## Formative Assessment and Bridging activities

Kindergarten

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*These standards are bridging standards. Standards are considered a bridge when they: function as a bridge to which other content within the grade level/course is connected; serve as prerequisite knowledge for content to be addressed in future grade levels/courses; or possess endurance beyond a single unit of instruction within a grade level/course.

## Standard K.1A

Standard K.1a tell how many are in a given set of 20 or fewer objects by counting orally

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Count with understanding and use numbers to tell how many, describe order, and compare.

Count a group (set/collection) of five to ten objects by touching each object as it is counted and saying the correct number (one-to-one correspondence)

Count the items in a collection of one to ten items and know the last counting word tells “how many.

Bridging Concepts

Count a group (set/collection) of greater than ten objects by touching each object as it is counted and saying the correct number (one-to-one correspondence)

Standard K.1a

Count orally to tell how many are in a given set up to 20 objects

Preview of formative assessment

## Standard K.1B

Standard K.1B  Read, write and represent numbers 0 to 20

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Count a group (set/collection) of five to ten objects by touching each object as it is counted and saying the correct number (one-to-one correspondence)

Trace or form numbers using various materials.

Bridging Concepts

Identify numbers 0-10 out of sequence.

Count the items in a collection of one to twenty items and know the last counting word tells “how many.

Copy or write numbers using various materials.

Standard K.1b

Read, write, and represent numbers 0 to 20

Preview of Formative Assessments

Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

## Standard K.2a

Standard K.2A Given no more than three sets, each set containing 10 or fewer concrete objects, compare and describe one set as having more, fewer, or the same number of objects as the other set(s).

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Count concrete sets of up to 10 with one-to-one correspondence.

Build and match sets of up to 10 objects.

Identify a set that has more, fewer, or the same of a given set.

Bridging Concepts

Describe changes in groups (sets/collections) by using more when additional objects are added to a set.

Describe changes in groups (sets/collections) by using fewer when objects from a group have been removed.

Standard K.2a

Compare and describe one set as having more, fewer, or the same number of objects as the other set(s), when given no more than three sets, each set containing 10 or fewer concrete objects

Preview of Formative Assessments

Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

## Standard K.2B

Standard K.2B  Given no more than three sets, each set containing 10 or fewer concrete objects, compare and order sets from least to greatest and greatest to least.

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Match the objects in the two groups to see if there are any extra.

Count the objects in each group and use knowledge of the counting sequence to decide which number is greater (the number farther along in the count sequence).

Bridging Concepts

Count with understanding and use numbers to tell how many, describe order, and compare.

Compare two sets of matched objects (zero through ten in each set) and describe the groups using the terms more, fewer, or same.

Standard K.2b

Compare and describe three sets using words like more, fewer and same.

Compare and order three sets from least to greatest and greatest to least (zero through ten in each set).

Preview of Formative Assessments

Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

## Bridging Standard K.3A

Standard K.3A  Count forward orally by ones from 0 to 100.

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Count forward orally to 20 or more

Bridging Concepts

Students count forward orally to 50

Standard K.3a

Count forward orally by ones from 0 to 100

Preview of Formative Assessments

## Bridging Standard K.3b

Standard K.3b Count backward orally by ones when given any number between 1 and 10

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Count a group (set/collection) of five to ten objects by touching each object as it is counted and saying the correct number (one-to-one correspondence).

Zero represents no objects.

Numbers happen in a sequence.

Bridging Concepts

Student understands the concept of the number that comes before.

Student understands that 0 comes before 1.

Student recognizes the directionality of numbers.

Standard K.3b

Students can count backward orally by ones when given any number between 1 and 10

Preview of Formative Assessments

## Bridging Standard K.3c

Standard K.3c Identify the number after within 100, and the number before, within 10.

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Identify the number after within 20, and the number before, within 5.

Bridging Concepts

Identify the number after within 50, and the number before, within 10.

Standard K.3c

Identify the number after within 100, and the number before, within 10.

Preview of Formative Assessments

## Bridging Standard K.3d

Standard K.3d  Count forward by tens to determine the total number of objects to 100

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Count concrete sets of up to 10 with one-to-one correspondence.

Student can rote count to 100.

Bridging Concepts

Student can take a large group of objects and break it into groups of 10.

Multiple sets of the same object can be skip counted to find the total.

Standard K.3d

Students can count forward by tens to determine the total number of objects to 100

## Bridging Standard K.4a

Standard K.4a Recognize and describe with fluency part-whole relationships for numbers to 5.

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Recognize that a number is made up of parts, which equal the whole.

Bridging Concepts

Recognize and describe the part-whole relationship for numbers up to 3.

Standard K.4a

Recognize and describe the part-whole relationship for numbers up to 5.

Preview of Formative Assessments

## Bridging Standard K.4b

Standard K.4b Investigate and describe part-whole relationships for numbers to 10.

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Describe the part-whole relationship for numbers up to 5.

Bridging Concepts

Recognize and describe the part-whole relationship for numbers up to 5.

Standard K.4b

Investigate and describe part-whole relationships for numbers to 10.

Preview of Formative Assessments

## Bridging Standard K.5

Standard K.5 Investigate fractions by representing and solving practical problems involving equal sharing with two sharers

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Children understand that fair shares happen in equal parts.

Intuitively and visually combines regions that are a part of a whole, showing initial foundations for addition.

Bridging Concepts

Share a whole equally with two sharers, when given a practical (real life) situation.

Represent fair shares concretely or pictorially, when given a practical situation.

Describe shares as equal pieces or parts of the whole (e.g., halves), when given a practical situation.

Standard K.5

Students can Investigate fractions by representing and solving practical problems involving equal sharing with two sharers.

## Bridging Standard K.6

Standard K.6 Model and solve story problems with sums to 10 and differences within 10, using concrete objects.

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Tell stories with words like more and less.

Describe changes in groups (sets/collections) using words such as more and fewer.

Bridging Concepts

Describe part/whole relationships up to 5.

Model and solve story problems within 5.

Standard K.6

Model and solve story problems with sums to 10 and differences within 10, using concrete objects.

Preview of Formative Assessments

## Bridging Standard K.7

Standard K.7 Recognize the attributes of a penny, nickel, dime, and quarter and identify the number of pennies equivalent to a nickel, a dime, and a quarter

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Student can count up to 25 objects with one-to-one correspondence.

Student can group objects into 5s and 10s.

Student can describe attributes like shape, size, color, and thickness.

Bridging Concepts

Student can identify the different coins based off of attributes (size, shape, thickness, color, and imagery).

Coins are worth different values.

Standard K.7

Students can recognize the attributes of a penny, nickel, dime, and quarter and identify the number of pennies equivalent to a nickel, a dime, and a quarter.

## Bridging Standard K.8

Standard K.8 Investigate the passage of time by reading and interpreting a calendar.

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Student can count to 31 by 1s.

Student recognizes patterns around them and that events happen in a logical sequence.

Bridging Concepts

A calendar is used to organize time.

Name the twelve months of the year.  Name the seven days in a week.  Determine the day before and after a given day (e.g., yesterday, today, tomorrow).

Standard K.8

Students can investigate the passage of time by reading and interpreting a calendar.

## Bridging Standard K.9

Standard K.9 Compare two objects or events, using direct comparisons, according to one or more of the following attributes: length (longer, shorter), height (taller, shorter), weight (heavier, lighter), temperature (hotter, colder), volume (more, less), and time (longer, shorter).

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Student can compare objects using a variety of attributes such as length, height, weight, temperature, or time.

Student can count using one-to-one correspondence.

Bridging Concepts

Student can choose one object that is longer/shorter, taller/shorter, heavier/lighter, hotter/colder, more/less, or longer/shorter when given two objects.

Standard K.9

Students can compare two objects or events, using direct comparisons, according to one or more of the following attributes: length (longer, shorter), height (taller, shorter), weight (heavier, lighter), temperature (hotter, colder), volume (more, less), and time (longer, shorter).

## Bridging Standard K.10

Standard K.10 The student will

a) identify and describe plane figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle);

b) compare the size (smaller, larger) and shape of plane figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle);

c) describe the location of one object relative to another (above, below, next to) and identify representations of plane figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle) regardless of their positions and orientations in space.

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Early experiences with comparing, sorting, combining, and subdividing figures assist students in analyzing the characteristics of plane figures.

A plane figure is any closed, two-dimensional shape.

Bridging Concepts

Student matches familiar shapes (circle, square, typical triangle) that have the same size and orientation. In specific congruence tasks, may think that two shapes are the same if they are more visually similar than different.

Student matches familiar shapes with different orientations.

Student matches familiar shapes with different sizes.

Standard K.10

Students can

-identify and describe plane figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle);

-compare the size (smaller, larger) and shape of plane figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle); and

-describe the location of one object relative to another (above, below, next to) and identify representations of plane figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle) regardless of their positions and orientations in space.

## Bridging Standard K.11

Standard K.11 The student will

a) collect, organize, and represent data; and

b) read and interpret data in object graphs, picture graphs, and tables.

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Use background knowledge and knowledge of the world around them to draw logical conclusions (The grass is wet because it rained last night).

Student can sort and organize items into categories.

Bridging Concepts

When given precise answers to a question, those answers can be categorized and analyzed.

When students begin to collect data, they recognize the need to categorize, which helps develop the understanding of “things that go together.”

Students understand and can use “least” and “greatest” to describe sets of data.

Standard K.11

Students can

-collect, organize, and represent data; and

-read and interpret data in object graphs, picture graphs, and tables.

## Bridging Standard K.12

Standard K.12 Sort and classify objects according to one attribute.

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Group and sort like concepts together by various attributes/properties.

Bridging Concepts

Match and sort shapes (circle, triangle, rectangle, and square).

Describe how shapes are similar and different.

Recognize and name shapes (circle, triangle, rectangle, and square).

Standard K.12

Sort and classify objects according to one attribute.

Preview of Formative Assessments

## Bridging Standard K.13

Standard K.13 Identify, describe, extend, create, and transfer repeating patterns.

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## UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNING TRAJECTORY

Big Ideas:

Important Assessment Look Fors:

Purposeful Questions:

Student Strengths

Student is able to identify shapes, numbers, letters, and colors.

Student can participate in a call-and-repeat type of activity such as repeating a clapping pattern.

Bridging Concepts

Student identifies repeating patterns in the world around them such as on the calendar, in a  movement/ sound/ clapping way, or in colors.

Student identifies the part of the pattern that repeats called the core.

Standard K.13

Students can identify, describe, extend, create, and transfer repeating patterns.