Recent Belief Papers

I'm trying to keep an up-to-date list of the most recent papers on beliefs formation and biases in beliefs, with a link to the open source pdf when possible.

If you see a paper missing from this list or a link is not working properly, please email it to me at

Note: The title of a paper published version may differ from the title of its most recent open access version.


Amelio, A., & Zimmermann, F. (2023). Motivated Memory in Economics—A Review. Games, 14(1), 15. NEW!

Angerer, S., Glätzle-Rützler, D., Lergetporer, P., & Rittmannsberger, T. (2023). Beliefs about social norms and (the polarization of) COVID-19 vaccination readiness. NEW!

Chopra, F., Haaland, I., & Roth, C. (2023). The demand for news: Accuracy concerns versus belief confirmation motives. NEW!

Hansson, K., & Sund, O. (2023). Lucky But Confident — How Confidence Can Polarize Meritocratic Beliefs and Preferences for Redistribution. NEW!

Kube, T., Wullenkord, M., Rozenkrantz, L., Kramer, P., Lieb, S., & Menzel, C. (2023). How people update their beliefs about climate change: An experimental investigation of the optimistic update bias and how to reduce it. Political Psychology. NEW!

Novak, V., Matveenko, A., & Ravaioli, S. (2023). The Status Quo and Belief Polarization of Inattentive Agents: Theory and Experiment. UPDATE!

Sial, A. Y., Sydnor, J. R., & Taubinsky, D. (2023). Biased Memory and Perceptions of Self-Control.

Wiese, J., & Powdthavee, N. (2023). How effective are covid-19 vaccine health messages in reducing vaccine skepticism? Heterogeneity in messages effectiveness by just world beliefs. NEW!

Wittrock, L., Strobel, M., & Tsakas, E. (2023). Belief Updating with Misinformation. NEW!


Adamecz-Völgyi, A., & Shure, D. (2022). The Gender Gap in Top Jobs the Role of Overconfidence.

Ahrens, S., & Bosch-Rosa, C. (2022). Motivated beliefs, social preferences, and limited liability in financial decision-making.

Amelio, A. (2022). Cognitive Uncertainty and Overconfidence. 

Aoyagi, M., Fréchette, G. R., & Yuksel, S. (2022). Beliefs in repeated games. 

Aymanns, C., Foerster, J., & Georg, C. P. (2022). Fake news in social networks.

Barron, K., Becker, A., and Huck, S. (2022). Motivated Political Reasoning: The Emergence of Belief-Value Constellations

Barron, K., Ditlmann, R., Gehrig, S., & Schweighofer-Kodritsch, S. (2022). Explicit and implicit belief-based gender discrimination: A hiring experiment.

Barron, K. and Fries, T. (2022) Narrative Persuasion.

Briscese, G., Grignani, M., & Stapleton, S. (2022). Living and perceiving a crisis: how the pandemic influenced Americans' preferences and beliefs. 

Canen, N., & Chakraborty, A. (2022). Choosing The Best Incentives for Belief Elicitation with an Application to Political Protests.

Chegere, M., Falco, P., Nieddiu, M., Pandolfi, L., & Stein, M. (2022). It’s a Sure Win! Experimental evidence on overconfidence in betting behavior.

Chopra, F., Haaland, I., & Roth, C. (2022). The Demand for News: Accuracy Concerns Versus Belief Confirmation Motives. 

Cohn, A., Stoop, J., & Rahman, H. A. (2022). Disinformation for Hire: Examining the Production of False COVID-19 Information.

Conlon, J., Mani, M., Rao, G., Ridley, M., & Schilbach, F. (2022). Not Learning from Others.

Crosetto, P., & De Haan, T. (2022). Comparing input interfaces to elicit belief distributions.

Danz, D., Vesterlund, L., & Wilson,  A. (2022). Belief Elicitation and Behavioral Incentive Compatibility. American Economic Review.  

de Haan, T. (2022). Eliciting belief distributions using a random two-level partitioning of the state space.

Denti, T. (2022). Posterior Separable Cost of Information. American Economic Review, 112(10):3215-59. 

Dickinson, D. L. (2022). Political ideology, mood response, and the confirmation bias.

Drobner, C. (2022). Motivated beliefs and anticipation of uncertainty resolution. American Economic Review: Insights, 4(1), 89-105.  

Drobner, C., & Goerg, S. J. (2022). Motivated belief updating and rationalization of information. UPDATE!

Eble, A., & Hu, F. (2022). Gendered beliefs about mathematics ability transmit across generations through children’s peers. Nature Human Behavior.

Engel, J. F., Huber, C., & Nüß, P. (2022). Replication Report: How Do Beliefs About the Gender Wage Gap Affect the Demand for Public Policy?

Erkal, N., Gangadharan, L., & Koh, B. H. (2022). Do women receive less blame than men? Attribution of outcomes in a prosocial setting.

Epperson, R. (2022).  Do Beliefs about Lobbying Affect Pro-environmental Behavior? Experimental Evidence. 

Exley, C. L., Hauser, O. P., Moore, M., & Pezzuto, J. H. (2022). Beliefs about gender differences in social preferences. 

Exley, C., & Nielsen, K. (2022). The Gender Gap in Confidence: Expected But Not Accounted For.

Eyting, M. (2022). Why do we discriminate? The role of motivated reasoning.

Faia, E., Fuster, A., Pezone, V., & Zafar, B. (2022). Biases in Information Selection and Processing: Survey Evidence from the Pandemic. Review of Economics and Statistics, 1-46. UPDATE!

Fehr, D., & Vollmann, M. (2022). Misperceiving economic success: Experimental evidence on meritocratic beliefs and inequality acceptance. 

Friedman, E., & Ward, J. (2022). Stochastic Choice and Noisy Beliefs in Games: an Experiment. 

Fuster, A., & Zafar, B. (2022). Survey Experiments on Economic Expectations. 

Gangadharan, L., Grossman, P. J., & Xue, N. (2022). Identifying self-image concerns from motivated beliefs: Does it matter how and whom you ask

Garrett, N., & Sharot, T. (2023). There is no belief update bias for neutral events: failure to replicate Burton et al.(2022). Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 1-11. NEW!

Gavrilets, S., & Richerson, P. J. (2022). Authority matters: propaganda and the coevolution of behaviour and attitudes. Evolutionary Human Sciences, 4, e51.

Gill, D., & Rosokha, Y. (2022). Beliefs, learning, and personality in the indefinitely repeated prisoner's dilemma. 

Golman, R. (2022). Acceptable discourse: Social norms of beliefs and opinions. 

González-Jiménez, V. (2022). Social status and motivated beliefs. Journal of Public Economics, 211, 104662. 

Graeber, T., Roth, C., & Zimmermann, F. (2022). Stories, Statistics, and Memory.

Hagenbach, J., & Saucet, C. (2022). Motivated Skepticism.

Hajdu, Gergely  and Krusper, Balázs (2022). How Does Choice Affect Beliefs? 

Harrison, G. W., Hofmeyr, A., Kincaid, H., Monroe, B., Ross, D., Schneider, M., & Swarthout, J. T. (2022). Subjective beliefs and economic preferences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Experimental economics, 1-29. 

Huffman, D., Collin R. & Shvets, J. (2022). Persistent Overconfidence and Biased Memory: Evidence from Managers. American Economic Review, 112(10):3141-75.

Jäger, S., Roth, C., Roussille, N., & Schoefer, B. (2022). Worker beliefs about outside options. 

Kartal, M., & Tyran, J. R. (2022). Fake News, Voter Overconfidence, and the Quality of Democratic Choice. American Economic Review, 112(10):3367-97. 

Kogelnik, M. (2022). Performance Feedback and Gender Differences in Persistence.

Li, K. K. (2022). Memory Recall Bias of Overconfident and Underconfident Individuals after Feedback. Games, 13(3), 41

Little, A. T., Brundage, M., & You, S. S. (2022). Selection Neglect and Political Beliefs. 

Lustenhouwer, J., & Salle, I. (2022). Forecast revisions in the presence of news: a lab investigation. 

Momsen, K., & Schneider, S. O. (2022). Motivated Reasoning, Information Avoidance, and Default Bias. 

Müller, L. M., Harrs, S., & Rockenbach, B. (2022). How Narratives Impact Financial Behavior-Experimental Evidence from the COVID-19 Pandemic

Riehm, T. (2022). Motivated beliefs in auctions.

Schwardmann, P., Tripodi, E., & van der Weele, J. (2022). Self-Persuasion: Evidence from Field Experiments at Two International Debating Competitions. American Economics Review. (forthecoming). 

Sharot, T., & Garrett, N. (2022). A guideline and cautionary note: how to use the belief update task correctly. Methods in Psychology, 6, 100091. NEW!

Settele, S. (2022). How do beliefs about the gender wage gap affect the demand for public policy?. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 14(2), 475-508. 

Stötzer, L. S., & Zimmermann, F. (2022). A Note on Motivated Cognition and Discriminatory Beliefs. 

Tsakas, E. (2022). Belief identification with state-dependent utilities. 

Tverskoi, D., Babu, S., & Gavrilets, S. (2022). The spread of technological innovations: effects of psychology, culture and policy interventions. Royal Society Open Science, 9(6), 211833. 

Zappalà, G. (2022). Drought exposure and accuracy: Motivated reasoning in climate change beliefs. 


Ahrens, S., Bosch-Rosa, C., & Kassner, B. (2021). Overconfidence and the Political and Financial Behavior of a Representative Sample.

Baeriswyl, R., My, K. B., & Cornand, C. (2021). Double overreaction in beauty contests with information acquisition: Theory and experiment. Journal of Monetary Economics, 118, 432-445. 

Bago, B., Rand, D. W., & Pennycook, G. (2021). Reasoning about climate change.

Bago, B., Rosenzweig, L., Berinsky, A., & Rand, D. W. (2021). Emotion may predict susceptibility to fake news but emotion regulation does not help.

Bandiera, O., Parekh, N., Petrongolo, B. & Rao, M. (2021). Men are from Mars, and women too: A bayesian meta-analysis of overconfidence experiments.

Boneva, T., Buser, T., Falk, A., & Kosse, F. (2021). The Origins of Gender Differences in Competitiveness and Earnings Expectations: Causal Evidence from a Mentoring Intervention.

Barron, K. (2021). Belief updating: does the ‘good-news, bad-news’ asymmetry extend to purely financial domains?. Experimental Economics, 1-28.

Bland, J. R., & Rosokha, Y. (2021). Learning under uncertainty with multiple priors: experimental investigation. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 62(2), 157-176. NEW!

Boneva, T., Kaufmann, K., & Rauh, C. (2021). Maternal labor supply: Perceived returns, constraints, and social norms.

Bosch-Rosa, C., Gietl, D., & Heinemann, F. (2019). Risk-taking under limited liability: Quantifying the role of motivated beliefs. 

Bruner, D., Cox, C., McEvoy, D. M., & Stoddard, B. (2021). Strategic thinking in contests. Experimental Economics, 1-32. NEW!

Bui, D., Hayo, B., Nghiem, G., & Dräger, L. (2021). Consumer Sentiment during the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Role of Others' Beliefs. 

Burfurd, I., & Wilkening, T. (2021). Cognitive heterogeneity and complex belief elicitation. Experimental economics, 1-36. 

Cheng, J. T., Anderson, C., Tenney, E. R., Brion, S., Moore, D. A., & Logg, J. M. (2021). The social transmission of overconfidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 150(1), 157. NEW!

Coffman, K. B., Araya, P. U., & Zafar, B. (2021). A (Dynamic) Investigation of Stereotypes, Belief-Updating, and Behavior.

Coltheart, M., & Davies, M. (2021). How unexpected observations lead to new beliefs: A Peircean pathway. Consciousness and Cognition, 87, 103037.

Cookson, J. A., Engelberg, J., & Mullins, W. (2021). Echo chambers.

Epperson, R., & Gerster, A. (2021). Information Avoidance and Moral Behavior: Experimental Evidence from Food Choices. 

Erkal, N., Gangadharan, L., & Koh, B. H. (2021).  Gender biases and performance evaluation: Do outcomes matter more than intentions? 

Eyting, M., & Schmidt, P. (2021). Belief elicitation with multiple point predictions. European Economic Review, 135, 103700. NEW!

Foerster, M., & van der Weele, J. J. (2021). Casting doubt: Image concerns and the communication of social impact. The Economic Journal.

Friedman, E. (2021). Stochastic Equilibria: Noise in Actions or Beliefs? American Economic Journal: Microeconomics. (forthcoming).

Furtado, D., Papps, K. L., & Theodoropoulos, N. (2021). Who Goes on Disability when Times are Tough? The Role of Work Norms among Immigrants. European Economic Review, 103983.

Gangadharan, L., Grossman, P. J., & Xue, N. (2021). Identifying self-image concerns from motivated beliefs: Does it matter how and whom you ask?

Gavrilets, S. (2021). Coevolution of actions, personal norms, and beliefs about others in social dilemmas. 

Goeree, J. K., & Louis, P. (2021). M Equilibrium: A theory of beliefs and choices in games. American Economic Review.

Guarino, P., & Tsakas, E. (2021). Common priors under endogenous uncertainty. Journal of Economic Theory, 194, 105254.

Hirshleifer, D., Lourie, B., Ruchti, T. G., & Truong, P. (2021). First Impression Bias: Evidence from Analyst Forecasts. Review of Finance, 25(2), 325-364.

Hirshleifer, D., & Plotkin, J. B. (2021). Moonshots, investment booms, and selection bias in the transmission of cultural traits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(26).

Huang, W., Wang, Y., & Zhao, X. (2021). Motivated Beliefs, Independence and Cooperation.

Islam, M. (2021). Motivated Risk Assessments.

Jakobsen, A. M. (2021). Coarse Bayesian Updating. 

Kishishita, D., Yamagishi, A., & Matsumoto, T. (2021). Overconfidence, Income-Ability Gap, and Preferences for Income Equality. 

Laudenbach, C., Weber, A., & Wohlfart, J. (2021). Beliefs About the Stock Market and Investment Choices: Evidence from a Field Experiment.

Masatlioglu, Y., Orhun, A. Y., & Raymond, C. (2021). Intrinsic information preferences and skewness.

Molnar, A., Chaudhry, S., & Loewenstein, G. (2021). 'It's Not About the Money. It's About Sending a Message!': Unpacking the Components of Revenge. It's About Sending a Message.

Moy, N., Chan, H. F., Mathmann, F., Schaffner, M., & Torgler, B. (2021). Confidence is good; too much, not so much: Exploring the effects on reward-based crowdfunding success. 

Mueller, M. (2021). Experimental Evidence on Selective Memory of Big LifeDecisions using 10 Years of Panel Survey Data.

Mueller, A. I., Spinnewijn, J., & Topa, G. (2021). Job Seekers' Perceptions and Employment Prospects: Heterogeneity, Duration Dependence, and Bias. American Economic Review, 111(1), 324-63. 

Orhun, A. Y., Cohn, A., & Raymond, C. (2021). Motivated Optimism and Workplace Risk.

Pennycook, G., & Rand, D. G. (2021). The psychology of fake news. Trends in cognitive sciences. 

Pompeo, M., & Serdarevic, N. (2021). Is information enough? The case of Republicans and climate change. The case of Republicans and climate change.

Santos-Pinto, L. (2021). Are Overconfident Players More Likely to Win Tournaments and Contests?

Santos Pinto, L., & Colzani, P. (2021). Does Overconfidence Lead to Bargaining Failures?

Schwartzstein, J., & Sunderam, A. (2021). Using models to persuade. American Economic Review, 111(1), 276-323. 

Reshidi, P., Lizzeri, A., Yariv, L., Chan, J. H., & Suen, W. (2021). Individual and collective information acquisition: An experimental study. 

Roel, M., & Staab, M. (2021). The benefits of being misinformed.

Thaler, M. (2021). The Supply of Motivated Beliefs.

Thaler. M (2021). Overinference from Weak Signals, Underinference from Strong Signals, and the Psychophysics of Interpreting Information.

Tsakas, E. (2021). Identification of misreported beliefs.

Tsakas, E., Tsakas, N., & Xefteris, D. (2021). Resisting persuasion. Economic Theory, 1-20. 

Valero, V. (2021). Redistribution and beliefs about the source of income inequality. Experimental Economics, 1-26. NEW!

Zimpelmann, C. (2021). Stock Market Beliefs and Portfolio Choice in the General Population. 


Akesson, J., Ashworth-Hayes, S., Hahn, R., Metcalfe, R. D., & Rasooly, I. (2020). Fatalism, Beliefs, and Behaviors During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Alnamlah, M., & Gravert, C. (2020). She Could Not Agree More: The Role of Failure Attribution in Shaping the Gender Gap in Competition Persistence.

Altay, S., de Araujo, E., & Mercier, H. (2020). “If this account is true, it is most enormously wonderful”: Interestingness-if-true and the sharing of true and false news. 

Altay, S., & Mercier, H. (2020). Happy Thoughts: The Role of Communion in Accepting and Sharing Epistemically Suspect Beliefs. 

Alysandratos, T., Boukouras, A., Georganas, S., & Maniadis, Z. (2020). The Expert and The Charlatan: an Experimental Study in Economic Advice. 

Andreozzi, L., Ploner, M., & Saral, A. S. (2020). The stability of conditional cooperation: beliefs alone cannot explain the decline of cooperation in social dilemmas. Scientific reports, 10(1), 1-10. 

Aoyagi, M., Fréchette, G. R., & Yuksel, S. (2020). Beliefs in Repeated Games.

Arts, S., Ong, Q., & Qiu, J. (2020). Measuring subjective decision confidence. 

Augias, V., & Barreto, D. (2020). Wishful Thinking: Persuasion and Polarization. 

Bago, B., Rand, D. G., & Pennycook, G. (2020). Fake news, fast and slow: Deliberation reduces belief in false (but not true) news headlines. Journal of experimental psychology: general

Banerjee, R., Gupta, N. D., & Villeval, M. C. (2020). Feedback spillovers across tasks, self-confidence and competitiveness. Games and Economic Behavior, 123, 127-170. 

Barron, K., Ditlmann, R., Gehrig, S., & Schweighofer-Kodritsch, S. (2020). Explicit and implicit belief-based gender discrimination: A hiring experiment.

Barron, K., & Gravert, C. (2020). Confidence and career choices: An experiment

Bartik, A. W., Bertrand, M., Cullen, Z., Glaeser, E. L., Luca, M., & Stanton, C. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on small business outcomes and expectations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(30), 17656-17666. 

Belfield, C., Boneva, T., Rauh, C., & Shaw, J. (2020). What drives enrolment gaps in further education? the role of beliefs in sequential schooling decisions. Economica, 87(346), 490-529.

Bhalotra, S. R., Delavande, A., Gilabert, P., & Maselko, J. (2020). Maternal investments in children: the role of expected effort and returns.

Bicchieri, C., Dimant, E., & Sonderegger, S. (2020). It's Not a Lie If You Believe the Norm Does Not Apply: Conditional Norm-Following with Strategic Beliefs.

Biroli, P., Boneva, T., Raja, A., & Rauh, C. (2020). Parental beliefs about returns to child health investments. Journal of Econometrics.

Bosch-Rosa, C., & Meissner, T. (2020). The one player guessing game: a diagnosis on the relationship between equilibrium play, beliefs, and best responses. Experimental Economics, 1-19. 

Boto-Garcìa, D., Bucciol, A., & Zarri, L. (2020). Managerial Beliefs and Firm Performance: Field Evidence from Professional Elite Soccer.

Branas-Garza, P., Mesa-Vázquez, E., & Rivera-Garrido, N. (2020). Gender differences in overplacement in familiar and unfamiliar tasks: Far more similarities. 

Buchanan, J. A. (2020). My reference point, not yours. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 171, 297-311.

Buser, T., Grimalda, G., Putterman, L., & van der Weele, J. (2020). Overconfidence and gender gaps in redistributive preferences: Cross-Country experimental evidence. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 178, 267-286.

Butera, L., Metcalfe, R., Morrison, W., & Taubinsky, D. (2020). Measuring the Welfare Effects of Shame and Pride. 

Carlson, R. W., Maréchal, M. A., Oud, B., Fehr, E., & Crockett, M. J. (2020). Motivated misremembering of selfish decisions. Nature Communications, 11(1), 1-11. 

Castagnetti, A., & Schmacker, R. (2020). Protecting the Ego: Motivated Information Selection and Updating.

Chen, S., & Heese, C. (2020). Motivated Information Acquisition in Social Decisions.

Chew, S. H., Huang, W., & Zhao, X. (2020). Motivated false memory. Journal of Political Economy, 128(10), 3913-3939.

Ciancio, A., Delavande, A., Kohler, H. P., & Kohler, I. V. (2020). Mortality risk information, survival expectations and sexual behaviors.

Ciani, E., Delavande, A., Etheridge, B., & Francesconi, M. (2020). Policy Uncertainty and Information Flows: Evidence from Pension Reform Expectations.

Coffman, K. B., Exley, C. L., & Niederle, M. (2020). The Role of Beliefs in Driving Gender Discrimination. 

Connors, M. H., & Halligan, P. W. (2020). Delusions and theories of belief. Consciousness and Cognition, 81, 102935.

Cookson, J. A., Engelberg, J. E., & Mullins, W. (2020). Does partisanship shape investor beliefs? Evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic. The Review of Asset Pricing Studies, 10(4), 863-893.

Coutts, A., Gerhards, L., & Murad, Z. (2020). What to blame? Self-serving attribution bias with multi-dimensional uncertainty. 

Crosetto, P., Filippin, A., Katuščák, P., & Smith, J. (2020). Central tendency bias in belief elicitation. Journal of Economic Psychology, 102273. 

da Silveira, R. A., Sung, Y., & Woodford, M. (2020). Optimally Imprecise Memory and Biased Forecasts.

de Clippel, G., & Zhang, X. (2020). Non-bayesian persuasion. 

Delavande, A., Del Bono, E., & Holford, A. (2020). Academic and non-academic investments at university: The role of expectations, preferences and constraints. Journal of Econometrics.

Delavande, A., Ganguli, J., & Mengel, F. (2020). Uncertainty Attitudes, Subjective Expectations and Decisions under Uncertainty.

Dimant, E. (2020). Hate trumps love: The impact of political polarization on social preferences.

Dimant, E., van Kleef, G. A., & Shalvi, S. (2020). Requiem for a nudge: Framing effects in nudging honesty. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 172, 247-266. 

Enke, B., Gneezy, U., Hall, B. J., Martin, D., Nelidov, V., Offerman, T., & de Ven, J. V. (2020). Cognitive Biases: Mistakes or Missing Stakes?.

Enke, B., Schwerter, F., & Zimmermann, F. (2020). Associative memory and belief formation

Erkal, N., Gangadharan, L., & Koh, B. H. (2020). Replication: Belief elicitation with quadratic and binarized scoring rules. Journal of Economic Psychology, 81, 102315. 

Espinosa, R., & Stoop, J. (2020). Do People Really Want to Be Informed? Ex-ante Evaluations of Information-Campaign Effectiveness. 

Espinosa, R., & Treich, N. (2020). Moderate vs. Radical NGOs. American Journal of Agricultural Economics

Esponda, I., Vespa, E., & Yuksel, S. (2020). Mental Models and Learning: The Case of Base-Rate Neglect.

Esteban-Casanelles, T., & Gonçalves, D. (2020). The effect of incentives on choices and beliefs in games: An experiment. 

Fan, Y., Orhun, A. Y., & Turjeman, D. (2020). Heterogeneous actions, beliefs, constraints and risk tolerance during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Fehr, D., & Vollmann, M. (2020). Misperceiving Economic Success: Experimental Evidence on Meritocratic Beliefs and Inequality Acceptance. 

Friehe, T., & Pannenberg, M. (2020). Time Preferences and Overconfident Beliefs: Evidence from Germany. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 101651. 

Galeotti, F., Saucet, C., & Villeval, M. C. (2020). Unethical amnesia responds more to instrumental than to hedonic motives. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(41), 25423-25428. 

Ging-Jehli, N. R., Schneider, F. H., & Weber, R. A. (2020). On self-serving strategic beliefs. Games and Economic Behavior

Gneezy, U., Saccardo, S., Serra-Garcia, M., & van Veldhuizen, R. (2020). Bribing the self. Games and Economic Behavior, 120, 311-324. 

Goette, L., Han, H. J., & Leung, B. T. K. (2020). Information overload and confirmation bias. 

Gonçalves, D. (2020). Sequential sampling and equilibrium. Working Paper. 

Haaland, I., Roth, C., & Wohlfart, J. (2020). Designing information provision experiments. 

Heller, Y., & Winter, E. (2020). Biased-belief equilibrium. American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, 12(2), 1-40.

Hestermann, N., Le Yaouanq, Y., & Treich, N. (2020). An economic model of the meat paradox. European Economic Review, 129, 103569. 

Hillenbrand, A., & Verrina, E. (2020). The differential effect of narratives on prosocial behavior. 

Hirshleifer, D. (2020). Presidential address: Social transmission bias in economics and finance. The Journal of Finance, 75(4), 1779-1831.

Hoffman, M., & Burks, S. V. (2020). Worker overconfidence: Field evidence and implications for employee turnover and firm profits. Quantitative Economics, 11(1), 315-348. 

Kovacs, R. J., Lagarde, M., & Cairns, J. (2020). Overconfident health workers provide lower quality healthcare. Journal of Economic Psychology, 76, 102213. 

Leung, B. T. K. (2020). Learning in a Small/Big World. 

Leung, B. T. K. (2020). Limited cognitive ability and selective information processing. Games and Economic Behavior, 120, 345-369. 

Lobeck, M. (2020). Motivating Beliefs in a Just World.

Martel, C., Pennycook, G., & Rand, D. G. (2020). Reliance on emotion promotes belief in fake news. Cognitive research: principles and implications, 5(1), 1-20. 

Molnar, A., & Loewenstein, G. (2020). The False and the Furious: People are more disturbed by others' false beliefs than by differences in beliefs.

Oprea, R., & Yuksel, S. (2020). Social Exchange of Motivated Beliefs.

Pace, D., & van der Weele, J. (2020). Curbing Carbon: An Experiment on Uncertainty and Information about CO2 emissions.

Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J. A., Koehler, D. J., & Fugelsang, J. A. (2020). On the belief that beliefs should change according to evidence: Implications for conspiratorial, moral, paranormal, political, religious, and science beliefs. Judgment and Decision Making, 15(4), 476. 

Rieger, M. O., Wang, M., & Hausmann, D. (2020). Pre-Decisional Information Acquisition: Do We Pay TooMuch for Information? 

Saccardo, S., & Serra-Garcia, M. (2020). Cognitive Flexibility or Moral Commitment? Evidence of Anticipated Belief Distortion. 

Samad, Z. (2020). Self-Deception: Adopting False Beliefs for a Favorable Self-View.

Samad, Z. (2020). Sytematically Skewed Beliefs.

Santos-Pinto, L., & de la Rosa, L. E. (2020). Overconfidence in Labor Markets. Handbook of Labor, Human Resources and Population Economics, 1-42. 

Tappin, B. M., Pennycook, G., & Rand, D. G. (2020). Bayesian or biased? Analytic thinking and political belief updating. Cognition, 204, 104375. 

Tappin, B. M., Pennycook, G., & Rand, D. G. (2020). Thinking clearly about causal inferences of politically motivated reasoning: Why paradigmatic study designs often undermine causal inference. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 34, 81-87. 

Tappin, B. M., Pennycook, G., & Rand, D. G. (2020). Rethinking the link between cognitive sophistication and politically motivated reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General

Thaler, M (2020). Do People Engage in Motivated Reasoning to Think the World Is a Good Place for Others?

Thaler, M (2020). Gender Differences in Motivated Reasoning.

Thaler, M. (2020). The “Fake News” Effect: Experimentally Identifying Motivated Reasoning Using Trust in News.

Tsakas, E. (2020). Robust scoring rules. Theoretical Economics, 15(3), 955-987.

Williams, D. (2020). Motivated ignorance, rationality, and democratic politics. Synthese, 1-21. 

Williams, D. (2020). Socially adaptive belief. Mind & Language. 

Zimmermann, F. (2020). The dynamics of motivated beliefs. American Economic Review, 110(2), 337-61.


Ahrens, S., & Bosch-Rosa, C. (2019). The Motivated Beliefs of Investors Under Limited Liability. 

Attanasio, O., Boneva, T., & Rauh, C. (2019). Parental beliefs about returns to different types of investments in school children. Forthcoming at Journal of Human Resources.

Barron, K., Huck, S., & Jehiel, P. (2019). Everyday econometricians: Selection neglect and overoptimism when learning from others.

Benjamin, D. J. (2019). Errors in probabilistic reasoning and judgment biases. In Handbook of Behavioral Economics: Applications and Foundations 1 (Vol. 2, pp. 69-186). North-Holland.

Bordalo, P., Coffman, K., Gennaioli, N., Schwerter, F., & Shleifer, A. (2019). Memory and representativeness.

Bosch-Rosa, C., Gietl, D., & Heinemann, F. (2019). Risk-Taking under Limited Liability: Quantifying the Role of Motivated Beliefs. 

Brilon, S., Grassi, S., Grieder, M., & Schulz, J. (2019). Strategic Competition and Self-Confidence.

Bronstein, M. V., Pennycook, G., Bear, A., Rand, D. G., & Cannon, T. D. (2019). Belief in fake news is associated with delusionality, dogmatism, religious fundamentalism, and reduced analytic thinking. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 8(1), 108-117. 

Cacault, M. P., & Grieder, M. (2019). How group identification distorts beliefs. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 164, 63-76.

Carhart-Harris, R. L., & Friston, K. J. (2019). REBUS and the anarchic brain: toward a unified model of the brain action of psychedelics. Pharmacological reviews, 71(3), 316-344.

Chen, S., & Schildberg-Hörisch, H. (2019). Looking at the bright side: The motivational value of confidence. European Economic Review, 120, 103302. 

Coutts, A. (2019). Good news and bad news are still news: Experimental evidence on belief updating. Experimental Economics, 22(2), 369-395. 

Coutts, A. (2019). Testing models of belief bias: An experiment. Games and Economic Behavior, 113, 549-565. 

Dasaratha, K., Golub, B., & Hak, N. (2019). Learning from Neighbors About a Changing State. 

Delavande, A., & Zafar, B. (2019). University choice: The role of expected earnings, nonpecuniary outcomes, and financial constraints. Journal of Political Economy, 127(5), 2343-2393.

Dhami, S., Wei, M., & al-Nowaihi, A. (2019). Public goods games and psychological utility: Theory and evidence. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 167, 361-390. 

Engelmann, J., Lebreton, M., Schwardmann, P., van der Weele, J. J., & Chang, L. A. (2019). Anticipatory anxiety and wishful thinking.

Enke, B., & Graeber, T. (2019). Cognitive uncertainty.

Enke, B., & Zimmermann, F. (2019). Correlation neglect in belief formation. The Review of Economic Studies, 86(1), 313-332.

Erkal, N., Gangadharan, L., & Koh, B. H. (2019). By Chance or By Choice? Biased Attribution of Others' Outcomes. 

Exley, C. L., & Kessler, J. B. (2019). Motivated errors.

Gödker, K., Jiao, P., & Smeets, P. (2019). Investor memory.

Han, B., Hirshleifer, D., & Walden, J. (2019). Visibility bias in the transmission of consumption beliefs and undersaving.

Hartzmark, S. M., Hirshman, S., & Imas, A. (2019). Ownership, Learning, and Beliefs.

Heidhues, P., Kőszegi, B., & Strack, P. (2019). Overconfidence and prejudice

Irlenbusch, B., Rilke, R. M., & Walkowitz, G. (2019). Designing feedback in voluntary contribution games: the role of transparency. Experimental Economics, 22(2), 552-576. 

Le Yaouanq, Y., & Schwardmann, P. (2019). Learning about one's self.

McPhetres, J., & Pennycook, G. (2019). Science beliefs, political ideology, and cognitive sophistication. 

Mercier, H., Majima, Y., Claidière, N., & Léone, J. (2019). Obstacles to the spread of unintuitive beliefs. Evolutionary Human Sciences, 1

Pennycook, G., & Rand, D. G. (2019). Lazy, not biased: Susceptibility to partisan fake news is better explained by lack of reasoning than by motivated reasoning. Cognition, 188, 39-50. 

Saucet, C., & Villeval, M. C. (2019). Motivated memory in dictator games. Games and Economic Behavior, 117, 250-275.

Schwardmann, P., & Van der Weele, J. (2019). Deception and self-deception. Nature human behaviour, 3(10), 1055-1061.

Serra-Garcia, M., & Szech, N. (2019). The (in)elasticity of moral ignorance. 

Shalvi, S., Soraperra, I., van der Weele, J. J., & Villeval, M. C. (2019). Shooting the Messenger? Supply and Demand in Markets for Willful Ignorance. 

Soldà, A., Ke, C., Page, L., & Von Hippel, W. (2019). Strategically delusional. Experimental Economics, 1-28.

Tsakas, E. (2019). Obvious belief elicitation. Games and Economic Behavior, 118, 374-381.

Vitanova, I. (2019). Nurturing overconfidence: The relationship between leader power, overconfidence and firm performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 101342. 


Ambuehl, S., & Li, S. (2018). Belief updating and the demand for information. Games and Economic Behavior, 109, 21-39. 

Bénabou, R., Falk, A., & Tirole, J. (2018). Narratives, imperatives, and moral reasoning.

Boneva, T., & Rauh, C. (2018). Parental beliefs about returns to educational investments—the later the better?. Journal of the European Economic Association, 16(6), 1669-1711.

Buser, T., Gerhards, L., & Van Der Weele, J. (2018). Responsiveness to feedback as a personal trait. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 56(2), 165-192.

Carlson, R. W., Marechal, M., Oud, B., Fehr, E., & Crockett, M. J. (2018). Motivated misremembering: Selfish decisions are more generous in hindsight.

Charness, G., Oprea, R., & Yuksel, S. (2018). How do people choose between biased information sources? Evidence from a laboratory experiment.

Coltheart, M., Cox, R., Sowman, P., Morgan, H., Barnier, A., Langdon, R., ... & Polito, V. (2018). Belief, delusion, hypnosis, and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Cortex, 101, 234-248.

Davidai, S., & Gilovich, T. (2018). How should we think about Americans’ beliefs about economic mobility?. Judgment and Decision making, 13(3), 297. 

Dessí, R., & Zhao, X. (2018). Overconfidence, stability and investments. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 145, 474-494.

Exley, C. L., & Kessler, J. B. (2018). Motivated cognitive limitations.

Foerster, M., & van der Weele, J. J. (2018). Persuasion, justification and the communication of social impact. 

Hagmann, D., & Loewenstein, G. (2018). Persuasion with motivated beliefs. 

Kappes, A., Faber, N. S., Kahane, G., Savulescu, J., & Crockett, M. J. (2018). Concern for others leads to vicarious optimism. Psychological science, 29(3), 379-389. 

Lebreton, M., Langdon, S., Slieker, M. J., Nooitgedacht, J. S., Goudriaan, A. E., Denys, D., ... & Luigjes, J. (2018). Two sides of the same coin: Monetary incentives concurrently improve and bias confidence judgments. Science advances, 4(5), eaaq0668. 

Lind, T., Erlandsson, A., Västfjäll, D., & Tinghög, G. (2018). Motivated reasoning when assessing the effects of refugee intake. Behavioural Public Policy, 1-24. 

Martin, J. M., Lejarraga, T., & Gonzalez, C. (2018). The effects of motivation and memory on the weighting of reference prices. Journal of Economic Psychology, 65, 16-25. 

Pennycook, G., Cannon, T. D., & Rand, D. G. (2018). Prior exposure increases perceived accuracy of fake news. Journal of experimental psychology: general, 147(12), 1865. 

Siegel, J. Z., Mathys, C., Rutledge, R. B., & Crockett, M. J. (2018). Beliefs about bad people are volatile. Nature human behaviour, 2(10), 750-756. 

Van Bavel, J. J., & Pereira, A. (2018). The partisan brain: An identity-based model of political belief. Trends in cognitive sciences, 22(3), 213-224. 

Zinn, J. A. (2018). An Information-Theoretic Foundation for the Weighted Updating Model.

Timeless Surveys

Bénabou, R. (2015). The economics of motivated beliefs. Revue d'économie politique, 125(5), 665-685.

Bénabou, R., & Tirole, J. (2016). Mindful economics: The production, consumption, and value of beliefs. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30(3), 141-64.

Golman, R., Hagmann, D., & Loewenstein, G. (2017). Information avoidance. Journal of economic literature, 55(1), 96-135.

Maćkowiak, B., Matějka, F., & Wiederholt, M. (2023). Rational inattention: A review. Journal of Economic Literature, 61(1), 226-273. NEW!

Sweeny, K., Melnyk, D., Miller, W., & Shepperd, J. A. (2010). Information avoidance: Who, what, when, and why. Review of general psychology, 14(4), 340-353.