The project

ARRAU was a project on anaphora interpretation funded by the EPSRC, grant number GR/S76434/01, that ran from 2004 to 2007.


The objective of the ARRAU project was to study the cases of anaphoric reference most problematic for current anaphora resolution systems, in particular:

  • Reference to plurals

  • Reference to abstract objects such as events and plans

  • Ambiguous anaphoric expressions

Theoretical goals

  • Revise current models of the interpretation of plurals and events

  • Develop a model of reference to plans

  • Evaluate hypotheses about underspecification in reference to structured objects

  • Yield a better understanding of the phenomenon of (semantic) underspecification


  • Corpus analysis and annotation (University of Essex)

    • Identify questions to be studied through psychological studies

    • Produce an annotated corpus

  • Psychological experiments (University of Glasgow)

    • Provide empirical evidence to be used to modify our existing anaphora resolution system, which will be evaluated using the annotated corpus