiv, LCSW-R, The College of Saint Rose

Sarah Rogerson, Albany Law School

Steven J. Goldstein, MD, FAAP, NY State American Academy of Pediatrics

Marla Guzman, MD, FAAP, American Academy of Pediatrics

Sanjiv Godse, M.D, Northwell Health

Margaret Jahn MD FAAP, New York Medical College

M. Elizabeth Thorpe, The College at Brockport, SUNY

Chanelle Diaz, MD, MPH, Montefiore Medical Center

Hildred Machuca DO, Montefiore Medical Center

Jonathan Ross, MD MS, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Judy Aschner, MD, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Katherine S. Lobach, MD, FAAP, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Kevin Fiori MD, MPH, Albert Einstein School of Medicine

Kevin J. McKenna, MD, Montefiore Medical Center

Lauren Jen, MD FAAP, Maria Fareri Children’s Hospital

Lynn F Davidson MD , Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Mariya Masyukova, MD, MS, Montefiore Medical Center

Michelle Ratau MD, MPH, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Peter Sherman, MD, MPH, BronxCare Health System

Siyu Xiao, MD, Montefiore Medical Center

Angie Matos MD, TBHC

Bryce Henderson, MSW, Fordham University

Claudia Vega , SGU

Elsa Davidson, Ph.D., Montclair State University

Henry Schaeffer, M.D., SUNY Downstate Medical Center

Ivan Hand, MD,MS,FAAP, SUNY Downstate Medical Center

Juan C. Kupferman MD, MPH, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Leslie Alvarado MD FAAP,

Margaret Golden MD MPH, SUNY Downstate College of Medicine

Melissa Rosenfeld Ed. D, NYC Department of Education

Nancy Lemberger EdD, Long Island University

Nina Stepney, ICL/ Family resource Center

Paulo R. Pina, MD, MPH`, Family Health Centers at NYU Langone

Sara Vogel, City University of New York

Valeriy Chorny, MD FAAP, SUNY Downstate

Warren Seigel, MD, MBA, FAAP, FSAHM,

Elizabeth Bowen, Ph.D., University at Buffalo

Nancy J. Smyth, Ph.D., MSW, University at Buffalo, SSW

Patricia Logan-Greene, MSSW, Ph.D., University at Buffalo

Douglas Waite, MD, The Children's Village

Gail Schonfeld, MD, FAAP, East End Pediatrics,PC

Patrice A Pryce,

Sayeedul Islam Ph.D. , Farmingdale State College

Erica Mamauag, M.D., Cohen Children's Hospital

Robert Lee, DO, Stony Brook University School of Medicine

Jennifer R. Guzmán, Ph.D., SUNY Geneseo

Robert E Rosenberg MD FAAP, New York Medical College

Daniel Alanko, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell

Jeanne Zinzarella DO FAAP, NYU Winthrop Hospital Pediatric Center

Dr. Eve Meltzer Krief, MD, American Academy of Pediatrics, NY Chapter 2

Melissa Ferguson, Ph.D., Cornell University

Alyson Gutman MD, Cohen Children's Medical Center, Northwell Health

Leilani Chingcuangco, MD, NYU Langone Health

Maurice J. Chianese, M.D., NYS AAP Chapter 2

SUSAN E BONADONNA, MD, Family Health Center, Montefiore

Julie Goldscheid, Esq., CUNY Law School

Allie Robbins, CUNY School of Law

Babe Howell, CUNY School of Law

Beryl Blaustone, CUNY School of Law

Charisa Smith, JD, LLM, CUNY School of Law

Janet M. Calvo, CUNY School of Law

Jeffrey L. Kirchmeier, CUNY School of Law

Lisa Davis, CUNY School of Law

Nancy K. Ota, CUNY School of Law

Nina Chernoff, CUNY School of Law

Sarah Valentine, CUNY School of Law

Stephen Loffredo, City University of New York School of Law

Talia Peleg, Esq., CUNY School of Law

Yasmin Sokkar Harker, JD, MLS, CUNY School of Law

Jennifer Moody, D.O., NYU Winthrop

Joshua Chan, MBS, MD, NYU Winthrop

Harriet P. Hudson< M.D., F.A.A.P, Clarkstown Pediatrics

Alyssa Churchill, MD, Cohen Children’s Medical Center

Helen Cheung MD,

Joe Castiglione, MD, Cohen children’s medical center

Kristina Bianco MD, Cohen Children's Medical Center

Kriti Gupta, M.D., Cohen Children's Medical Center

Linda Carmine, MD, Northwell Health

LInda Wang, M.D., American Academy of Pediatrics

Lydia Thomas, MD, Cohen Children's Medical Center

Monica Salama, MD, MS, Cohen Children's Medical Center, Northwell Health

Sibgha Zaheer, MD MPH, Northwell Health

Adam Brown, Ph.D., Silberman School of Social Work at Hunter College, CUNY

Ahuva Freilich Bergman, MD, American Academy of Pediatrics

Amanda Bialy, Fordham University

Ann Le,

Arthur H. Fierman, M.D., NYU School of Medicine

Ayala Fader, Fordham University

Barbara J Magid,

Brigitte Kerpsack, MD, MPH, NYS AAP

Carmen Martinez, Teachers College, Columbia University

Carol Duh-Leong, MD, MPP,

Caroline Cherston , Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons

Caroline Salas-Humara, MD, NYU School of Medicine

Carolyn Benson, Ph.D., Teachers College, Columbia University

Cecilia Espinosa, Ph.D., Lehman College/CUNY

Chandler Patton Miranda, New York University

Cindy Huang, Ph.D., Teachers College, Columbia University

Clare Huntington, Fordham Law School

Colleen Henry, MSW, Ph.D., Hunter College, CUNY

Colleen Katz, LCSW, Ph.D., Hunter College, CUNY

Cynthia Osman, MD, MS, New York University

Daran Kaufman, MD, MBA, NYC H+H/ North Central Bronx

Dave Fields, CUNY Law School

David Scott Herszenson MD, MPH, Montefiore Medical Center

Deborah Zalesne, CUNY School of Law

Erin P. Williams, MBE , Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons

Heather Pinedo-Burns, Ed.D., Teachers College, Columbia University

Ignacio Contreras, MD, Northwell Health

Isaac Reuben Rodriguez, Fordham University Graduate School of Social Service

Isabel Martinez, Ph.D., John Jay College of Criminal Justice

Jane Kim, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians & Surgeons

Janet Lee, MD, AAP

Janice L Bloom, Ph.D., College Access: Research & Action

Jennifer Chase, MD, Mount Sinai Hospital

Jessica López-Espino, Ph.D. Candidate, New York University

Jignaya Patel, Downstate Medical Center

Jordan DeVylder, Ph.D., Fordham University

Karen M Rosewater MD, MPH,

Katherine Legare, MD, Mount Sinai Hospital

Kathrine Sullivan, Ph.D., MSW, New York University

Kathryn Struthers Ahmed, Ph.D., Hunter College, CUNY

Lacey Peters, Ph.D. , Hunter College, CUNY

Laura J. Wernick, Ph.D., MSW, MPA, Fordham University

Laura toner MD, Urban health plan

Lauri Goldkind, Fordham University

Lindsay Till Hoyt, Ph.D., Fordham University

Lisa Eiland, MD, Mount Sinai West

Luis Guzmán Valerio, Ph.D., The City College of New York, CUNY

Luisa Stigol, MD, FAAP, New York Chapter American Academy of Pediatrics

Luz A Matiz-Zanoni MD FAAP, Columbia University

Marciana Popescu, Ph.D., Fordham University, New York

Maria Duenas, MD , Mount Sinai Hospital

Marian Larkin M.D., New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

MaryJane Alexander, Ph.D., New York University Langone Medical Center

Melissa Lea Rosenfeld Ed. D, New York City Department of Education

Michael Arsham, MSW, Silberman School of Social Work

Michelle Katzow, MD, MS, New York University School of Medicine

Nina Agrawal MD FAAP, American Academy of Pediatrics

Professor Pamela Edwards, CUNY University School of Law

Rebecca M. Jones, Ph.D., Weill Cornell Medicine

Richard Storrow, CUNY School of Law

Ruthann Robson, City University of New York (CUNY) School of Law

Sameena Azhar, Ph.D., LCSW, MPH, Fordham University

Sandra Guerra, LMSW, MBA, Fordham University

Sheila L Palevsky MD MPH FAAP, New York University School Of Medicine

Shelby Davies, MD, Children's Hospital at Montefiore

Sheyla Delgado,MA, John Jay Research & Evaluation Center

Shweta Iyer, MD, NYU Langone Health

Steve Caddle, MD, MPH, Columbia University Irving Medical Center

Steven M Emmett, DO FAAP, Touro College

Susan R. Panny, M.D., MD Dept Health

Susan Russell, Teachers College, Columbia University

Sylvia Romm, MD, MPH, American Well

Tatyana Kleyn, Ed.D., The City College of New York

Tessa Engel, Fordham University

Yuet Chim, Fordham University

Francesca Kingery, MD, MA, MS, Columbia University

J. F Cross MD, Weill Cornell Medicine

Stephanie Granada, BS, MD cand., Columbia VP&S

Deborah J Kasnitz, Ph.D., City University of New York

Gabrielle Shapiro, M.D.,

Michelle Fine Ph.D., The Graduate Center CUNY

Gary Krigsman, MD, FAAP, NYC Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene

Lillian Park, Ph.D., SUNY Old Westbury

Rebecca K. Papa, MD, Northwell Health

Dr. Adolfo Grieg, Vassar Brothers Medical Center

Christopher J. Wagner, Ph.D., Queens College, City University of New York

William B. Jordan, MD, MPH, National Physicians Alliance

norbert s wolloch, MD,

William Lee, MD, Scarsdale Pediatric Associates

Eric Weinberg MD, PM Pediatrics

Christine Flynn Saulnier, Ph.D., College of Staten Island, City University of New York

Inna Miroshnichenko,

Mara Sapon-Shevin, Ed.D., Syracuse University

Tina Catania, Syracuse University

Heather Brumberg, MD, MPH, FAAP, New York Medical College

Jesse Hackell MD FAAP, New York Medical College

Shetal Shah MD FAAP, Maria Fareri Children’s Hospital

Marc Lashley M.D.FAAP, Allied Physicians Group

Dorothy Stratton, MSW, Ashland University

Jennifer Shadik, Ph.D., MSW, Ohio University

Solveig Spjeldnes, Ohio University

Terry Cluse-Tolar, Ph.D., MSW, Ohio University

Julie Bemerer, PsyD, CCHMC

Leila Rodriguez, Ph.D., University of Cincinnati

Anne Galletta, Ph.D., Cleveland State University

Brooke N. Macnamara, Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University

Michael A. Dover, Ph.D., MSSW, Cleveland State University

Dr. Michel coconis, Union Institute and University

Martha Addison Armstrong, Ph.D., MSW, LISW-S, Ohio Dominican University

Patricia Lyons Ph.D., LISW-S, Lyons Counseling & Consultation Services

Sarah Gallo, Ph.D., Ohio State University

Rachael A. Richter, Western New Mexico University

Sara Guerrero-Duby, MD, FAAP, Wright State University Boonshoft SOM

Natalia Alonso, Fremont Ross High School- Los Niños de Corsos

Anne J. Jefferson, Ph.D., Kent State University

Dulcinea M. Avouris, Ph.D., Kent State University

Erika Hoffmann-Dilloway, Ph.D., Oberlin College

Jana Braziel, Ph.D., Miami University

Evan Wilhelms, Ph.D., College of Wooster

Gail Y. Okawa, Ph.D., Youngstown State University

Thelma Silver, Ph.D LISW-S, Youngstown State University

Lorena Fulton, Ohio University

Claudette L. Grinnell-Davis, Ph.D., MS, MSW, University of Oklahoma

Jonathan Kratz , University of Oklahoma

Miriam Marton, JD/MSW, University of Tulsa College of Law

Alejandro Paz, Ph.D., University of Toronto

Bryn King, MSW, Ph.D., University of Toronto

Rachel Berman, Ph.D., Ryerson University

Anne M Mannering, Ph.D., Oregon State University

Emily Yates-Doerr, Ph.D., Oregon State University

Karen Thompson, PhD, Oregon State University

Benjamin W. Nelson, M.S., University of Oregon

Caitlin Fausey, Ph.D., University of Oregon

Danielle Cosme, M.S., University of Oregon

Dare Baldwin, Ph.D., University of Oregon

Elliot Berkman, Ph.D., University of Oregon

F. Regina Psaki, University of Oregon

Gordon C. Nagayama Hall, Ph.D., University of Oregon

Ilana Umansky, Ph.D., University of Oregon

Jennifer H. Pfeifer, Ph.D., University of Oregon

Jennifer Mendoza, Ph.D., University of Oregon

Louis Moses, Ph.D., University of Oregon

Lynn Stephen Ph.d., University of Oregon

Michelle L Byrne, Ph.D., University of Oregon

Robert Chavez, Ph.D. , University of Oregon

Sanjay Srivastava, Ph.D., University of Oregon

Anita R. Gooding, MSW, LCSW, Portland State University

Caitlin Young, MS, LMFT, Trillium Family Services

Crystallee Crain, PhD, Portland State University

D.J. Marty, M.A., Portland State University

Jamie Vandergon, LPC, Trillium Family Services

Karen Moorhead, LMSW, Portland State University

Katharine Cahn, Ph.D., MSW, Portland State University

Laura Burney Nissen, Ph.D, MSW, LMSW, CADC III, Portland State University

Lindsay N. Merritt, Ph.D., Portland State University

Mackenzie Burton, MSW, Portland State University

Mollie Janssen, MSW, LCSW, Portland State University

Monica Parmley, LCSW, Portland State University, SSW

Rebecca A. Miller, M.S.Ed. , Portland State University

Sahaan McKelvey, Self Enhancement, Inc.

Sarah S. Bradley, MSSW, LCSW, Portland State University

Stephanie A Bryson, Ph.D., MSW, LICSW, Portland State University

Michael Woods, Ph.D. Candidate & Qualified Healthcare Interpreter, Willamette University

Audrey Ettinger, Cedar Crest College

Suzanne Weaver MSW, ACSW, LSW, Cedar Crest College

Diane Matthews, Carlow University

Adrienne Pollichemi, La Salle University

Beth I Barol, Ph.D., MSW, Widener University

Charlene J. Kolupski, LMSW, Edinboro University of Pennsylvania

Charlene J. Kolupski, LMSW, Edinboro University of Pennsylvania

Greg Baker, DMin, Mercyhurst University

Tami Micsky, MSSA, LSW, ABD, Mercyhurst University

Hilary Parsons Dick, Ph.D., Arcadia University

Betsy Stone Plummer, MS, Gwynedd Mercy University

Lisa McGarry, Ph.D., Gwynedd Mercy University

Mary Jo Pierantozzi, MS, Gwynedd Mercy University

Judith L.M. McCoyd, Ph.D., LCSW, Rutgers University, SSW

Cindy Fickley, Carlow University

Jennifer Schlegel, Ph.D., Kutztown University

Maureen Crossen, Ph.D., Carlow University

Kerrie Ocasio, West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Augusto Lorenzino, Ph.D., Temple University

Barbara Chaiyachati, MD, Ph.D., Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Briana Nichols, MA, University of Pennsylvania

Cathleen Cohen Ph.D., ArtWell

Debra A. Schumann, Ph.D., MPH, RN, Temple University

Heather Levi, Ph.D., Temple University

Inmaculada García Sánchez, Temple University

K. Eva Weiss, Ph.D. Candidate, Temple University

Kristina Nazimova, Temple University

Lawrence D. Blum, MD, University of Pennsylvania

Sharon Jacobs, University of Pennsylvania

Stacey Carpenter, Psy.D., Pennsylvania Association for Infant Mental Health

Ann Wilder, Ph.D., LCSW, MSSW, Carlow University

Beth A Zamboni, Ph.D., Carlow University

Brandon Fury, MFA, Carlow University

Chrys Gabrich, Ph.D., Carlow University

Courtney M. Alvarez, Ph.D., Carlow University

Cynthia Nicola, Ed.D., Carlow University

David D. Droppa, Ph.D., Seton Hill University

Dr Mildred Jones Ph.D., MSN, RN, Carlow University

Dr. Rae Ann Hirsh (EdD), Carlow University

Elizabeth A. Miller, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh

Frances Kelley, Ph.D., Carlow University

Harriet L. Schwartz, Ph.D., Carlow University

Helen E. Petracchi, Ph.D., MSSW, University of Pittsburgh, SSW

Irene Lietz, Ph.D., Carlow University

James M. Kelly, Ph.D., LSW, Carlow University

Jan Beatty, MFA, Carlow University

Janice Nash DNP. RN, Carlow University

Jessica Friedrichs, MSW, MPA, Carlow University

Jessica Huber, RN, MSN, CCRN, CPN, Carlow University

Joel Woller, Carlow University

Joshua Bernstein Ph.D, Carlow University

Kathleen McDonough, MSW, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh School of Social Work

Linda C. Maydak, MS, Carlow University

Lisa R. Sharfstein, MS, Carlow University

Lugenia Bracero, DNP, RN , Carlow University

Lynn George. Ph.D., RN, CNE, Carlow University

Maria Flavin, DNP, MSN, RN, Carlow University

Marilyn J. Llewellyn, Carlow University

Mary E. Rauktis Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh

Mary Pat Campbell Elhattab, University of Pittsburgh, SSW

Me. Linda Levin-Messineo, Carlow University

Megan M. Soltesz, University of Pittsburgh

Melanie Kautzman-East, Ph.D., Carlow University

Michael E. Balmert, Ph.D., Carlow University

Nicole Dezelon, M.Ed, Carlow University/The Andy Warhol Museum

PatriciaJameson, Ph.D.., Carlow University

Peter Bachman, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh

Peter E. Gilmore, Ph.d., Carlow University

Robert A. Reed, Psy.D., Carlow University

Robin Santhouse, Ph.D., LSW, University of Pittsburgh

Sandi DiMola, J.D., Carlow University

Sigrid King, Ph.D., Carlow University

Stephanie Wilsey, Carlow University

Travis W. Schermer, Ph.D., LPC, Carlow University

Valire Carr Copeland, MSW, Ph.D., MPH, University of Pittsburgh

William Schweers, Carlow University

Dorlisa Minnick, Ph.D., MSW, Shippensburg University

Sandra Bauer, Eastern University

Carlomagno Panlilio, Ph.D., LCMFT, Penn State

Charles Geier, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University

Sheridan Miyamoto, Ph.D., FNP, RN, The Pennsylvania State University College of Nursing

Diego Fernandez Duque, Villanova University

Christina Chiarelli-Helminiak, Ph.D., MSW, West Chester University

Jeanean Mohr, West Chester University

Meg Panichelli, West Chester University

Mia Ocean, Ph.D., MSW, West Chester University

Mildred C Joyner, MSW, LCSW, West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Gwendolyn S .Kirk, Ph.D., Lahore University of Management Sciences

Dr. Michael MacKenzie, McGill University

Alma Gottlieb, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Gail Agronick, Ph.D., Agronick Consulting Group

Andrea Flores, Ph.D., Brown University

Dario Valles, Ph.D., Brown University

Jesse Capece, Ph.D., Rhode Island College

Lynnette Arnold, Ph.D., Brown University

Danya Firestone, College of Charleston

Mikel W. Cole, Ph.D., Clemson University

Benjamin J. Roth, University of South Carolina

Jennifer F. Reynolds, Ph.D., University of South Carolina

Kristen D. Seay, Ph.D., MSW, University of South Carolina

Anne Zell, Ph.D., Augustana University

Darja Zaviršek, Ph.D., University of Ljubljana

Kathryn L. Humphreys, Ph.D., Ed.M., Vanderbilt University

Tara Lane, MD,

Catheleen Jordan, Ph.D., LCSW, University of Texas at Arlington

Peter Lehmann Ph.D., LCSW, University of Texas at Arlington

Andrew Hurie, MS, MAT, University of Texas at Austin

Christopher P. Brown, Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin

Denise Gilman, University of Texas School of Law

Jacqueline Woolley, Ph.D., The University of Texas

Laurie Cook Heffron, Ph.D., LMSW, St. Edward's University

Monica Faulkner, The University of Texas at Austin

Patricia Abril-Gonzalez, Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin

Raphael Travis, DrPH, LCSW, FlowStory, PLLC

Rebecca Callahan, Ph.D., University of Texas-Austin

Rebecca Maria Torres, University of Texas at Austin

Jack Nowicki, LCSW, University of Texas Steve Hicks, SSW

Elisabeth Pugliese PLPC, MSE, Texas A&M University

Julia Lynch, Ph.D., Texas A&M University

Alexandra Babino, Ph.D., Texas A&M University, Commerce

Nazia Hussain, MA,

Dan Heiman, University of North Texas

Alyse C. Hachey, Ph.D., University of Texas at El Paso

Dr. Aurolyn Luykx, University of Texas at El Paso

Erika Mein, Ph.D., University of Texas at El Paso

Martine Ceberio, Ph.D. , The University of Texas at El Paso

Jerrica Jordan, Ph.D, Tarrant County College

Sylvia Mendoza, Ph.D., Texas Christian University

Suzanne Garcia-Mateus, Ph.D., Southwestern University

Eno Oshin, MD, UT Health

Jodi Berger Cardoso , University of Houston

Flora Farago, Stephen F. Austin State University

Candace Christensen, University of Texas San Antonio

Claudia García-Louis, Ph.D., University of Texas San Antonio

Dr. Marie Miranda, University of Texas at San Antonio

George R Negrete, Ph.D., University of Texas at San Antonio

Gianna DeSalles, Brooks Collegiate Academy

Leticia Medina, M.A. , University of Texas at San Antonio

Lilliana Patricia Saldaña, Ph.D., University of Texas at San Antonio

Lorena Claeys, Ph.D., University of Texas at San Antonio

Maricela Oliva, Ph.D., University of Texas at San Antonio

Patricia Sánchez, Ph.D., University of Texas at San Antonio

Roger Enriquez, J.D., University of Texas at San Antonio

Sonya Aleman, University of Texas at San Antonio

Viviana Rojas, Ph.D. , The University of Texas at Austin

Belinda Flores, Ph.D., University of Texas at San Antonio

Ana Chatham, LMSW, MCH Family Outreach

Leticia Madrid, Ph.D.,

Alyson L. Lavigne, Ph.D., Utah State University

Mark S. Innocenti, Ph.D., Utah State University

Dr. Corina D Segovia-Tadehara, Weber State University

Annie Isabel Fukushima, Ph.D., University of Utah

Caren Frost, University of Utah

Chad McDonald, Ph.D. Candidate, LCSW, University of Utah

Elisabeth Conradt, Ph.D., University of Utah

Jesse Graham, Ph.D., University of Utah

Rosemarie Hunter, Ph.D., University of Utah

Sandra Leu , University of Utah

Tasha Seneca Keyes, Ph.D., MSW, University of Utah

Yvette Gonzalez, LCSW, MSW, University of Utah

Brian Doyle, Ph.D., Marymount University

Deborah J. Short, Ph.D., Academic Language Research & Training

Judith A Wilde, Ph.D., George Mason University

Katherine G. Southwick, George Mason University

Matthew Shadle, Ph.D., Marymount University

Tonya Howe, Ph.D., Marymount University

Alexis Brieant, M.S., Virginia Tech

Angeline S Lillard, Ph.D., University of Virginia

Liliokanaio Peaslee, Ph.D., James Madison University

Leah Rowland MD FAAP, Pediatric Specialists

Jonathan Corbin, University of Richmond

Holly Sullivan-Toole, Virginia Tech

Lisa Schirch, Ph.D., Toda Peace Institute

Andrea Green, MD CM, University of Vermont

Ann Pugh, MSW, University of Vermont

Ethan Hazzard-Watkins, MSW candidate, University of Vermont

Lacey M. Sloan, University of Vermont

Matthew Saia M.D., University of Vermont

Stanley Weinberger, MD, MS, University of Vermont Children's Hospital

Susan A. Comerford, MSW, Ph.D., The University of Vermont

Nelli Sargsyan, Ph.D., Marlboro College

Judith M Pine, Western Washington University

Eric J. Johnson, Ph.D., Washington State University

Angelique G Day, Ph.D., MSW, University of Washington

Julianne Meisner, BVM&S, MS, University of Washington

Kerry Soo Von Esch, Ph.D., Seattle University

Kevin Michael King, Ph.D., University of Washington

Melanie Martin, Ph.D., University of Washington

Diane Young, Ph.D., MSW, University of Washington, Tacoma

Stephanie Brockett, MSW, Catholic Community Services of Western Washington

Barbara McKinnon, My Flex

Alejandra Ros Pilarz, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison

Angela Willits, MSW, LCSW, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Chad Alan Goldberg, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Dipesh Navsaria, MPH, MSLIS, MD, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

Jenny Saffran, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Katrina Daly Thompson, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Larissa Duncan, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Laura Houser, MD, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Lindsay Ehrisman , University of Wisconsin, Madison

Mariana Pacheco, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison

Nancy Kendall, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Noah Weeth Feinstein, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Peggy Sleeper, MSSW, LCSW, University of Wisconsin, Madison, SSW

Tina Lee, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Stout

Helen Werner, ABD, RPA, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Jennifer M Ohlendorf, Ph.D., RN, Marquette University

Joel R. Ambelang, EdD, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Nancy Rolock, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Sameena Mulla, Ph.D., Marquette University

Sara Anderson, Ph.D. , West Virginia University

Sonja Turner,

Kirsten Pontalti, Ph.D., Proteknon Consulting Group

Leilani Elliott, Ph.D., Proteknôn Consulting Group

Leila Monaghan, MA, MA, PhD, Elm Books

Jen Stacy, Ph.D., California State University Dominguez Hills

Lucila Ek, PhD, University of Texas at San Antonio

Laurel Hicks PhD, MSW, University of Denver

Susan P. Robbins, Ph.D., LCSW, University of Houston

Renee Fentress, MSW, California State University East Bay

Vonda Jump Norman, PhD, Utah State University

Jennifer Burrell, University at Albany SUNY

Priya Shankar MD MPH, UCSF pediatrics

Danya Reda, Peking University School of Transnational Law

Elithet Silva-Martínez, MSW, PhD, University of Puerto Rico

Cynthia newman msw, lcsw, Central Jersey Family Health Consortium

Sharolyn Pollard-Durodola, University of Nevada Las Vegas

Kristen Cheney, PhD, International Institute of Social Studies

Frances Rothstein, Ph.D., Montclair State University

Frances Rothstein, Phd, Montclair State

Frances Rothstein, Montclair State University

Sariya Cheruvallil-Contractor, PhD, MPhil, PGDBM, Coventry University

Larry Watson, PhD, LCSW, University of Texas at Arlington

Nancy Rydberg, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Fran S Danis, PhD, MSW, University of Texas at Arlington

Kathleen Tague MAT, Montclair State University

Melissa A. Rivera-Serna, MA, Central Jersey Family Health Consortium

Gabriela Paz, Central Jersey Family Health Consortium

Denise Sellers, Haddonfield Child Care

Laurie Lawrence, Stephen F Austin State University

Stephanie Robert, MSW, PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Zsuzsanna Kaldy, PhD, University of Massachusetts Boston

Rosemary A Barbera, Ph.D., MSS, La Salle University

Susan E. Vater Ed.M., CT Association of Infant Mental Health

Jennifer Roth, PhD, Carlow University

Lana Nenide, MS, IMH-E, Wisconsin Alliance for Infant Mental Health

Jaclyn Murray, PhD, University of Winchester

Laura Ekstrom, PhD, Wheaton College, MA

Maryann Amodeo, MSW, Ph.D., Boston University, SSW

Bernadette Sanchez, DePaul University

Heather Kapp-Holt, LICSW, MPH,

Gedeon Deák, PhD, University of California, San Diego

Carole Wilcox, MSW. LSW, Butler Institute for Families

Mickey Sperlich, PhD, MSW, MA, CPM, University at Buffalo

David Flood, MD, MSc, University of Minnesota

Julian Brash, PhD, MSUP, Montclair State University

Heather Thompson, PhD, LCSW, Florida Atlantic University

[1] Chappell Deckert (2016). Social Work, Human Rights, and the Migration of Central American Children.

[2] Human Rights Watch (2018). In the Freezer: Abusive conditions for women and children in U.S. Immigration Holding Cells.

[3] Human Rights First (2016). The Flores Settlement: A brief history and next steps.

[4] Hiskey, J., Córdova, A., Orcés, D., Malone, M. (2016). Understanding the Central American Refugee Crisis: Why they are fleeing and how U.S. policies are failing to deter them.